Commissions and Joint Committees Established to Commemorate the Anniversary of the Birth of a President or First Lady,1950-2000

Order Code RL30980 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Commissions and Joint Committees Established to Commemorate the Anniversary of the Birth of a President or First Lady,1950-2000 Updated June 15, 2001 Stephen W. Stathis Specialist in American National Government and Project Coordinator Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Commissions and Joint Committees Established to Commemorate the Anniversary of the Birth of a President or First Lady,1950-2000 Summary Since 1950, Congress on eight separate occasions has established a commission to develop suitable plans for celebrating the anniversary of the birth of an American President or First Lady. For two other Presidents, Congress established a Special Joint Committee on Arrangements to coordinate commemorative events planned in the Congress with those being arranged by nongovernmental committees. The purpose of this report is to capture at least the essence of the work of these commemorative bodies during the past half century by reviewing their membership, funding, objectives, organization, professional staff, projects and activities, and recommendations. It thus seeks to provide a context and perspective for congressional consideration of future anniversary commemorations. The statutory responsibilities, membership, and funding of the commemorative commissions have varied significantly, reflecting both the wishes of Congress, as expressed in the commission’s legislative charters, and the vast differences that distinguished the men and woman being honored. The membership of statutory commemorative commissions has included a mix of Members of Congress, occupants of specified positions, and private citizens. Public funding for these commissions has varied from $10,000 to over $500,000. Some have operated chiefly through an executive committee, and others largely in coordination with private institutions. Several have designated or hired an executive director and a limited number of professional staff, while in two instances public relations firms were employed to handle certain aspects of a commemoration. Various commemorative commissions have organized or arranged for a wide variety of activities, including: presidential proclamations, joint sessions of Congress, conferences, publications and television programs, commemorative ceremonies, memorial services, awards, performances, exhibits, monuments, numismatic and philatelic issues, tours, information packets, and other means of encouraging participation in any such activities. The record of these commissions shows that substantial preparation, organization, commitment, and a reasonable amount of lead time are required to bring to fruition the level of commemoration envisioned, and allow for the congressional intent to be fully realized. Contributors to this Report Mildred Amer Richard S. Beth Paul Dwyer Eleanor Roosevelt Centennial Commission Dwight D. Eisenhower Centennial Commission James Madison Memorial Commission and James Madison Advisory Commission Paul Rundquist Franklin D. Roosevelt Centennial Joint Committee Harry S Truman Centennial Joint Committee Stephen Stathis Woodrow Wilson Centennial Commission Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission Sandy Streeter Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Woodrow Wilson Centennial Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public and Private Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Projects and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commission Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Role as Coordinator of Centennial Activities Nationwide . . . . . . . . . . Major Research Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assistance in the Preparation of The Greatness of Woodrow Wilson, 1856-1956 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Public and Private Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Professional Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Projects and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Commission Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Role as Coordinator of Centennial Activities Nationwide . . . . . . . . . 11 Project to Revitalize Independence Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Commemorative Activities Abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Unfinished Business of the Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public and Private Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Projects and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commission Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Role as Coordinator of Sesquicentennial Activities Nationwide . . . . Publication of Lincoln Day By Day: A Chronology, 1809-1865 . . . . Artistic, Philatelic, and Numismatic Endeavors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sesquicentennial Activities Abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Lincoln Sesquicentennial Dinner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Awards Bestowed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Meeting of Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 18 18 19 Franklin D. Roosevelt Centennial Joint Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Membership of Joint Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization and Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Related Official Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 21 22 22 Harry S Truman Centennial Joint Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership of Joint Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization and Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Related Official Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Commemorative Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 25 26 26 26 26 27 28 Commission on the Eleanor Roosevelt Centennial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public and Private Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Projects and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Story of the “Eleanor” Traveling Museum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eleanor Roosevelt Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Role as Coordinator of Centennial Activities Nationwide . . . . . . . . . Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commemorative Activities Abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philatelic Endeavors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 Dwight David Eisenhower Centennial Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public and Private Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Projects and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Publications and Productions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legislative Enactments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Governmental Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Role as Coordinator of Centennial Activities Nationwide . . . . . . . . . Joint Meeting of Congress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White House Centennial Luncheon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 44 45 Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public and Private Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Projects and Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conference on Jefferson and the Changing West: From Conquest to Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . School and Civic Learning Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 45 46 47 47 48 48 48 49 Thomas Jefferson: World Citizen Symposia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jefferson Radio Conversations and Television Forums . . . . . . . . . . . Presidential Proclamation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Op Ed Piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . USIA Poster Show on Jefferson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recognition of Schools Named After the Third President . . . . . . . . . Conference on Current State of Jefferson Scholarship . . . . . . . . . . . . Commission Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 51 Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public and Private Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization and Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commission Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 51 52 52 53 53 53 James Madison Commemoration Commission and James Madison Commemoration Advisory Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership: Commemoration Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Membership: Advisory Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public and Private Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives: Commemoration Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives: Advisory Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Staffing and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commission Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Essay Contest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Madison Symposium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Library of Congress Exhibit: “Madison Treasures” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Library of Congress Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 54 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 58 58 58 59 Commissions and Joint Committees Established to Commemorate the Anniversary of the Birth of a President or First Lady,1950-2000 Introduction During the past half century, Congress on eight separate occasions has established a commission to develop suitable plans for celebrating the centennial or other major anniversary of the birth of an American President or First Lady. The statutory responsibilities, membership, and funding of these commemorative commissions have varied significantly, reflecting both the wishes of Congress, as expressed in the commissions’ legislative charters, and the vast differences which distinguished the men and woman being honored. On two other occasions, Congress established a Special Joint Committee on Arrangements to coordinate events planned in Congress to commemorate the centennial of the birth of a President with those being arranged by nongovernmental committees. For one commemoration, Congress adopted neither of these approaches but instead directed executive agencies to organize and coordinate the appropriate activities at the honoree’s birthplace,1 and provided grants to an existing institution named in his memory.2 This approach is beyond the scope of the present survey. The membership of statutory commemorative commissions has included a mix of Members of Congress, occupants of specified positions (ex officio), and private citizens. Members of Congress are usually selected by the leadership of both parties 1 In 1974, Congress called upon the “Secretary of Interior and the Administrator of General Services to cause to be conducted on or about August 10, 1974, appropriate ceremonies in celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Herbert Hoover, thirty-first President of the United States, in the town of West Branch, Iowa.” S. Con. Res. 79, 93rd Cong., 2nd sess., 88 Stat. 2407. See also: “The 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Herbert Hoover,” Congressional Record, vol. 120, July 11, 1974, p. 22754; and Aug. 6, 1974, pp. 26963-26966. 2 In recognition of the “fifty years of extraordinary and selfless public service of Herbert Hoover, including his many great humanitarian endeavors, his chairmanship of two Commissions of the Organization of the Executive Branch, and his service as thirty-first President of the United States, and in commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of his birth on August 10, 1974,” Congress authorized $7,000,0000 in matching grants to the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, Stanford University, Stanford California. P.L. 93-585, 88 Stat. 1918-1919. The money was authorized in January 1975 and appropriated in August 1975. P.L. 93-585, 88 Stat. 1919; and P.L. 94-91, 89 Stat. 442. CRS-2 or because of a position they hold on pertinent committees. The ex officio positions have included congressional leaders, government officials, and officers of private institutions. In some instances the enabling act called for the private citizens to be appointed by congressional leaders, in other cases by the President, and sometimes by both. Also, there has on occasion been a requirement that the private citizens appointed exhibit particular qualifications or experience. Funding for commemorative commissions as well as their statutory objectives and organizational structure have varied widely. It is clear from an examination of the final reports of the commemorative commissions that substantial preparation, organization, commitment, and a reasonable amount of lead time are required to bring to fruition the level of commemoration envisioned, and allow for the congressional intent to be fully realized. The accomplishments of these commemorative commissions and joint committees are as diverse as the individuals being honored. Prominent among the activities and events planned, organized, coordinated, encouraged, and supported by these commissions and committees have been: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Acquiring and preserving artifacts; Addresses, conferences and symposia both in the United States and abroad; Art exhibits, concerts, and balls; Awards for work and achievements similar to the honoree’s, or in recognition of participation in a commemoration; Books and research projects on the honoree; Centennial tours and cruises; Commemorative programs at birthplaces and homes; Commemorative stamps; Essay competition among the nation’s students in public and private secondary schools; Fellowships; International commemorative ceremonies; Joint meetings of Congress; Memorial services and dedicatory ceremonies; Monuments, memorials, sculpture and plaques; Naming or funding government and nongovernmental programs in commemoration of the honoree; Newsletters, information packets, teacher’s guides, and other types of publications designed to generate support for the commemoration, stimulate participation in the planned activities, and further educate the public of the honoree’s contributions to the nation; Numismatic and philatelic issues; Parades; Performing arts presentations; Presidential proclamations calling upon the American people to become active participants in the commemoration; Publication of the honoree’s writings; Recognition of schools that had been named after an honoree; Television and radio programs focusing on an honoree; Time capsules; CRS-3 ! Traveling exhibits; and ! Web sites. Also, several commissions engaged in projects designed to more fully involve Congress, federal executive agencies, state and local governments, local historical societies, national civic, fraternal, educational, religious, and media groups, trade organizations, labor unions, newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media, motion picture industry, clubs, business and industry associations, interested individuals throughout the country, and foreign governments in activities of the kinds identified. Throughout American history, congressional recognition of the contributions of the nation’s Presidents has also been expressed through a broad range of commemorative legislation. These statutory gestures have embraced historic sites such as birthplaces, homes, burial plots, and locations of special significance; libraries, memorials and monuments; numismatic issues; and special commemorative commissions. Basic to each of these actions has been a desire to develop a greater appreciation among the American people of the efforts of those being honored. Today, many of the commemorative enactments honoring former Presidents continue as permanent and tangible reminders of another time and era. Much of the work of commemorative commissions and special joint committees on commemorative arrangements, is, on the other hand, often recorded only in a report to Congress or in the Congressional Record, and frequently retains only nostalgic value for the participants at the time of their occurrence. The purpose of this report is to capture at least the essence of the work of these commemorative bodies during the past half century. It provides an overview of each commission’s or committee’s membership, funding, objectives, organization, professional staff, projects and activities, and recommendations. The breadth and depth of their efforts are substantial, impressive, and important. Their examination is useful both as a reminder of what types of activities have been deemed appropriate for such commemorations in the past and as a guide for creating a workable framework in the future. Woodrow Wilson Centennial Commission The Woodrow Wilson Centennial Commission was established on August 30, 1954, by P.L. 83-705. Membership The commission was composed of 12 members. In accordance with the commission’s legislative charter its membership included: ! Two Senators appointed by the President of the Senate; ! Two Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives; CRS-4 ! The Director of the National Park Service, who served as executive officer of the commission; and ! Seven members appointed by the President of the United States after consultation with the Governor of Virginia, the Woodrow Wilson Birthplace Foundation, Inc., and the Woodrow Wilson Foundation. General E. Walton Opie, who was appointed by the President, served as commission chairman. Members of the commission served without compensation but were reimbursed for travel and subsistence expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties.3 Public and Private Funding Initially, $10,000 was appropriated for the commission. Congress subsequently appropriated an additional $41,500 in July 1955, and $48,500 in March 1956.4 The commission was “authorized to accept donations of money, property, or personal services; to cooperate with patriotic and historical societies and with institutions of learning, and to call upon other federal departments or agencies for their advice and assistance.”5 Objectives Congress charged the commission with the responsibility for developing and executing “suitable plans for celebrating, in 1956, the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Woodrow Wilson. In carrying out these functions the Commission [was] authorized to cooperate with and to assist the Commission established by the State of Virginia to plan a Wilson centennial celebration ... and to invite all the people of the United States to join therein.”6 3 68 Stat. 965-966. Commission members appointed by the President of the Senate, Vice President Richard M. Nixon, were: Senators Howard Alexander Smith of New Jersey and Willis Robertson of Virginia. Commission members appointed by the Speaker of the House, Joseph W. Martin of Massachusetts, were: Representatives Peter Frelinghuysen of New Jersey and Burr P. Harrison of Virginia. Commission members appointed by the President were General E. Walton Opie, Virginia (chairman); Mrs. Elm Bowles Alsop, Virginia; Bernard M. Baruch, New York; David K. Bruce, Virginia; Arthur Hays Sulzberger, New York; Arthur Sweetser, Washington, D.C.; and Robert W. Woodruff, Georgia. Conrad L. Wirth, Director of the National Park Service, served as the commission’s executive officer. U.S. Woodrow Wilson Centennial Celebration Commission, Woodrow Wilson Centennial: Final Report of the Woodrow Wilson Centennial Celebration Commission (Washington: GPO, 1958), p. 15. 4 69 Stat. 157, 519; and 70 Stat. 273. 5 68 Stat. 965. 6 68 Stat. 966. