Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2001 Update

Order Code RL31051 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2001 Update July 19, 2001 James E. McCarthy Specialist in Environmental Policy Resources, Science, and Industry Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2001 Update Summary This report, which replaces CRS Report RL30409, provides updated information on interstate shipment of municipal solid waste (MSW). Since the late 1980s, Congress has considered, but not enacted, numerous bills that would allow states to impose restrictions on interstate waste shipments, a step the Constitution prohibits in the absence of congressional authorization. Over this period, there has been a continuing interest in knowing how much waste is being shipped across state lines for disposal, and what states might be affected by proposed legislation. This report provides data useful in addressing these questions. Total interstate waste shipments continue to rise, due to the closure of older local landfills and the increasing consolidation of the waste management industry. Between our year 2000 survey (reporting largely 1998 data) and the current survey (generally reporting 1999 or 2000 data), reported interstate waste imports have increased by 3.6 million tons, about 13%. In the last seven years, reported imports have more than doubled, from 14.5 million tons in 1993 to 32.0 million tons in 2000. Pennsylvania remains, by far, the largest waste importer. The state received 9.8 million tons of municipal solid waste and 2.5 million tons of other non-hazardous waste from out of state in 2000, more than 30% of the national total for interstate shipments. Virginia, the second largest importer, received 60% less than the amount received by Pennsylvania. Michigan, the third largest importer, imported 2.8 million tons of MSW in fiscal year 2000, an increase of nearly one million tons over the previous year. Twenty states had increased imports in the current report – the largest increases occurring in Pennsylvania and Michigan. In all, eight states reported imports that exceeded one million tons. While waste imports increased overall, several states (including Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, and New Hampshire) reported sharp declines in waste imports. New York remains the largest exporter of waste, with New Jersey and Illinois in second and third place. Exports from New York, already nearly 7 million tons per year, are expected to grow further because of the closure of New York City’s Fresh Kills Landfill in March 2001. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Shipments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . States Reporting Increased Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . States Reporting Decreased Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Major Exporters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net Imports and Exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 6 8 8 9 9 List of Figures Figure 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year, in tons . . . . . . 2 Figure 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year, in tons . . . . . . 2 List of Tables Table 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year (in tons) . . . . . . 3 Table 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year (in tons) . . . . . . 4 Table 3. Net Imports/Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year (in tons) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 4. Amount and Destination of Exported MSW, and Amount and Sources of Imported MSW, by State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2001 Update Introduction This report provides updated information on interstate shipment of municipal solid waste. Concerned about increased waste imports, some states have attempted to regulate this commerce; federal courts, however, have declared these state restrictions unconstitutional. If states are to have such authority, congressional action is required. Since the late 1980s, Congress has considered, but not enacted, numerous bills that would grant such authority.1 Over this period, there has been a continuing interest in knowing how much waste is being shipped across state lines for disposal, and what states might be affected by proposed legislation. This report provides data useful in addressing these questions. It updates information provided in earlier CRS reports.2 Not all states require reporting of waste imports, and very few track exports, so the available data are incomplete and in some cases represent estimates rather than actual measurements. From what is known, waste shipments appear to be concentrated among 25-30 states in the Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, and Pacific Coast regions (Figures 1 and 2). This report presents information gathered through telephone contacts with solid waste officials in those states, the District of Columbia, and the Canadian province of Ontario. Data obtained from these contacts are summarized in Tables 1, 2, and 3, and Figures 1 and 2. Table 4 presents additional information, including the names and telephone numbers of state contacts. 