Departmental Organization, 1947-2003

Since the end of World War II, nine federal departments have been created in the executive branch. The tables in this report provide selected information on the organization of those departments.

Order Code RL31472 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Departmental Organization, 1947-2003 Updated August 12, 2003 Sharon Gressle Specialist in American National Government Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Departmental Organization, 1947-2003 Summary Since the end of World War II, nine federal departments have been created in the executive branch. The tables in this report provide selected information on the organization of those departments. Contents Table 1. Department Establishment, 1947-2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Table 2. Confirmation Rates on Department Secretaries for Newly Organized Departments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Figure 1. Executive Branch Energy Reorganization, 1973-1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Departmental Organization, 1947-2001 Congress, when considering proposals to establish a Department of Homeland Security, studied the histories of other major federal agencies and departments as possible templates for structures and administrative policies that worked and those that required adjustment. The tables that follow offer selected basic information common to all the departments1 created since the end of World War II. For each, Table 1 provides a citation to the enabling legislation, on-board staffing as it was established and as of September 30, 2001, the budget for the first fiscal year, the estimated budget for FY2003 and the FY2004 request, brief information on the authorities or responsibilities moved to the department in the organic act from other federal entities, and a statement on the new authorities or responsibilities added by the organic act. Table 2, while also including the enabling citations, provides the name of the first secretary, holdover status, nomination and confirmation dates, and the time lapse between Senate receipt of the nomination and confirmation action. Following the tables is an organizational flow chart presenting the history of agency movement before and during the creation of the Department of Energy. 1 In order of creation: Department of Defense; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of Housing and Urban Development; Department of Transportation; Department of Energy; Department Health and Human Services; Department of Education; Department of Veterans Affairs, and Department of Homeland Security. CRS-2 Table 1. Department Establishment, 1947-2003 Department Defense Enabling Legislation and Date National Security Act of 1947 (10 U.S.C. 111) (61 Stat. 495) July 26, 1947a On-Board Staffing f 1947 (June 30) Military 1,582,999 Civilian 836,085 2003 Military 1,453,485 Civilian 664,446 Health, Education, and Welfare Reorganization Plan No. 1 (5 U.S.C. app.) April 11, 1953 Budget (2003 estimate; 2004 request) FY1950 $16.5 billion FY2003 $364.0 billion Housing and Urban Development Act P.L. 89-174 (79 Stat. 667) Sept. 9, 1965 (42 U.S.C. 35323537) Single cabinet-level Dept. of Defense (DOD) established; previous cabinetlevel Departments of War (renamed Dept. of the Army) and Navy became subordinate to DOD. New authorities or responsibilities added by the organic act Independent U.S. Air Force/Dept. of the Air Force established out of the U.S. Army Air Forces; new Central Intelligence Agency authorized. FY2004 $379.6 billion 1953 36,320 FY1954 $1.9 billion Converted from Federal Security Nothing new added to the department Agency. The name was changed, the by transfer from other parts of Secretary automatically became a government. Cabinet member, and the President was authorized to appoint the undersecretary, three new assistant secretaries, and a general counsel, all subject to Senate confirmation.b 1966 14,094 FY1967 $3.1 billion 2003 10,643 FY2003 $34.5 billion The HUD Secretary was given all the powers, functions, and duties of the Housing and Home Finance Agency and its components, which consisted of an Office of the Administrator, the Federal Housing Administration, the Public Housing Administration, the Federal Reformed as the Department of Health and Human Services in 1979 Housing and Urban Development Authorities or responsibilities moved to the department in the organic act from other federal entities The Secretary was instructed to advise the President with respect to federal programs and activities relating to housing and urban development. He was to develop and recommend urban policies; provide assistance to local areas concerning community and CRS-3 Department HUD (continued) Transportation Enabling Legislation and Date On-Board Staffing f New authorities or responsibilities added by the organic act FY2004 $35.0 billion National Mortgage Association, the metropolitan development problems; Community Facilities Administration, consult and cooperate with states; c and the Urban Renewal Administration. hold public hearings; encourage comprehensive state and local planning; encourage private enterprise; and conduct continuing comprehensive studies. 