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Woodrow Wilson Centennial Celebration, report to accompany S.J.Res. 147, S.Rept. 1696, 83rd Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1954), 2 p. CRS-5 Organization By the time the chairman and other presidential members of the commission had been appointed in the spring of 1955, a great deal of preparatory work had already been completed by Conrad L. Wirth, Director of the National Park Service (who served as the commission’s executive officer), and the staff of the Park Service. Much of this work was done by the Park Service’s Branch of History, headed by Herbert E. Kahler, its chief historian. The commission’s organization was completed during its early meetings, the first of which took place in May 1955. A number of special committees were appointed by the chairman to explore certain specific areas of possible commission activity. “The most important organizational step, however, was the establishment of an Executive Committee.” Since the members of the commission were “also heavily engaged in their regular pursuits and many of them lived at a distance from Washington, the seat of the commission’s headquarters, it became clear quite early that it would not be practicable to call frequent meetings of the full membership.”7 To facilitate the commission’s work, the chairman was accordingly authorized to appoint a small committee of general competence that could meet frequently, consider numerous policy questions, and act promptly on behalf of the commission. “This group, while it in no sense superseded the commission as a whole—indeed, all Commission members were invited to attend its sessions and its actions were fully reported to the parent body—served as the active and continuous policy arm of the Commission.”8 From the summer of 1955 until early in 1957, the executive committee met once a month in Washington to plan the broad outlines of the commission’s activities. Professional Staff For most of the commission’s life, the staff consisted of two employees, Edmund C. Gass, the secretary of the commission, and an office secretary. Periodically, when it was deemed necessary, a clerk-typist and a writer were also retained. Given the difficulty in finding “competent persons who were willing to sever their established ties in order to work for an agency with a relatively short life,” the commission entrusted its public relations work to the firm of Edward K. Moss.9 Projects and Activities Quite early the commission decided against placing major emphasis on directly planning and producing its own commemorative ceremonies honoring Woodrow Wilson. A number of programs of that type had already been scheduled by the Virginia Centennial Commission, the Woodrow Wilson Foundation, and the 7 Woodrow Wilson Centennial Celebration. Final Report, p. 17. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid., p. 18. CRS-6 Woodrow Wilson Birthplace Foundation, and many communities and institutions closely associated with Wilson’s career. “As a Federal agency established by Congress, the members regarded theirs as the only organization with sufficient authority and prestige to give the Centennial Year an official character of national scope.” The commission considered its primary responsibility was “to enable all Americans to have a part in the Centennial.” To achieve this end, the commission concentrated most of its energies and resources on (1) seeking to enlist the active participation of the entire nation in the various Wilson centennial celebrations; and (2) working closely with the organizations and groups responsible for these activities.10 Commission Publications. The principal publications used by the commission to reach the general public and stimulate participation were an illustrated Handbook of Information and Suggestions and a Woodrow Wilson Centennial Newsletter. During the course of the centennial year, the commission issued 28 news releases to some 5,000 publications. In December 1956, the commission encouraged more than 200 major newspapers to carry editorials commemorating Wilson on December 28, the centennial of his birth. Approximately 90% of the newspapers solicited responded favorably.11 Role as Coordinator of Centennial Activities Nationwide. Specific projects successfully undertaken by the commission resulted in the issuance of a Woodrow Wilson commemorative stamp;12 legislation designating the Woodrow Wilson Bridge as a physical memorial to the late President;13 nationwide distribution of the President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s proclamation on the “Woodrow Wilson Centennial Year;” and the issuance of similar proclamations by 39 state Governors.14 In addition the commission encouraged the mayors of all cities having a population of 5,000 or more to appoint committees to plan and coordinate activities in their localities, and sent letters to the officers and leaders of citizens groups at both the local and national level encouraging them to participate in these activities. Similar letters were also sent to state and local school administrators, religious organizations, libraries, colleges and universities, professional educational organizations, and each of the federal agencies.15 10 Ibid., p. 19. 11 Ibid., pp. 26-28. “The flood of newspaper comment and articles on Wilson appearing on his 100th birthday [also] touched every country in Europe.” Ibid., p. 183. 12 Ibid., pp. 22-25. 13 70 Stat. 185-186 14 Ibid., pp. 25-26. See also: 70 Stat. 118. 15 A compilation of the centennial celebrations in the United States and abroad is found in Woodrow Wilson Centennial Celebration. Final Report, pp. 182-210. CRS-7 The commission also worked very closely with both of the special Virginia organizations—the State Commission and the Birthplace Foundation—and with the Woodrow Wilson Foundation. In addition, members of the commission were active participants in the two major memorial ceremonies at the Washington National Cathedral on February 3 and November 11, 1956.16 Major Research Project. “One of the Commission’s most important enterprises had nothing to do with Centennial Ceremonies and celebration programs,” but was considered by the commission to “have unique commemorative value far beyond the centennial year. This was its work looking toward the preparation of a comprehensive and scholarly edition of Woodrow Wilson’s writings, including his letters.” Although the commission never planned to edit or publish the Wilson papers, “its members were eager to encourage such a project when an initial study made by the secretary clearly demonstrated the need for it.” 17 To achieve this end, the commission authorized a survey of nearly 90 libraries and other depositories known or thought to contain Wilson manuscripts. Once the survey was completed, copies of a report summarizing the results were distributed to those scholars and organizations that were keenly interested in the survey. “As one of its last official acts, the Commission requested the Woodrow Wilson Foundation to further this phase of its work, and the Foundation’s board of directors generously agreed to do so.”18 Assistance in the Preparation of The Greatness of Woodrow Wilson, 1856-1956. Included among the various cooperative activities of the commission was an “interested support” of Mrs. Elm Bowles Alsop’s work of compiling the centennial book, The Greatness of Woodrow Wilson, 1856-1956. “While the Commission officially authorized this anthology and provided the clerical assistance to Mrs. Alsop in her work of developing it, she alone planned, arranged, and edited the volume and made all arrangements for its commercial publication.” More importantly, “both she and the contributing authors, moreover, donated all royalties from the book to the Woodrow Wilson Birthplace Memorial Foundation, with the purpose of establishing a Wilson Memorial Library in Staunton.”19 Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission The Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Commission was established on July 28, 1955, by P.L. 84-183. 16 Ibid., pp. 30-32. 17 Ibid., p. 29. 18 Ibid. A copy of the “Preliminary Survey of the Woodrow Wilson Manuscript,” prepared by David W. Hirst is found in Ibid., pp. 217-233. 19 Ibid., p. 30. CRS-8 Membership The commission was composed of 15 members. In accordance with the commission’s legislative charter its membership included: ! Two Senators appointed by the President of the Senate; ! Two Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives; ! Eight members appointed by the President of the United States; and ! The President of the United States, the President of Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, ex officio. Vice President Richard M. Nixon and Senator Joseph C. O’Mahoney were selected to be chairman and vice chairman, respectively, by the commission from among its members. Members of the commission served without compensation, but were reimbursed for travel and subsistence expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties.20 Public and Private Funding Initially, $10,000 was appropriated for the commission. Congress subsequently appropriated an additional $163,400 in July 1956.21 Objectives Congress charged the commission with the responsibility for preparing plans and a program marking the 100th anniversary of the birth of Theodore Roosevelt in 1958, and providing for the completion of the development of Theodore Roosevelt Island 20 69 Stat. 383-384. Commission members appointed by the President of the Senate, Vice President Richard M. Nixon, were: Senators Karl E. Mundt of South Dakota and Joseph C. O’Mahoney of Wyoming. Commission members appointed by Speaker of the House, Sam Rayburn of Texas, were: Representatives Steven B. Derounian and Leo W. O’Brien of New York. Commission members appointed by the President were Mrs. Hazel H. Abel, Nebraska; C. Norman Brunsdale, North Dakota; Hal Davies, North Dakota; Herman Hagedorn, New York; Mrs. Sherman Post Haight, Connecticut; Herbert Millen, Pennsylvania; Lowell Stockman, Oregon; and Oscar S. Straus, New York. Ex officio members of the commission were President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Vice President Richard M. Nixon, and Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn of Texas. U.S. Congress, Senate, Final Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission Relating to a Celebration of the Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Theodore Roosevelt 1858-1958. Pursuant to Public Law 183 of the Eightyfourth Congress, S.Doc. 36, 86th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1959), p. ii. 21 69 Stat. 519; and 70 Stat. 767. CRS-9 in the Potomac River22 and the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park in North Dakota.23 In preparing its program, the commission was to take into consideration any plan which might be submitted to it, and “take such steps as [might] be necessary to coordinate and correlate its plans with those prepared by State and civic bodies.” If the commission determined that the participation of other nations was appropriate, it was to “communicate to that end with the governments of such nations through the State Department.24 Organization The commission held its initial meeting in Washington on December 16, 1955, and elected a chairman, vice chairman, secretary, and director. At the same meeting, an executive committee of eight members was established, and, at the invitation of the executive director of the Theodore Roosevelt Association, the commission established its headquarters at Theodore Roosevelt House, Roosevelt’s birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in New York.25 For the first 18 months, the commission’s activities were devoted to orientation and preparation. Owing to a lack of adequate travel funds, the commission as a whole met only once, in February 1956. “Through occasional meetings of the executive committee,” however, “as well as visits to Washington by the Director and his assistant, the commissioners who were members of the Senate and House were kept in close touch with the progress of the work. The other commissioners were kept informed by correspondence.”26 Professional Staff Nine people worked for extended periods at commission headquarters. In the commission’s final report, it singled out several staff responsibilities as particularly important to the “success of the Commission’s work.” These included “coordination 22 Development of the Theodore Roosevelt Island was to be done in accordance with “An Act to Establish a Memorial to Theodore Roosevelt in the National Capital,” approved May 21, 1932. 47 Stat. 163; and as amended by an act approved Feb. 11, 1933. 47 Stat. 799. 23 Development of the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park was to be done in accordance with the act which created the park on April 25, 1947. 61 Stat. 52. 24 69 Stat. 384. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Theodore Roosevelt Commission, report to accompany S.J.Res. 63, S.Rept. 761, 84th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1955), 2 p.; and U.S. Congress, House Committee on the Judiciary, One Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Theodore Roosevelt, report to accompany H.J.Res. 273, H.Rept. 918, 84th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1955), 1 p. 25 Final Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission, p. 2. 26 Ibid., p. 7. CRS-10 of broad range of printed materials; working with various local, State, and Federal agencies; and active solicitation of support among numerous private organizations.”27 Projects and Activities Initially, the commission issued “A Call to the American People” to inform them of the forthcoming observances and to invite their participation. The “Call” was sent to Members of Congress, Justices of the Supreme Court, leading institutions of higher learning, and some 300 patriotic, civic, fraternal, and character-building organizations, and several thousand individuals.28 To further enhance the importance of the occasion, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, at request of Congress, issued a proclamation calling upon the American people to become active participants in the Theodore Roosevelt centennial activities.29 Invitations were subsequently sent to outstanding citizens throughout the Nation to sponsor the centennial observance nationally and in their own states and communities. “The response was astonishing, both in its volume and its warmth.” Included among those who expressed an interest in such a celebration were the “Chief Justice and several other members of the Supreme Court, the Secretary of State and other members of the Cabinet, some 40 Members of the Senate, 35 Governors,” and a lengthy list of Congressmen.30 Also willing to support actively the centennial celebration were “leading officials in the Armed Forces, religious leaders of all the major denominations, university presidents, historians, naturalists, writers, and other eminent citizens.” Subsequently, citizens’ groups were established in all 48 States and in the District of Columbia, New York City, Nassau County, and in several of the U.S. territories and possessions. “At the request of the Vice President, Dr. L. Quincy Mumford [Librarian of Congress] consented to head a committee to draw the libraries of the country into the centennial observance.”31 Commission Publications. “Basic to the work of the Commission” was Roosevelt’s book, The Free Citizen—A Summons to Service of the Democratic Ideal, which contained selections from his writings and speeches on the principles and practices of free government. The book was edited by Hermann Hagedorn, director of the commission. Originally it was published by Macmillian Co., and then reissued as a 35-cent paperback edition of 50,000 copies by the commission and the Theodore 27 Ibid., pp. 51-52. 28 Ibid., p. 3. A copy of the call is found in U.S. Congress, Senate, Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission: A Compilation on the Life and Career of Theodore Roosevelt, S. Doc. 82, 85th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1958), pp. 1-2. 29 For the legislation authorizing and requesting the President to issue the proclamation, see: 71 Stat. 617. 30 Ibid., p. 7. 31 Ibid., p. 8. See also U.S. Congress, Senate, Interim Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission Relating to a Celebration in 1958 of the Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Theodore Roosevelt, S.Doc. 53, 85th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1957), p. 4. CRS-11 Roosevelt Association.32 The distribution of this work was “conceived as a major activity of the Commission.” The stated purpose behind the distribution of this source material both in the United States and abroad was twofold: ! To strengthen the American people in the struggle for the survival of freedom in the world by lifting the vision of the responsibilities and the challenge of citizenship in a republic to the level on which Theodore Roosevelt worked and fought; and ! To give the free world, in the form of Theodore Roosevelt’s simple and easily comprehensible code of free government, the unifying element that it so desperately needs: a common Bible of Democracy.33 Role as Coordinator of Centennial Activities Nationwide. “October 27, 1957, the 99th birthday of Theodore Roosevelt fell on a Sunday, and it was natural, therefore, even inevitable that the commission should invite the churches of the Nation to speak the opening words of the centennial observance.”34 An integral part of the commission’s preparations for the centennial during the next 12 months focused on encouraging participation by the Library of Congress and a number of executive agencies. The State Department, Department of Defense, Department of the Interior, United States Information Agency, and National Archives each planned special programs for the Centennial; and the Post Office Department issued a suitable commemorative stamp.35 The commission also invited the Natural Resources Council of America to recommend members for a conservation committee which the commission sought to establish to remind Council members and the readers of their publications of the part Roosevelt had played in establishing conservation as a national policy.36 Project to Revitalize Independence Day. Soon after the organization of the commission, the Theodore Roosevelt Association and some 30 national organizations were asked and agreed to serve, together with the commission, as cosponsors of a movement which would restore the Fourth of July, in the Roosevelt Centennial year, and hopefully in succeeding years to “its traditional appeal as a day of remembrance and challenge.” Both the “Commission and the Association recognized that the revitalization of the national observance of the Fourth of July was 32 Final Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission, p. 9. 33 U.S. Congress, Senate, Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission Relating to a Celebration in 1958 of the Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Theodore Roosevelt, S.Doc. 102, 84th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1956), p. 3. 34 Final Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission, p. 13. 35 Interim Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission, pp. 2-4. 36 Final Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission, p. 43. See also Interim Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission, pp. 9-10. CRS-12 a long-term project and that all that they could hope to do in the centennial year was to issue the challenge and trust that it would strike a responsive cord.”37 The commission’s plan to make the Fourth of July an occasion for national rededication was enthusiastically applauded and supported by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, as well as Congress. That Independence Day an estimated 215,000 people lined the Potomac River shoreline between Key Bridge and Memorial Bridge “to see Theodore Roosevelt Island officially dedicated under the glare of the Nation’s biggest Fourth of July fireworks display.”38 Other centennial celebrations were held in San Francisco and New Bedford, Massachusetts, and in virtually every state in the Union, Washington, D.C., Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, and the Panama Canal Zone. “Each developed its own program, depending on the Federal Commission mainly for printed material which the staff prepared, and sent, on request, in ‘kits’ of a dozen pieces or more each.”39 No state proved more enthusiastic or more thorough than North Dakota, the state in which Roosevelt grew to manhood, while a multiplicity of centennial activities was also held in New York State, where the late President had been born. Commemorative Activities Abroad. The centennial was also observed in 25 foreign countries. The Cuban government issued two commemorative stamps. Great Britain marked the centennial with special lectures at Oxford and Cambridge Universities. Through the U.S. Information Agency, the sound track of the film, “Theodore Roosevelt—American” was issued in 10 foreign languages: Turkish, Bengali, Hebrew, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Danish and Finnish. The centennial textbook, The Free Citizen, was translated into Arabic and Tagalog.40 Unfinished Business of the Commission. Despite its many successes, including completion of the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park at Medora, North Dakota,41 the commission was unable to gain final approval for the development of Theodore Roosevelt Island. The “Park Service in 1958, actually had funds available to prepare the ground for the erection of the memorial structure that was proposed by the Theodore Roosevelt Association, adopted by the commission, and approved by the National Park Service, the National Commission of Fine Arts, and the National Capital Planning Commission.” Congress, however, failed to approve legislation that would have authorized the Secretary of Interior to erect the memorial on Theodore Roosevelt Island.42 In its final report, the commission focused on what it considered the “moral obligation” of Congress “to complete the memorial on [Theodore Roosevelt] island 37 Final Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission, pp. 19-21. 