1 Legislation on interstate shipment of waste has been introduced in every Congress since the 100th. In the 104th Congress, the Senate passed S. 534. The bill would have granted states authority to restrict new shipments of municipal solid waste from out of state, if requested by an affected local government. In the 103rd Congress, both the House and Senate passed interstate waste legislation (H.R. 4779 and S. 2345), but lack of agreement on common language prevented enactment. For a discussion of the issues addressed in these bills, see CRS Report RS20106, Interstate Waste Transport: Legislative Issues. 2 This report replaces Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 2000 Update, CRS Report RL30409. Earlier reports were Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1998 Update, CRS Report 98-689; Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1997 Update, CRS Report 97-349; Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1996 Update, CRS Report 96-712; Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste: 1995 Update, CRS Report 95-570; and Interstate Shipment of Municipal Solid Waste, CRS Report 93-743. CRS-2 Figure 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year, in tons Amounts in Tons 1,000,000 or greater 500,000 to 999,999 100,000 to 499,999 Less than 100,000 Figure 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year, in tons CRS-3 Table 1. Imports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year (in tons) State Pennsylvania Virginia Michigan Ohio Illinois Indiana Oregon Wisconsin South Carolina New Jersey Kentucky Nevada New York New Hampshire Georgia Iowa Mississippi Kansas Arizona Tennessee West Virginia Washington New Mexico Connecticut Alabama Missouri Maine Nebraska Utah Maryland North Dakota Texas North Carolina Montana Massachusetts Idaho California Quantity Imported a 9,764,147 3,891,320 c,d 2,840,338 1,774,134 d, e 1,541,913 f 1,439,431 e 1,239,579 1,067,926 g 862,925 e 836,154 626,920 541,400 539,000 e 538,700 h 515,604 h 485,000 e 449,821 h 434,000 i 408,718 j 297,081 k 250,264 e 243,292 e 241,771 e, l 239,842 210,000 183,042 e 164,527 122,500 m 66,000 e, n 62,246 e 54,460 e 46,611 h 41,840 31,693 e 29,412 e 17,682 k 11,069 b a In addition, Pennsylvania received 2,473,843 tons of other waste (industrial waste, construction/demolition [C&D] waste, ash, asbestos, and sludge) from out of state at MSW landfills in 2000. b Virginia also imported 580,226 tons of other waste, mostly sludge, C&D, ash, and industrial waste in 2000. c 10/1/99 - 9/30/2000. d Converted from cubic yards using 3.3 cu. yds. = 1 ton. e 1999. f Indiana also imported 172,410 tons of non-municipal solid waste, primarily C&D and industrial waste in 2000. g 7/1/98 - 6/30/99. h 7/1/99 - 6/30/2000. i 4/1/99-3/31/2000. j 8/1/97 - 7/31/98. k 1998. l Connecticut import total does not include waste from New York that was received at a Connecticut transfer station and re-exported to other states for disposal. m Utah landfills also imported 299,000 tons of industrial waste. n Maryland also imported 469,944 tons of C&D waste. Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials. CRS-4 Table 2. Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year (in tons) State New York New Jersey Illinois Missouri Maryland Ontario, Canada California North Carolina Ohio Massachusetts District of Columbia Indiana Washington Minnesota Connecticut Pennsylvania Texas Iowa West Virginia Louisiana Florida Wisconsin Georgia Tennessee Virginia Rhode Island Kentucky Vermont Michigan Alabama Idaho New Hampshire South Carolina Arkansas Maine Kansas Alaska Delaware Nebraska Oregon Colorado Utah Quantity Exported a 6,807,167 4,158,060 3,145,821 b 1,792,753 1,791,103 1,277,822 1,195,000 1,106,897 1,039,876 984,558 978,900 c 908,418 832,421 619,592 d 554,482 553,570 395,067 380,000 305,257 300,000 289,613 250,776 250,000 151,229 150,000 146,950 94,171 88,350 85,210 75,000 65,530 64,000 57,377 53,860 50,862 43,000 27,500 24,618 18,203 17,682 15,000 1,000 a As reported by four importing states (Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and Ohio). New York’s data indicate exports of 5,610,000 tons. b About 40% of Missouri’s exports are believed to be construction and demolition or industrial waste sent to MSW landfills. c As reported by four receiving states (Michigan, Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois). Indiana reported 289,856 tons of exports, but noted that the amount was incomplete because it only counted exports from transfer stations. d As reported by receiving states, Connecticut exports may include waste that originated in New York State, but was managed at a Connecticut transfer station. Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials. In many cases, the amount is based on data compiled by receiving states. See Table 4 entries for additional information. CRS-5 Table 3. Net Imports/Exports of Municipal Solid Waste, 2000 or latest year (in tons) State Imports Exports Net Imports/Exports Pennsylvania Virginia Michigan Oregon Wisconsin South Carolina Ohio Nevada Kentucky Indiana New Hampshire Mississippi Arizona Kansas Georgia New Mexico Tennessee Alabama Maine Iowa Nebraska Utah North Dakota Montana Colorado Delaware Alaska Idaho Arkansas West Virginia Vermont Rhode Island Florida Louisiana Connecticut Texas Washington Minnesota Massachusetts District of Columbia North Carolina California Ontario, Canada Illinois Missouri Maryland New Jersey New York 9,764,147 3,891,320 2,840,338 1,239,579 1,067,926 862,925 1,774,134 541,400 626,920 1,439,431 538,700 449,821 408,718 434,000 515,604 241,771 297,081 210,000 164,527 485,000 122,500 66,000 54,460 31,693 17,682 250,264 239,842 46,611 243,292 29,412 41,840 11,069 1,541,913 183,042 62,246 836,154 539,000 553,570 150,000 85,210 17,682 250,776 57,377 1,039,876 94,171 908,418 64,000 43,000 250,000 151,229 75,000 50,862 380,000 18,203 1,000 15,000 24,618 27,500 65,530 53,860 305,257 88,350 146,950 289,613 300,000 554,482 395,067 832,421 619,592 984,558 978,900 1,106,897 1,195,000 1,277,822 3,145,821 1,792,753 1,791,103 4,158,060 6,807,167 9,210,577 3,741,320 2,755,118 1,221,897 817,150 805,548 734,258 541,400 532,749 531,013 474,700 449,821 408,718 391,000 265,604 241,771 145,852 135,000 113,665 105,000 104,297 65,000 54,460 31,693 -15,000 -24,618 -27,500 -47,848 -53,860 -54,993 -88,350 -146,950 -289,613 -300,000 -314,640 -348,456 -589,129 -619,592 -955,146 -978,900 -1,065,057 -1,183,931 -1,277,822 -1,603,908 -1,609,711 -1,728,857 -3,321,906 -6,268,167 Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews. Data subject to numerous qualifications: see notes from Tables 1, 2, and 4. CRS-6 Total Shipments The data show that total interstate waste shipments continue to rise: imports in the current survey totaled 32.0 million tons, 14.6% of the 220 million tons of municipal solid waste generated in the United States.3 Between our year 2000 report (reporting largely 1998 data) and the current survey (reporting generally 1999 and 2000 data), imports increased 3.6 million tons, about 13%. Since 1993, reported imports have more than doubled, from 14.5 million tons in 1993 to 32.0 million tons in the current survey. States Reporting Increased Imports Twenty states had increased imports of municipal waste in 2000, with the largest increases occurring in Pennsylvania and Michigan. The increases in these two states, 2.6 million tons and 1.1 million tons respectively, total more than the entire increase nationally. The other 48 states added together show a net decrease in waste imports of 0.1 million tons. The preponderance of these two states in the 2000 waste statistics demonstrates another element of the emerging picture of interstate waste shipment: 52% of total municipal waste imports are disposed in just three states: Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Michigan. Pennsylvania continues to be the largest waste importer, by far. Disposal facilities in the state received 9.8 million tons of MSW and 2.5 million tons of other nonhazardous waste from out of state in 2000. The amounts represented half of all solid waste disposed in the state and more than 30% of the national total for interstate shipments. After Pennsylvania, Virginia is the largest waste importer, with 3.9 million tons of MSW imports and 580,226 tons of other nonhazardous waste. Despite predictions that Virginia would receive increased imports as New York’s Fresh Kills landfill phased out operations, waste imports to Virginia remained roughly the same in the 1998-2000 period. Michigan, the third largest waste importer in 2000, saw out-of-state waste disposed in the state grow by more than 1.1 million tons that year. Substantial amounts of waste come to Michigan from Illinois, Indiana, and other neighboring states, but the biggest source, accounting for about 45% of Michigan’s out-of-state waste, is Ontario, Canada. Ontario’s waste shipments are growing as the Toronto area awards new contracts for waste disposal and closes its two remaining landfills. 3 Because many of the larger importers now differentiate MSW from other non-hazardous waste imports, we compared total MSW imports to EPA’s national estimate of MSW generation (220 million tons in the latest available year, 1998). State-reported waste generation, summarized in BioCycle magazine’s annual survey, is substantially higher (340 million tons in 1998), but is likely to include other nonhazardous waste, provided it was disposed at MSW facilities. For state-reported data, see Jim Glenn, “The State of Garbage in America,” BioCycle, April 1999, p. 60. CRS-7 At the beginning of 1999, Toronto area municipalities were managing about 2.8 million tons of waste annually, of which about 350,000 tons were shipped to Michigan. By early 2003, however, there will be virtually no local disposal capacity. Barring unforeseen developments, most of this waste is expected to be sent to Michigan for disposal. In other highlights: ! Eight states reported imports exceeding one million tons per year in the latest year, a figure unchanged from our previous survey, which reported 1998 data. ! Another 20 states had imports exceeding 100,000 tons. ! For the third year in a row, New Jersey is on the list of major importers, with 836,154 tons of MSW imports in 1999 (2000 data were not yet available). Imports in 1999 grew by more than 250,000 tons. The state is still a major exporter of waste, as well: according to New Jersey, MSW exports totaled 2.5 million tons in 1999, and receiving states estimate the total exports at more than 4 million tons in 2000. But the absence of flow control (local government requirements that waste within their