Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2002 Update

Order Code RL31651 Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2002 Update November 26, 2002 James E. McCarthy and Anne L. Hardenbergh Resources, Science, and Industry Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2002 Update Summary This report, which replaces CRS Report RL31051, provides updated information on interstate shipment of municipal solid waste (MSW). Since the late 1980s, Congress has considered, but not enacted, numerous bills that would allow states to impose restrictions on interstate waste shipments, a step the Constitution prohibits in the absence of congressional authorization. Over this period, there has been a continuing interest in knowing how much waste is being shipped across state lines for disposal, and what states might be affected by proposed legislation. This report provides data useful in addressing these questions. Total interstate waste shipments continue to rise due to the closure of older local landfills and the increasing consolidation of the waste management industry. About 35 million tons of municipal solid waste crossed state lines for disposal in 2001, an increase of 9.4% over 2000. Waste imports have grown each year since CRS began tracking them in the early 1990s, and now represent 21.6% of all municipal solid waste disposed at landfills and waste combustion facilities. In the last eight years, reported imports have increased 141%. Pennsylvania remains, by far, the largest waste importer. The state received 10.7 million tons of municipal solid waste and 1.9 million tons of other nonhazardous waste from out of state in 2001, more than 30% of the national total for interstate shipments. Virginia, the second largest importer, received 4.1 million tons, 62% less than the amount received by Pennsylvania. Michigan, the third largest importer, imported 3.6 million tons of MSW in fiscal year 2001; waste imports to Michigan have doubled since 1999. Twenty-three states had increased imports in the current report – the largest increases occurring in Pennsylvania and Michigan. In all, eight states reported imports that exceeded one million tons. While waste imports increased overall, several states (including New Hampshire, South Carolina, Connecticut, Arizona, and Washington) reported sharp declines in waste imports. New York remains the largest exporter of waste, with New Jersey and Illinois in second and third place, respectively. Four states (New York, New Jersey, Illinois, and Maryland) account for more than half the national total of waste exports. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Total Shipments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 States Reporting Increased Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 States Reporting Decreased Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Major Exporters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Net Imports and Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 List of Figures Figure 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Figure 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 List of Tables Table 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Table 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table 3. Net Imports/Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year . . 6 Table 4. Amount and Destination of Exported MSW, and Amount and Sources of Imported MSW, by State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2002 Update Introduction This report provides updated information on interstate shipment of municipal solid waste. Concerned about increased waste imports, some states have attempted to regulate this commerce; federal courts, however, have declared these state restrictions unconstitutional. If states are to have such authority, congressional action is required. Since the late 1980s, Congress has considered, but not enacted, numerous bills that would grant such authority.1 Over this period, there has been a continuing interest in knowing how much waste is being shipped across state lines for disposal, and what states might be affected by proposed legislation. This report provides data useful in addressing these questions. It updates information provided in earlier CRS reports.2 The report presents information gathered through telephone contacts with solid waste officials in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Canadian province of Ontario. The data obtained from these contacts are summarized in Tables 1, 2, and 3, and Figures 1 and 2. Table 4 presents additional information, including the names and telephone numbers of state contacts. Not all states require reporting of waste imports, and very few track exports, so the available data are incomplete and in some cases represent estimates rather than actual measurements. In a number of cases, faced with conflicting reports from exporters and importers or no quantitative data at all, we provided our best estimate based on discussions with state officials or other sources. 1 Legislation on interstate shipment of waste has been introduced in every Congress since the 100th. In the 104th Congress, the Senate passed S. 534. The bill would have granted states authority to restrict new shipments of municipal solid waste from out of state, if requested by an affected local government. In the 103rd Congress, both the House and Senate passed interstate waste legislation (H.R. 4779 and S. 2345), but lack of agreement on common language prevented enactment. For a discussion of the issues addressed in these bills, see CRS Report RS20106, Interstate Waste Transport: Legislative Issues. 