38 Ibid., p. 25. 39 Ibid., p. 28. 40 Ibid., pp. 45-46. 41 Interim Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission, p. 11. 42 Final Report of the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Commission, p. 47. CRS-13 so generously donated to the people by the Theodore Roosevelt Association.” Finishing “this project,” the commission argued, “is relatively simple and inexpensive” and it was hoped Congress would approve such an appropriation before the commission concluded its work at the end of 1959.43 Federal funds for construction of a permanent memorial to President Roosevelt were ultimately approved on September 13, 1960, and work on the memorial began the following July.44 Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission The Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission was established on September 2, 1957, by P.L. 85-262. Membership The commission was composed of 28 members. In accordance with the commission’s legislative charter its membership included: ! The President of the United States, the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representative, who served as ex officio members; ! Six Senators appointed by the President of the Senate; ! Six Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives; ! Twelve members were appointed by the President of the United States; and ! The Director of the National Park Service, ex officio. Senator John Sherman Cooper and Representative F. Jay Nimtz were selected to be chairman and vice chairman respectively by the commission from among its members. Members of the commission served without compensation but were furnished transportation and reimbursed at not to exceed $20 per diem, in lieu of subsistence, while engaged in the discharge of their duties.45 43 Ibid., p. 50. 44 74 Stat. 904-905. 45 71 Stat. 587. Commission members appointed by the President of the Senate, Vice President Richard M. Nixon, were: John Sherman Cooper of Kentucky; Frank Church of Idaho; Everett M. Dirksen of Illinois; Paul H. Douglas of Illinois; William E. Jenner of Indiana; Ralph W. Yarborough of Texas; and Homer E. Capehart of Indiana (appointed to replace Senator Jenner). Commission members appointed by Speaker of the House, Sam Rayburn of Texas, were: Leo E. Allen of Illinois; Frank Chelf of Kentucky; Winfield K. Denton of Indiana; Peter F. Mack, Jr., of Illinois; F. Jay Nimtz of Indiana; John M. Robinson of Kentucky; William G. Bray of Indiana (appointed to replace Representative Nimtz); and Eugene Siler of Kentucky (appointed to replace Representative Robinson). Members appointed by the President were Under Secretary, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Bertha S. (continued...) CRS-14 Public and Private Funding Initially, $37,500 was appropriated for travel expenses of the commission. Congress subsequently appropriated an additional $350,000 in August 1958, and $145,000 in June 1959.46 The commission was “authorized to accept donations of money, property, or personal services; to cooperate with State, civic, patriotic, hereditary, and historical groups and with institutions of learning, and to call upon other Federal departments or agencies for their advice and assistance.”47 Objectives Congress charged the commission with the responsibility of preparing an overall program for commemorating the 150th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln in 1959. In preparing its plans and programs, the commission was to give “due consideration to any similar and related plans advanced by state, civic, patriotic, and historical bodies,” and could, if it were considered appropriate, “designate special committees with representation from the above-mentioned bodies to plan and conduct specific ceremonies.”48 The commission had the authority to “give suitable recognition such as the award of medals and certificates or by other appropriate means to persons and organizations for outstanding accomplishments in preserving the writings and ideals of Abraham Lincoln or historical locations associated with his life.” Organization The first meeting of the commission was held on December 11, 1957, with Conrad L. Wirth, Director of the National Park Service, presiding as temporary chairman. At that session a committee of five members was appointed to consider nominees for the offices of chairman, vice chairman, and secretary to the commission. 45 (...continued) Adkins, Washington, D.C.; Victor M. Birely, Washington, D.C.; Ralph J. Bunche, New York; John S. Dickey, New Hampshire; John B. Fisher, Washington, D.C.; R. Gerald McMurtry, Indiana; Librarian of Congress, L. Quincy Mumford, Washington, D.C.; Paul C. Reinert, Missouri; Walter N. Rothschild, New York; William G. Stratton, Illinois; Jouett Ross Todd, Kentucky (resigned August 1958); William H. Townsend, Kentucky; and Senator Sinclair Weeks of Massachusetts (appointed to replace Mr. Todd). Conrad L. Wirth, Director of the National Park Service, by law was an ex officio member. U.S. Abraham Lincoln Sesquicentennial 1959-1960, Abraham Lincoln Sesquicentennial 1959-1960. Final Report of the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission (Washington: GPO, 1960), p. vii. 46 72 Stat. 55, 876; and 73 Stat. 107. 47 71 Stat. 588. 48 71 Stat. 587-588. See also U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, report to accompany S.J.Res. 98, S.Rept. 1102, 85th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1957); and U.S. Congress, House Committee on the Judiciary, Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, report to accompany H.J.Res. 351, H.Rept. 1188, 85th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1957). CRS-15 In addition, the commission discussed the nature and scope of its functions, and a temporary advisory committee was created to outline a program and present it to the commission at its next meeting. At its second meeting, the commission elected Senator John Sherman Cooper of Kentucky as chairman, Representative F. Jay Nimtz of Indiana as vice chairman, and Conrad L. Wirth as secretary. Subsequently, the chairman was authorized to appoint an executive committee of seven members empowered to act on behalf of the commission between its regular meetings. Since frequent meetings of the commission were not practical, this “small, competent committee was able to meet frequently, establish policy, and act promptly.” During the two years the commission was in existence, the full commission held 10 meetings and the executive committee held 25 sessions.49 Professional Staff The commission’s permanent staff consisted of six employees. These included an executive director, director of research, assistant executive director, secretary to the executive director and supervisor of office personnel, research assistant, and secretary. Periodically, when it was deemed necessary, three administrative assistants were also employed. An employee of the Department of the Interior was designated as the commission’s general counsel. Fiscal and accounting matters were handled by the chief of the Accounting Operations Section, National Park Service. In July 1958, through the efforts of commission member Senator Everett Dirksen, space was secured in the National Archives Building as a permanent headquarters for the commission. That November, the Washington, D.C. firm of Richard Associates was retained to handle the public relation needs of the commission.50 Projects and Activities “The Commission approached the observance with one basic premise—that there should be participation by all the people in our country, from all walks of life, of all ages, and that the observance should extend beyond our shores to the people of the world.”51 At one of the commission’s first meetings, three objectives were set: ! to stimulate Lincoln observances throughout the year by public and private bodies at home, and abroad, if possible; ! to encourage and to itself undertake contributions of lasting value, such as the preparation and completion of additional Lincoln historical works; and 49 Final Report of the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, pp. 7-8. 50 Ibid., pp. 10-11. 51 Ibid., p. xiii. CRS-16 ! to emphasize the contribution of Lincoln’s thoughts, ideas, and actions to the United States and the world.52 To accomplish its objectives, the commission employed “every conceivable avenue of communication.” In the United States, the commission worked with state and local sesquicentennial commissions; historical societies, national civic, fraternal, educational, religious, and media groups; trade associations; labor unions; the press and the broadcasting media; motion pictures; clubs; societies; business and industry associations; and interested individuals throughout the country.53 Commission Publications. At one of its first meetings, the commission adopted the thematic slogan: “Lincoln: Symbol of the Free Man,” and subsequently focused on this theme in all of its publications. The Lincoln Sesquicentennial Handbook of Information contained an explanation of the commission’s objective, a brief chronology of important dates in Lincoln’s life, a brief biographical sketch in Lincoln’s own handwriting, a list of special commission projects, famous Lincoln quotations, and a selected bibliography. Another booklet, The Lincoln Ideals, through the use of Lincoln’s own words, provided an insight into his personality and life. A third major publication of the commission was its official newsletter, The Lincoln Sesquicentennial Intelligencer.54 Role as Coordinator of Sesquicentennial Activities Nationwide. Through consultation with the U.S. Office of Education, and the National Education Association and its many affiliated groups, the commission also was able to create a program for participation in the sesquicentennial observance by America’s youth.55 “One of the most gratifying developments of the Sesquicentennial Year was the enthusiasm and sentiment with which State historical societies devoted themselves to the observance and the additional establishment of State Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commissions.”56 In many states, Governors issued special proclamations to which additional proclamations were added by local mayors. Additional support was provided by a number of individual government agencies within each state as well as several state boards of education. Although Kentucky, where Lincoln was born, Indiana, where he grew up, and Illinois, where he spent his adult life, were the first to plan extensive commemorative programs, numerous other states followed suit. “Celebrations, commemorative programs, and other Sesquicentennial activities held throughout the country were legion.”57 52 Ibid., p. xiv. For a detailed list of commission objectives, see: Ibid., p. 9. 53 Ibid., p. xv. 54 Ibid., p. 12, pp. 14-18. 55 Final Report of the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, p. 19. 56 Ibid., p. 69. 57 Ibid. CRS-17 An equally enthusiastic response to the sesquicentennial was evident among the national organizations, trade associations, the business community, and industry. The commission even went so far in its final report to suggest that “practically every national civic, fraternal, educational, religious, women’s, youth, media, club, society, business, and industry association, or other organizations of national scope, in some way took note of the sesquicentennial and joined in honoring the memory of Abraham Lincoln.”58 By securing the cooperation of the National Association of Broadcasters and National Advertising Council and networks, the commission was able to gain the support of “practically every radio and television station in the United States.” News accounts of the sesquicentennial were widely reported, and special programs commemorating Lincoln were carried on all major networks and on hundreds of independent stations.59 Also, the commission was able to secure the “cooperation of the newspaper and magazine publications to an extraordinary degree.” “Press coverage of both national and local events was overwhelming,” the commission concluded in its final report, and “seldom has there been a finer example of public service by the Nation’s printed media.”60 Special Lincoln exhibits were prepared by the Library of Congress, National Archives, Department of Justice, Smithsonian Institution, Lincoln Museum in Ford’s Theater, the Medical Museum of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, and B’nai B’rith. Special commemorative observances during the sesquicentennial year were held at the Washington National Cathedral; the Library of Congress; the State Reception Room of the Apostolic Delegation to the United States, Washington, D.C.; and at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.61 Publication of Lincoln Day By Day: A Chronology, 1809-1865. One of the commission’s “earliest steps and perhaps the most important” resulted from its “desire to accomplish some scholarly and important project that would be of lasting value and endure over the years as an aid to scholars and researchers working in the Lincoln field.” After considerable discussion of various projects that might be undertaken and consultation with Lincoln scholars, the commission determined that the “greatest contribution could be made by providing for one, largely scholarly project—a day-by-day chronology of the life of Abraham Lincoln—which would serve as a major historical guide to researchers, writers, and Lincoln scholars.”62 The last of the three volumes of Lincoln Day By Day: A Chronology, 1809-1865 was completed during the summer of 1960. 58 Ibid., p. 127. 59 Ibid., p. 137. 60 Ibid., p. 142. 61 Ibid., pp. 37-50. 62 Ibid., p. 31. CRS-18 Artistic, Philatelic, and Numismatic Endeavors. The commission was also the primary motivating force behind the Treasury Department’s decision to redesign and reissue a new Lincoln penny as a feature of the sesquicentennial observance, and was instrumental in the gaining approval for the series of four commemorative postage stamps which were issued in honor of the 150th anniversary of Lincoln’s birth.63 “Four very fine old oil paintings of Abraham Lincoln that,” in the commission’s opinion, “deserved to be better known” were purchased for a moderate price and displayed at the commission’s headquarters at the National Archives during the sesquicentennial. Later, the paintings were presented to the Lincoln Museum for public exhibition. At the ceremonies in New York commemorating the 75th anniversary of the gift of the Statue of Liberty by the people of France to the people of the United States, a bronze bust of Lincoln was presented on behalf of the commission to the people of France.64 Sesquicentennial Activities Abroad. International participation in the sesquicentennial was carried out in cooperation with the U.S. Information Agency, Radio Free Europe, the State Department, the People-to-People Program, and representatives of foreign countries. “Evidence of Lincoln’s worldwide influence,” which was displayed in a broad range of “activities and intense interest in the Sesquicentennial Year in foreign countries, prompted the commission to make a lasting contribution to those countries in the form of a microfilm reproduction of the Abraham Lincoln papers in the Library of Congress.” Altogether, 57 sets of the microfilm, each containing 94 reels, were sent to those countries where microfilm facilities were available. Those countries not possessing such facilities were presented the nine-volume set of The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln.65 National Lincoln Sesquicentennial Dinner. On the eve of the sesquicentennial of Lincoln’s birth, a dinner was given by the Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia and the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission at the Statler Hotel in Washington. President Dwight D. Eisenhower made remarks to the gathering, actor Fredric March did a recitation, and the Right Reverend Richard S. Emrich, Episcopal Bishop of Michigan, delivered an address on “Lincoln and the Judgments of the Almighty.”66 Awards Bestowed. In accordance with the commission’s authorization to “give suitable recognition ... to persons and organizations for outstanding accomplishments in preserving” Lincoln’s writings and ideals, 88 individuals were elected honorary commission members. An honorary medallion was given to 94 63 Ibid., pp. 61-68. 64 Quote is found at Ibid., p. 147. See also Ibid., pp. 148-149. 65 Ibid., p. 101. 66 U.S. Congress, Joint Committee on Arrangements on the Commemoration Ceremony in Observance of the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1959, Abraham Lincoln Commemorative Ceremony at a Joint Session of Congress, H.Doc. 211, 86th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1959), pp. 13-21. CRS-19 individuals and institutions who made “outstanding contributions to the objectives of the commission” during the Sesquicentennial year. “In recognition of outstanding contributions and cooperation during the Sesquicentennial Year,” the commission awarded certificates of appreciation to 97 organizations.67 Joint Meeting of Congress Eleven months after creating the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, Congress provided for a joint session of Congress for commemorating the 150th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.68 The joint meeting of February 12, 1959, was presided over Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn. Attendees included Vice President Richard M. Nixon; former Vice President Henry A. Wallace; members of the Cabinet; the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court; assistant heads of departments; heads of independent agencies, offices, and commissions; chairman and members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; ambassadors, ministers, and charges d’affaires of foreign governments; and the director, assistant director, and members of the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission. The ceremonies began with an invocation by the House chaplain, Rev. Bernard Braskamp. Academy Award winner Fredric March then read the Gettysburg Address, followed by remarks from historian Carl Sandburg. Prelude music was played by the U.S. Army Band Orchestra and several songs were sung by The Idlers, Choral Group of Cadets, U.S. Coast Guard Academy. The Senate chaplain, Rev. Frederick Brown Harris, delivered the benediction.69 Franklin D. Roosevelt Centennial Joint Committee Congressional efforts to commemorate the centennial of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s birth began in 1979 with proposals to “establish a Special Joint Committee on the Centennial of the Birth of Franklin D. Roosevelt.” The committee was to be responsible for: (1) arranging a special joint session on January 30, 1982, and (2) acquiring by purchase at a fair market price, or by gift, “the manuscript, photographs, and illustrations entitled ‘The Days of Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Chronicle’, prepared by Pare Lorentz, and such other manuscripts, photographs, and illustrations” as deemed appropriate. The proposal also authorized the printing of not more than 25,000 copies of manuscripts, together with photographs and illustrations the commission might acquire. S.J. Res 116 (96th Cong., 1st sess.), which contained these provisions, was introduced by Senator Jennings Randolph of West Virginia. Randolph, as a freshman Representative, served in the House during the Roosevelt Administration’s “First 100 Days.” Although the committee on Senate Rules and Administration held a hearing 67 Final Report of the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, pp. 52-60. 68 P.L. 85-775, 72 Stat. 932-933. 