jurisdiction be disposed at local facilities, which were overturned by the courts in the mid-1990s) has led waste-toenergy facilities in New Jersey to search for waste to replace local waste now being disposed elsewhere. As a result, large amounts of waste are entering New Jersey from New York. ! New York, the nation’s largest waste exporter, also saw rapid growth in waste imports in 2000. The state imported 539,000 tons of waste in 2000, an increase from 130,000 in our previous survey. ! Other states reporting major increases in imports were Ohio, Georgia, South Carolina, and Kentucky. Ohio had a nearly 700,000 ton increase in MSW imports between 1998 and 2000, Georgia experienced a nearly 300,000 ton increase over the two years, and South Carolina and Kentucky both had increases in the 150,000 - 200,000 ton range. ! Although there are no comprehensive data, imports to transfer stations4 have become a political issue in some locations. Transfer stations are generally located in urban areas and are subject to less stringent regulation than disposal facilities. Heavy truck traffic and odors have aroused concerns in some neighboring communities. Both Connecticut and the District of Columbia report significant amounts of out-of-state waste imported to transfer stations, then exported to other states for disposal. New York City’s plan to export waste to transfer stations in New Jersey has raised substantial controversy.5 4 Transfer stations receive waste from collection trucks, compact it, bale it, and load it on larger trucks for disposal elsewhere. 5 See, for example, “Garbage Plan Ignites Border Tensions,” New York Times, December 3, 1998, p. A27. CRS-8 States Reporting Decreased Imports While waste imports increased overall, 14 states reported declines in waste imports. In half the cases, the declines were small, but seven others had declines exceeding 100,000 tons. Most notable were: Indiana, where waste imports have declined 742,000 tons since 1998; Kansas, which declined 366,000 tons and now imports about half the amount received in the mid-1990s; Mississippi, which declined about 350,000 tons, due to markedly lower shipments from New Orleans; and New Hampshire, where new permit conditions imposed on the state’s largest landfill contributed to a state-wide reduction in imports of almost 280,000 tons. Major Exporters Eight states (New York, New Jersey, Illinois, Missouri, Maryland, California, North Carolina, and Ohio) exported more than one million tons of waste to facilities in other states in the latest reporting period, and six other states and the District of Columbia exported more than half a million tons. The Canadian province of Ontario also exported a substantial amount of municipal waste (1,277,000 tons) to Michigan. New York, New Jersey, and Illinois remained the largest exporters. Together these three states accounted for 46% of waste exports nationally. New York reported exports of 5.61 million tons of MSW in 2000, an increase of 29% in the 1998-2000 period. But receiving states report even higher totals, 6.82 million tons in 2000. Despite the already large amount, waste exports from New York are expected to grow further because of the March 2001 closure of New York City’s Fresh Kills Landfill — the city’s last disposal facility. New Jersey’s estimated exports, 4.16 million tons, have also grown dramatically. In New Jersey’s case, the cause of increased exports is the overturning of the state’s flow control law, which, until 1997, directed much of the state’s waste to high-cost local facilities for disposal. The state law was overturned and the state exhausted its appeals in October 1997. Exports have since grown by nearly 2 million tons. Illinois’ exports, at 3.15 million tons, declined in 2000, after several years of rapid growth: in 1998, they were about four times the amount reported for 1995.6 Most of the exports originate in Cook County (Chicago and its suburbs), which has a relative shortage of disposal capacity. Illinois as a whole reported a more than doubling of landfill capacity between 1995 and 2000. But Chicago is located near the border of both Indiana and Wisconsin; so increases in capacity elsewhere in Illinois may not affect disposal decisions in the metropolitan area. Maryland, California, and North Carolina all showed large increases in waste exports (around 500,000 tons each) in the reporting period. Each of the three appears to be an example of the growing regionalization of waste disposal markets, as waste flowed from them to large disposal facilities in adjoining states. 