2 This report replaces Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2001 Update, CRS Report RL31051. Earlier reports, now out of print but available directly from the author, were Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2000 Update, CRS Report RL30409, Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1998 Update, CRS Report 98-689; Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1997 Update, CRS Report 97-349; Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1996 Update, CRS Report 96-712; Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1995 Update, CRS Report 95-570; and Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste, CRS Report 93-743. CRS-2 Figure 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or latest year, in tons Amounts in Tons 1,000,000 or greater 500,000 to 999,999 100,000 to 499,999 0 to 100,000 Figure 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or latest year, in tons CRS-3 Table 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year (in tons) State Quantity Imported a Pennsylvania Virginia Michigan Ohio Indiana Illinois Oregon Wisconsin Georgia New Jersey New York New Mexico Kentucky Kansas South Carolina Nevada Iowa Mississippi Alabama Tennessee Arizona New Hampshire West Virginia Missouri Maine Oklahoma Nebraska Washington North Dakota Connecticut Massachusetts Maryland Texas Montana California North Carolina Arkansas Idaho Utah South Dakota a In addition, Pennsylvania received 1,938,857 tons of other waste (industrial waste, construction/ demolition [C&D] waste, ash, asbestos, and sludge) from out of state at MSW landfills in 2001. b Virginia also imported 720,782 tons of other waste, mostly sludge, incinerator ash, and C&D waste in 2001. c 10/1/2000 - 9/30/2001. d Converted from cubic yards using 3.3 cu. yds. = 1 ton. e Indiana also imported 172,410 tons of non-municipal solid waste, primarily C&D and industrial waste in 2000. f 2000. g 7/1/2001 - 6/30/2002. h 7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001. j 4/1/2001 - 3/31/2002. 10,666,090 4,098,684 c,d 3,597,729 1,988,753 e 1,456,699 d 1,440,804 f 1,301,882 1,106,928 g 964,285 f 892,394 839,700 750,000 701,442 636,847 h 579,299 532,615 h 505,598 466,399 f,i 382,000 329,036 j 260,000 250,000 200,000 178,032 k 164,527 125,000 122,500 f 116,365 f 103,382 h, l 75,941 67,247 m 39,926 n 34,173 33,964 f 28,672 h 21,614 12,718 12,583 o 5,967 1,400 b i As reported by BioCycle magazine. 1999. l Connecticut import total does not include waste from New York that was received at a Connecticut transfer station and re-exported to other states for disposal. m Maryland also imported 422,945 tons of C&D waste. n 9/1/2000 - 8/31/2001. o Utah landfills have generally imported more industrial than municipal solid waste. k Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials. CRS-4 Table 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year (in tons) State New York New Jersey Illinois Maryland Ontario, Canada Missouri Massachusetts Ohio District of Columbia Washington Indiana North Carolina California Connecticut Minnesota Pennsylvania Florida Texas Iowa Georgia West Virginia Tennessee Kentucky Wisconsin Michigan Idaho Rhode Island Vermont Alabama Louisiana South Carolina Arkansas Delaware Mississippi New Hampshire Kansas Maine Virginia Alaska Nebraska Oklahoma Oregon North Dakota Nevada South Dakota Utah a Quantity Exported a 7,493,130 5,431,121 3,084,880 2,081,230 1,976,000 c 1,671,162 1,015,042 986,693 961,052 949,685 d 927,245 e 900,743 746,433 f 732,439 671,800 576,525 519,251 g 518,698 e 390,917 350,000 331,635 303,882 275,341 204,831 146,358 134,062 h 121,631 121,546 107,769 103,539 e 101,603 91,088 i 83,689 74,515 57,000 53,111 j 50,862 47,419 30,000 17,900 19,990 h 19,384 15,418 5,475 2,400 1,000 b As reported by seven importing states. New York’s data indicate exports of 4,900,100 tons. As reported by six importing states. New Jersey’s data indicated substantially smaller exports (2,651,000 tons in 2000). c As reported by receiving states. Missouri’s data indicate exports of 1,439,834 tons in 2001. A significant percentage of Missouri’s exports are believed to be construction and demolition or industrial waste sent to MSW landfills. d As reported by four receiving states (Michigan, Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois). Indiana reported 335,190 tons of exports, but noted that the amount was incomplete because it only counted exports from transfer stations. e July 2000 - June 2001. b CRS-5 f As reported by receiving states, Connecticut exports may include waste that originated in New York State, but was managed at a Connecticut transfer station. g September 1, 1999 - August 31, 2000. h 2000 data. i As reported by 4 receiving states. Delaware reported only 14,518 tons of exports in 2001. j 1999 data. Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials. In many cases, the amount is based on data compiled by receiving states. See Table 4 entries for additional information. CRS-6 Table 3. Net Imports/Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2001 or Latest Year (in tons) (Data subject to numerous qualifications: see notes from Tables 1, 2, and 4.) State Pennsylvania Virginia Michigan Oregon Ohio Wisconsin New Mexico Georgia Kansas Indiana Nevada South Carolina Kentucky Mississippi Alabama Arizona New Hampshire Iowa Maine Oklahoma Nebraska North Dakota Montana Tennessee Utah South Dakota Alaska Arkansas Delaware Louisiana Idaho Vermont Rhode Island West Virginia Texas Florida Connecticut Minnesota California Washington North Carolina Massachusetts District of Columbia Missouri Illinois Ontario, Canada Maryland New Jersey New York Imports Exports Net Imports/Exports 10,666,090 4,098,684 3,597,729 1,301,882 1,988,753 1,106,928 750,000 964,285 636,847 1,456,699 532,615 579,299 701,442 466,399 382,000 260,000 250,000 505,598 164,527 125,000 122,500 103,382 33,964 329,036 5,967 1,400 12,718 12,583 200,000 34,173 75,941 28,672 116,365 21,614 67,247 178,032 1,440,804 39,926 892,394 839,700 576,525 47,419 146,358 19,384 986,693 204,831 350,000 53,111 927,245 5,475 101,603 275,341 74,515 107,769 57,000 390,917 50,862 19,990 17,900 15,418 303,882 1,000 2,400 30,000 91,088 83,689 103,539 134,062 121,546 121,631 331,635 518,698 519,251 732,439 671,800 746,443 949,685 900,743 1,015,042 961,052 1,671,162 3,084,880 1,976,000 2,081,230 5,431,121 7,493,130 10,089,565 4,051,265 3,451,371 1,282,498 1,002,060 902,097 750,000 614,285 583,736 529,454 527,140 477,696 426,101 391,884 274,231 260,000 193,000 114,681 113,665 105,010 