1967 58,882 FY1968 $6.1 billion 2003 58,819 FY2003 $53.6 billion Agencies initially included: – U.S. Coast Guard from Dept. of Treasury. – Federal Aviation Administration from independent Federal Aviation Agency. – Federal Highway Administration; highway programs from Bureau of Public Roads, traffic (automotive) safety programs from National Traffic Safety Agency, highway safety programs from National Highway Safety Agency, all from Dept. of Commerce; and motor carrier safety programs from Interstate Commerce Commission. – Federal Railroad Administration; Alaska Railroad from Dept. of Interior; rail safety activities from the Bureau of Railroad Safety and Service in the Interstate Commerce Commission; and Office of High Speed Ground Transportation from Dept. of Commerce. Although the legislation was signed Sept. 9, HUD did not officially become a department until midnight on Nov. 8, 1965. Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 102) (96 Stat. 2414) October 15, 1966 Budget (2003 estimate; 2004 request) Authorities or responsibilities moved to the department in the organic act from other federal entities FY2004 $54.2 billion The Office of the Secretary of Transportation was charged with developing and implementing national transportation policy. The National Transportation Safety Board was created as an independent agency by the DOT Act. It assumed the accident investigation powers formerly located in the Bureau of Aviation Safety of the Civil Aeronautics Board. CRS-4 Department Enabling Legislation and Date On-Board Staffing f Budget (2003 estimate; 2004 request) Transportation (continued) Energy Authorities or responsibilities moved to the department in the organic act from other federal entities New authorities or responsibilities added by the organic act Later additions from other depts.: – Urban Mass Transportation Administration (now the Federal Transit Administration) from Dept. of Housing and Urban Development in 1968. The DOT Act required that the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of HUD make a recommendation as to where transit should be located administratively. A recommendation was made and enacted in the following year. – Maritime Administration transferred from the Dept. of Commerce by the Maritime Act of 1981. Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7131) (91 Stat. 565) August 4, 1977 1977 19,647 (Oct. 1) 2003 15,789 FY1978 $10.467 billion FY2003 $20.0 billion FY2004 $21.2 billion Movement of agencies and functions in — the new Department of Energy reflected actions taken through the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275), the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (P.L. 93438), and departmental enabling legislation: research and waste activities of the Atomic Energy Commission to Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in 1974 and ERDA to DOE in 1977; Cost of Living Council (Energy Division); Dept. of Commerce (Industrial Energy Conservation Program); Dept. of CRS-5 Department Enabling Legislation and Date On-Board Staffing f Budget (2003 estimate; 2004 request) Energy (continued) Health and Human Services Authorities or responsibilities moved to the department in the organic act from other federal entities New authorities or responsibilities added by the organic act Defense (Division of Military Applications, Division of Naval Reactors, Naval Petroleum Reserves); Dept. of the Interior (Bureau of Mines — fossil fuel research, Office of Coal Research, Office of Energy Conservation, Office of Energy Data and Analysis, Office of Oil and Gas, Office of Petroleum Allocation, Power Marketing Administrations); Environmental Protection Agency (electric and alternative vehicle R&D); Energy Policy Office; Federal Energy Administration, later the Federal Energy Office; Federal Power Commission; Department of Housing and Urban Development (energy conservation standards for new buildings); Interstate Commerce Commission (oil pipeline regulation); and National Science Foundation (geothermal solar heating research). Department of Education Organization Act (20 U.S.C. 3508) (93 Stat. 695) October 17, 1979 1980 155,662 FY1981 $80.788 billion 2003 67,091 FY2003 $507.8 billion FY2004 $537.7 billion When the Department