6 Illinois, like most states, does not report waste exports. This export estimate was derived from data provided by neighboring states. CRS-9 Net Imports and Exports Table 3 combines import and export data to rank the states by net amounts imported or exported. The table shows that 15 states (Pennsylvania, Virginia, Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana, Georgia, Tennessee, and Iowa among the net importers, and West Virginia, Connecticut, Washington, Illinois, Missouri, New Jersey, and New York among net exporters) both export and import in excess of 100,000 tons of municipal solid waste. There are several factors at work here. In the larger states, there are sometimes differences in available disposal capacity in different regions within the state. Areas without capacity may be closer to landfills (or may at least find cheaper disposal options) in other states. A good example is Illinois: the Chicago area, which is close to two other states, exports significant amounts of waste out of state, despite Illinois being a large waste importer with available capacity in other parts of the state. As noted earlier, the movement of waste also represents the growing regionalization and consolidation of the waste industry. In 1999, the three largest firms (Waste Management, Allied Waste, and Republic Services) accounted for 81% of total revenues of the industry’s 100 largest firms.7 These large firms offer integrated waste services, from collection to transfer station to disposal site, in many locations. Often, they ship waste to their own disposal facility across a border, rather than dispose of it at an in-state facility owned by a rival. As small landfills continue to close — the number of U.S. landfills declined 51% between 1993 and 19998 — this trend toward regionalization and consolidation is likely to continue. The amount of waste being shipped across state lines for disposal may rise in this process. Additional Information The remainder of this report consists of a table summarizing waste import and export data, by state. All 50 states and the District of Columbia are listed in alphabetical order, with data for the amount of waste exported, destination of exports, amount of waste imported, source of imports, and a state agency contact for additional information. 7 “The Seventh Annual Waste Age 100,” Waste Age, September 2000, pp. 42-51. 8 “The State of Garbage in America,” BioCycle, April 1994, p. 51, and April 2000, p. 36. CRS-10 Table 4. Amount and Destination of Exported MSW, and Amount and Sources of Imported MSW, by State State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact No reporting system. Mississippi reported receiving about 75,000 tons of waste from Alabama in 1999. Very small amounts to Georgia and Tennessee. Mostly to Mississippi. 210,000 tons in 1998, according to BioCycle magazine survey. Probably still about the same, according to the state. Mostly from Georgia. John Narramore, AL Dept. of Environmental Management, (334) 271-7764 Alaska estimates exports at about 27,500 tons. Washington None N.A. Glenn Miller, Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation (907) 465-5153 Very little. There are a couple of small flows in areas that are not accessible from the rest of the state. Nevada and New Mexico. 408,718 tons in the period 4/1/99 - 3/31/2000. Almost all from California, especially the San Diego area. David Janke, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, (602) 207-4173 53,860 tons reported by Missouri in 2000. Missouri Arkansas does not measure waste imports. The state is not believed to be a major importer. N.A. Darlene Hale, Arkansas Dept. of Pollution Control and Ecology, (501) 682-0602 Primarily Nevada and Arizona. Smaller amounts to Washington and Oregon. 11,069 tons in 1998 (latest available). N.A. California California does not have current data on waste exports. Four neighboring states report 1,195,000 tons in the most recent reporting period (1999 or 2000). Tracy Harper, CA Integrated Waste Management Board, (916) 341-6292 Primarily New Mexico. No tracking system. Small amounts may enter from Kansas and Nebraska. Kansas and Nebraska. Colorado CRS estimates exports at 15,000 tons. According to the state, the city of Durango exports its waste to New Mexico. There are also small amounts crossing the Kansas and Nebraska borders. Glenn Mallory, CO Dept. of Public Health and Environment, (303) 692-3445 Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas CRS-11 State Connecticut Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported 266,230 tons of MSW in 1999, according to Connecticut. Receiving states report a substantial increase in 2000, to 554,482 tons. Pennsylvania (428,494 tons) Ohio (125,988 tons). Some to New Jersey, also. 239,842 tons in 1999. (Does not include waste from New York that is managed at a Connecticut transfer station and re-exported for disposal.) About equally divided among Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York. Judy Belaval, CT Dept. of Environmental Protection, (860) 424-3237 24,618 tons in 2000, according to Pennsylvania and Virginia. Almost all to Pennsylvania. MSW landfills in the state’s 3 counties are operated by a quasi-state authority and are prohibited from taking outof-state waste. A private facility in the state imports close to 400,000 tons per year of “dry waste,” primarily construction and demolition waste. N.A. Mike Apgar, Delaware Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, (302) 739-3689 978,900 tons in 2000, according to Virginia and Pennsylvania. 