104,600 87,964 33,964 25,154 4,967 -1,000 -30,000 -78,370 -83,689 -103,539 -121,479 -121,546 -121,631 -131,635 -484,525 -519,251 -656,498 -671,800 -717,771 -833,320 -879,129 -947,795 -961,052 -1,493,130 -1,644,076 -1,976,000 -2,041,304 -4,538,727 -6,653,430 Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews. CRS-7 Fifteen of the states provided data for a period other than calendar year 2001 – either their latest fiscal year or a different calendar year. This adds another layer of imprecision: we combined data for whatever was the latest reporting period, even though in these 15 cases, this meant combining data from different time periods. Each of the exceptions from the 2001 reporting period is noted in the appropriate tables, but the reader should perhaps keep in mind that many of the totals reported here are our best estimate rather than precise figures. Total Shipments The data show that total interstate waste shipments continue to rise: imports in the current survey totaled 35.0 million tons, 15.1% of the 231.9 million tons of municipal solid waste generated in the United States.3 Of municipal waste disposed (as opposed to recycled or composted), the percentage is even higher. EPA estimates that 69.9 million tons of municipal solid waste were recycled or composted in 2000, leaving 162 million tons to be disposed in landfills or incinerators. Of this amount, 21.6% crossed state lines for disposal.4 Between CRS’s year 2001 report (reporting largely 1999 and 2000 data) and the current survey (reporting generally 2001 data), imports increased 3.0 million tons, or 9.4%. Since 1993, reported imports have risen 141%, from 14.5 million tons in 1993 to 35.0 million tons in the current survey. States Reporting Increased Imports Twenty-three states had increased imports of municipal waste in 2001, with the largest increases occurring in Pennsylvania and Michigan. The increases in these two states, 0.9 million tons and 0.75 million tons respectively, total 55% of the entire increase nationally. The preponderance of these two states in the 2001 waste statistics demonstrates another element of the emerging picture of interstate waste shipment: 52% of total municipal waste imports are disposed in just three states: Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Michigan. Pennsylvania continues to be the largest waste importer, by far. Disposal facilities in the state received 10.7 million tons of MSW and 1.9 million tons of other 3 Because many of the larger importers now differentiate MSW from other non-hazardous waste imports, we compared total MSW imports to EPA’s national estimate of MSW generation (231.9 million tons in the latest available year, 2000). State-reported waste generation, summarized in BioCycle magazine’s annual survey, is substantially higher (409 million tons in 2000) but is likely to include other nonhazardous waste, provided it was disposed at MSW facilities. For state-reported data, see Nora Goldstein and Celeste Madtes, “The State of Garbage in America,” BioCycle, December 2001, p. 42. 4 Much of the waste destined for recycling may also have crossed state lines, but waste destined for recycling does not carry the same stigma as that sent for disposal, and recycling facilities do not generally require permits by state agencies. Thus, amounts shipped across state lines for recycling cannot generally be tracked by the solid waste agencies. CRS-8 nonhazardous waste from out of state in 2001. The amounts represented half of all solid waste disposed in the state and more than 30% of the national total for interstate shipments. After Pennsylvania, Virginia is the largest waste importer, with 4.1 million tons of MSW imports and 720,782 tons of other nonhazardous waste. Despite predictions that Virginia would receive increased imports as New York’s Fresh Kills landfill phased out operations, waste imports to Virginia have remained roughly the same in the 1998-2001 period. (Instead, New York’s increased exports appear to have gone primarily to Pennsylvania and New Jersey.) Michigan, the third largest waste importer in 2001, saw out-of-state waste disposed in the state grow by more than 750,000 tons that year. Substantial amounts of waste come to Michigan from Illinois, Indiana, and other neighboring states; but the biggest source, accounting for about half of Michigan’s out-of-state waste, is Ontario, Canada. Ontario’s waste shipments are growing as the Toronto area awards new contracts for waste disposal and closes its two remaining landfills. At the beginning of 1999, the Toronto area was generating about 2.8 million tons of waste annually, of which about 700,000 tons were shipped to Michigan. By early 2003, however, there will be virtually no local disposal capacity. Barring unforeseen developments, most of this waste is expected to be sent to Michigan for disposal. In other highlights: ! Eight states reported imports exceeding one million tons per year in the latest year, a figure unchanged from our two previous surveys, which reported 1998 and 2000 data. ! Another 21 states had imports exceeding 100,000 tons. ! For the fourth year in a row, New Jersey is on the list of major importers, with 892,394 tons of MSW imports in 2000 (2001 data were not yet available). The state is still a major exporter of waste, as well: receiving states estimate New Jersey’s exports at more than 5.4 million tons in 2001. But the absence of flow control (local government requirements that waste within their jurisdiction be disposed at local facilities, which were overturned by the courts in the mid-1990s) has led waste-to-energy facilities in New Jersey to search for waste to replace local waste now being disposed elsewhere. As a result, large amounts of waste are entering New Jersey from New York. ! New York, the nation’s largest waste exporter, also saw rapid growth in waste imports in 2000 and 2001. The state imported 839,700 tons of waste in 2001, an increase from 539,000 tons in our previous survey. ! Other states reporting major increases in imports were Ohio, Georgia, and New Mexico. Ohio has had a nearly 900,000 ton increase