Terrorism Preparedness: Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs

Order Code RL31227 Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Terrorism Preparedness: Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs Updated January 6, 2003 Coordinated by Ben Canada Analyst in American National Government Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Terrorism Preparedness: Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs Summary Congress has authorized a limited number of programs specifically designed to assist state and local governments in preparing for terrorist attacks, particularly those involving weapons of mass destruction. In addition, Congress has authorized several general assistance programs that states and localities may use for terrorism preparedness. Currently, several agencies administer preparedness programs, among which are the Departments of Defense, Health and Human Services, Justice, Energy, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. A number of these programs are scheduled to be transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security. Congress authorizes the programs to provide training, technical assistance, and monetary grants for emergency planning, equipment, and exercises. Most programs focus on helping state and local first responders, including fire service, emergency medical service, and law enforcement, prepare for potential attacks (some observers believe that with the threat of bioterrorism, public health officials should also be considered first responders). This catalog places preparedness programs into the following six categories: ! ! ! ! ! ! Emergency management and planning Training Equipment Law enforcement Public health and medical community Community preparedness This report will be updated to reflect the transfer of programs into the new Department of Homeland Security. It will also be updated as relevant programs are created, modified, or terminated. For more information on policy issues related to state and local preparedness, see the following reports: CRS Report RL31465, Protecting Critical Infrastructure from Terrorist Attack: A Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs, coordinated by John Moteff. CRS Report RL31475, First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options, by Ben Canada. CRS Report RL31490, Department of Homeland Security: State and Local Preparedness Issues, by Ben Canada. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Information in This Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Federal Agency Training Catalogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Grant Writing Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Related CRS Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Federal Preparedness Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Emergency Management and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Emergency Management Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 National Fire Academy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Metropolitan Medical Response Systems (MMRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Domestic Preparedness Training and Technical Assistance Program . . 5 State and Local Domestic Preparedness Exercise Support . . . . . . . . . . 6 First Responder Counter-Terrorism Training Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . 6 State Fire Training System Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 State Domestic Preparedness Equipment Support Program . . . . . . . . . 7 Hazardous Materials Assistance Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Assistance to Fire Fighters Grant Program (FIRE grants) . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Homeland Defense Equipment Reuse Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Law Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Law Enforcement Assistance—FBI Field Police Training . . . . . . . . . . 8 Local Law Enforcement Block Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Public Health and Medical Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism . . . . . . . . . 9 Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases . . . . . . 10 Community Preparedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Citizen Corps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Terrorism Preparedness: Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs Introduction This report lists and describes selected federal programs that assist states and localities in preparing for terrorist attacks, particularly those involving weapons of mass destruction. Some of the programs are authorized specifically for this purpose, while others are general assistance programs that recipients may use for terrorism preparedness. Depending on the structure of the program, local governments seeking assistance may apply directly to the federal agency or to the state program administrator. Preparedness programs are administered by several agencies, including the Departments of Defense, Justice, and Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). These agencies provide grants, training, and technical assistance for a wide range of preparedness activities. The programs fall into the following categories: ! ! ! ! ! ! Emergency management and planning Training Equipment Law enforcement Public health and medical community Community preparedness. In creating the Department of Homeland Security, the 107th Congress transferred program responsibilities among agencies. Of the agencies offering terrorism preparedness assistance, the new department will integrate FEMA in its entirety, as well as selected offices from the Departments of Justice and Health and Human Services. Other preparedness programs will remain in their current location. This report reflects any changes in program administration. It will be updated as relevant programs are created, modified, or terminated. Information in This Catalog For each program, this catalog provides the program title, brief description, administering agency, agency phone number, web site, and CRS contact. For those programs registered in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA), the program number is provided after the title. This catalog provides only basic descriptive and contact information about the selected programs, and does not provide details about course offerings and application requirements. CRS-2 For more descriptive information on a specific program, as well as application deadlines and requirements, please see the CFDA web site at [http://www.cfda.gov]. The most up-to-date information, however, is available on agency and program web sites, and from the listed CRS analyst. Federal Agency Training Catalogs Federal agencies have published catalogs with detailed information about their terrorism training programs. Agency catalogs typically provide descriptions of specific training courses and technical assistance programs, give application requirements, and often offer suggestions for writing grant proposals. The following federal agency catalogs are available on the Internet: ! Compendium of Weapons of Mass Destruction Courses—Descriptions of all federal training programs for responding to weapons of mass destruction. Available at: [http://www.usfa.fema.gov/dhtml/fire-service/cwmdc.cfm]. ! Office for Domestic Preparedness: Weapons of Mass Destruction Training Program—Detailed information on training programs offered by the Department of Justice’s Office for Domestic P r e p a r e d n e s s . A v a i l a b l e a t : [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/docs/coursecatalog.pdf]. Grant Writing Assistance Grant applicants may seek assistance from a number of sources. All applicants should consult the federal agency to which they are applying. Many federal agencies provide grant writing assistance and workshops tailored to the specific requirements of their applications. Applicants might also consult with an appropriate state agency (such as the state department of emergency services or public health). Some state agencies provide technical assistance for completing federal grant applications and, in some instances, may even submit the grant on behalf of a locality. Listed below are CRS products and other resources available through the Internet that may assist applicants in completing applications. ! CRS Grants Information web page — This web site for congressional staff links to key grants sources, including the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, various federal pages intended specifically to assist grant seekers, and the Foundation Center for private foundation funding. It also links to the web pages on writing and developing grant proposals (see below). Available at: [http://www.crs.gov/reference/general/grantsinfo.shtml]. ! Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance — The CFDA includes an instructional page, Developing and Writing Grant Proposals, to assist federal grant seekers. Available at: [http://www.cfda.gov/public/cat-writing.htm]. CRS-3 ! Foundation Center Proposal Writing Short Course — Online tutorial for learning how to develop good grant proposals. Available at: [http://fdncenter.org/learn/shortcourse/prop1.html]. Related CRS Products For more information on federal programs and policy issues related to state and local emergency preparedness, please see the following CRS products: CRS Report RS21302, Assistance to Firefighters Program, by Len Kruger. CRS Report RL31490, Department of Homeland Security: State and Local Preparedness Issues, by Ben Canada. CRS Report RS21227, Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC): An Overview, by Ben Canada CRS Report RS21377, Federal Emergency Warning Systems: An Overview, by Shawn Reese. CRS Report RL31475, First Responder Initiative: Issues and Options, by Ben Canada. CRS Report RS21400, FY2003 Appropriations for First Responders: Fact Sheet, by Ben Canada and Shawn Reese. CRS Report RL31680, Homeland Security: Standards for State and Local Preparedness, by Ben Canada. CRS Report RL31670, Transfer of FEMA to the Department of Homeland Security: Issues for Congressional Oversight, by Keith Bea. CRS Report RL31465, Protecting Critical Infrastructure from Terrorist Attack: A Catalog of Selected Federal Assistance Programs, coordinated by John Moteff. CRS Report RL31263, Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act (P.L. 107-188): Provisions and Changes to Preexisting Law, by C. Stephen Redhead, Donna U. Vogt, and Mary E. Tiemann. CRS Report RS21348, Risk Assessment in the President’s National Strategy for Homeland Security, by Rob Buschmann. CRS Report RL31266, State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism: Selected Policy Issues, by Ben Canada. CRS Report RS20071, United States Fire Administration: An Overview, by Len Kruger. CRS-4 CRS Report RS21073, Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces: Fact Sheet, by Ben Canada. For assistance with questions on state and local emergency preparedness, congressional offices may contact Ben Canada at 7-0632 or, for information on a specific program, the listed CRS contact. Federal Preparedness Programs Emergency Management and Planning Emergency Management Institute. Training for state and local emergency response personnel in basic emergency management and terrorism preparedness. The Institute is intended to improve emergency management practices among state and local emergency managers, and federal officials, in response to emergencies and disasters. Programs embody the Comprehensive Emergency Management System by unifying the elements of management common to all emergencies: preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. The Institute offers a wide selection of courses. Note: Pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296), FEMA and all its component programs, including EMI, will be transferred to the new department. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Federal Emergency Management Agency 800-238-3358 EMI web site: [http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/] FEMA regional offices and state emergency management offices: [http://www.fema.gov/regions/index.shtm] 83.527, 83.529, 83.530 Keith Bea, 7-8672 Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG). Grants to states to develop comprehensive emergency management plans, including plans to manage consequences of terrorist attacks. The program’s goal is to improve overall emergency planning, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery capabilities. FEMA has identified 13 emergency management functions for which states are encouraged, but not required, to use EMPG funds. These functions are: 1) laws and authorities; 2) hazard identification and risk assessment; 3) hazard mitigation; 4) resource management; 5) planning; 6) direction, control, and coordination; 7) communications and warning; 8) operations and procedures; 9) logistics and facilities; 10) training; 11) exercises, evaluations, and corrective actions; 12) crisis communications, public education, and information; and 13) finance and administration. Note: As FEMA is transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security, this program will also be transferred. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Federal Emergency Management Agency 202-646-3792 [http://www.usfa.fema.gov/dhtml/inside-usfa/cfda83552.html] 83.552 Keith Bea, 7-8672 CRS-5 National Fire Academy. Training for state and local emergency managers to increase the professional level of the fire service and emergency medical service. Courses are offered at the National Fire Academy training facility in Emmitsburg, MD, but also through regional offices and distance learning mechanisms. The Academy offers a wide selection of courses in such areas as professional development, incident management, information management, hazardous materials, fire prevention, and volunteer leadership. Note: As FEMA is transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security, the Academy will also be transferred. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: U.S. Fire Administration (FEMA) 800-238-3358 or 301-447-1035 [http://www.usfa.fema.gov/nfa/] 83.009, 83.010 Len Kruger, 7-7070 Metropolitan Medical Response Systems (MMRS). Funding to metropolitan areas that upgrade and improve their own planning and preparedness to respond to mass-casualty events. Under contracts with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), MMRS participants are required to coordinate and integrate the planning and preparedness efforts of law enforcement, fire, hazmat, emergency medical systems, hospitals, public health, and other local first responders. The participants receive funds in return for delivering to HHS fully integrated plans for training, organization, and response. The funds may be used to buy special equipment and stockpile pharmaceuticals and medical supplies. Through FY2002, HHS had entered into contracts with 122 metropolitan areas. Note: On March 1, 2003, pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296), the MMRS program will be transferred to the new department. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contacts: Office of Emergency Preparedness (HHS/OEP) 301-443-1167 [http://mmrs.hhs.gov/] Not listed Steve Redhead, 7-2261 Pamela Smith, 7-7048 Holly Harvey, 7-4913 Training Domestic Preparedness Training and Technical Assistance Program. Grants to provide training to state and local jurisdictions to respond to terrorist incidents involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD), such as nuclear, biological, chemical, and explosive devices. The Office for Domestic Preparedness utilizes the capabilities of a number of specialized institutions in the design and delivery of its training programs. These include private contractors, other federal and state agencies, and the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium, among others. Note: Pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296), all programs administered by the Office for Domestic Preparedness will be transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security. CRS-6 Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Office for Domestic Preparedness (Department of Justice) 800-368-6498 [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/] 16.008 Ben Canada, 7-0632 State and Local Domestic Preparedness Exercise Support. Grants and technical assistance to aid state and local jurisdictions in planning and conducting exercises that simulate response to terrorist attacks involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Exercises and simulations may be conducted on a local, regional, state, or national scale. Assistance involves evaluation of the authorities, plans, policies, procedures, and resources used in response operations. ODP provides policy, guidance, standards for scheduling, and uniformity in design, development, conduct, and evaluation of domestic preparedness exercises and related activities. Note: This program, and all ODP programs, will be transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Office for Domestic Preparedness (Department of Justice) 800-368-6498 [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/] 16.009 Ben Canada, 7-0632 First Responder Counter-Terrorism Training Assistance. Grants to states to enhance the capabilities of first responders in managing the consequences of terrorist acts. Training is provided in each of the 50 states through individual state fire training systems. Training is targeted for first responders who will come into contact with and manage the consequences of terrorist acts. Note: As FEMA is transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security, this program will also be transferred. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: U.S. Fire Administration (FEMA) 301-447-1533 [http://www.usfa.fema.gov/dhtml/inside-usfa/cfda83547.html] 83.547 Len Kruger, 7-7070 State Fire Training System Grants. Financial assistance to states to improve their training capabilities. Grants to states to enhance the capacity of their state-level training system and enable them to deliver a variety of National Fire Academy courses and programs. Note: As FEMA is transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security, this program will also be transferred. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: U.S. Fire Administration (FEMA) 301-447-1376 [http://www.usfa.fema.gov/dhtml/inside-usfa/cfda83553.html] 83.553 Len Kruger, 7-7070 CRS-7 Equipment State Domestic Preparedness Equipment Support Program. Grants to states to purchase specialized equipment for responding to terrorist attacks involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Grants are distributed to states, which then distribute funds to localities in accordance with pre-approved state plans. Program provides for a comprehensive threat and needs assessment, develops a three-year plan to enhance first responder capabilities, and provides for equipment purchases and the provision of specialized training. Note: This program, and all ODP programs, will be transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Office for Domestic Preparedness (Department of Justice) 800-368-6498 [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/] 16.007 Ben Canada, 7-0632 Hazardous Materials Assistance Program. Grants and technical assistance to plan and train for response to oil and hazardous material incidents. Grants are distributed to states, which may then distribute funds to local or tribal governments. Program seeks to enhance state and local capabilities to operate within the National Response System (NRS) and to support the Comprehensive Hazardous Materials Emergency Response – Capability Assessment Program (CHER-CAP). This program is coordinated between FEMA, the Department of Transportation, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Note: FEMA will be transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Federal Emergency Management Agency 301-447-1009 [http://www.usfa.fema.gov/dhtml/inside-usfa/cfda83012.html] 83.012 Keith Bea, 7-8672 Assistance to Fire Fighters Grant Program (FIRE grants). Grants made directly to fire departments to equip and train firefighters and emergency medical technicians. Program is intended to promote general improvements in firefighter safety and effectiveness, not to directly improve terrorism preparedness. Eligible activities include: establishing fitness programs; buying fire trucks and other vehicles (no more than 25% of the total amount appropriated may be awarded to purchase vehicles); buying firefighting equipment, including equipment for communications and monitoring; buying personal protective equipment; funding fire prevention programs (no less than 5% of the total appropriation). Note: As FEMA is transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security, this program will also be transferred. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: U.S. Fire Administration (FEMA) 866-274-0960 or 301-447-1608 [http://www.usfa.fema.gov/grants/] 83.554 Len Kruger, 7-7070 (For more information, see CRS Report RS21302, Assistance to Firefighters Program) CRS-8 Homeland Defense Equipment Reuse Program. Program offers surplus radiological detection instrumentation to cities. Equipment is “older-generation” instrumentation that would otherwise be destroyed. Recipients can receive equipment training from the Office for Domestic Preparedness. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Office of Assets Utilization, Oak Ridge (Department of Energy) 865-576-2598 [http://epic.er.doe.gov/epic/pdfs/HDERP_Factsheet.pdf] Not listed Jonathan Medalia, 7-7632 Law Enforcement State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training. Training and technical assistance in terrorism response for state and local law enforcement personnel. Program funds four broad activities: 1) providing state and local law enforcement agencies with knowledge of “political” extremist movements; 2) disseminating information relating to vital elements of law enforcement preparedness for terrorist attacks; 3) providing a general planning orientation to state and local law enforcement pertaining to crisis and consequence management and incident command, including essential elements requisite to conducting criminal investigations and prosecutions of terrorist threats and incidents; and 4) maintaining and enhance a domestic terrorism database. Note: This program, and all ODP programs, will be transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Office for Domestic Preparedness (Department of Justice) 800-368-6498 [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/] 16.614 Ben Canada, 7-0632 Law Enforcement Assistance—FBI Field Police Training. Training and technical assistance for state and local law enforcement officials to develop professional skills. Course topics range from basic recruit training to specialized instruction in such areas as fingerprinting, police-community relations, hostage negotiation, white-collar crime, organized crime, computer fraud, management techniques, investigative support, and criminal investigative analysis. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Federal Bureau of Investigation (DOJ) Contact field office: [http://www.fbi.gov/contact/fo/fo.htm] [http://www.fbi.gov/hq/td/academy/academy.htm] 16.302 Bill Ellis, 7-6928 or Bill Krouse, 7-2225 Local Law Enforcement Block Grant. Formula grants to support general law enforcement improvements. Funds may be used for a wide variety of activities, including 1) purchasing technology and other equipment directly related to basic law enforcement functions; 2) hiring and training additional law enforcement officers and necessary support personnel; 3) enhancing security at locations that are considered CRS-9 a special risk for incidents of crime, such as schools; and 4) establishing multijurisdictional task forces composed of local, state, and federal law enforcement officials to prevent and control crime. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Bureau of Justice Assistance (DOJ) 888-549-9901, option 4 [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/grant/llebg_app.html] 16.592 Bill Ellis, 7-6928 Public Health and Medical Community Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. Formula grants to the health departments of all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the U.S. territories, and the nation’s three largest municipalities (New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles County) to upgrade state and local preparedness for responding to bioterrorism attacks and other public health threats and emergencies. Funding must be used for preparedness planning and readiness assessment, expanding disease surveillance and epidemiologic capacity, strengthening lab capacity, establishing a secure communications network among state and local public health agencies, and education and training. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contacts: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC) 770-488-2740 [http://www.bt.cdc.gov/planning/coopagreementaward] 93.283 Steve Redhead, 7-2261 Pam Smith, 7-7048 Holly Harvey, 7-4913 Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program. Formula grants to the health departments of all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the U.S. territories, and the nation’s three largest municipalities (New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles County) to facilitate state and regional planning with local hospitals and other health care facilities, and to upgrade the preparedness of these entities to respond to bioterrorism, natural outbreaks of infectious disease, and other public health emergencies. Funding is used for regional hospital preparedness planning, and to recruit and train emergency personnel and upgrade hospital infrastructure. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contacts: Health Resources and Services Administration (HHS/HRSA) 301-443-4996 [http://www.hrsa.gov/bioterrorism.htm] 93.003 Steve Redhead, 7-2261 Pam Smith, 7-7048 Holly Harvey, 7-4913 CRS-10 U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Training opportunities for public health professionals. Courses are taught at the USAMRIID facility in Aberdeen, MD, but are also available through satellite broadcasts and other distance learning mechanisms. Courses focus on recognizing signs of bioterrorism attacks, planning and preparing for mass casualties, and preventing spread of disease. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (DOD) 410-436-2230 or 410-436-3393 [http://www.usamriid.army.mil/education/index.html] Not listed Steve Bowman, 7-7613 Community Preparedness Citizen Corps. Civilian volunteer program to assist in emergency planning and response. Includes a number of programs, including Community Emergency Response Teams (CERTs), Volunteers in Police Service (VIPS), Medical Reserve Corps, and Neighborhood Watch. Citizen Corps programs can provide mechanisms for involving civilian volunteers for a variety of purposes, including emergency planning, disaster recovery, and logistical support to first responders. Federal assistance can include equipment, training, technical assistance, and monetary grants. With federal funding, a number of states are also providing training and technical assistance to interested communities. Note: As FEMA is transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security, this program will also be transferred. Agency: Phone: Web site: CFDA: CRS Contact: Federal Emergency Management Agency Call state official: [http://www.citizencorps.gov/statepoc.html] [http://www.citizencorps.gov/] Not listed Shawn Reese, 7-0635