88% to Virginia; 12% to Pennsylvania. None for disposal. However, D.C. reported 348,500 tons of out-of-state waste were handled at D.C. transfer stations in FY 1999, then shipped to Virginia for disposal. Maryland Sybil Hammond, D.C. Dept. of Public Works, (202) 673-6833 Florida has no reporting system, but Georgia reported receiving 289,613 tons from Florida in FY 2000. Waste is exported mostly from border counties, according to Florida, and represents a small fraction of the 30 million tons of waste generated in the state. Georgia. Maybe a little, but disposal is generally less expensive in Georgia, so there’s not much import. N.A. Peter Goren, Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection, (850) 487-9532 Delaware District of Columbia Florida Sources of Imported Waste State Contact CRS-12 State Georgia Hawaii Amount of MSW Exported Indiana Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact CRS estimates 250,000 tons in 2000, based on reports from Alabama and South Carolina. Mostly to Alabama. South Carolina reported 57,377 tons of waste shipped to Georgia in 1999. 515,604 tons in the period 7/1/99 - 6/30/2000, more than double the amount two years previously. 56% from Florida 18% from South Carolina 5% from Tennessee 20% not specified. Scott Henson, Georgia Dept. of Natural Resources, (404) 362-4888 Hawaii does not export MSW. N.A. Hawaii does not import MSW. N.A. Gary Siu, Hawaii Dept. of Health, (808) 586-4244 65,530 tons in 1998. Washington, Oregon, and Montana. 17,682 tons in 1999, according to Oregon. Oregon Dean Ellert, ID Division of Environmental Quality, (208) 373-0416 3,145,821 tons in 2000, according to five neighboring States, a decline of 650,000 tons since 1998. 1.5 million tons of MSW to Indiana (CRS estimate based on Indiana data); 904,000 tons to Wisconsin; 640,000 tons to Michigan. Small amounts elsewhere. 1,541,913 tons in 1999. (Data converted from cubic yards by CRS.) 75% from Missouri, 17% from Iowa, 4% from Indiana and 4% from Wisconsin. Ellen Gambach, Illinois EPA (217) 782-9288 Four receiving states, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, and Illinois, report receiving a total of 908,418 tons from Indiana. Indiana reported exports of 289,856 tons in 2000, but the state notes that this total does not provide a complete picture of Indiana exports since it only includes waste exported by transfer stations. It does not include waste taken directly out of state by haulers. Michigan (553,762 tons), Ohio (158,764 tons), Kentucky (134,215 tons), Illinois (61,677 tons). 1,439,431 tons of MSW in 2000, a decline of 742,000 tons in the past two years. Indiana also imported 172,410 tons of other waste (principally C&D waste and “special” waste) in 2000, a decline from 639,000 tons in 1999. 95% from Illinois, 3% from Michigan. Michelle Weddle, IN Department of Environmental Management, (317) 233-3834 Idaho Illinois Destination of Exported Waste CRS-13 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste About 2/3 goes to Illinois; the remainder goes mostly to Nebraska and Missouri. 485,000 tons in FY 2000 (7/1/99 - 6/30/2000). Minnesota Iowa Iowa reports 380,000 tons of exports in FY 2000 (7/1/99 6/30/2000). Tammie Krausman, Iowa Dept. of Natural Resources, (515) 281-8382 Kansas reported 43,000 tons of exports in FY 2000 (7/1/99-6/30/2000). Missouri and Oklahoma. 434,000 tons in FY 2000 (7/1/99 - 6/30/2000). Mostly from Missouri. Some from southeast Nebraska and Oklahoma. Kent Foerster, Kansas Dept. of Health and Environment (785) 296-1540 Indiana, 19,892 tons; Ohio, 74,279. Tennessee and Illinois also receive waste from Kentucky. 626,290 tons in 2000. Kentucky No reporting system for exports, but 2 neighboring states reported receiving 94,171 tons from KY in 2000. Exports to Indiana declined by almost 90%. 45% from Ohio, 21% from Indiana, 17% from W. Va., 16% from Tennessee. Derek Gould, KY Department for Environmental Protection (502) 564-6716 x671 Mississippi. No tracking system. The state is not believed to be a waste importer. N.A. Louisiana No reporting system for exports, but Mississippi reports that it received 300,000 tons of waste from Louisiana in 1999. Dennis Duszynski, LA Dept. of Environmental Quality, (225) 765-0249 Maine 50,862 tons in 1999, plus 40,412 tons of construction and demolition (C & D) waste. 19,000 tons to New Brunswick (Canada); most of the rest to New Hampshire. 164,527 tons of MSW in 1999. 74% from Massachusetts; the rest from New Hampshire. George MacDonald, ME Department of Environmental Protection, (207) 287-5759 1,427,585 tons to Virginia; 359,596 tons to Pennsylvania. 62,246 tons in 1999. In addition, the state imported 469,944 tons of construction and demolition waste. Pennsylvania and West Virginia. C & D waste comes from 6 states. Maryland Maryland reported 1,368,811 tons of MSW in 1999, plus 145,866 tons of incinerator ash. Receiving states, which have reported data for 2000, reported receiving 1,791,103 tons. Frank Diller, MD Department of the Environment, (410) 631-4143 Kansas Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact CRS-14 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact 39% to New Hampshire; 17% to Virginia; 12% each to Ohio and Maine; 10% to NY. 29,412 tons of MSW in 1999. 224,165 tons of other waste (mostly ash and construction and demolition waste). 73% from Connecticut, 17% from New Hampshire. Massachusetts 984,558 tons of MSW in 1999; Mass. also exported 215,000 tons of other waste (mostly construction and demolition). Brian Holdridge, Mass. Dept. of Environmental Protection, (617) 292-5578 Ohio (54%) Indiana (46%). Michigan No tracking system for exports, but two neighboring states reported 85,210 tons from Michigan in 2000. 