in MSW imports between 1998 and 2001; Georgia CRS-9 experienced a nearly 750,000 ton increase over the same three years; and New Mexico had a 500,000 ton increase in the last two years. ! Oklahoma made its first appearance on our list of importers: the state reported that in September 2001, it began receiving 1,500 tons per day of waste from Wichita, Kansas. Based on this information, we estimate imports at 125,000 tons for the year 2001. This amount will increase to around 400,000 tons in 2002. ! Although there are no comprehensive data, imports to transfer stations5 are a political issue in some locations. Transfer stations are generally located in urban areas and are subject to less stringent regulation than disposal facilities. Heavy truck traffic and odors have aroused concerns in some neighboring communities. Connecticut, Rhode Island, and the District of Columbia report significant amounts of out-of-state waste imported to transfer stations, then exported to other states for disposal. New York City’s plan to export waste to transfer stations in New Jersey raised substantial controversy, before being rescinded. States Reporting Decreased Imports While waste imports increased overall, 14 states reported declines in waste imports. In many cases, the declines were small, but five of the states (New Hampshire, South Carolina, Connecticut, Arizona, and Washington) had declines exceeding 100,000 tons. Most notable were: South Carolina, where imports declined by about one-third in the last two years (simultaneous with a major increase in Georgia’s imports); Connecticut, where imports declined by two-thirds; and New Hampshire, where new permit conditions imposed on the state’s largest landfill have contributed to a state-wide reduction in imports of more than 560,000 tons since 1997. Major Exporters Six states (New York, New Jersey, Illinois, Maryland, Missouri, and Massachusetts) each exported more than one million tons of waste to facilities in other states in the latest reporting period, and ten other states and the District of Columbia exported more than half a million tons. The Canadian province of Ontario also exported a substantial amount of municipal waste (about 2,000,000 tons), most of it to Michigan. New York, New Jersey, Illinois, and Maryland remained the largest exporters. Together these four states accounted for 52% of waste exports nationally. New York’s exports rose to 7,493,130 tons in 2001, according to seven receiving states, an increase of nearly 700,000 tons over the previous year. The 5 Transfer stations receive waste from collection trucks, compact it, bale it, and load it on larger trucks for disposal elsewhere. CRS-10 increase reflects the March 2001 closure of New York City’s Fresh Kills Landfill — the city’s last disposal facility. New Jersey’s estimated exports, 5.4 million tons, have also grown dramatically. In New Jersey’s case, the cause of increased exports is the overturning of the state’s flow control law, which, until 1997, directed much of the state’s waste to high-cost local facilities for disposal. The state law was overturned and the state exhausted its appeals in October 1997. Exports have since grown by about 3 million tons per year. Illinois’ exports, at 3.1 million tons, declined slightly in 2001, after several years of rapid growth: despite the decline, the state’s exports in 2001 were still three and a half times the amount reported for 1995.6 Most of the exports originate in Cook County (Chicago and its suburbs), which has a relative shortage of disposal capacity. Illinois as a whole reported a more than doubling of landfill capacity between 1995 and 2000, but Chicago is located near the border of both Indiana and Wisconsin; so increases in capacity elsewhere in Illinois may not affect disposal decisions in the metropolitan area. In all, 13 states (and Ontario, Canada) increased waste exports by more than 100,000 tons each in the period, while 4 states had major decreases. In addition to the exporters discussed above, Pennsylvania and Maryland showed the largest increases (although in Pennsylvania’s case, the increased exports were dwarfed by additional waste entering the state). Among states showing decreased exports, California showed the largest drop, a reduction of nearly 450,000 tons. Net Imports and Exports Table 3 combines import and export data to rank the states by net amounts imported or exported. The table shows that 25 states were net importers, 22 plus the District of Columbia were net exporters. Thirty-nine of the 50 states had net imports or exports exceeding 100,000 tons in the reporting period; 23 exceeded 500,000 tons. Perhaps most interesting, given the tendency to identify states as either exporters or importers, 17 states both exported and imported in excess of 100,000 tons of municipal solid waste. Several factors are at work here. In the larger states, there are sometimes differences in available disposal capacity in different regions within the state. Areas without capacity may be closer to landfills (or may at least find cheaper disposal options) in other states. A good example is Illinois: the Chicago area, which is close to two other states, exports significant amounts of waste out of state. Downstate, however, Illinois has substantial available landfill capacity, and imports about 1 million tons annually from St. Louis and other locations in Missouri. As noted earlier, the movement of waste also represents the growing regionalization and consolidation of the waste industry. In 2001, the three largest firms (Waste Management, Allied Waste, and Republic Services) accounted for 73% 6 Illinois, like most states, does not report waste exports. This export estimate was derived from data provided by neighboring states. CRS-11 of total revenues of the industry’s 100 largest firms.7 These large firms offer integrated waste services, from collection to transfer station to disposal site, in many locations. Often, they ship waste to their own disposal facility across a border, rather than dispose of it at an in-state facility owned by a rival. As small landfills continue to close — the number of U.S. landfills declined 52% between 1993 and 20008 — this trend toward regionalization and consolidation is likely to continue. The amount of waste being shipped across state lines for disposal may rise in this process. Additional Information The remainder of this report consists of a table summarizing waste import and export data, by state. All 50 states and the District of Columbia are listed in alphabetical order, with data for the amount of waste exported, destination of exports, amount of waste imported, source of imports, and a state agency contact for additional information. 