69 Abraham Lincoln Commemorative Ceremony at a Joint Session of Congress, pp. 1-7. CRS-20 on Randolph’s proposal, it took no further action on it, largely because of its projected cost of $500,000.70 Subsequently, in 1981, private efforts were undertaken to encourage a variety of celebrations to mark the Roosevelt birth anniversary. The key figure in these efforts was Peter Kovler, a former speechwriter in the Department of Commerce during the administration of President Jimmy Carter and former congressional staff member. Kovler, with the support of his family’s Kovler Foundation, took the lead in calling public attention to the Roosevelt centennial. He founded a private F.D.R. National Centennial Commission, and served as its executive director. His publicity efforts were instrumental in Congress’s decision ultimately to establish a joint committee on centennial arrangements, albeit much smaller in scope than that originally planned in the Randolph joint resolution.71 Late in 1981, Congress complemented Kovler’s effort with the establishment of a Special Joint Committee on Arrangements to coordinate plans for a joint meeting of the House and Senate to celebrate the Roosevelt anniversary and to coordinate congressional activities with those sponsored by other organizations marking Roosevelt’s birth. Representatives James Wright of Texas, Sidney Yates of Illinois, and Claude Pepper of Florida submitted H.Con.Res. 220 on November 16, 1981. The House Rules Committee reported the concurrent resolution the following day.72 The House agreed to the concurrent resolution on November 20, 1981, by a vote of 34418.73 The Senate, in turn, agreed to H..Con.Res. 220 by voice vote on November 24, 1981.74 Membership of Joint Committee House Concurrent Resolution 220 established a 16-member joint committee, with its membership appointed as follows: 70 S.J.Res. 116 (96th Cong., 1st sess.); and U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, hearings, Dec. 12, 1979, 96th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO), 41 p. A companion joint resolution, H.J Res. 423, was introduced in the House by Rep. Jim Wright of Texas but was not acted upon. 71 Francis X. Clines, “Briefing,” New York Times, Dec. 26, 1981, sec. 1, p. 14. Also, see Peter Kovler, “F.D.R.’s Centenary,” New York Times, July 5, 1981, sec. 4, p. 15. 72 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Rules, Providing for the Commemoration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, report to accompany H.Con.Res. 220, H.Rept 97-339, 97th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1981). 73 “Providing for the Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Franklin Delano Roosevelt,” remarks in the House by Rep. Claude Pepper and others, Congressional Record, vol. 127, Nov. 20, 1981, pp. 28595-28602. 74 “Providing for the Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Franklin Delano Roosevelt,” remarks in the Senate by Senators Howard Baker and Jennings Randolph, Congressional Record, 97th Cong., 1st sess., vol. 127, Nov. 24, 1981, pp. 28963-64. S.Con.Res. 76, a companion measure introduced by Senator Randolph on April 29, 1981, was not acted upon by the Senate. CRS-21 ! The President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives; ! Seven members of the Senate to be appointed by the President pro tempore, four upon the recommendation of the majority leader of the Senate and three upon the recommendation of the minority leader of the Senate; and ! Seven members of the House of Representatives to be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, three upon the recommendation of the minority leader of the House of Representatives.75 Appropriations The concurrent resolution limited expenditures of the joint committee to $25,000, to be paid from the contingent fund of the House of Representatives upon vouchers signed by the chairman of the joint committee. Objectives The joint committee was charged, under the concurrent resolution, with three specific functions: ! to make arrangements for a joint meeting of the Congress to be held in the Hall of the House on January 27, 1982, or such other day as the Speaker of the House might direct, to commemorate the centennial of the Roosevelt birth; ! to plan the proceedings for such joint meeting and issue appropriate invitations for such meeting; and ! to coordinate the arrangements made by the joint committee with such organizations that had been established to observe the Roosevelt centennial as the joint committee deemed appropriate. Organization and Staff The concurrent resolution stipulated certain procedures to be followed by the joint committee. It directed the members of the joint committee to select a chairman and vice chairman from among its members, and required a majority of committee 75 Committee members appointed by President pro tempore of the Senate, Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, were: Senators Mark Hatfield of Oregon, Charles McC. Mathias of Maryland, Alfonse D’Amato of New York, Daniel Moynihan of New York, Jennings Randolph of West Virginia, Wendell Ford of Kentucky, and Henry Jackson of Washington. Congressional Record, vol. 127, Dec. 15, 1981, p. 31333; Senate Journal, 97th Cong., 1st sess., Dec. 15, 1981, p. 686. Committee members appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Thomas P. O’Neill of Massachusetts were: Representatives Charles Bennett of Florida, Richard Bolling of Missouri, Claude Pepper of Florida, Sidney Yates of Illinois, Hamilton Fish of New York, Marc L. Marks of Pennsylvania, and Cleveland Benedict of West Virginia. Congressional Record, vol. 127, Dec. 8, 1981, pp. 29953-29954. CRS-22 members to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The concurrent resolution also stipulated that membership vacancies were to be filled in the same manner in which the initial appointments were made. Peter Kovler served as executive director of the joint committee without compensation.76 Joint Meeting The joint meeting was held on January 28, 1982, beginning at 10 a.m. After the arrival of the Senate in the House chamber, ceremonies formally commenced with the invocation offered by House chaplain Rev. James David Ford. Speaker of the House Thomas P. O’Neill then recognized Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., an historian of the Roosevelt presidency, to deliver the principal address. His remarks were followed by those of Senator Jennings Randolph and Representative Claude Pepper, with Randolph alluding to his experiences in the House during the Roosevelt Administration, and Pepper speaking from his perspective as a Senator during Roosevelt’s terms. Averill Harriman, an ambassador to Russia during the Roosevelt administration, had prepared remarks but, owing to laryngitis, could not deliver them. His wife, Pamela Harriman, delivered his speech for him. Opera soprano Leontyne Price performed a medley. Former Representative James Roosevelt spoke of his father’s presidency, interspersing his remarks with recorded excerpts from some of President Roosevelt’s more famous speeches. At 12:30 p.m., the joint meeting formally closed with a benediction offered by Senate chaplain Rev. Richard C. Halverson.77 Related Official Activities Before Congress approved the establishment of the Joint Committee on Arrangements, it had already acted to encourage government agencies to commemorate the Roosevelt centennial, largely at the initiative of the F.D.R. National Centennial Committee and Mr. Kovler.78 The Supplemental Appropriations and Rescission Act for FY198179 provided an additional $200,000 to the Smithsonian Institution to remain available until September 30, 1982. The House included the money in its bill, earmarking the funds for the 100th anniversary of Roosevelt’s birth.80 The Senate Appropriations Committee initially did not support the House funding 76 Ann L. Trebbe, “Homage to a Hero,” Washington Post, Jan. 28, 1982, pp. C1, C9. 77 “Joint Meeting of the 97th Congress in Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.” Congressional Record, vol. 128, Jan. 28, 1982, pp. 273-278. 78 Daniel M. Weintraub, “Fan Spearheading Plans for Roosevelt’s 100th Birthday,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 7, 1981, part 1, p. 9. 79 P.L. 97-12, 95 Stat. 14, 49. 80 “The Smithsonian should secure participation of other agencies such as the Library of Congress and the National Archives in this observance. This appropriation will support a broad range of commemorative programs, including special exhibitions at the National Portrait Gallery and the National Museum of American History, lectures, seminars, symposia, and performances.” U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Supplemental Appropriations and Rescission Bill, 1981, report to accompany H.R. 3400, H.Rept. 97-29, 97th Cong. 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1981), p. 198. CRS-23 decision.81 However, in conference, the House recommendation was ultimately agreed to.82 With these funds, the Smithsonian organized a number of commemorative exhibitions. At the National Museum of American History, an exhibit focusing on Roosevelt as a communicator was held, using artifacts from the museum’s own collections and items borrowed from the Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park, New York, the New York Historical Society, and the Little White House Museum in Warm Springs, Georgia. The National Museum of American Art organized a special exhibit which opened in January 1982, featuring works in its collection from the Works Progress Administration’s art programs during the New Deal. Similarly, the Hirshhorn Museum mounted an exhibition of art in its collection connected to WPA programs. A special exhibition of Roosevelt portraits in the National Portrait Gallery collection was mounted. The Smithsonian’s Office of Folklife Programs organized a birthday concert and other festivities on January 29 and 30, 1982, including the re-staging of a special White House concert held in 1939 in honor of the visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth of Great Britain. The Woodrow Wilson Center held an “evening dialogue” featuring William E. Leuchtenburg, a noted Columbia University historian of the Roosevelt era.83 After the conclusion of the joint meeting, President Ronald Reagan hosted a luncheon at the White House for 200 invited guests, including Roosevelt family members in attendance at the joint meeting.84 Other celebrations were organized outside of Washington. A New York Stateorganized centenary celebration was held at the Hyde Park home of the late President on January 30, 1982. The New York Roosevelt Centennial Commission, appointed by Governor Hugh Carey, arranged for this program, which included a wreath-laying at the President’s grave, the first-day sale of a new 20-cent Franklin Roosevelt commemorative stamp, and public open house receptions at the Roosevelt library and several neighboring historic mansions. The Roosevelt home itself was not open, being 81 “The Committee has not agreed to an unbudgeted House allowance of $200,000 to support a series of programs marking the 100th anniversary of the birth of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.” U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Supplemental Appropriations and Rescission Bill, 1981, report to accompany H.R. 3512, S.Rept. 97-67, 97th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1981), p. 184. 82 U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Making Supplemental and Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1981, conference report to accompany H.R. 3512, H.Rept. 97-124, 97th Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1981), p. 66. 83 The listing of Smithsonian-sponsored events is taken from a press packet issued by the F.D.R. National Centennial Commission, undated, in Congressional Research Service collections. See also, David Shribman, “‘Embarrassment’ of F.D.R. Riches on View,” New York Times, Feb. 3, 1982, p. A20. 84 Marjorie Hunter, “F.D.R.’s Voice Stirs Emotions at Capitol,” New York Times, Jan. 29, 1982, p. A14. CRS-24 then under repair for fire damage. A number of universities and other organizations also held special seminars, exhibitions, or other celebrations to mark the anniversary.85 The United Nations hosted a conference in June 1982 honoring Roosevelt’s role in creating the organization. Among those delivering speeches at the conference were Henry Cabot Lodge, former United States ambassador to the United Nations; Jeane J. Kirkpatrick, incumbent United States ambassador to the United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar, United Nations Secretary General; and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.86 Harry S Truman Centennial Joint Committee Congress did not create a statutory commission to coordinate events relating to the Harry S Truman centenary. Instead, several organizations collaborated informally to encourage popular and scholarly events relating to the Truman presidency. Among the principal groups were the Truman Library Institute, a non-profit organization established to help support the programs of the Harry S Truman Presidential Library in Independence, Missouri; the Independence Truman Centennial Committee, an organization formed to coordinate events held in the late President’s home town; and the Truman Centennial Committee, a group of Truman family members and Truman administration officials, headed by Washington attorney Clark Clifford. Although the Truman Library Institute contributed some funding to both the Independence Truman Centennial and to programs hosted by the Truman Library itself,87 the broadest range of activities was undertaken by the Truman Centennial Committee. In Congress, a Special Joint Committee on Arrangements was established to coordinate congressional events with those being arranged by the Truman Centennial Committee. On May 11, 1983, identical concurrent resolutions were presented in the House and Senate calling for the creation of the special joint committee. The House concurrent resolution (H.Con.Res. 126), was submitted by Representative Ike Skelton of Missouri, and cosponsored by each of the other Missouri Members of the House, by Representative Claude Pepper of Florida, who had served with Truman in the Senate, and by Majority Leader James Wright of Texas. Missouri Senators Thomas Eagleton and John Danforth, introduced the concurrent resolution (S.Con.Res. 33) 85 “Centennial Commission is Formed For Roosevelt,” New York Times, Dec. 12, 1981, p. B3; and Harold Faber, “Roosevelt’s Centennial Celebrated at Hyde Park; He is Needed ‘Now More Than Ever,’ Carey Says,” New York Times, Jan. 31, 1982, sec. 1, p. 32. 86 “U.N. Luminaries of Past and Present Honor Roosevelt,” New York Times, June 17, 1982, p. A3. 87 Records of the Truman Institute held at the Harry S Truman Presidential Library indicate that the Truman Library Institute budgeted as much as $174,000 toward financial support for centennial activities conducted by the Independence Truman Centennial program, the programs of the Truman Library, and for activities of the Truman Centennial Committee in Washington. However, it is unclear how much money was ultimately provided to these entities. Telephone interview with Randall Sowell, archivist, Truman Presidential Library, April 25, 2001. CRS-25 in the Senate. The House agreed to the concurrent resolution on June 30, 1983, by a vote of 382-5.88 The Senate never acted on its own concurrent resolution and, instead, agreed to the House concurrent resolution by unanimous consent on July 29, 1983.89 Membership of Joint Committee House Concurrent Resolution 126 established a 16-member joint committee with its membership appointed as follows: ! The President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives; ! Seven members of the Senate appointed by the President pro tempore: four upon the recommendation of the majority leader of the Senate and three upon the recommendation of the minority leader of the Senate; and ! Seven members of the House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives: three upon the recommendation of the minority leader of the House of Representatives.90 The concurrent resolution stipulated certain procedures to be followed by the joint committee. It directed the members of the joint committee to select a chairman and vice chairman from among its members, and required a majority of the committee’s members to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The concurrent resolution also stipulated that membership vacancies were to be filled in the same manner in which the initial appointments were made. Representative Ike Skelton of Missouri was chosen chairman of the joint committee, and Senator Mark Hatfield served as vice chairman.91 88 Rep. Alan Wheat, Ike Skelton, and others, “Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Harry S Truman,” remarks of in the House of Representatives, Congressional Record, vol. 129, 98th Cong., 1st sess., June 30, 1983, pp. 18291-18297. 89 Congressional Record, vol. 129, July 29, 1983, p. 21646. 90 Committee members appointed by President pro tempore of the Senate, Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, were: Senators John C. Danforth of Missouri, Mark O. Hatfield of Oregon, Charles McC. Mathias of Maryland, Jennings Randolph of West Virginia, Quentin N. Burdick of North Dakota, Howard M. Metzenbaum of Ohio, and Thomas Eagleton of Missouri. Congressional Record, vol. 129, 98th Cong., 1st sess., Nov. 15, 1983, p. 32540. Committee members appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Thomas P. O’Neill of Massachusetts, were: Representatives Claude Pepper of Florida, Sidney R. Yates of Illinois, Ike Skelton of Missouri, Alan D. Wheat of Missouri, Gene Taylor of Missouri, E. Thomas Coleman of Missouri, and Bill Emerson of Missouri. Congressional Record, vol. 129, 98th Cong., 1st sess., Oct. 5, 1983, p. 27294. 91 The Congressional Record contains no formal announcement of their selection for these posts. However, a letter from Senator Eagleton to Representative Skelton, dated December 1, 1983, congratulates Skelton on his recent selection. Clark Clifford Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. CRS-26 Appropriations The concurrent resolution limited expenditures of the joint committee to $25,000, to be paid from the contingent fund of the House of Representatives upon vouchers signed by the chairman of the joint committee.92 Objectives The joint committee was charged, under the concurrent resolution, with three specific functions: ! to make arrangements for a joint meeting of the Congress to be held on Tuesday, May 8, 1984, in the Hall of the House, to commemorate the centennial of the Truman birth; ! to plan the proceedings for such joint meeting and issue appropriate invitations for such meeting; and ! to coordinate the arrangements made by the joint committee with the activities of the Truman Centennial Committee.93 Organization and Staff The joint committee was authorized to appoint an executive director who would serve without compensation. It appears that Ms. Toni Arnett, the legislative director to Representative Skelton, performed this function. The joint committee was also authorized to accept such other volunteer services of individuals as it deemed appropriate, although there is no public report to suggest that it did so, to adopt rules respecting its organization and procedure, and to sit and act at such times and places as it shall deem appropriate.94 Joint Meeting The joint meeting of the House and Senate was held on May 8, 1984. The ceremonies began with an invocation by the House chaplain, Rev. James David Ford. 92 “Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Harry S Truman,” Congressional Record, vol. 129, June 30, 1983, p. 18291. The actual expenses of the joint committee cannot be readily determined. A review of the three quarterly editions of the Report of the Clerk of the House issued from the date on which committee appointments were made up through the end of the calendar quarter following the Truman centennial joint meeting shows no special categorization of expenses by the joint committee. Most likely, individual expense vouchers submitted by the joint committee were itemized among the thousands of miscellaneous expenses paid from appropriated House funds. 