of Education was created, the remaining portion of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was redesignated as the Department of Health and Human Services. (Sec. 509 of the Act) — CRS-6 Department Education Enabling Legislation and Date Department of Education Organization Act (20 U.S.C. 3411) (93 Stat. 671) October 17, 1979 On-Board Staffing f Budget (2003 estimate; 2004 request) 1980d 7,364 FY1981 $14.725 billion 2003 4,592 FY2003 $60.5 billion FY2004 $61.4 billion Veterans Affairs Veterans Affairs Act (38 U.S.C. 201) (102 Stat. 2635) March 15, 1989 1989 245,992 FY1990 $29.2 billion 2003 225,159 FY2003 $57.6 billion Authorities or responsibilities moved to the department in the organic act from other federal entities – Elementary and Secondary Education – Postsecondary Education – Vocational and Adult Education – Special Education and Rehabilitative Services – Educational Research and Improvement – Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs – Office for Civil Rights No significant new authorities or responsibilities. All functions of the Veterans Administration were transferred to the department. Added 40 full- time inspectors general to existing IGs. Made Secretary and 11 top positions presidential appointments subject to Senate confirmation, vs. previous situation of Administrator, Deputy Administrator, and IG being only presidential appointments subject to Senate confirmation.e Twenty-two agencies or programs were transferred from the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The overarching responsibilities of the department are to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States and to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to terrorist activities. The Secretary is charged with those responsibilities on both the federal and federal-state-locality coordinative platforms. g FY2004 $61.4 billion Homeland Security Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 101, note) (116 Stat. 2135) Nov. 25, 2002 2003 151,813 FY2003 $25.3 billion FY2004 $28.0 billion New authorities or responsibilities added by the organic act CRS-7 Note: Contributors to Table 1: Robert Goldich (Defense, 7-....), Susan Watkins Greenfield (Health, Education, and Welfare and Health and Human Services, 7-....), Jim Riehl (Housing and Urban Development, 7-....), John Fischer (Transportation, 7-....), Carl Behrens (Energy, 7-....), Paul Irwin (Education, 7-....), G ary Reynolds (Veterans’ Affairs, 7-....), and Sharon Gressle (Homeland Security, 7-....). a The National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 578; August 10, 1949) redesignated the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense and established it as an executive department. b For further information, see The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, by Rufus E. Miles Jr. (New York: Praeger, 1974). c Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1965, CQ Almanac, p. 382. Additional detail concerning the function of each of these agencies may be found in the 1965 CQ Almanac, p. 365. d Department of Education full-time equivalents: 1980 — 7,700; and 2001 — 4,710. Full-time equivalent equals total number of hours worked in a 12-month period divided by 2080 (hours in a work year). This calculation captures all the time worked in a year, not the number of people employed at any given time. e Archived CRS Report 87-919, Proposals in the 100th Congress to Make the Veterans Administration a Cabinet-Level Department: Background Information and Analysis of Issues, by Anne C. Stewart (not available), and 1988 CQ Almanac. f Staffing levels are provided for the end of the first fiscal year of operation and for the most current data available from the Department of Defense (uniformed military personnel) and the Office of Personnel Management (civilian), March 2003. g For further information on the Department of Homeland Security, see CRS Report RL31493, Homeland Security: Department Organization and Management–Legislative Phase, by (name/ re dacted) and CRS Report RL31751, Homeland Security: Department Organization and Management–Implementation Phase, by (name/ re dacted). CRS-8 Table 2. Confirmation Rates on Department Secretaries for Newly Organized Departments Department Enabling Legislation and Date Secretary Holdover of Appointee Date Received in Senate Date Confirmed by Senate Time Lapse from Reception to Confirmation Defense National Security Act (Army-Navy Unification Act) (10 U.S.C. 113) (61 Stat. 495) of July 26,1947a James V. Forrestal No 07/26/47 07/26/47 0 Health, Education, and Welfare Reorganization Plan No. 1 (5 U.S.C. app.) (67 Stat. 631) of April 11, 1953 Oveta Culp Hobby No 04/02/53 04/10/53b 8 Housing and Urban Development Housing and Urban Development Act (42 U.S.C. 3532-3537) (79 Stat. 667) of November 9, 1965 Robert C. Weaver No 01/14/66 01/17/66 3 Transportation Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 102) (96 Stat. 2414) of October 15, 1966 Alan Boyd No 01/10/67 01/12/67 2 Energy Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7131) (91 Stat. 569) of August 4, 1977, pursuant to E.O. 12009 of September 13, 1977c James R. Schlesinger No 08/04/77 08/05/77 1 Health and Human Services Department of Education Organization Act (20 U.S.C. 3508) (93 Stat. 695) of October 17, 1979 Patrica Roberts Harris Yes 07/20/79 08/03/79 14 Education Department of Education Organization Act (20 U.S.C. 3411) (93 Stat. 671) of October 17, 1979 Shirley Mount Hufstedler No 11/14/79 11/30/79 16 CRS-9 Holdover of Appointee Date Received in Senate Date Confirmed by Senate Time Lapse from Reception to Confirmation Edward J. Derwinskid Yes 01/20/89 03/02/89 41 Thomas J. Ridge No 01/07/03 01/22/03 15 Enabling Legislation and Date Secretary Veterans Affairs Veterans Affairs Act (38 U.S.C. 201) (102 Stat. 2635) of March 15, 1989 Homeland Security Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 101, note) (116 Stat. 2135) of Nov. 25, 2002 Department Average Time Lapse: 11 Source: Table 2 created by Mitchel Sollenberger, Congressional Research Service, June 19, 2002. a The National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 578; August 10, 1949) redesignated the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense and established it as an executive department. b Appointment of Oveta Culp Hobby effective on April 11, 1953. c Executive Order 12009 extends the effective date of the Energy Organization Act to October 1, 1977. d Senate confirmed Edward J. Derwinski as both Secretary and Administrator of Veterans Affairs effective on March 2, 1989. CRS-10 Figure 1. Executive Branch Energy Reorganization, 1973-1977 Note: Source unknown. Laws P.L. 93-275: Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 P.L. 93-438: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 P.L. 95-91: Department of Energy Organization Act Agencies AEC: Atomic Energy Commission CLC: Cost of Living Council (Energy Division) DOC: Department of Commerce (Industrial Energy Conservation Program) DOD: Department of Defense DMA: Division of Military Applications DNR: Division of Naval Reactors NPR: Naval Petroleum Reserves DOI: Department of the Interior BOM: Bureau of Mines (fossil fuel research) (moved in 1977) OCR: Office of Coal Research OEC: Office of Energy Conservation OEDA: Office of Energy Data and Analysis OOG: Office of Oil and Gas (moved in 1977) OPA: Office of Petroleum Allocation PMA: Power Marketing Administration EPA: Environmental Protection Agency (electric and alternative vehicle R& D) EPO: Energy Policy Office ERDA: Energy Research and Development Administration FEA: Federal Energy Administration CRS-11 FEO: Federal Energy Office FPC: Federal Power Commission HUD: Department of Housing and Urban Development (energy conservation standards for new buildings) ICC: Interstate Commerce Commission (oil pipeline regulation) NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission NSF: National Science Foundation (geothermal solar heating research) EveryCRSReport.com The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a federal legislative branch agency, housed inside the Library of Congress, charged with providing the United States Congress non-partisan advice on issues that may come before Congress. EveryCRSReport.com republishes CRS reports that are available to all Congressional staff. The reports are not classified, and Members of Congress routinely make individual reports available to the public. Prior to our republication, we redacted names, phone numbers and email addresses of analysts who produced the reports. We also added this page to the report. We have not intentionally made any other changes to any report published on EveryCRSReport.com. CRS reports, as a work of the United States government, are not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Any CRS report may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without permission from CRS. However, as a CRS report may include copyrighted images or material from a third party, you may need to obtain permission of the copyright holder if you wish to copy or otherwise use copyrighted material. Information in a CRS report should not be relied upon for purposes other than public understanding of information that has been provided by CRS to members of Congress in connection with CRS' institutional role. EveryCRSReport.com is not a government website and is not affiliated with CRS. We do not claim copyright on any CRS report we have republished.