7 8 “Waste Age 100,” Waste Age, June 2002, pp. 42-52. “The State of Garbage in America,” BioCycle, April 1994, p. 51, and December 2001, p. 42. CRS-12 Table 4. Amount and Destination of Exported MSW, and Amount and Sources of Imported MSW, by State State Alabama Amount of MSW Exported Arkansas Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact The state has no reporting system but plans to begin collecting information soon. Surrounding states report 107,769 tons of exports from Alabama. 97% to Mississippi; small amounts to Georgia and Tennessee. The state has no reporting system but plans to begin collecting information soon. BioCycle magazine reports 382,000 tons of imports to Alabama. Mostly from Georgia. John Narramore, AL Dept. of Environmental Management (334) 271-7764 Alaska estimates exports at around 30,000 tons. Nearly all to Washington; maybe a small amount to Oregon. No imports. N.A. Glenn Miller, AK Dept. of Environmental Conservation (907) 465-5153 Arizona does not export significant amounts of MSW. There may be flows of less than 100 tons per year to Nevada and New Mexico. Also, the state does not track waste of the Navajo nation, which may export waste. Nevada, New Mexico 260,000 tons in the period 4/1/2001 to 3/31/2002. Nearly all from California. A small amount comes from New Mexico. Very small amounts may also come from Nevada or Utah. David Janke, AZ Dept. of Environmental Quality (607) 207-4173 State reports 91,088 tons exported in 2001. This includes all waste exported, not just MSW. Receiving states report comparable amounts. State reports Oklahoma, Missouri, and Louisiana are the main destinations. Mississippi also reports imports from Arkansas. State does not track imports. According to the state, there is probably very little waste being imported. Missouri reports exporting 12,718 tons to Arkansas in 2001. Missouri Darlene Hale, AR Dept. of Pollution Control and Ecology (501) 682-0586 Alaska Arizona Destination of Exported Waste CRS-13 State California Colorado Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact According to California, exports were 2000: 746,433 tons 1999: 1,010,232 tons 1998: 676,327 tons. Receiving states report slightly higher amounts. Although exports are substantial, they represent only about 2% of the MSW generated in the state. Nevada and Arizona are the major destinations. A small amount goes to Washington. 28,672 tons in 2000. State does not keep track of where waste comes from. Janelle Auyeung, CA Integrated Waste Management Board (916) 341-6218 State does not track exports. Some very small amounts of MSW may be exported to Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico. Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico State does not track imports. Small amounts of MSW may be imported from Kansas and Nebraska. Out-of-state tires are sometimes disposed of in the state from the Dakotas, Kansas, and Nebraska. Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota Glenn Mallory, CO Dept. of Public Health and Environment (303) 692-3445 CRS-14 State Connecticut Delaware Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact According to Connecticut, 303,069 tons of MSW were exported in FY2001 (7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001). This includes only waste reported through transfer stations and not waste taken directly out of state by haulers. Receiving states report much more: a total of 732,439 tons received in 4 states in 2001. 482,049 tons to Pennsylvania; 123,067 tons to Ohio; 100,000 tons to NY; 27,323 tons to Mass. 75,941 tons of MSW imported in FY2001 (7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001). This does not include 40,442 tons of NY waste managed at a CT transfer station and then exported for disposal. Waste imports have decreased substantially in recent years. 36,617 tons from Rhode Island; 28,535 from Massachusetts; 10,788 from New York. Judy Belaval, CT Dept. of Environmental Protection (860) 424-3237 MSW exports in 2001 were 14,518 tons, according to Delaware. Receiving states report 83,689 tons. 97% to Pennsylvania and Virginia. Small amounts reported by New York and Ohio. The state operates 3 landfills that are all prohibited from accepting out of state waste. There is one private facility that is permitted as an industrial waste facility that has in the past imported about 400,000 tons of construction and demolition waste. However, most of the waste going to that facility now is probably from instate. N.A. Jamie Rutherford, DE Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, (302) 739-3689 CRS-15 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact Receiving states report a total of 966,052 tons in 2001. Virginia (97%) Pennsylvania (3%) New York reports sending 800 tons of MSW to D.C. in 2001. DC also imports substantial amounts of waste from Maryland to transfer stations located in the District. None of this waste is disposed in DC. Mostly Maryland. Sybil Hammond, D.C. Dept. of Public Works (202) 673-6833 Georgia (93%) South Carolina (7%) The state does not track imports. There is little incentive to import, since disposal is less expensive in Georgia. N.A. Peter Goren, FL Dept. of Environmental Protection (850) 488-0300 Florida The state does not track exports. Georgia and South Carolina report receiving 519,251 tons of MSW from Florida. Exports increased by twothirds in the most recent report, but still represent less than 2% of Florida’s waste generation. Georgia The state has no information on exports. CRS estimates 350,000 tons of exports based on information available for three receiving states. Mostly to Alabama. South Carolina and Tennessee each report about 20,000 tons from Georgia. 