93 Ibid. 94 No committee rules were ever published in the Congressional Record, and there is no evidence from the Congressional Record that the joint committee ever met outside of Washington. CRS-27 Representative Ike Skelton delivered opening remarks as chairman of the Joint Committee on Arrangements, followed by remarks from Representative Alan Wheat whose congressional district encompassed Truman’s home in Independence, Missouri. Brief addresses were delivered by Robert J. Donovan, a Truman biographer; former Senator Stuart Symington, Secretary of the Air Force in the Truman Administration; and Clark Clifford, a member of the Truman White House staff and chairman of the Truman Centennial Committee. A medley of piano music was delivered by Daniel Pollack, a musician whose early career Truman had championed. Concluding remarks were delivered by Truman’s daughter, Mrs. Margaret Truman Daniel, and by Senator Mark Hatfield, the vice chairman of the joint committee. Senate chaplain Rev. Richard Halverson delivered the benediction to conclude the 90 minute-long joint meeting.95 Related Official Activities On the morning of the joint meeting, Librarian of Congress Daniel Boorstin hosted a breakfast reception in honor of the Truman centennial celebration. In addition to remarks by the Librarian, historian David McCullough read excerpts of letters from Truman family members in Missouri to Truman in Washington after he had assumed the presidency. Margaret Truman Daniel also commented on her father’s love of history and books. The breakfast was attended by 200 dignitaries, including Senators Jennings Randolph and Strom Thurmond. After the joint meeting, President Ronald Reagan hosted a White House luncheon attended by Mrs. Daniel, her family, members of the Joint Arrangements Committee, members of the board of the Truman Centennial Committee, and roughly 100 other dignitaries.96 In the spring of 1983, in anticipation of the anniversary of President Truman’s birth, Congress designated the Truman home in Independence, Missouri, as a national historic site.97 In 1984, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp in honor of the Truman centennial.98 President Ronald Reagan issued a proclamation declaring May 8, 1984, to be the official “Centennial of the Birth of Harry S Truman,” and calling upon the American people to “observe that day with appropriate ceremonies and activities in remembrance of his many accomplishments and dedication to freedom and 95 “Joint Meeting Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of President Harry S Truman,” Congressional Record, vol. 130, May 8, 1984, pp. 11327-11333. A later special order speech period that day, in which House Members spoke or inserted remarks on the Truman centennial appears at Ibid., pp. 11403-11421. 96 Henry Mitchell, “Wild About Harry: A Day of Tributes for Truman’s Centennial,” Washington Post, May 9, 1984, p. B1. President Reagan’s remarks at the White House luncheon appear in U.S. President (Reagan), Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States 1984, Book I (Washington: GPO, 1986), pp. 645-647. 97 “An Act to Establish the Harry S Truman National Historic Site in the State of Missouri, and for Other Purposes,” P.L. 98-32, 97 Stat. 193. 98 “Washington News,” United Press International Wire Service, Jan. 26, 1984, Lexis-Nexis database. CRS-28 democracy.”99 President Reagan also signed into law on May 8, 1984, an act which, in part, provided for the awarding of a special congressional gold medal to President Truman’s daughter in recognition of his service to the nation.100 Other Commemorative Events Although the Joint Committee on Arrangements did not play a formal role in the organization of other Truman centennial events, the Truman Centennial Committee, the Truman Library and Library Institute, the City of Independence, and many other organizations and institutions, both foreign and domestic, sponsored Truman centennial observances. A number of governments and institutions also took note of the Truman centennial. Several academic conferences and commemorative dinners were held in Great Britain by universities and multinational organizations to mark the Truman birth. The parliaments of Turkey and Israel issued proclamations commemorating Truman’s birth. The Austrian government established a scholarship fund named in Truman’s honor to permit American scientists to study in Austria.101 Among the conferences and symposiums held during the year leading up to the anniversary of Truman’s birth were: conferences at Hofstra University, the John F. Kennedy Library, the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars in Washington, and the Smithsonian Institution’s Resident Associates Program. Commemorative memorial services were held at the Washington National Cathedral and at the First Baptist Church in Washington. The Smithsonian Institution’s Air and Space Museum timed the opening of an exhibition on the Berlin Airlift to coincide with the Truman centennial. Leading members of the Truman Centennial Committee and the Truman Library and Library Institute were frequent participants in these events.102 Commission on the Eleanor Roosevelt Centennial The Commission on the Eleanor Roosevelt Centennial was established on November 21, 1983, by P.L. 98-162, the Eleanor Roosevelt Birth Centennial Commemoration Act. 99 “Proclamation 5148—Centennial of the Birth of Harry S Truman,” Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States 1984, Book I, p. 86. 100 The act also provided for such gold medals to also be presented to Lady Bird Johnson and to Elie Wiesel, in recognition for their achievements as well. “An Act To Authorize the Awarding of Special Congressional Gold Medals to the daughter of Harry S Truman, to Lady Bird Johnson, and to Elie Wiesel,” P.L. 98-278, 98 Stat. 173. 101 For a more comprehensive list of such actions and events, see “Harry S Truman,” remarks of Representative Ike Skelton, Congressional Record, vol. 130, May 14, 1984, pp. E2133E2135. 102 See memorandum from Bryson Rash to Clark Clifford, July 16, 1984, manuscript collection, Harry S Truman Library, and speech files in the Clark Clifford papers, Library of Congress Manuscript Division. CRS-29 Membership The commission was composed of 13 members. In accordance with the commission’s legislative charter its membership included: ! Two Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House; ! Two Senators appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate after consultation with the Majority and Minority Leaders; ! The Director of the National Park Service, ex officio; ! The Archivist of the United States, ex officio; ! The Librarian of Congress, ex officio; ! The Governor of New York, ex officio; ! The County Executive of Dutchess County, New York, ex officio; ! Surviving children of Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt; and ! The Chairman of the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, ex officio. For a particular meeting of the commission, any member could appoint another individual to serve in his place. Commission members served without compensation, but were reimbursed for travel and subsistence expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties.103 Public and Private Funding The only federal funds provided the commission were for travel and subsistence expenses. These expenses were not to exceed $10,000 and were to be drawn from the operating budget of the National Park Service. All other money and services necessary for carrying out the commission’s tasks were secured from private sources. The commission actually spent only $1,732.62 in connection with two commission 103 97 Stat.1013-1014. Commission members appointed by President pro tempore of the Senate, Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, were: Senators Daniel P. Moynihan and Alphonse D’Amato of New York. Commission members appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representative, Thomas P. O’Neill of Massachusetts, were: Representatives Hamilton Fish, Jr. of New York, and Barbara B. Kennelly of Connecticut. Ex officio members were Russell E. Dickenson, Director of the National Park Service; Robert M. Warner, Archivist of the United States; Daniel Boorstin, Librarian of Congress; Mario Cuomo, Governor of New York; Lucille P. Pattison, County Executive of Duchess County, New York; and Trude W. Lash, chairman of the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute. The surviving children of Mrs. Roosevelt who served on the commission were James Roosevelt, Elliott Roosevelt, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. United States Commission on the Eleanor Roosevelt Centennial, The Centenary of Eleanor Roosevelt, 1884-1984 (Poughkeepsie, NY: Eleanor Roosevelt Centennial Commission, 1991), p. 6. CRS-30 meetings.104 The commission was authorized to accept donations of money, supples and services to carry out its responsibilities; and the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute was authorized to provide staff assistance.105 Objectives Congress charged the commission with responsibility for: (1) encouraging and recognizing observances and commemorations throughout the United States that commemorated the 100th anniversary of Eleanor Roosevelt’s birth in 1984, and (2) providing advice and assistance to federal, state, and local government agencies and to private organizations in establishing such commemorative observances. The Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, a nonprofit organization incorporated in the State of New York, and successor organization of the Eleanor Roosevelt Memorial Foundation which had been chartered by Congress in 1963,106 was authorized to provide staff assistance to the commission, and coordinate centennial policies and events. The enabling act also directed the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the director of the National Park Service, to complete the renovation of the Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site at Val-Kill in Hyde Park, New York, in FY1984.107 Organization The commission held the first of two meetings on February 2, 1984, at the Library of Congress in Washington, where Trude Lash, chairman of the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, was elected commission chairman by its members. During the session, Lash presented a report on the Institute’s “centennial programs in progress and some of the contributions that had been made toward their realization,” and the commission agreed to apprise the Governors of all 50 states “of the existence and functions of the Commission and asked [them] to appoint someone to act as liaison between the Commission and all local and state-level groups who were planning commemorations.”108 Ultimately, the Governors of 42 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Northern Mariana Islands appointed individuals to act as liaisons between the commission and all local and state-level groups planning commemorations.109 104 Ibid., p. 8. 105 97 Stat. 1014. 106 77 Stat. 8-12. 107 97 Stat. 1014. 108 The Centenary of Eleanor Roosevelt, p. 6, 9. 109 Ibid., pp. 121-122. CRS-31 Professional Staff The Eleanor Roosevelt Institute provided staff assistance to the commission and coordinated policies and events. Projects and Activities By the time the commission convened its first meeting, the official opening of the centenary had already been marked by an ecumenical service in New York City. The service was held on the evening of November 10, 1983, at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, where Mrs. Roosevelt had worshiped and where her memorial service had been held in November 1962. A year in planning, this event portrayed Mrs. Roosevelt’s religious ideals and reflected her social convictions.110 The Story of the “Eleanor” Traveling Museum. A traveling exhibit, “The Roosevelt Special–Eleanor,” was one of the commission’s most important projects because it “explicitly demonstrated Mrs. Roosevelt’s unmatched genius for reaching people at their own level.” This unique 40-foot tractor-trailer museum contained “an assortment of pertinent items that had surrounded Eleanor Roosevelt in her lifetime—memorabilia, documents, photographs, artifacts of all kinds.” Altogether, the traveling museum traversed 12 northeastern states and the District of Columbia making 80 stops at “schools, malls, and plazas; at fairs and festivals, libraries, and conferences; at places where people gathered and where the enormous trailer, blaring music of another era and displaying an exuberant ‘Eleanor’ on its flank, would attract them inside.”111 The tour lasted for seven months, through January 1985. Several different organizations collaborated to create the museum. The New York State Office of Special Projects staffed and scheduled the project; the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute funded it, and provided guide uniforms and many of the educational materials distributed at each stop; and the New York Bureau of Historic Sites outfitted the museum.112 Eleanor Roosevelt Packet. A packet of informational materials designed by the commission to educate the public about Mrs. Roosevelt was widely distributed during centennial observances and when the traveling museum visited schools. When distributed at schools, this packet also contained a “tour guide called ‘A Visit to the Eleanor Roosevelt Traveling Exhibit,’ a selection of Eleanor Roosevelt quotations, a bibliography, and a list of available films.” Also, an “‘Eleanor Roosevelt Curriculum Kit’ designed for children from kindergarten through sixth grade was made up especially for this packet by the United Nations Association’s Eleanor Roosevelt 110 Ibid., pp. 13-17. 111 Ibid., p. 18. 112 Ibid., pp. 22, 24. CRS-32 Committee of Friends and Admirers.” Suggested classroom activities contained in the packet were often sent ahead to schools in communities expecting a visit.”113 In addition, 12 new books about Eleanor Roosevelt were published between 1982 and 1984, and were noted in a Smithsonian Institution Eleanor Roosevelt bibliography released in June 1984.114 Role as Coordinator of Centennial Activities Nationwide. In addition to the traveling museum, there were numerous oral history projects, films and television programs, exhibitions, plays, and concerts throughout the country that focused on the centennial. According to the final report of the Eleanor Roosevelt Centennial Commission, “the approach of Mrs. Roosevelt’s 100th birthday anniversary on October 11, 1984, precipitated a nation-wide avalanche of celebratory activities and a flood of newsprint, books, and articles.”115 In accordance with the law establishing the commission, it provided assistance and advice to federal, state, and local organizations that had observances and commemorations. Awards. During the course of the centennial year, Eleanor Roosevelt awards were given to people and organizations whose work and achievements in the world community were similar to hers.116 These included: ! A special Eleanor Roosevelt Four Freedoms Award given in the Netherlands; ! An Eleanor Roosevelt Human Rights Award given to Andrei Sakharov and Marian Anderson; and ! Community service awards given in the name of Eleanor Roosevelt.117 Commemorative Activities Abroad. On June 23, 1984, Simone Veil, a former president of the European Parliamentary Assembly, received the special Eleanor Roosevelt Centennial award during the Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Award ceremony at Middleburg in the Netherlands. Mme. Veil was a French government official whose political career had paralleled that of Eleanor Roosevelt in the vindication of the “public role of women in the 20th century.” She was honored for “her personal courage in the struggle against tyranny and her commitment to a united, secure and productive Europe [had] established her as an international leader admirably representative of Eleanor Roosevelt’s legacy.”118 Created in 1951, the Four Freedoms Foundation has made national and international awards given alternately at Hyde Park in the United States and Middleburg in the Netherlands. The ties to Middleburg were based on the Roosevelt 113 Ibid., p. 23. 114 Ibid., p. 28. 115 Ibid.,p. 25. 116 Ibid., p. 32. 117 Ibid., pp. 32-40. 118 Ibid., pp. 33-34. CRS-33 family’s Dutch roots. In 1987, the Foundation merged with the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute to form the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute.119 The centennial was observed at Whitehall in London on November 28, 1984, with a symposium, “The Legacy of Eleanor Roosevelt.” American ambassador Kingman Brewster was one of the honorary chairpersons of the event. A ninemember advisory committee representing both Britain and the United States planned the London symposium.120 Philatelic Endeavors. The Eleanor Roosevelt Commission’s culminating event of the centennial year took place on October 11, 1984. The National Park Service and the U.S. Postal Service helped with the planning of a four-part event at Val-Kill, New York, the location of Mrs. Roosevelt’s former home,121 which included an early morning wreath laying ceremony at Mrs. Roosevelt’s grave, the dedication of Val-Kill as a National Historic site, a special luncheon for 250 of the people who had played a part in the centennial celebration, and the official issuance of a new Eleanor Roosevelt commemorative stamp.122 The 20-cent commemorative stamp was created by American graphic designer Bradbury Thompson from a photograph of Mrs. Roosevelt taken at Val-Kill in 1960.123 This was the second Eleanor Roosevelt stamp. The first was issued in 1962. China, Korea, Hungary, India, Israel, and Venezuela also honored Mrs. Roosevelt with commemorative stamps.124 Dwight David Eisenhower Centennial Commission The Dwight David Eisenhower Centennial Commission was established on November 7, 1986, by P.L. 99-624. Membership The commission was composed of 21 members. In accordance with the commission’s legislative charter its membership included: 119 Ibid., p. 34. 120 Ibid., pp. 57-58. 121 The legislation creating the Commission on the Eleanor Roosevelt Centennial had mandated the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Director of the National Park Service, to “complete such improvements and development in the Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site at Val-Kill in Hyde Park, New York, in fiscal 1984, as well as assure improved access and availability sufficient to open the site to extensive public visitation.” 97 Stat. 1015. 122 Ibid., pp. 78-79. 123 The Centenary of Eleanor Roosevelt, p.87. 124 Ibid., p. 88. CRS-34 ! The President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, ex officio; ! Three Senators appointed by the President pro tempore upon recommendation of the Senate Majority Leader; ! Three Senators appointed by the President pro tempore upon recommendation of the Senate Minority Leader; ! Three Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House upon recommendation of the House Majority Leader; ! Three Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House upon recommendation of the House Minority Leader; ! Six Members appointed by the President of the United States ; and ! The Archivist of the United States, ex officio.125 Senator Robert Dole of Kansas and James D. Robinson III, the chairman of American Express, were selected to be chairman and vice chairman, respectively, by the commission from among its members. Members of the commission served without compensation, but were provided an allowance for their travel expenses. The same regulation applied to the commission’s executive director and other staff.126 Public and Private Funding Congress appropriated $50,000 for the commission.127 The commission was also authorized to accept “gifts or donations of money, property, or personal services.”128 125 P.L. 99-624, 100 Sat. 3497. Commission members appointed by President pro tempore of the Senate, Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia, were: Senators Bob Dole of Kansas, J. James Exon of Nebraska, Howell Heflin of Alabama, John Heinz of Pennsylvania, Nancy Landon Kassebaum of Kansas, and John McCain of Arizona. Commission members appointed by Speaker of the House of Representatives, Thomas S. Foley of Washington, were: Representatives Beverly B. Byron of Maryland, Bill Emerson of Missouri, William F. Goodling of Pennsylvania, David E. Price of North Carolina, Pat Roberts of Kansas, and Jim Slattery of Kansas. Commission members appointed by the President were: Susan Eisenhower, Maryland; Jane S. Gosden, California; George A. Horkan, Jr., Virginia; Drew Lewis, Pennsylvania; James D. Robinson III, Connecticut; and Calvin A. Strowig, Kansas. As provided by law, Don W. Wilson, Archivist of the United States, served on the commission as well. U.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower Centennial Commission, The Eisenhower Centennial, 1890-1990: Across the Nation, Around the World (Dwight D. Eisenhower Centennial Commission, n.d.), p. vii. 126 100 Stat. 3498. 127 P.L. 100-71, 101 Stat. 396. 128 P.L. 99-624, 100 Stat. 3498. CRS-35 Objectives Congress charged the commission with responsibility to “encourage, plan, develop, and coordinate observances and activities commemorating” the centennial of the birth of President Eisenhower on October 14, 1990. In this endeavor the commission was to cooperate with (1) the Eisenhower World Affairs Institute in Washington, D.C., (2) the Eisenhower Foundation in Abilene, Kansas, and (3) “such other public or private entities as the Commission considers appropriate.” The commission was also to “submit recommendations to Congress relating to a joint meeting of ... Congress to commemorate” the centennial.129 Organization In accordance with its mandate, and as directed by its establishing statute, the commission carried out much of its work in coordination with the Eisenhower Institute in Washington and the Eisenhower Foundation in Abilene, Kansas, as well as with other governmental and private organizations. James D. Robinson III, vice chairman of the commission, became chairman of the Eisenhower Centennial Foundation that had been established by the Eisenhower Institute.130 These arrangements permitted the commission to conduct many of its operations through the foundation, with Mr. Robinson effectuating direct coordination between the two entities. At the same time, Senator Dole, as chairman, was able to coordinate commission activities directly with those in Congress and other governmental entities. The Eisenhower Foundation operated at the time (and still does) in conjunction with the Eisenhower Presidential Library, Eisenhower Center, and Eisenhower Museum in Abilene. For this centennial, the Eisenhower Institute established an Eisenhower Centennial Foundation to coordinate and conduct observances.131 Both Kansas and Pennsylvania also established Eisenhower Centennial Commissions to coordinate activities in those states. In Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, where Eisenhower resided in his later years, organizations participating in centennial observances included the Dwight D. Eisenhower Society, Gettysburg College, and the Eisenhower National Historic Site. Other organizations participating in these observances included Columbia University in New York City, The Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California, The Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships in Philadelphia, People to People International in Kansas City, and Sister Cities International. Finally, the United States Mint and the U.S. Postal Service cooperated in numismatic and philatelic activities.132 129 Ibid., p. 3497. 130 Ibid., p. 3. 131 Ibid., p. 4. 132 Ibid., p. 78. CRS-36 Professional Staff The relation of the commission to the Eisenhower Institute and the Eisenhower Centennial Foundation enabled it to work principally through the staff of these entities. The executive director of the Eisenhower Institute, Jane Kravtovil, also served as executive director for the commission. Projects and Activities Publications and Productions. Because of its approach of carrying out its activities principally through private organizations, it appears that the commission produced no publications of its own (other than reports mandated by its establishing statute) and sponsored none. Its final report, however, included a list of “Books on Eisenhower Published in the Last Decade,”133 as well as a survey of commemorative activities undertaken by the commission and other organizations during the centennial year. The Eisenhower Institute funded a production by National Video Communications of a television special, “The Eisenhower Legacy,” for broadcast on the Discovery Channel in 1991. Two directors of the institute also served as program advisors. Based on more than 40 interviews with Eisenhower associates, the documentary focused on crises during Eisenhower’s presidency, including the 1956 Hungary and Suez crises, and the Little Rock desegregation crisis of 1957.134 Legislative Enactments. On October 3, 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed into law P.L. 100-467,135 directing the U.S. Mint to issue a commemorative Eisenhower silver dollar. Four million of the Eisenhower dollars were minted through the end of 1990. Congressional members of the commission took the lead in promoting this legislation, including commission chairman Senator Bob Dole, who introduced the bill in the Senate, and Representative William Goodling, who did so in the House. Subsequently, on October 10, 1990, President Bush issued the proclamation authorized by P.L. 101-258,136 declaring October 14, 1990, as Dwight D. Eisenhower Day.137 On October 15, 1990, President Bush signed P.L. 101-427,138 designating the interstate highway system the Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways. It was during President Eisenhower’s Administration that the interstate highway system was first conceived and authorized, and during which its 133 Ibid., pp. 73-75. 134 Ibid., p. 12. 135 104 Stat. 1086. 136 104 Stat. 118. 137 “Proclamation 6199—Dwight D. Eisenhower Day, 1990,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, v. 26 Oct. 14, 1990, pp. 1568-1570. 138 104 Stat. 927. CRS-37 development began. The legislation was initiated in Congress by Senator John Heinz, a member of the commission, and cosponsored by several commission members. On October 24, 1990, President Bush signed P.L. 101-454,139 establishing a permanent endowment for the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships. The fellowships had been established in 1953 to enable individuals in mid-career in other countries to travel to the United States for three months of observation, seminars, and professional discussions. The measure was introduced by Senator Dole and cosponsored by several other commission members. Other Governmental Actions. In conjunction with commemorative activities in Kansas described below, on October 13, 1990, the U.S. Postal Service issued a new Eisenhower commemorative stamp.140 During 1990, the United States Military Academy at West Point established the Dwight D. Eisenhower Program of Graduate Studies in Leader Development, leading to a master of arts degree. At their graduation ceremony on May 31, 1990, the first four officers to enter this program received an Eisenhower commemorative coin.141 Role as Coordinator of Centennial Activities Nationwide. Kansas. National commemorations of President Eisenhower’s centennial opened on January 26, 1990, with a ceremony conducted by the Kansas Eisenhower Centennial Commission. Mementoes of President Eisenhower, including an Eisenhower commemorative coin, were placed in a time capsule that was later buried on the centennial day, October 14, to be retrieved on the bicentennial of Eisenhower’s birth.142 Other early events in the centennial year were presented in Abilene, Kansas, under the aegis of the Eisenhower Center there. On June 5, 1990, the Center held a conference on “Remembering Little Rock: Civil Rights in the 1950s,” which was addressed by both Eisenhower’s Attorney General, Herbert Brownell, and former Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, and was attended by several of the nine students who in 1957 initiated the desegregation of Central High School.143 This conference occurred in conjunction with the Center’s “Fabulous Fifties Week,” which began on June 2 and included appearances by several popular entertainers of the period.144 June 10 marked the arrival in Abilene of the “Five Star Tour,” two caravans of vehicles that had started from opposite ends of the state, and 139 104 Stat. 1063. 140 The Eisenhower Centennial, 1890-1990, p. 13. 141 Ibid., p. 38. 142 Ibid., p. 34. 143 Ibid., p. 33. 144 Ibid., p. 28. CRS-38 one of which included the U.S. Mint’s “Coin Car” featuring blowups of the Eisenhower Centennial coin.145 Subsequently, addresses on Eisenhower were presented in Abilene by Vice President Dan Quayle on July 5, former President Ronald Reagan on July 27, and former President Gerald Ford on August 5.146 Centennial activities in Abilene concluded on October 13 and 14 with observances entitled “An American Homecoming: In Celebration of Ike.” These events included a visit by the “Dwight D. Eisenhower,” General Eisenhower’s World War II staff train, from its permanent home in the National Railroad Museum in Green Bay, Wisconsin, and by Eisenhower’s first presidential aircraft, the Columbine II, which flew over Abilene. The plane’s owner had recently restored it after discovering its identity. The program also included the premiere of a film, “Dwight D. Eisenhower–American,” first day issuance ceremonies for the Eisenhower commemorative stamp, a performance by the First Infantry Division Band, an air show, a World War II encampment with recreations of other scenes from that conflict, and a concluding multimedia performance.147 An ecumenical service on Sunday, October 14, included addresses by Richard Halverson, chaplain of the U.S. Senate; evangelist Billy Graham; Senator Dole and other congressional members of the commission who represented Kansas; Winston Churchill II, Member of the British Parliament and grandson of the Prime Minister; General Colin Powell, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, representing President Bush; and President Eisenhower’s son John S.D. Eisenhower.148 Washington, D.C. The nation’s capital was the other chief location for many events commemorating Eisenhower’s centennial. On October 3, 1990, the Eisenhower Library, together with the National Press Foundation, served as host of a symposium at the National Press Club in Washington on media coverage of first families. David Eisenhower, grandson of President Eisenhower, participated in the event.149 On October 4, the Eisenhower Institute, together with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), sponsored “The Eisenhower Centennial Space Roundtable: A Look to the Future,” chaired by Eisenhower Institute senior fellow Karl Harr. The objective of the program, presented on the 33rd anniversary of the 1957 launch by the Soviet Union of “Sputnik,” the first artificial Earth orbiting 145 Ibid. 146 Ibid., pp. 28-29. 147 Ibid., pp. 30-32. 148 Ibid., p. 32. 149 Ibid., p. 15. CRS-39 satellite, was to consider the purposes of space exploration after the end of the cold war.150 On October 11, the United States Information Agency (USIA) Alumni Association and the Public Diplomacy Foundation held a symposium on “Eisenhower and the USIA,” together with a dinner, at the National War College at Fort McNair.151 On October 11-13, People-to-People International, an organization established by President Eisenhower in 1956, held its Worldwide Conference in Washington. Several associates of President Eisenhower participated in the conference, and commission member Susan Eisenhower, Eisenhower’s granddaughter, presented the Eisenhower Medallion for “an ... exceptional contribution toward advancing Eisenhower’s principles” to Maxwell Rabb, a member of Eisenhower’s White House staff and former Ambassador to Italy.152 On October 14, the centennial of Eisenhower’s birth itself, the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts sponsored a Centennial Salute to Eisenhower, entitled “Remembering Ike,” in its Eisenhower Theater. Hosts for the event were Senator Charles Percy of Illinois and actress Helen Hayes. The program included excerpts from the television documentary “The Eisenhower Legacy” (described under “publications and productions”) and remarks by commission member Susan Eisenhower, other family members, officials of Eisenhower’s Administration, and other public figures.153 National. On June 6, an “Eisenhower Centennial D-Day Salute” took place aboard the U.S.S. Intrepid, a World War II aircraft carrier docked in New York City harbor. The host of this event was the “D-E Day Committee,” acting on behalf of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships. The celebration was addressed by General Colin Powell, who, along with several other current military and civilian leaders, and event organizers, received Eisenhower commemorative coins from Catalina Villapondo, Treasurer of the United States.154 On June 27, the Eisenhower Lock on the St. Lawrence Seaway, in Massena, New York, opened its renovated visitors’ center, including displays on Eisenhower’s role in creating the Seaway, and renamed it the Dwight D. Eisenhower Visitors’ Center.155 On September 29 and 30, Denison, Texas, Eisenhower’s birthplace, celebrated the centennial with a parade, fun run, air show, crafts fair, golf tournament, gala ball, and an outdoor concert by the Fort Hood Army Band. Members of Eisenhower’s 150 Ibid., pp. 8-9. 151 Ibid., p. 14. 152 Ibid. 153 Ibid., pp. 10-11. 154 Ibid., p. 35. 155 Ibid., p. 39. CRS-40 family and public officials participated in ceremonies at Eisenhower’s birthplace during which Donna Pope, Director of the U.S. Mint, presented Eisenhower commemorative coins to several individuals.156 On October 2, Columbia University, where Eisenhower served as President during the postwar period, presented a convocation that included a panel discussion on the 34th President. Among those participating were commission member Susan Eisenhower and other members of the late President’s family, several students of his career, and representatives of two institutions Eisenhower had helped to found: the Center for the Study of the Presidency, and Columbia University’s Project on the Conservation of Human Resources. The University also renamed the Project the Eisenhower Center for the Conservation of Human Resources, and mounted an exhibit “Eisenhower at Columbia.”157 On October 10-13, more than 200 former participants in the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships Program joined its World Forum in Philadelphia, entitled “From Fellowship to Partnership.” Former President Gerald Ford addressed the Forum, and chairman Donald Rumsfeld presented the Eisenhower Medal to C. Douglas Dillon, former Ambassador to France.158 Gettysburg College in Gettysburg, PA, also presented a four-day Eisenhower Centennial Symposium that involved over 130 participants, including Eisenhower family members and several distinguished members of his Cabinet and staff. An anonymous donation allowed the college to establish an annual $25,000 Eisenhower Leadership prize.159 On October 14, the National Park Service commemorated Eisenhower’s centennial day with a ceremony, at the Eisenhower farm in Gettysburg, in which the late President’s grandson David Eisenhower participated.160 From October 10 through November 4, the Park Service also displayed 26 of Eisenhower’s paintings at the Eisenhower Centennial Art Exhibit at Gettysburg College.161 Also on October 14, a birthday program was presented at the Eisenhower Medical Center in Palm Springs, California.162 156 Ibid., p. 47. 157 Ibid., p. 38. 158 Ibid., p. 46. 159 Ibid., p. 41. 160 Ibid., p. 45. 161 Ibid., p. 42. 162 Ibid., p. 25. CRS-41 Finally, during the centennial year, the American Museum of Fly Fishing in Manchester, Vermont, presented an exhibit on “Eisenhower the Fly Fisherman,” to which the Eisenhower Library contributed Eisenhower equipment and memorabilia.163 International. The Eisenhower Centennial Foundation, with the assistance of the commission and the Eisenhower Institute, sent a delegation headed by Vice President Dan Quayle to Germany, Italy, France, and Britain to engage in commemorative events. The delegation also included commission vice chairman Robinson, commission member Susan Eisenhower and other members of the President’s family; officials of his Administration and staff; and staff of the Eisenhower Centennial Foundation.164 At the start of this tour, on May 4, 1990, members of the group were greeted by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl at the Old Chancellery in Bonn, Germany.165 The delegation then proceeded to Rome, Italy, where it met with Italian President Francesco Cossiga, Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti, and parliamentary leaders. On May 7, Vice President Quayle saluted Eisenhower in an address to the Italian Parliament. Later, “Members of the delegation ... flew out to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Eisenhower,”166 which the U.S. Navy had deployed from Norfolk, Virginia, on March 8 for the “Ike Centennial Cruise.”167 In France, on May 9, Vice President Quayle met with President Francois Mitterand, followed by a luncheon with Prime Minister Michel Rocard.168 Later the same day, the group traveled to Britain where the delegation attended a private dinner with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher at Chequers, the country estate of the Prime Minister. The following day, the group again met with the Prime Minister at 10 Downing Street, was honored at a luncheon by the U.S. Ambassador, and attended a Parliamentary Reception sponsored by the British-American Parliamentary Group that included many leaders of the British government. The U.K. Committee for the Eisenhower Centennial, which participated in and facilitated these events, was organized by Winston Churchill II.169 A second American delegation was organized by the Dwight D. Eisenhower Centennial Committee of the U.S. Department of Defense, headed by retired Lieutenant General Robert Arter. This Eisenhower centennial tour, “Journey to Victory,” began on June 4 in Britain and ended on June 7 in France. The delegation was headed by Eisenhower’s son, John S.D. Eisenhower, and included members of Eisenhower’s family, Administration, and staff, as well as General Arter. The group visited sites in both Britain and France associated with the allied invasion of 163 Ibid., p. 48. 164 Ibid., pp. 56, 59, 61-62. 165 Ibid., p. 61. 166 Ibid., p. 62. 167 Ibid., p. 49. 168 Ibid., p. 59. 169 Ibid., pp. 56-57. CRS-42 continental Europe in World War II, dedicating plaques at several locations and hearing remarks from prominent government figures in both countries, and major U.S. diplomatic and military leaders in Europe, many of whom had associations with Eisenhower in various phases of his career. The delegation was conveyed across the English Channel on the anniversary of D-Day by the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Eisenhower, which was continuing its “Ike Centennial Cruise.” Its tour concluded by commemorating the centennials of President Eisenhower and French President Charles de Gaulle (born November 22, 1890) at the French Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.170 On April 19, the Netherlands dedicated its fifth annual Netherlands-American Friendship Day to Eisenhower with an exhibit and a conference on international affairs in which commission member Susan Eisenhower participated. On October 16, an Eisenhower Centennial Lecture was presented at the University of Utrecht, and the Netherlands-United States Foundation held a celebration at the Peace Palace in The Hague, attended by Prince Bernhard, Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers, and U.S. Ambassador C. Howard Wilkins, Jr.. The following day, the Foundation dedicated a bust of Eisenhower at the Royal Military Academy in Breda.171 For the anniversary of the September 10, 1944, liberation of Luxembourg by American troops, an Eisenhower Centennial Foundation delegation was received by the American Luxembourg Society. Eisenhower granddaughter Anne Eisenhower unveiled a monument to the 34th President at the American Cemetery in ceremonies addressed by leading government officials of Luxembourg and the U.S. Ambassador. The cemetery’s access road was named “Allee Eisenhower,” and the group later met with Grand Duke Jean and was escorted to several historic and memorial sites by representatives of the Society for the Study of the Battle of the Bulge.172 Other international commemorations of the Eisenhower centennial took place in a variety of locations including: ! Copenhagen, Denmark, in May, where the American Club held a luncheon in honor of Eisenhower.173 ! Valberg, Sweden, located in the area from which ancestors of Eisenhower’s wife Mamie had emigrated, which on July 4 flew “a ceremonial flag” sent by Eisenhower in 1958.174 170 Ibid., pp. 57-61. 171 Ibid., p. 65. 172 Ibid., pp. 63-64. 173 Ibid., p. 55. 174 Ibid., p. 71. CRS-43 ! Scotland, on October 6, where commemorative ceremonies at Cuzlean Castle included a tree planting and the unveiling of a statute of Eisenhower.175 ! Brussels, Belgium, on October 11, where tributes to Eisenhower were offered in the Belgian Parliament, and Washington, D.C.’s National Symphony Orchestra presented a memorial concert. The following day, at the city hall of Schaerbeek, the U.S. Ambassador participated in ceremonies opening an exhibit on Eisenhower.176 ! Oslo, Norway, on October 13, where the America House Foundation held an Eisenhower Centennial Ball.177 ! Tunisia, on October 13 and 14, where the centennial was marked with a wreath-laying and the opening of a new United States cultural center, attended by Tunisian Secretary of State Ben Yahya and the British and American Ambassadors.178 Also, the Kansas Eisenhower Centennial Commission, with other Kansas organizations, funded a poster exhibit on Eisenhower’s life that traveled to 12 countries in Europe during 1990.179 On October 12, a sculpture and plaque were dedicated at NATO military headquarters in Brussels. Eisenhower had served as NATO commander in 1950 and 1951. The gathering, and an evening program the following day, were addressed by military associates of Eisenhower from World War II, including U.S. Ambassador to Germany Vernon Walters, who served as staff assistant and translator to Eisenhower, 1956-1960.180 One of the final international events of the centennial year was the Soviet commemoration of Eisenhower. In Moscow, on November 12-17, the Eisenhower Institute and the Soviet Coordinating Committee on the Eisenhower Centennial, representing several Soviet academic organizations, presented a conference on “Eisenhower’s World Legacy: Reappraisal of the Man and the Issues.” The conference was coordinated on the United States side by commission member Susan Eisenhower.181 175 Ibid., p. 67. 176 Ibid., p. 53. 177 Ibid., p. 66. 178 Ibid., p. 71. 179 Ibid., pp. 26-27. 180 Ibid., pp. 53-54. 181 Ibid., pp. 68-70. CRS-44 Joint Meeting of Congress In accordance with the statute establishing the commission, the legislation directed the commission “to submit recommendations to Congress relating to a joint meeting of both Houses of Congress to commemorate the centennial.”182 Subsequently, legislation was introduced in the Senate by commission chairman Senator Bob Dole, and in the House by commission member Representative Pat Roberts, and cosponsored by several other commission members that directed the “members of the Senate and House of Representatives who are members of the Dwight David Eisenhower Commission, with the assistance of the other members of that commission ... [to] make arrangements for a joint meeting of Congress” to commemorate the birth of President Eisenhower. Senator Dole’s bill (S.J.Res. 237, 101st Cong., 2nd sess.) became law on March 27, 1990.183 The joint meeting of Congress, held the same day, was presided over by Thomas P. Foley, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and attended by numerous distinguished invited guests. It was addressed by Senator Dole; Walter Cronkite, noted television journalist; Winston Churchill II, Member of Parliament and grandson of Winston Churchill of Great Britain; Clark Clifford, former Secretary of Defense; James D. Robinson III, chairman of the Eisenhower Centennial Foundation and vice chairman of the Dwight David Eisenhower Centennial Commission; Arnold Palmer, friend and former golf companion of President Eisenhower; John S.D. Eisenhower, son of the late President; Representative Beverly Byron, a member of the Dwight David Eisenhower Centennial Commission whose father, Harry C. Butcher, was Ike’s military aide in World War II; Representative William F. Goodling, in whose district was the site of the Eisenhower Farm, the late President’s retirement home; and Representative Pat Roberts, in whose district was Abilene, the childhood home of the late President. Musical tributes were offered by U.S. Army Band and U.S. Military Academy Glee Club. The U.S. Army Fife and Drum Corps greeted guests as they entered and departed the Capitol.184 182 P.L. 99-624, 100 Stat. 3497. 183 P.L. 101-258, 104 Stat. 119. The companion bill, H.J. Res 483 (101st Cong., 2nd sess) was not acted upon by the House. 184 “Joint Meeting of the 101st Congress in Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Dwight David Eisenhower,” Congressional Record, vol. 136, March 27, 1990, pp. 5435-5442. See also: The Eisenhower Centennial, 1890-1990, pp. 3-5. CRS-45 White House Centennial Luncheon The joint meeting was followed by a luncheon at the White House, hosted by President George H.W. Bush and Mrs. Bush, which included Eisenhower Administration alumni and members of the Eisenhower family as well as Members of Congress and the diplomatic corps.185 Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission The Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission was established August 17, 1992, by P.L. 102-343, the Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission Act. Membership The commission was composed of 21 members. In accordance with the commission’s legislative charter its membership included: ! The Chief Justice of the United States, or the Chief Justice’s delegate; ! The Librarian of Congress, or the Librarian’s delegate; ! The Archivist of the United States, or the Archivist’s delegate; ! President pro tempore of the Senate, or the President pro tempore’s delegate; ! Speaker of the House of Representatives, or the Speaker’s delegate; ! The Secretary of the Interior, or the Secretary’s delegate; ! The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, or the Secretary’s delegate; ! The Secretary of Education, or the Secretary’s delegate; ! Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities, or the Chairman’s delegate; ! Executive Director of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, or the Director’s delegate; and 185 U.S. President (Bush), “Remarks at a Luncheon Commemorating the Dwight D. Eisenhower Centennial,” Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States (Washington: GPO, 1991), Book 1, pp. 425-426; and The Eisenhower Centennial, 1890-1990, pp. 6-7. CRS-46 ! Eleven members appointed by the President of the United States,186 their selection being based on distinctive qualifications or experience in the fields of history, government, architecture, the applied sciences, or other professions that would enhance the work of the commission and reflect the professional accomplishments of Thomas Jefferson. The President named Merrill D. Peterson, University of Virginia, as chairman of the commission. Members of the commission served without compensation, but did receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence.187 Public and Private Funding Although the commission was authorized $250,000 for FY1993 and $62,500 for FY1994,188 Congress appropriated only $200,000 for FY1993189 and then rescinded $100,000 of that funding six months later.190 Initially, the Senate Committee on Appropriations recommended that the rescission be for the entire $200,000 since the commission had “held no meetings nor hired any staff, and [had] not spent any of the appropriation even through the anniversary and celebration occurred in April 186 Not more than six of these individuals could be affiliated with the same political party. Three of 11 appointments were selected from among individuals recommended by the Majority Leader of the Senate in consultation with the Minority Leader of the Senate; and three were appointed from among individuals recommended by the Speaker of the House of Representatives in consultation with the House Minority Leader. 187 106 Stat. 916-917. The ex officio members of the commission were: Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, represented by Robb Jones; Librarian of Congress James Billington, represented by John Y. Cole; Archivist of the United States Trudy Huskamp Peterson; President pro tempore of the Senate Robert C. Byrd; Speaker of the House Thomas S. Foley, represented by Charles E. Bennett; Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt, represented by Glynn Key; Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Robert McCormick Adams, represented by Wilton Dillon; Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley, represented by Steven G. Pappas; Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities Sheldon Hackney, represented by Guinevere Griest; and Executive Director of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation Daniel P. Jordan. Commission members appointed by the President were Charles L. Bartlett, Washington, D.C.; Daniel J. Boorstin, Washington, D.C.; John T. Casteen, III, Virginia; former Director of the National Park Service, Russell Dickenson; James L. Golden, Ohio; H. Draper Hunt, Maine; Pamela Kay Jensen, Ohio; Roger G. Kennedy, Virginia; Merrill D. Peterson, Virginia; President, The Foundation for Jefferson’s Poplar Forest, George Taylor Stewart; and James R. Thompson, Illinois. Final Report Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission (Charlottesville, Virginia: U.S. Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission, Jan. 10, 1995), p. 1. Typed copy of report provided to CRS by commission chairman Merrill D. Peterson. See also Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, v. 29, Jan. 18, 1993, p. 55; and June 14, 1993, p. 1063. 188 P.L. 102-343, 106 Stat. 920. 189 P.L. 102-395, 106 Stat. 1836. 190 P.L.103-50, 107 Stat. 247. CRS-47 1993.”191 Ultimately, however, a conference committee recommended a $100,000 rescission.192 The commission received an additional appropriation of $62,000 in October 1993.193 It was also authorized to “accept donations of money, personal services, and property, both real and personal, including books, manuscripts, miscellaneous printed matter, memorabilia, relics and other materials related to Thomas Jefferson.”194 Objectives Congress charged the commission with: (1) planning and developing programs and activities appropriate to commemorate the 250th anniversary of the birth of Thomas Jefferson, including a limited number of projects to be undertaken by the federal government that harmonized and balanced the important goals of ceremony and celebration with the equally important goals of scholarship and education; (2) generally coordinating activities throughout the several states; (3) honoring historical locations associated with the life of Thomas Jefferson; (4) recognizing individuals and organizations that significantly contributed to the preservation of Jefferson’s ideals, writings, architectural designs, and other professional accomplishments, by the award and presentation of medals and certificates; (5) encouraging civic, patriotic, and historical organizations, and state and local governments, to organize and participate in anniversary activities commemorating the birth of Thomas Jefferson; and (6) developing and coordinating activities relating to the anniversary of the birth of Thomas Jefferson as deemed appropriate. Organization For unexplained reasons, the commission was not fully appointed, or a chairman named, until June 1993, two months after the anniversary it was meant to commemorate. As noted above, Congress consequently rescinded half of the commission’s funding before the body convened its first meeting. During its initial meeting on July 29-30, 1993, the commission “discussed at length several of the obstacles that stood in the way of its success.” These included: (1) lateness of its appointment; (2) its brief duration, since the enabling statute called for the termination of the commission on December 31, 1993, five months hence; (3) a lack of funding (see authorizations and appropriations above); and (4) a statutory omission that allowed the commission to accept gifts of money and property but made no provision to make such gifts tax deductible—a clear deterrent to fund raising from private sources. 191 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Making Supplemental Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1993, and For Other Purposes. S.Rept. 103-54, 103rd Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1993), p. 15. 192 U.S. Congress, Committee on Conference, Making Supplemental Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 1993, and For Other Purposes. H.Rept. 103-165, 103rd Cong., 1st sess. (Washington: GPO, 1993), p. 8. 193 P.L. 103-121, 107 Stat. 1184. 194 P.L. 102-343, 106 Stat. 918-919. CRS-48 During its initial meeting, the commission: (1) approved the recommendation of the chairman that he also serve as executive director without compensation; (2) approved the appointment of an executive secretary and the location of the commission’s office at Kenwood, near Monticello; and (3) authorized the chairman to appoint an executive committee and such other committees as might be required to develop programs and commit start-up funds for them.195 To address the problems identified, the “Commission urged the Chairman to seek additional funding from Congress, to secure legislation to extend the Commission’s life through 1994, and to investigate ways of obtaining 501(c)3 tax status or its equivalent.”196 Late in 1993, legislation was approved that extended the commission through December 31, 1994,197 and a separate bill provided an additional $62,000 for staff and supplies.198 In February 1994, the Internal Revenue Service authorized the “Commission to receive contributions deductible for federal income tax purposes under Sec 170(c)(1) of the [Internal revenue] Code.”199 The final meeting of the commission was held in St. Louis, Missouri, on November 1994, coincident with the opening of the conference, “Jefferson and the Changing West.” One week later, the commission was abruptly terminated by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) on the grounds that the commission stood in violation of the Anti-Deficiency Act200 because its authority to spend the appropriated funds had expired. OMB ruled that the $62,000 appropriated for FY1994 was “annual money” and could not be carried over to FY1995. The commission was asked to surrender its seal, computer, fax machine, and other aids, and its lone staff person was dismissed.201 Professional Staff One person worked for the commission, first as an executive secretary and then subsequently as both executive secretary and assistant to the chairman from July 1993 to November 1994.202 Projects and Activities Conference on Jefferson and the Changing West: From Conquest to Conservation. On November 18-20, 1994, the commission and the Missouri Historical Society cosponsored a conference in St. Louis entitled: “Jefferson and the 195 Final Report Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission, p. 1. 196 Ibid., p. 2. 197 P.L. 103-191, 107 Stat. 2291. 198 P.L. 103-121, 107 Stat. 1184. 199 Final Report Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission, p. 2. 200 31 U.S.C. 1341-1342. 201 Ibid., p. 4. 202 Conversation with commission chairman Merrill D. Peterson on April 26, 2001. CRS-49 Changing West: From Conquest to Conservation.” The conference, with the support of the Missouri Botanical Garden, featured presentations that: (1) reassessed Jefferson’s contribution to the development of the American West, and (2) examined current environmental and human problems in the Trans-Mississippi West. Included among the presenters were Western historians and experts in public policy, environmental affairs, and the arts. More than 200 people attended the conference. School and Civic Learning Initiatives. “Inspired by Jefferson’s conviction that education is the paramount responsibility of democratic government and has as its primary purpose the making of good citizens,” the commission promoted two different educational projects. Relying in large part on existing organizations, the commission sought through these projects “to upgrade the quality of civics instruction in the [Nation’s] schools, to make students better acquainted with Jefferson’s life, thought, and legacy, and to raise the consciousness of the American public on the importance of civic learning.”203 In the first instance, the commission gained the assistance and support of the “Center for Civic Education, the premier organization in the field,” to dedicate its 1994 program to Jefferson’s memory. In the second instance, with the assistance of The Council of Chief State School Officers and The American Forum, the commission arranged for the publication and distribution of 40,000 copies of a 16-page secondary schoollevel teacher’s guide entitled The World of Thomas Jefferson.204 The World of Thomas Jefferson included pieces on: “The Art of Democracy,” and “Jefferson’s Legacy: Civil Learning and Public Education;” sections on “Teaching Activities,” and “Resources and Organizations;” a chronology of “Important Moments in the Life of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826);” a section devoted to important Jefferson quotations; and a reprint of the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson: World Citizen Symposia. The commission also supported a joint venture of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution that sought to “increase knowledge of Jefferson world-wide and to invite scholars and others in foreign countries to assess Jefferson’s philosophy and legacy as these might be of particular significance to them.” The Smithsonian Institution, with the cooperation of the U.S. Information Agency (USIA), arranged symposia in Buenos Aires, Tokyo, London, and Paris. A special symposium was also held in the capital of the Cherokee nation, Tahlequah, Oklahoma, to examine Jefferson’s ideas vis–a–vis the rights of indigenous peoples. The climax of the “Jefferson: World Citizen” project, a summit conference in Washington, D.C., for participants from most of the continents, was canceled because of insufficient public and private funding. Prior to the cancellation, the commission unsuccessfully sought to obtain an “emergency grant” from the National Endowment for the Humanities. 203 Final Report Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission, p. 3. 204 Ibid. CRS-50 The grant the commission felt, “would have leveraged private support” for the Washington, D.C., summit conference.205 Jefferson Radio Conversations and Television Forums. The commission planned a series of half-hour radio programs that featured different guest experts on different themes or facets of Jefferson’s life, and a series of public meetings for television that focused attention of fundamental questions of governance. Neither effort, however, achieved the necessary support of National Public Radio and the Public Broadcasting System to become a reality.206 Presidential Proclamation. At the urging of commission chairman Merrill Petersen, President Clinton revived the practice begun by President Franklin D. Roosevelt of publicly proclaiming Jefferson’s birthday.207 Op Ed Piece. Commission chairman Merrill Peterson wrote a piece, “Jefferson and the Living,” which was sent to the editorial page editors of 1,000 newspapers with a suggested publication date of April 13, 1994. Although the extent of the use of the piece is unknown, the commission received printings from approximately two dozen newspapers around the country.208 USIA Poster Show on Jefferson. The commission sought and received a congressional waiver of the ban on domestic exhibition and distribution of USIA programs, specifically its large poster show commemorating the 250th anniversary of the birth of Thomas Jefferson. The Director of the USIA placed the surplus stock of exhibit—more than 100 sets—at the commission’s disposal.209 Recognition of Schools Named After the Third President. The commission sent suitably inscribed certificates, together with a Jefferson reading to the 454 schools in the United States bearing the Jefferson name. The recipient schools were also invited to request the USIA poster show.210 Conference on Current State of Jefferson Scholarship. In one of its final actions, the commission decided to make $20,000 available to the International Center for Jefferson Studies at Monticello to meet the expenses of a special conference on the current status of Jefferson scholarship. 205 Ibid. 206 Ibid. 207 Ibid.; and “Proclamation 6669 - 251st Anniversary of the Birth of Thomas Jefferson,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, v. 30, April 18, 1994, pp. 807-808. 208 Final Report Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission, p. 4. 209 Ibid.; and Foreign Relations Authorization Act, FY1994 and FY1995, P.L. 103-236, sec. 234, 108 Stat. 424. 210 Final Report Thomas Jefferson Commemoration Commission, p. 4. CRS-51 Commission Recommendations In its final report, the commission made six recommendations. These called for: (1) establishment of a National Council of Historic Commemorations, which would report to the President, with “responsibility for continuous thought and oversight in this field, and of initial planning and coordination of civil commemorations of signally important anniversaries—of persons, events, ideas—in American history;” (2) an annual proclamation of Jefferson’s birthday by the President as Congress authorized in Public Resolution 60, approved by Congress on August 16, 1937 (36 U.S. Code 149); (3) textual correction of the text on the four panels of the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C.; (4) programs across the country that would raise the consciousness of the American public on the importance of civic values and learning; (5) continuing support for the editing and publication of volumes of papers of the “Big Five” Founders (George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin); and (6) establishment of a federally funded Jefferson National Scholarship program that would award one five-year college or university scholarship in each state.211 Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission The Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission was established on February 25, 2000, by P.L. 106-173, the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission Act. Membership The commission is composed of 15 members. commission’s legislative charter its members include: In accordance with the ! Two members (private citizens) appointed by the President who have “a demonstrated dedication to educating others about the importance of historical figures and events; and substantial knowledge and appreciation of Abraham Lincoln;” ! One member appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Governor of Illinois, meeting the criteria described above; ! One member appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Governor of Indiana, meeting the criteria described above; ! One member appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Governor of Kentucky, meeting the criteria described above; ! Three members, one of whom is a Member of the House of Representatives, appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives; 211 Ibid., pp. 4-6. CRS-52 ! Three members, one of whom is a Senator, appointed by the Majority Leader of the Senate; ! Two members, one of whom is a Member of the House of Representatives, appointed by the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives; and ! Two members, one of whom is a Senator, appointed by the Minority Leader of the Senate.212 Members of the commission are authorized to elect the chair of the commission. Commission members serve without pay, but are provided travel expenses, including per diem, in lieu of subsistence. Public and Private Funding The enabling act authorizes appropriations for the commission, but does not set a spending ceiling. In December 2000, Congress appropriated $461,000 for the commission for FY2001.213 Objectives The commission is directed “to study activities that may be carried out by the federal government to determine whether the activities are fitting and proper to honor Abraham Lincoln” on February 12, 2009, the occasion of the bicentennial anniversary of his birth. The commission is to include in its analysis the following potential federal activities: 212 P.L. 106-173, 114 Stat. 14-15. Commission members appointed by the President who have demonstrated a dedication to educating others about Lincoln are: Harold Holzer, New York; and James Oliver Horton, Virginia. Commission members appointed by the President, which were recommended by State Governors are: Darrel E. Bigham, Indiana; James R. Thompson, Illinois; and Tommy Turner, Kentucky. Commission members appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, J. Dennis Hastert of Illinois, are: Representative Ray LaHood of Illinois; Joan Flinspach, Indiana; and Lura Lynn Ryan, Illinois. Commission members appointed by Republican Leader of the Senate, Trent Lott of Mississippi, are: Senator Jim Bunning of Kentucky; Gabor S. Boritt, Pennsylvania; and Frank J. Williams, Rhode Island. Commission members appointed by the Democratic Leader of the House of Representatives, Richard A. Gephardt of Missouri are: Representative David D. Phelps of Illinois; and Louis Taper, California. Commission members appointed by the Democratic Leader of the Senate, Tom Daschle of South Dakota, are: Senator Richard J. Durbin of Illinois; and Jean T.D. Bandler, Connecticut. Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 46, May 10, 2000, p. S3852; June 29, 2000, p. H5653; July 10, 2000, p. H5660; Sept. 5, 2000, p. S8030; and Oct. 25, 2000, p. S11009; and Weekly Compilation of President Documents, vol. 36, Sept. 4, 2000, p. 1994; Nov. 6, 2000, p. 2756; and Dec. 11, 2000, p. 3038. 213 P.L. 106-554 incorporated by reference H.R. 5656, which provided funds for the commission, see 114 Stat. 2763A-65. CRS-53 ! minting an Abraham Lincoln bicentennial penny; ! issuing an Abraham Lincoln bicentennial postage stamp; ! convening of a joint meeting or joint session of Congress for ceremonies and activities relating to Abraham Lincoln; ! redesignating the Lincoln Memorial, or other activity with respect to the Memorial; and ! acquiring and preserving artifacts associated with Abraham Lincoln. The commission is also charged with making recommendations to Congress on the activities it considers “most fitting and proper,” and the federal entity or entities considered to be the most appropriate to carry out these activities.214 Organization and Powers All 15 members of commission had been selected as of the end of September 2000. The commission is authorized to elect its chair. The commission may: (1) “hold such hearings, sit and act as such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence” as it considers to be appropriate; (2) authorize “any member or agent of the Commission” to “take any action that the Commission is authorized to take;” (3) “secure directly from any department or agency of the United States information necessary to enable the Commission” to fulfill its mandate; (4) “use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the United States;” and (5) request the Administrator of the General Services Administration (GSA) to provide on a “reimbursable basis, the administrative services necessary for the Commission to carry out its responsibilities.”215 Professional Staff The commission is authorized “to appoint and fix the pay of a director and such additional personnel” as it may deem appropriate.216 Commission Reports The commission may submit to Congress such interim reports as it considers appropriate. It is required to submit a final report to Congress four years after the commission is formed which will contain: (1) a detailed statement of the findings and conclusions of the commission; (2) the recommendations of the commission; and (3) any other information that the commission considers to be appropriate. The commission is to terminate its activities 120 days after its final report is submitted. 214 114 Stat. 15. 215 114 Stat. 17. 216 114 Stat. 16. CRS-54 James Madison Commemoration Commission and James Madison Commemoration Advisory Committee The James Madison Commemoration Commission and James Madison Commemoration Advisory Committee were established on December 19, 2000, by P.L. 106-550, the James Madison Commemoration Commission Act. Membership: Commemoration Commission The commemoration commission is composed of 19 members. In accordance with the commission’s legislative charter its membership includes: ! The Chief Justice of the United States; ! The Majority Leader and the Minority Leader of the Senate; ! The Speaker and the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives; ! The Chairman and the Ranking Member of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary; ! The Chairman and the Ranking Member of the House Committee on the Judiciary; ! Two members of the Senate selected by the Senate Majority Leader, and two members of the Senate selected by the Senate Minority Leader; ! Two members of the House of Representatives selected by the Speaker of the House and two members of the House selected by the House Minority Leader; and, ! Two members of the executive branch selected by the President of the United States.217 217 The ex officio members of the commission are: Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist (chairman); Senate Republican Leader Trent Lott of Mississippi; Senate Democratic Leader Tom Daschle of South Dakota; Speaker of the House of Representatives J. Dennis Hastert of Illinois; House Democratic Leader Richard A. Gephardt of Missouri; Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee Patrick J. Leahy of Vermont; Ranking Member of the Senate Judiciary Committee Orrin G. Hatch of Utah; Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. of Wisconsin; and Ranking Member of the House Judiciary Committee John Conyers, Jr. of Michigan. Commission members appointed by the Senate Republican Leader are Senators John W. Warner of Virginia and Jeff Sessions of Alabama. Commission members to be appointed by the Senate Democratic Leader are pending. Commission members appointed by the Speaker of the House are Representatives Bob Goodlatte of Virginia and Eric Cantor of Virginia. Commission members appointed by the House Democratic Leader are Representatives Rick Boucher of Virginia and Jim Moran of Virginia. (continued...) CRS-55 The act provides that Chief Justice serve as chairman of the commission. A vice chairman will be selected by the commission from its membership. Should the Chief Justice appoint a delegate to serve in his place, commission members are to select a new chairman from its membership.218 Members serve for the life of the commission.219 Membership: Advisory Committee The advisory committee is composed of 14 members. In accordance with the committee’s legislative charter its membership includes: ! The Archivist of the United States, or the Archivist’s delegate; ! The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, or the Secretary’s delegate; ! The Executive Director of Montpelier and the 2001 Planning Committee of Montpelier, or the Executive Director’s delegate;220 ! The President of James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia, or the President’s delegate; ! The Director of the James Madison Center, James Madison University, or the Director’s delegate; ! The President of the James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation, or the President’s delegate; ! Two members selected by the Senate Majority Leader and two members selected by the Senate Minority Leader, with the requirements that they not be Members of Congress and that they have “expertise on the legal and historical significance of James Madison;” and, ! Two members selected by the Speaker of the House and two members selected by the House Minority Leader, with the requirements that they not be Members of Congress and that they have “expertise on the legal and historical significance of James Madison.”221 217 (...continued) Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 147, Feb. 6, 1001, p. S1094; March 8, 2001, p. H810; and March 13, 2001, p. H837. Executive branch members of the commission appointed by the President are Secretary of State Colin Powell and Attorney General John Ashcroft. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, vol. 37, April 16, 2001, pp. 218 P.L. 106-550, 114 Stat. 2747. 219 114 Stat. 2748. 220 Montpelier was the home of James Madison. 221 The official position members of the Advisory Committee are: Archivist of the United States John Carlin, Director of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Portrait Gallery Marc Pachter, (continued...) CRS-56 The chairman and vice chairman of the committee are selected by its members. Members serve for the life of the committee.222 Public and Private Funding Congress authorized an appropriation for the commission of $250,000 for FY2001.223 The commission is also authorized to “accept donations of money, personal services, and property, both real and personal, including books, manuscripts, miscellaneous printed matter, memorabilia, relics, and other materials related to James Madison.”224 The source and amount of donated funds are to be listed in the each of the commissions’s reports. In using donated funds in the procurement of property and services, the commission is required to follow federal government small purchase procedures.225 Objectives: Commemoration Commission Congress charged the commemorative commission with responsibility for the commemoration of the 250th anniversary of the birth of President James Madison on March 16, 2001. Congress authorized the commission to: ! publish a book containing some of James Madison’s most important writings and tributes to him by commission members and others as determined by the commission members, undertaken with the cooperation of the advisory committee and the Library of Congress; ! plan and coordinate one or more symposia, at least one of which was to be held on March 16, 2001, for the purpose of “providing a better understanding of James Madison’s contribution to American political culture;” the act 221 (...continued) Executive Director of Montpelier Michael Quinn, President of James Madison University Dr. Linwood Rose, Associate Vice President of Parent and Constituent Relations at James Madison University Glenda Rooney, and President of the James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation Admiral Paul Yost. Committee members appointed by the Senate Republican Leader are: Steven G. Calabresi, Illinois and Forrest McDonald, Alabama. Committee members appointed by the Senate Democratic Leader are: Gary G. Aguiar, South Dakota, and Jack N. Rakove, California. Committee members appointed by the Speaker of the House are: Charles Kessler, California, and Randy Wright, Virginia. Committee members appointed by the House Democratic Leader are: Librarian of Congress James H. Billington, and Theodore McKee, Pennsylvania. Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 147, Feb. 13, 2001, p. S1353, March 9, 2001, p. S2136; March 13, 2001, p. H837; and April 26, p. H1610. 222 114 Stat. 2478. 223 P.L. 106-550, 114 Stat. 2751. 224 P.L. 106-550, 114 Stat. 2749. 225 P.L. 106-550, 114 Stat. 2749-2750. CRS-57 required this duty to be undertaken with the cooperation of the advisory committee, and the Library of Congress; ! recognize other events commemorating the birth and life of James Madison, in cooperation with the advisory committee; ! develop and coordinate other activities relating to the anniversary of the birth of James Madison; ! sponsor a nationwide essay competition among students in public and private elementary and secondary schools on Madison’s life and contributions, with award certificates given to students who authored exceptional papers; and, ! bestow honorary memberships on the commission or the advisory committee to individuals, as determined by the commission.226 Objectives: Advisory Committee Congress charged the advisory committee with responsibility for: ! submitting a suggested selection of James Madison’s most important writings to the commission to consider for inclusion in the book to be published by Government Printing Office (GPO); ! submitting a list and description of events regarding the birth and life of James Madison to the commission for consideration in recognizing such events as official “commission events;” and, ! making such recommendations to the commission as a majority of its members deem appropriate.227 Staffing and Support Staff of both the commemorative commission and advisory committee are provided by the chairmen of the House and Senate Judiciary Committees, and the Librarian of Congress. Staff and other support, including facilities and supplies, are provided at no charge to the commission and advisory committee. 226 P.L. 106-550, 114 Stat. 2746-2747. 227 Ibid. CRS-58 Activities Commission Web Site. The home page of the Senate Judiciary Committee contains a link to the commission, which includes a description of the commission’s duties, membership of the commission and the advisory committee, instructions for entering a student essay contest on the accomplishments of Madison, and an autobiography of James Madison.228 Student Essay Contest. Early in 2001, the commission announced an essay contest among public and private school students, grades 1 through 12, on the contributions of Madison. The purpose of the contest is “to recognize and make others aware of the significance of contributions that James Madison has made to our political and civic life as a nation.”229 All entries must be submitted to the commission by teachers only, not entrants. Essays must be received via electronic mail (senate.gov/~judiciary/madison.htm) no later than October 31, 2001. Madison Symposium. On March 16, 2001, the 250th anniversary of Madison’s birth, the commission hosted a symposium titled, “James Madison: Philosopher and Practitioner of Liberal Democracy.” The symposium explored the thought and character of Madison and the nature of his contributions, including his defense of religious liberty, his role as architect and defender of the U.S. Constitution, his role in formulation of the Bill of Rights, and his service as Secretary of State and then United States President. The event was held in the Thomas Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress, and was cosponsored by the Henry Salvatori Center of Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, California. The Salvatori Center provided a grant to cover symposium expenses. Symposium sessions were led by Lance Banning, University of Kentucky, on “James Madison, Federalist;” Robert Goldwin, American Enterprise Institute, on “James Madison’ Sagacious, Powerful, Combining Mind;” James Hutson, Library of Congress, on “James Madison and the Social Utility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards;” Harry Jaffe, Claremont McKenna College, on “Defenders of the Constitution: Madison vs. Calhoun;” Drew McCoy, Clark University, on “Remembering James Madison: Character, Vision and Experience;” and Gary Rosen, Commentary magazine, on “Was Madison an Original Thinker?” Library of Congress Exhibit: “Madison Treasures”. In March 2001, the Library of Congress unveiled an exhibit titled, “Madison’s Treasures.”230 Featured are a number of Madison holographs from the Library’s collection, which is the largest collection of original Madison documents in existence. Among documents contained in the exhibit are those relating to the drafting and ratification of the U.S. Constitution; Madison’s introduction in the First Congress of the proposed amendments that subsequently became the Bill of Rights; an autobiographical sketch 228 See [http://www.senate.gov/~judiciary/madison.htm]. 229 See [http://www.senate.gov/~judiciary/madison.htm]. 230 See [http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/madison], and [http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/madison/ objects.html]. CRS-59 prepared by Madison in 1832; and a record of his proposal of January 23, 1783, to establish a Library of Congress. Also, included are documents expressing his views on the separation of church and state in 1832, and on religious freedom from 1785; his writings on the burning of Washington, D.C., by the British in 1814; and family and autobiographical documents handwritten by Madison, among them his notes made during the Constitutional Convention on July 2, 1787, and the first page of a working draft of the United States Constitution, dated September 17, 1787. The exhibit includes a Madison family tree, drawn by Madison. Library of Congress Web Site. On March 16, 2001, the Library of Congress placed on its American Memory web site a detailed summary of the life and achievements of James Madison. The web site is titled, “American Memory - Today in History,” and includes a guide to conducting research on Madison.231 The Library’s web site also contains a hot link to “A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation,” which includes the records of the Continental Congress, records of the states’ ratification debates, and the Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, known as Farrand’s Records. It also provides a guide to Madison’s writings and speeches.232 In June 2001, the Library began to digitize Madison’s papers to make them available for viewing. The full collection is expected to be available for viewing sometime in 2002.233 231 Ibid. 232 See [http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar16.html]. 233 Spokesperson for the American Memory Office of the Library of Congress, May 7, 2001.