2,840,338 tons, 10/1/999/30/2000, an increase of nearly 1,000,000 tons in the last year. (Data converted from cubic yards by CRS). Ontario, Canada (45%), Illinois (23%), Indiana (20%), Ohio (7%), Wisconsin (5%). Lynn Dumroese, Michigan Dept. of Environmental Quality, (517) 373-4738 619,592 tons in 1999, a 38% increase over 1998. Iowa (432,837 tons), Wisconsin (131,912 tons), North Dakota (54,460 tons), South Dakota (383 tons). Imports were less than 1,000 tons. N.A. Jim Chiles, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, (651) 296-7273 May be small amounts to Tennessee and Arkansas. Tennessee and Arkansas. 449,821 tons in 1999. Louisiana accounted for about 300,000 tons, Alabama about 75,000 tons, and the rest comes mostly from the Memphis, Tennessee area. Mark Williams, Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, (601) 961-5171 1,792,753 tons in 2000. About 40% of this is estimated to be C & D waste or industrial waste sent to MSW landfills. Illinois (70%) and Kansas (28%) were the main destinations. 183,042 tons in 2000 (includes industrial and C & D waste). Illinois (54%) Arkansas (29%) Iowa (15%) Dennis Hansen, Mo. Department of Natural Resources (573) 751-5401 Small amounts. North Dakota 31,693 tons in 2000. Mostly from Idaho. Smaller amounts from North Dakota and Wyoming (Yellowstone Park). Pat Crowley, MT Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, (406) 444-5294 Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana CRS-15 Amount of MSW Exported State Nebraska Destination of Exported Waste State Contact Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming. Nebraska does not collect annual data on waste imports, either. A one-time survey reported 122,500 tons in 1997. Probably hasn’t been much change since then, according to the state. 98% from Iowa; the rest from South Dakota. Keith Powell, Nebraska Dept. of Environmental Quality, (402) 471-4210 None N.A. 541,400 tons in 2000, according to preliminary state estimates. California. Minute amounts from Arizona and Utah. Les Gould, NV Division of Environmental Protection, (775) 687-4670, ext. 3018 64,000 tons in 1999. Maine and Massachusetts. 538,700 tons in 1999, down 34% from 1997. Imports are expected to continue declining as a result of a permit modification. Primarily Massachusetts. Small amounts from Vermont and Maine. Pierce Rigrod, NH Department of Environmental Services, (603) 271-3713 2,508,000 tons in 1999, a decrease of nearly 1,000,000 tons compared to 1998. Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia, which have data for the year 2000, report receiving 4,158,060 tons of MSW from New Jersey in 2000. Mostly to Pennsylvania; about 6% to Ohio. 836,154 tons in 1999. Most goes to the Essex County incinerator. New York (78%), Pennsylvania (14%), Connecticut (6%). Ray Worob, NJ Department of Environmental Protection, (609) 984-6903 No MSW exports. N.A. 241,771 tons in 1999, 80% of which is MSW. The rest is mostly maquiladora waste from Mexican border areas. Mostly from El Paso, Texas. Small amounts from other areas of Texas and Mexico. John O’Connell, New Mexico Environmental Department, (505) 827-2385 New Hampshire New Mexico Sources of Imported Waste Nebraska does not collect annual data on waste exports. A one-time survey reported 18,203 tons in 1997. Probably hasn’t been much change since then, according to the state. Nevada New Jersey Amount of MSW Imported CRS-16 State New York North Carolina Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported 5,610,000 tons in 2000, according to New York. Four importing states report a total of 6,807,167 tons from New York. Primarily Pennsylvania (4.7 million tons), Virginia (1 million tons), New Jersey (648,000 tons), and Ohio (466,000 tons). 539,000 tons in 2000. May include industrial and C & D waste. 441,000 tons came from Massachusetts. Vermont, Connecticut, and New Jersey were the other main sources. Gerard Wagner, NY State Department of Environmental Conservation (518) 402-8692 1,106,897 tons from July 1999 to June 2000, a 10-fold increase since FY 1996. Mostly to South Carolina and Virginia. 41,840 tons, July 1999-June 2000. 96% from Virginia; the remainder from South Carolina. Paul Chrisman, NC Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources, (919) 733-0692 x254 Small amounts. South Dakota and Montana. The state has no reporting system, but Minnesota reports 54,460 tons of MSW exported to North Dakota in 1999. Minnesota Steve Tillotson. ND Dept. of Health, (701) 328-5166 1,039,876 tons in 1999, a 17% increase from 1998, and nearly triple the amount in 1993. Primarily to Michigan and Kentucky. Lesser amounts to Indiana, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. 1,774,134 tons received at MSW landfills in 2000, a 63% increase over 1997, but a decline of 50% from the peak in 1989. May include some C & D and industrial waste. New York (26%), Pennsylvania (24%), New Jersey (13%), Indiana (9%). Smaller amounts from 28 other states. Andrew Booker, Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, (614) 728-5355 Oklahoma does not require reporting, and does not believe it exports more than incidental amounts from small towns near the border. N.A. Landfills in Oklahoma are not required to report waste imports, but “there’s not all that much” import. N.A. John Roberts, Oklahoma Dept. of Environmental Quality, (405) 702-5100 Michigan reports receiving 1,277,822 tons of waste from Ontario, 10/1/99 9/30/2000, an increase of 80% in the last year. Michigan None. N.A. Bruce Pope, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, (416) 325-4420 North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Ontario, Canada Sources of Imported Waste State Contact CRS-17 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact 17,682 tons in 1999. Idaho 1,239,579 tons in 1999. Mostly from Washington. About 6% from California. Judy Henderson, OR Dept. of Environmental Quality, (503) 229-5521 553,570 tons in 2000, according to neighboring states. 77% to Ohio, 22% to New Jersey, 1% to Virginia. 9,764,147 tons of MSW in 2000, plus 2,473,843 tons of industrial waste, C&D waste, ash, sludge and asbestos. MSW imports increased about 1.8 million tons in 2000, and have more than doubled since 1993, when Pennsylvania was already, by far, the largest net importer. 48% from New York, 40% from New Jersey, 4% from Connecticut, 4% from Maryland, 2% from Massachusetts, 1% from D.C. Sally Lohman, PA Department of Environmental Protection, (717) 787-7382 146,950 tons in 1999. Connecticut and Massachusetts were the principal export destinations. Some waste also goes to Pennsylvania and Ohio. No imports. N.A. Robert Schmidt, RI Department of Environmental Management, (401) 222-2797 x7260 Georgia 862,925 tons, 7/1/98 6/30/99, an increase of nearly 30%. Mostly from North Carolina; some from Georgia. South Carolina Not a major exporter: according to the state, 57,377 tons of MSW were exported in FY 1999 (7/1/98 - 6/30/99). Celeste Duckett, SC Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, (803) 896-4226 The state does not track exports, but believes small amounts are exported from some border communities. North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. The state does not track imports. N.A. South Dakota Jim Wente, SD Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources, (605) 773-3153 Neighboring states reported 151,229 tons of MSW from Tennessee. Kentucky (97,178 tons) Georgia (26,547 tons) Virginia (27,504 tons). Latest data, for FY 1998 (8/1/97 - 7/31/98), showed imports of 297,081 tons, an increase of 79% from the previous year. 34% from Virginia, 32% from Indiana, 30% from Kentucky. Buddy Kelly, TN Dept. of Environment and Conservation (615) 532-0150 Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island Tennessee CRS-18 State Amount of MSW Exported Destination of Exported Waste Amount of MSW Imported Sources of Imported Waste State Contact 99% of the total went to New Mexico, 1% to Louisiana. Texas imported 46,611 tons of MSW in 1999. 10,362 tons from Mexico; the remainder from 7 states. Texas The state assumes that little has changed since 1998, when 395,067 tons were exported. New Mexico reports lesser amounts received. Lynne Haase, Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, (512) 239-6088 Nevada. 66,000 tons in 2000. The state also imported 299,000 tons of non-hazardous industrial waste. N.A. Utah About 1,000 tons of MSW goes from Wendover, Utah, to Wendover, Nevada. There may also be some small amount of exports from Indian reservations. Jeff Emmons, Utah Dept. of Environmental Quality (801) 538-6748 88,350 tons in 1999. Primarily New Hampshire and New York. No imports. N.A. Julie Hackbarth, VT Dept. of Environmental Conservation, (802) 241-3446 No export reporting system. Based on reports from surrounding states, CRS estimates 150,000 tons of exports. Tennessee and North Carolina. 3,891,320 tons in 2000, plus an additional 580,226 tons of non-MSW. Imports declined more than 200,000 tons in 2000. 37% from Maryland, 27% from New York, 22% from the District of Columbia, 12% from North Carolina. Kathy Frahm, VA Department of Environmental Quality, (804) 698-4376 832,421 tons in 1999. Oregon 243,292 tons in 1999. About 60% from California; the rest from Canada, Oregon, Idaho, and Alaska. Ellen Caywood, Washington Dept. of Ecology (360) 407-6132 No tracking system. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia reported 305,257 tons from WV. Kentucky (40%), Ohio (30%) Pennsylvania (17%), Virginia (13%). 250,264 tons in 1998, about the same as in 1997, but a 69% decline from its peak in 1992. N.A. Bill Rheinlander, WV Division of Environmental Protection, (304) 558-4253 250,776 tons in 1999, according to three neighboring states. Michigan (187,825 tons) Illinois (61,677 tons) Indiana (1,274 tons). 1,067,926 tons in 2000. 85% from Illinois, 15% from Minnesota. Wayne Ringquist, WI Dept. of Natural Resources (608) 267-7557 Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin CRS-19 State Wyoming Amount of MSW Exported No tracking system. A couple of communities in very remote areas may ship waste out of or into the state, but very little waste is believed to be exported. Destination of Exported Waste N.A. N.A. = not available Source: CRS, based on telephone interviews with and data provided by state program officials. Amount of MSW Imported The state does not track waste imports. Very little waste is believed to be imported. Sources of Imported Waste N.A. State Contact Bob Doctor, WY Department of Environmental Quality, (307) 473-3468