964,285 tons in FY 2002 (7/1/2001 to 6/30/2002). Waste imports have quadrupled since FY 1998. 50% of the waste comes from Florida, 21% from New Jersey, 11% from South Carolina, 6% from Rhode Island, 4% from New York. Scott Henson, GA Dept. of Natural Resources (404) 362-4533 No exports of MSW. N.A. No imports of MSW. N.A. Gary Siu, HI Dept. of Health (808) 586-4244 Idaho estimates 134,062 tons of exports. Washington (82,928 tons) Oregon (27,956 tons) Montana (23,178 tons). State estimates 12,583 tons of imports. 7,103 tons from Oregon; 5,475 tons from Nevada; 5 tons from Utah Dean Ehlert, ID Dept. of Environmental Quality (208) 373-0416 District of Columbia Hawaii Idaho CRS-16 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste 3,084,880 tons in 2001, according to six receiving states. 1,336,000 tons to Indiana (CRS estimate based on Indiana data). 865,000 tons to Wisconsin. 779,000 tons to Michigan. Smaller amounts to three other states. The state reports importing 1,440,804 tons in 2001. Missouri (72%); Iowa (20%); Wisconsin (4%); Indiana (3%); Kentucky (1%); negligible amounts from 6 other states. Ellen Gambach, IL Environmental Protection Agency (217) 782-9288 Four receiving states report receiving a total of 927,245 tons from Indiana. Indiana reports 335,190 tons of exports in 2001, but this includes only waste exported by transfer stations, not waste taken directly out of state by haulers. Michigan (536,033 tons), Ohio (180,407 tons), Kentucky (161,858 tons), Illinois (48,947 tons). 1,456,699 tons of MSW in 2001. 92% from Illinois. The remainder mostly from Ohio, Kentucky, and Michigan. Michelle Weddle, IN Dept of Environmental Management (317) 233-4624 In FY2001 (7/1/20006/30/2001), Iowa exported 390,917 tons of MSW. 345,372 tons to Illinois; 24,599 tons to Nebraska; 18,833 tons to Missouri; 2,113 tons to Wisconsin. Iowa imported 505,598 tons of MSW in FY2001 (7/1/2000-6/30/2001). 478,641 tons (95%) from Minnesota; smaller amounts from Missouri, Nebraska, Illinois, South Dakota, and Wisconsin Tammie Krausman, IA Dept of Natural Resources (515) 281-8382 53,111 tons exported in 2001. Oklahoma reports substantially higher amounts. Missouri and Oklahoma. 636,847 tons in 2001, which was 19% of total MSW disposed of in the state. 608,212 tons (96%) from Missouri; the remainder from Oklahoma and Nebraska. Kent Foerster, KS Dept. of Health and Environment (785) 296-1540 Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact CRS-17 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste Tennessee (58%) Ohio (21%) Indiana (18%) Illinois (3%). 701,442 tons of MSW imported in 2001. Kentucky The state does not track exports. Four neighboring states report 275,341 tons of Kentucky exports. 379,820 tons (54%) from Ohio; 161,858 tons (23%) from Indiana; 119,617 tons (17%) from W. Va.; 35,851 tons (5%) from Tennessee. Small amts. from 4 other states. Carol Sole, KY Dept. for Environmental Protection (502) 564-6716 x216 Mississippi. Small amounts may go to Texas, as well. No tracking. Mississippi reports its border areas may export small amounts to Louisiana. Mississippi Louisiana No tracking system, but Mississippi reports that it received 103,539 tons from Louisiana in 2001. Dennis Duszynski, LA Dept. of Environmental Quality (225) 765-0230 Maine 50,862 tons in 1999, plus 40,412 tons of construction and demolition waste. 19,000 to New Brunswick (Canada); most of the rest to New Hampshire. 164,527 tons of MSW in 1999. Massachusetts (74%); the rest from New Hampshire. George MacDonald, ME Dept of Environmental Protection (207) 287-5759 1,718,468 tons to Virginia; 361,710 tons to Pennsylvania. 39,926 tons imported in 2001. Maryland also imported 422,945 tons of C&D waste. Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and D.C. Maryland Maryland reported 1,547,065 tons of MSW exported in 2000. Receiving states, which have reported data for 2001, reported receiving 2,081,230 tons. Frank Diller, MD Dept of the Environment (410) 631-4143 State Contact CRS-18 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported 1,015,042 tons exported in 2001; nearly 400,000 tons of other waste (mainly construction and demolition waste and tires). 327,576 tons to South Carolina; 273,111 tons to New York; 200,242 tons to New Hampshire; 155,314 tons to Maine; smaller amounts to Connecticut, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Canada. New York reports receiving 450,000 tons of MSW in 2001, substantially more than Massachusetts reports. 67,247 tons of MSW imported in 2001; 141,135 tons of other waste (mainly construction and demolition waste, tires, and ash). 27,323 tons from Connecticut; 21,196 tons from New Hampshire; 16,189 tons from Rhode Island; 2,078 tons from Vermont; 461 tons from New York. Brian Holdridge, MA Dept. of Environmental Protection (617) 292-5578 The state does not track exports, but two neighboring states reported 146,358 tons from Michigan in 2001, an increase of 72%. Ohio (55%) Indiana (45%). In FY2001, 10/1/2000 9/30/2001, imports were 3,597,729 tons, 757,000 tons more than in FY2000. (Data converted from cubic yards by CRS). Ontario, Canada (50%), Illinois (22%), Indiana (15%), Ohio (9%), Wisconsin (4%) Imports from Ontario are growing rapidly. Lynn Dumroese, MI Dept. of Environmental Quality (517) 373-4738 671,800 tons in 2001, a slight decrease from 704,878 tons in 2000. 372,300 tons to Iowa; 239,700 tons to Wisconsin; 58,400 to North Dakota; 1,400 to South Dakota . Imports were inconsequential. N.A. Jim Chiles, MN Pollution Control Agency (651) 296-7273 State does not track exports, but believes small amounts of waste are being exported from “isolated areas” near the borders. Tennessee reports receiving 74,515 tons of Mississippi waste. Any exports most likely go to Alabama, Louisiana, and Tennessee. 466,399 tons of MSW in 2001. 230,237 tons (49%) from Tennessee; 104,550 tons (22%) from Alabama; 103,539 tons (22%) from Louisiana; 27,910 tons (6%) from Arkansas. Pradip Bhowal, MS Dept. of Environmental Quality (601) 961-5082 Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Sources of Imported Waste State Contact CRS-19 State Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact According to Missouri, 1,439,834 tons in 2001. MSW definition includes some industrial waste. Receiving states report 1,671,162 tons. Illinois (62%), Kansas (36%). Small amounts to Arkansas, Iowa, Tennessee, and Indiana. 178,032 tons in 2001. 80,441 tons from Illinois; 75,937 tons from Arkansas; 11,135 tons from Kansas; 10,159 tons from Iowa. Debbie Sessler, MO Dept. of Natural Resources (573) 751-5401 The state says it sends a “tiny little bit” to North Dakota. North Dakota 33,964 tons in 2001. 27,373 tons (81%) from Idaho; small amounts from North Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming. Pat Crowley, MT Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences (406) 444-5294 Nebraska does not collect annual data on waste exports. From 7/1/2000 6/30/2001, Iowa reports receiving 9,255 tons. In calendar year 2001, Kansas reports receiving 8,645. Iowa and Kansas. Nebraska does not collect annual data on waste imports. A one-time survey reported 122,500 tons in 1997. Probably hasn’t been much change since then, according to the state. Iowa reports sending 24,599 tons from 7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001. Mostly from Iowa. Some from South Dakota. Keith Powell, NE Dept. of Environmental Quality (402) 471-4210 There are no exports from Nevada according to the state. Idaho reports receiving 5,475 tons from Nevada. Idaho 532,615 tons in 2001, about 16% of total MSW disposed in Nevada. Almost all from California. Tiny amounts from Arizona and Utah. Les Gould, NV Division of Environmental Protection (775) 687-4670 x3018 57,000 tons in 2001. Massachusetts and New York 250,000 tons in 2001, less than half of what was imported in 1999. Mainly Massachusetts. Pierce Rigrod, NH Dept. of Environmental Services (603) 271-3713 CRS-20 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact 88% to Pennsylvania, 5% to Ohio, 4% to Georgia, 3% to Virginia. 892,394 tons in 2000, a slight increase from 1999. Nearly all from New York. New Jersey 5,431,121 tons in 2001, according to six importing states. New Jersey reports substantially less: 2,651,000 tons in 2000. Ray Worob, NJ Dept. of Environmental Protection (609) 984-6903 Arizona and Texas In 2001, 750,000 tons of MSW were imported, more than triple the amount two years earlier. The imported waste represented 25% of all waste landfilled in the state in 2001. Colorado, Texas, and maquiladora waste from Mexican border areas. John O’Connell, NM Environment Dept. (505) 827-2385 New Mexico The state says there are no exports: New Mexico’s tipping fees are lower than those in surrounding states. However, Texas and Arizona both report receiving small amounts of waste from New Mexico. Seven importing states report a total of 7,493,130 tons from New York. New York facilities reported exports of 4,900,100 tons in 2001, but these data are believed to be incomplete. Primarily Pennsylvania (4.8 million tons), Virginia (1.1 million tons), New Jersey (879,000 tons), and Ohio (664,000 tons). New York estimates 839,700 tons were imported in 2001 from “selected states”. Waste imports to New York have grown by 700,000 tons since 1998. 450,000 tons (54%) from Massachusetts; 200,000 tons (24%) from Pennsylvania; 100,000 tons (12%) from Connecticut; lesser amounts from Vermont, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Maine, Maryland, and other states. In addition, Ontario, Canada reports sending 190,000 tons of MSW to New York. Gerard Wagner, NY State Dept. of Environmental Conservation (518) 402-8692 New York CRS-21 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact Virginia, South Carolina, incidental amounts to Georgia and Tennessee 21,614 tons in FY2001 Virginia North Carolina 900,743 tons in FY2001 (July 2000 to June 2001), a decline of 206,000 tons from the previous year, but still an 8-fold increase since FY 1996. Paul Chrisman, NC Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources (919) 733-0692 x254 Montana (3,735 tons) Pennsylvania (11,683 tons). 103,382 tons MSW in 2000. North Dakota The state does not track MSW exports. Two states report receiving a total of 15,418 tons of MSW from North Dakota. Mainly from Minnesota; small amounts from South Dakota and Montana. Steve Tillotson, ND Dept. of Health (701) 328-5166 986,693 tons in 2001. Mostly to Kentucky (46%) and Michigan (31%). Lesser amounts to West Virginia (12%), Pennsylvania (9%), and Indiana (3%). Ohio reports importing 1,988,753 tons of MSW in 2001, a 200,000 ton increase from 2000. New York (33%), Pennsylvania (19%), New Jersey (13%), Indiana (9%), Connecticut (6%), and West Virginia (6%) accounted for the bulk of imports. The other 14% came from 20 states, DC, and the Virgin Islands. Michelle Kenton, OH Environmental Protection Agency (614) 728-5368 The state does not track waste exports but does not believe much waste is exported. Kansas reports receiving 19,990 tons of MSW from Oklahoma in 2001. Kansas CRS estimates 125,000 tons in 2001. Oklahoma does not track waste imports, but the state is aware that in September 2001, the City of Wichita, Kansas began exporting about 1,500 tons per day of MSW to Oklahoma for disposal. In addition, small amounts come from Arkansas and Texas. Mostly from Kansas. Arkansas and Texas also report sending MSW to Oklahoma. John Roberts, OK Dept. of Environmental Quality (405) 702-5100 Ohio Oklahoma CRS-22 State Ontario, Canada Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact Michigan reports receiving 1,786,284 tons of waste from Ontario, 10/1/2000 - 9/30/2001. Ontario estimates that another 190,000 tons is disposed in New York. Michigan, New York None. N.A. Bruce Pope, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy (416) 325-4420 19,384 tons of MSW in 2000. Some to Idaho, most to Washington. 1,301,882 tons of MSW in 2000. Most from Seattle-area in Washington; small amount from California and Idaho. Judy Henderson, OR Dept. of Environmental Quality (503) 229-5521 The state does not track exports. According to neighboring states, Pennsylvania exported 576,525 tons of MSW in 2001. 64% to Ohio, 35% to New York, 1% to Virginia. 10,666,090 tons of MSW in 2001, 30% of the nat’l total, an increase of about 900,000 tons from 2000. The state also imported 1,938,857 tons of sludge, industrial, residual, C&D, ash, and asbestos waste, a decrease from 2000. New York and New Jersey accounted for nearly 90% of MSW imports, at about 45% each. 482,049 tons, or 5%, came from Connecticut; 361,410 tons (4%) from Maryland. The rest came from 8 other states and DC. Sally Lohman, PA Dept. of Environmental Protection (717) 787-7382 121,631 tons in 2000, all of which was waste imported to a transfer station and then exported elsewhere for disposal. Connecticut about 36,000 tons, Massachusetts about 41,000. Georgia reports receiving 56,883 tons. 121,930 tons in 2000, nearly all of this waste was imported to transfer stations and then exported for disposal. N.A. Robert Schmidt, RI Dept. of Environmental Management (401) 222-2797 x7260 CRS-23 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Tennessee Sources of Imported Waste State Contact 101,603 tons in FY2001 (7/1/2000 - 6/30/2001). Georgia The state reports that it imported 579,298 tons of “defined” MSW in FY2001 (7/1/2000 6/30/2001), which includes residential, commercial, institutional and industrial packaging/administrative wastes. 345,570 tons (60%) from Massachusetts; 133,986 tons (23%) from Texas; The remainder from Florida, New Jersey, Georgia, and North Carolina. Celeste Duckett, SC Dept. of Health and Environmental Control (803) 896-4226 The state does not track exports. A small amount of exporting may occur, but it is not significant. Iowa reports 2,400 tons of waste from South Dakota in FY 2001. Iowa The state does not track imports. A small amount of importing may occur, but it is not significant. Minnesota reports sending 1,400 tons to South Dakota. Minnesota Jim Wente, SD Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources (605) 773-3153 The state does not track waste exports, but neighboring states report 303,882 tons of Tennessee waste exports. Mississippi (76%) Kentucky (12%) Virginia (9%) Georgia (3%). 329,036 tons in 2001. 159,772 tons (49%) from Kentucky; 74,515 tons (23%) from Mississippi; 41,725 tons (13%) from North Carolina; 21,324 tons (6%) from Virginia; 19,547 tons (6%) from Georgia; the rest from Arkansas, Missouri, and Alabama. A. Wayne Brashear, TN Dept. of Environment and Conservation (615) 532-8010 South Carolina South Dakota Amount of MSW Imported CRS-24 Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported New Mexico is probably the major destination. Texas says waste most likely goes to New Mexico, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. South Carolina also reports receiving significant quantities of Texas waste. In FY2001 (9/1/2000 8/31/2001), 34,173 tons of MSW were imported. Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Mexico. Some smaller amounts may come from other states. Lynne Haase, TX Commission on Environmental Quality (512) 239-6613 Texas No reporting requirement for exported waste. Estimates based on regional plans show 518,698 tons of residential and commercial MSW were exported to other states from Sept. 1,1999 to Aug. 31, 2000. Nevada 5,967 tons in 2001, a large decrease from 2000 (66,000 tons). Massachusetts Utah As in 2000, about 1,000 tons of 2001 MSW went from Wendover, Utah to Wendover, Nevada. There might be some small amount of exports from Indian reservations. Jeff Emmons, UT Dept. of Environmental Quality (801)538-6748 74,982 tons to New York; 44,988 tons to New Hampshire; 1,576 tons to Massachusetts. No reported imports. N.A. Vermont 121,546 tons in 2000, an increase from 88,350 in 1999. Julie Hackbarth, VT Dept. of Environmental Conservation (802) 241-3446 North Carolina (46%) Tennessee (45%) Pennsylvania (9%). Virginia The state does not track MSW exports. Three states report 47,419 tons of exports from Virginia. 4,098,684 tons of MSW in 2001, plus 720,782 tons of other waste (mostly sludge, incinerator ash, and C&D waste). 97% from 3 states and DC: 1,443,724 tons from Maryland; 1,120,111 tons from New York; 936,387 tons from DC; 486,942 tons from NC; less than 3% from 13 other states. Kathy Frahm, VA Dept. of Environmental Quality (804) 698-4376 State Sources of Imported Waste State Contact CRS-25 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact 949,685 tons in 2000. Oregon 116,365 tons in 2000, a decrease from 243,292 tons in 1999, mainly due to a landfill losing a California contract. 41,808 tons from Canada (mainly British Columbia); California, 30,139 tons; Idaho, 24,035 tons; Alaska, 20,129 tons; Oregon 198 tons; Antarctica, 56 tons. Ellen Caywood, WA Dept. of Ecology (360) 407-6132 West Virginia No tracking system. Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Virginia reported 331,635 tons from West Virginia. Ohio and Kentucky (36% each), Pennsylvania (16%), Virginia (12%). The state has no tracking system, but estimates that it imports about 200,000 tons of MSW per year. Ohio reports shipping 119,077 tons to West Virginia in 2001. Other sources, N.A. Anne Howell, WV Division of Environmental Protection (304) 558-4253 Michigan (146,442 tons) Illinois (57,049 tons) Indiana (1,340 tons). 1,106,928 tons in 2001. Wisconsin The state does not collect export data, but three receiving states report 204,831 tons of Wisconsin exports in 2001, about 18% less than in 1999. 865,404 tons (78%) from Illinois; 238,836 tons (22%) from Minnesota. Small amounts from Iowa and Michigan. Wayne Ringquist, WI Dept. of Natural Resources (608)267-7557 The state does not collect export data. A few tons a day may leave the state. N.A. The state does not collect import data. A few tons a day may enter the state. N.A. Bob Doctor, WY Dept. of Environmental Quality (307) 473-3468 Washington Wyoming N.A. = not available Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials.