Summit of the Americas III, Quebec City, Canada, April 20-22, 2001: Background, Objectives, and Results

Summit of the Americas III was held in Quebec City, Canada, on April 20-22, 2001, and was attended by 34 democratically elected Presidents and Prime Ministers from the Western Hemisphere, including President George W. Bush. It was President Bush's first international summit, and his first major opportunity to reemphasize the priority his administration places on the Western Hemisphere, given that he visited Mexico in mid-February, spoke at the Organization of American States (OAS) in mid-April, and met with seven hemispheric leaders before he attended the Summit in Canada. The Quebec City Summit was a follow up to the presidential-level Summit of the Americas I (Miami, Florida, December 1994) and Summit of the Americas II (Santiago, Chile, April 1998), as well as the ministerial Summit for Sustainable Development (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, December 1996). Most analysts agree that the hemispheric countries and organizations have made progress on the broad mandates established in 1994, 1996, and 1998, namely to preserve and strengthen democracy, promote prosperity through freer trade, eradicate poverty and discrimination, and guarantee sustainable development and environmental conservation. However, some argue that progress has been disappointing in education, sustainable development, and in promotion of civil society participation. Others argue that democracy remains fragile in the hemisphere and that poverty, discrimination, and injustice are still pervasive. The Quebec Summit had a high degree of consensus among the 34 heads of state, although there are still considerable differences regarding the final form of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The hemispheric leaders dealt with three major themes: (1) Strengthening Democracy, where they agreed to a democracy clause that specified that democratic government was an essential condition for participation in the summit process; (2) Creating Prosperity, where they agreed to advance toward the conclusion of the agreement on the FTAA by January 2005; and (3) Realizing Human Potential, where they agreed to initiatives to promote education, health, and greater equity for women, youth, and indigenous peoples. Considerable press coverage focused on the protesters who argue that free trade agreements benefit business groups and the wealthy while resulting in the degradation of labor and environmental standards. Congress may be particularly interested in plans to advance FTAA negotiations, in efforts to implement the democracy clause for the hemisphere, in future assessments under the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) of hemispheric counter-narcotics efforts, and in plans for bilateral and multilateral cooperation to promote hemispheric socioeconomic reforms.

Order Code RL30936 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Summit of the Americas III, Quebec City, Canada, April 20-22, 2001: Background, Objectives, and Results Updated May 10, 2001 -name redacted- and -name redactedAnalysts in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Summit of the Americas III, Quebec City, Canada, April 20-22, 2001: Background, Objectives, and Results Summary Summit of the Americas III was held in Quebec City, Canada, on April 20-22, 2001, and was attended by 34 democratically elected Presidents and Prime Ministers from the Western Hemisphere, including President George W. Bush. It was President Bush’s first international summit, and his first major opportunity to reemphasize the priority his administration places on the Western Hemisphere, given that he visited Mexico in mid-February, spoke at the Organization of American States (OAS) in midApril, and met with seven hemispheric leaders before he attended the Summit in Canada. The Quebec City Summit was a follow up to the presidential-level Summit of the Americas I (Miami, Florida, December 1994) and Summit of the Americas II (Santiago, Chile, April 1998), as well as the ministerial Summit for Sustainable Development (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, December 1996). Most analysts agree that the hemispheric countries and organizations have made progress on the broad mandates established in 1994, 1996, and 1998, namely to preserve and strengthen democracy, promote prosperity through freer trade, eradicate poverty and discrimination, and guarantee sustainable development and environmental conservation. However, some argue that progress has been disappointing in education, sustainable development, and in promotion of civil society participation. Others argue that democracy remains fragile in the hemisphere and that poverty, discrimination, and injustice are still pervasive. The Quebec Summit had a high degree of consensus among the 34 heads of state, although there are still considerable differences regarding the final form of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The hemispheric leaders dealt with three major themes: (1) Strengthening Democracy, where they agreed to a democracy clause that specified that democratic government was an essential condition for participation in the summit process; (2) Creating Prosperity, where they agreed to advance toward the conclusion of the agreement on the FTAA by January 2005; and (3) Realizing Human Potential, where they agreed to initiatives to promote education, health, and greater equity for women, youth, and indigenous peoples. Considerable press coverage focused on the protesters who argue that free trade agreements benefit business groups and the wealthy while resulting in the degradation of labor and environmental standards. Congress may be particularly interested in plans to advance FTAA negotiations, in efforts to implement the democracy clause for the hemisphere, in future assessments under the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) of hemispheric counter-narcotics efforts, and in plans for bilateral and multilateral cooperation to promote hemispheric socioeconomic reforms. Contents Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Major Actions on Summit Initiatives Since 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Preserving and Strengthening Democracies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengthening Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Promoting Human Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Invigorating Civil Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combating Corruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combating Illegal Drugs and Related Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliminating the Threat of Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building Confidence and Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengthening Local Government and Judicial Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . II. Promoting Prosperity Through Economic Integration and Free Trade . . Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengthening Financial Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengthening Hemispheric Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooperation in Science and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. Eradicating Poverty and Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Universal Access to Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equitable Access to Basic Health Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengthening the Role of Women in Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encouraging Microenterprises and Small Businesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strengthening the Rights of Workers and Migrant Workers . . . . . . . . Advancing the Rights of Indigenous Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Guaranteeing Sustainable Development and Conserving the Natural Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Promoting Sustainable Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conserving Water Resources and Coastal Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Promoting Regional Energy Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 The Agenda for the Quebec Summit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Strengthening Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Creating Prosperity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Realizing Human Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Civil Society Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 7 7 8 8 5 5 5 5 Congressional Interest in the Quebec Summit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Results of the Quebec Summit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Strengthening Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Making Democracy Work Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Justice, Rule of Law, and Security of the Individual . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hemispheric Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Civil Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 2. Creating Prosperity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trade, Investment, and Financial Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infrastructure and Regulatory Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disaster Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environmental Foundation for Sustainable Development . . . . . . . . . Agriculture Management and Rural Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labor and Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Growth with Equity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Realizing Human Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gender Equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indigenous Peoples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cultural Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children and Youth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 Summit of the Americas III, Quebec City, Canada, April 20-22, 2001: Background, Objectives, and Results Background Summit of the Americas III was held in Quebec City, Canada, on April 20-22, 2001, and was attended by 34 democratically elected Presidents and Prime Ministers from the Western Hemisphere, including President George W. Bush. Non-democratic Cuba was the only country in the Western Hemisphere that was not represented. The Quebec Summit was a follow up to the presidential-level Summit of the Americas I (Miami, Florida, December 1994) and Summit of the Americas II (Santiago, Chile, April 1998), as well as the ministerial Summit for Sustainable Development (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, December 1996).1 These summits were the result of a growing sense of shared values among the countries of the hemisphere and the determination to join together to consolidate and strengthen the commitments to advance democracy, free trade, and sustainable development. The first of these summits was conceived shortly after legislative approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Mexico, Canada, and the United States, and the countries were particularly interested in seizing upon U.S. initiatives to advance free trade in the hemisphere, which had included former President Bush’s Enterprise for the Americas Initiative and former President Clinton’s similar trade liberalization initiatives. At the 1994 Miami Summit hemispheric leaders signed a broad and comprehensive Declaration of Principles and a Plan of Action with 23 separate initiatives under four major themes: (1) Preserving and Strengthening Democracies, (2) Promoting Prosperity through Economic Integration and Free Trade, (3) Eradicating Poverty and Discrimination, and (4) Guaranteeing Sustainable Development and Conserving the Natural Environment. On the central issue of promotion of free trade, the leaders agreed to complete negotiations for a Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) by the year 2005.2 1 For information and linkages to complete information on the summits, see the web site maintained by Florida International University’s Summit of the Americas Center (SOAC) [http://www.americasnet.net/SOAC_Home/summits/content.htm] and the Summit of the Americas Information Network web site maintained by the Organization of American States’ Office of Summit Followup [http://www.summit-americas.org/]. 2 For background on the Miami Summit, see CRS Report 94-911, Summit of the Americas, December 9-11, 1994: Background, Plans, and Hemispheric Expectations, by K. Larry (continued...) CRS-2 At the 1996 Santa Cruz Summit on Sustainable Development, as is indicated by the title, the focus was on environmental issues, with a Plan of Action that went beyond and elaborated the tasks of the Miami Summit to include 65 action items on such issues as sustainable agriculture, forests and cities, as well as water resources, coastal areas, energy and minerals. At the Santiago Summit in 1998, the leaders agreed on a Declaration and a Plan of Action with 27 initiatives grouped under four major areas: (1) Education, (2) Preserving and Strengthening Democracy, Justice and Human Rights, (3) Economic Integration and Free Trade, and (4) Eradication of Poverty and Discrimination.3 While education was perhaps the centerpiece of the Santiago Summit, hemispheric leaders also launched negotiations for the FTAA, created Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression and for Migrant Workers, agreed to establish a hemispheric Justice Studies Center, and advanced the process for the development of a multilateral evaluation mechanism to judge the effectiveness of the counter-narcotics efforts of all countries in the region. The leaders also institutionalized the summit process by formalizing the Summit Implementation Review Group (SIRG) as the mechanism for input from the countries’ foreign ministries into the summit process, and by assigning responsibility for many of the tasks to the Organization of American States (OAS), with the OAS Special Committee on Inter-American Summits (CEGCI ) and the OAS Office of Summit Followup responsible for overseeing followup and implementation.4 In many ways the business of the summits became the business of the OAS, with hemispheric leaders meeting every three or four years to give impetus to the hemispheric agenda and to make necessary high level political decisions. In several areas, including trade, technical support was provided by the Tripartite Committee composed of the OAS, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), and the U.N. Economic Commission on Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). 2 (...continued) Storrs. For more complete information on the 1994 Summit and the events leading up to it, see Summitry in the Americas: A Progress Report (Washington, D.C. Institute for International Economics, 1997), by Richard Feinberg. 3 For background on the Santiago Summit, see CRS Report 98-330, Summit of the Americas II, April 18-19, 1998: Background, Objectives, and Expectations, by (n ame redacted). For full information on accomplishments since 1994, see Words into Deeds–Progress Since the Miami Summit: Report on Implementation of the Decisions Reached at the 1994 Miami Summit of the Americas (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State, April 1998–Publication 10536). For another evaluation of the progress to 1998, see The Leadership Council for Inter-American Summitry, From Talk to Action: How Summits Can Help Forge a Western Hemisphere Community of Prosperous Democracies ( Coral Gables, Florida: North-South Center, 1998). 4 See “The Summit Process,” on the OAS’ Summit of the Americas Information Network [http://www.summit-americas.org/eng/summitprocess.htm]. CRS-3 Major Actions on Summit Initiatives Since 1994 Since 1994, the participating countries, with assistance from designated responsible countries and organizations, particularly the OAS, have been advancing the initiatives in a variety of ways, with the following major actions listed under the broad headings of the 1994 Miami Summit.5 I. Preserving and Strengthening Democracies Strengthening Democracy. The OAS Unit for the Promotion of Democracy has provided extensive training and support for electoral processes and legislative institutions, and OAS General Assemblies in 1999 and 2000 adopted resolutions affirming the hemispheric commitment to representative democracy. Promoting Human Rights. The Inter-American Human Rights Commission, and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights continued to promote human rights, and the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression created in 1998 has made reports and visited several countries to advance his mandate. Invigorating Civil Society. In 1999, the OAS General Assembly created the Committee on Civil Society Participation in OAS Activities, which has encouraged citizen input in many areas, particularly summit activities, sustainable development, and the FTAA. Combating Corruption. Under the auspices of the OAS, countries negotiated the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption in 1996, which entered into force in 1997, with 18 of the 23 signatories having ratified it, including the United States. Combating Illegal Drugs and Related Crimes. Working through the OAS’ Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (CICAD) countries approved the “Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere in December 1996, the InterAmerican Convention Against Illicit Arms Trafficking” in November 1997, and the “Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism” (MEM) to assess countries’ counter-narcotics efforts in 1999, which was implemented in 2000. Eliminating the Threat of Terrorism. In 1999, the OAS General Assembly created the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE), which has met and made recommendations for action in its Annual Report. Building Confidence and Security. Building upon earlier confidencebuilding measures, including advance notice of military exercises and exchanges of 5 See Index by Issues of Summit Initiatives on the OAS’ Summit of the Americas Information Network [http://www.summit-americas.org/eng/issues.htm], and the Third Summit of the Americas Fact Sheets on the Department of State's web site at [http://uninfo.state.gov/regional/ar/summit/fact.htm]. CRS-4 defense information, Defense Ministers of the Americas have met annually in the last four years, and an OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security was created to advance security, while the OAS Unit for the Promotion of Democracy has supported various demining activities. Strengthening Local Government and Judicial Systems. The OAS Unit for the Promotion of Democracy has promoted decentralization and more effective local government, while the OAS Secretariat of Legal Affairs and the ministerial meetings of Ministers of Justice and of Attorney Generals have created a hemispheric Justice Studies Center. II. Promoting Prosperity Through Economic Integration and Free Trade Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). Hemispheric Trade Ministers, acting through six almost yearly trade ministerials, reaffirmed the 1994 commitment to achieve a FTAA by the year 2005, with the most recent ministerial in early April 2001 specifying that all elements of the FTAA negotiations should be concluded no later than January 2005, and that the agreement should enter into force no later than December 2005. Strengthening Financial Markets. Through meetings of Ministers of Finance, countries created the Committee on Hemispheric Financial Issues that developed a survey of national financial systems and plans for combating financial crimes and for training banking and securities regulators. Strengthening Hemispheric Infrastructure. Governments and multilateral development banks have encouraged infrastructure development, particularly telecommunications and transportation infrastructure, with support from the OAS’ Inter-American Telecommunications Commission (CITEL) and Western Hemisphere Transportation Ministerials. Cooperation in Science and Technology. Acting through the InterAmerican Conference of Science and Technology, the countries have created an InterAmerican Program of Science and Technology and the Hemisphere-wide Science and Technology Project. Tourism. Drawing on earlier cooperative efforts on tourism, the countries established an Inter-American Program for Sustainable Development of Tourism in 1997. III. Eradicating Poverty and Discrimination Universal Access to Education. Governments have been taking steps to meet the 1994 goals, namely 100% primary school enrollment and 75% secondary school enrollment by the year 2010, with assistance from the IDB and World Bank and the OAS Unit for Social Development and Education (USDE). CRS-5 Equitable Access to Basic Health Services. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is implementing a regional plan, with emphasis on control of disease (measles, malaria, HIV/AIDS) and reduction of mortality rates to meet the 1994 goal to reduce child mortality by one-third and maternal mortality by one-half by the year 2000. Strengthening the Role of Women in Society. With assistance from the Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM) governments and organizations have worked to advance women’s rights, and hemispheric representatives held the First Hemispheric Ministerial Meeting on Gender Equity in April 2000. Encouraging Microenterprises and Small Businesses. With assistance from the IDB and USAID, countries have promoted microenterprises and small businesses. Strengthening the Rights of Workers and Migrant Workers. Acting primarily through the OAS’ Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and InterAmerican Conferences of Ministers of Labor, the rights of workers have been promoted, and the Special Rapporteur for Migrant Workers appointed in 1998 has made visits and reports. Advancing the Rights of Indigenous Populations. Through the InterAmerican Commission on Human Rights, steps have been taken to conclude an American Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and the Indigenous Peoples’ Summit of the Americas was held in Canada in late March 2001. IV. Guaranteeing Sustainable Development and Conserving the Natural Environment Promoting Sustainable Development. Working primarily through the OAS’ Unit for Sustainable Development and Environment, the countries have established the Inter-American Forum [of experts] on Environmental Law. Countries have supported a number of conservation measures, including initiatives on sustainable agriculture and forestry, biodiversity conservation, sustainable communities, and pollution prevention. The Meeting of Environment Ministers of the Americas was held in Canada in late March 2001. The Government of Bolivia has offered to host a “Santa Cruz + 5 Meeting” in 2001 to give renewed focus to sustainable development issues. Conserving Water Resources and Coastal Areas. Under prodding from multilateral organizations, a number of countries have been working to enhance integrated water resource management with better waste water treatment to protect potable water and coastal and marine resources. Promoting Regional Energy Cooperation. Acting primarily through the Hemispheric Energy Steering Committee and Meetings of Ministers of Energy, the countries agreed to a Joint Statement on Clean Development and Use of Energy and to the Renewable Energy in the Americas (REIA) Initiative, and are working on Global Climate Change initiatives. CRS-6 Although progress has been made in nearly all areas of a massive plan of action, the amount of progress has varied considerably, depending upon the priority of the issue and the resources committed to the task. The Leadership Council for InterAmerican Summitry, a group of 24 businessmen, academics, and former policymakers, found in March 2001, that the hemispheric summits have contributed to the legitimacy of collective action to deter threats to democracy, have advanced economic integration, have reshaped the inter-American system with many functional ministerials, and have reinvigorated the OAS by giving it a contemporary agenda. The Council highlighted progress in anti-corruption and counter-narcotics areas, as well as advancement of the rights of workers, women and the press. “Notwithstanding these partial advances, the gap between Summit promises and accomplishments is so wide as to have created a public crisis of confidence in summitry,” according to the Council’s report, and it found “significant disappointments in various areas, including education (the centerpiece of the Santiago Summit), sustainable development, and in promotion of civil society participation.”6 The Agenda for the Quebec Summit In preparation for the Quebec Summit, hemispheric Foreign Ministers agreed upon an Agenda that included a framework of three themes: Strengthening Democracy, Creating Prosperity, and Realizing Human Potential. 7 Another objective of the Quebec Summit was to discuss “connectivity” initiatives for obtaining more equitable access to and distribution of information and communications technology within the Western Hemisphere. In the process of attaining these goals, the governments had expressed a commitment to expand relationships and cooperation among governments, private citizens, corporations, non-governmental organizations and regional institutions in order to enhance the role of civil society. The Quebec Summit continued discussions on the past themes of strengthening democracy and economic integration within the region, and also emphasized social issues under the third theme of realizing human potential within the region. The participating governments went into the third summit viewing it as an implementation summit to take the issues from the previous summits, build on them, and develop a plan of action that was results-oriented and aimed at improving people’s lives. 1. Strengthening Democracy The first theme, strengthening democracy, was a central theme for the Summit. Participants sought to ensure that conditions for democracy were improved in the hemisphere by planning initiatives to strengthen democratic government; furthering cooperation to make institutions more transparent; and promoting engagement with 6 The Leadership Council for Inter-American Summitry, Advancing Toward Quebec City and Beyond: Policy Report III, March 2001 ( Coral Gables, Florida: The Dante B. Fascell NorthSouth Center, 2001), p. 2. This report and other Summit-related papers are available on the North-South Center web site [http://www.miami.edu/nsc/pages/pubwhite.html]. 7 See Summit of the Americas Information Network [http://www.summit-americas.org]. CRS-7 civil society for informed debate and development of understanding. In the area of human rights, participants planned to place emphasis on continuing and increasing cooperation within the region; implementing commitments to equality between men and women and recognition of the rights of children; and promoting civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights of indigenous people. The final component of this theme related to upholding the rule of law by promoting universal access to impartial, independent judicial systems as a means for resolving conflict; continuing and increasing the commitment to human rights and the rule of law; increasing cooperation on transnational criminal activity, particularly illicit drug trade; and furthering cooperation between judicial authorities and police forces. Press reports prior to the summit stated that a democracy clause would likely be approved committing the countries to representative democracy, and requiring hemispheric action when democracy is endangered. 2. Creating Prosperity The second theme, creating prosperity, stressed that a fundamental component of promoting economic growth and prosperity through the Summit of the Americas process was economic integration and promoting free trade through the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).8 The FTAA was the main focus of this theme, but participants had also recognized the need to promote corporate social responsibility, cooperate on improving environmental conditions and labor standards, develop initiatives in the area of financial regulation, and develop methods of alleviating poverty. Planned topics of discussion include: cooperative strategies for improving hemispheric transportation systems; the promotion of sustainable development; common approaches to energy issues; information and communications technology capacity; empowerment of marginalized groups of people by expanding their participation in the economy; and engagement of the private sector, international lending institutions, and civil society in dialogues to support principles of good corporate governance and social responsibility. 3. Realizing Human Potential The third theme in the agenda, realizing human potential, addressed social issues with a commitment to inclusion and greater equity. Participants stated that, in addition to the themes of democracy and prosperity, the Summit was important to include discussions on ways to improve people’s quality of life by addressing issues such as poverty, education, health, and gender equality. Summit participants planned to focus on the most pressing priorities and produce plans of action to meet real needs of the people. Planned topics of discussion included the following: using information technology to extend quality education into all parts of society; expanding access to and enhancing the quality of education; identifying methods of generating resources necessary to invest in education; developing hemispheric initiatives for quality healthcare particularly in the areas of disease prevention and support programs for the health of women and children; expanding opportunities and a commitment to equity in all areas of mainstream society for women, youth, and indigenous people; and 8 See CRS Report RS20864, A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues, by (name redacted). CRS-8 cooperative action to protect and enhance cultural diversity by expanding opportunities for sharing cultural, racial, and linguistic heritages and perspectives. Connectivity Summit participants identified connectivity of communities as a cross-cutting theme and a key tool in achieving the goals stated in all three themes. It is argued that the use of new technologies will spread the benefits of information technologies and expand the opportunities to participate in knowledge-based economies. Summit participants believe that the use and spread of information technology could lead to opportunities for political, economic, and social development in the Americas, and sought to ensure that the potential benefits of information technology are maximized and shared to avoid a looming digital divide. Civil Society Participation The role of civil society, consisting mostly of non-government organizations (NGO’s) such as businesses and non-profit groups, has increased considerably since the 1994 Miami Summit. Governments and regional organizations put forth much effort in engaging civil society in the Summit process. Using funds from a U.S. grant, three groups, Participa, the Esquel Foundation, and the Canadian Foundation for the Americas (FOCAL), conducted a series of consultations throughout the hemisphere to obtain input from civil society in the context of the third Summit of the Americas. The project resulted in consultation processes with 896 organizations in 18 countries to formulate 243 proposals for consideration by the Summit participants in their plan of action. The Final Document listing recommendations by civil society was produced after the hemispheric meeting in Miami on January 18-20, 2001. The proposals were organized by theme and included specific recommendations for Summit participants in developing plans of action at the Quebec Summit.9 Congressional Interest in the Quebec Summit Congress may be particularly interested in plans to advance FTAA negotiations, in future assessments of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) to evaluate hemispheric counter-narcotics efforts, and in plans for bilateral and multilateral cooperation to promote hemispheric socioeconomic reforms at the Quebec City Summit. Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). Despite the Clinton Administration’s inability to obtain fast track or trade promotion authority from Congress to negotiate free trade agreements under special, expedited procedures, the hemispheric Trade Ministers launched FTAA negotiations at the Santiago Summit, with the understanding that negotiations would not be completed until the U.S. 9 See Summit of the Americas Information Network [http://www.summit-americas.org]. CRS-9 executive obtained fast track authorization.10 Negotiations have proceeded and the nine negotiation groups have produced a draft agreement with bracketed text showing disagreements in many areas. The most recent meeting of hemispheric trade ministers, the Sixth Ministerial Meeting of the FTAA, was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina on April 6-7, 2001. The trade ministers reviewed the preliminary draft FTAA agreement, and set tasks and timetables for the future that will be presented to hemispheric leaders at the Quebec City Summit. The leaders accepted the recommendations of the ministerial meeting and directed the negotiators and trade ministers to reduce disagreements and to adhere to the established deadlines to produce a balanced and comprehensive agreement. The ministers specified that all elements of the FTAA negotiations should be concluded no later than January 2005, and that the agreement should enter into force no later than December 2005. President Bush expressed strong support for the Summit of the Americas process and for building closer economic ties to Latin America through the FTAA. He will likely use the Quebec City Summit to increase political support and momentum for the FTAA process. He has told OAS representatives that his Administration would intensify efforts to obtain trade promotion authority after the Quebec City Summit.11 Congress may be interested in the potential economic effects of the FTAA. Supporters believe that free trade results in net economic gains for all trading partners. Most economists agree that free trade results in a more efficient allocation of resources, and an increase in output, income, and consumption among free trade countries. However, there are also adjustment costs associated with free trade as countries change their production and trading patterns. While aggregate gains usually offset the losses, usually the loss of jobs, the losses tend to be more concentrated in certain economic sectors. Protesters at the Quebec Summit argue that free trade agreements benefit the wealthy while resulting in degradation of labor and environmental standards. Civil society organizations have made a number of proposals to address concerns about possible costs associated with the FTAA. The report on civil society recommendations for the Quebec City Summit suggests proposals on the following: including civil society involvement throughout the FTAA process; determining the impact of the FTAA on small economies and establishing a fund to assist the more vulnerable countries; including principles of sustainable development; establishing or reinforcing commitments and dialogues on environmental issues; and promoting efforts to share opportunities for prosperity among all segments of society, especially vulnerable groups.12 10 See Trade and the Americas, CRS Issue Brief IB95017, by (name redacted). 11 See U.S. Department of State, International Information Programs, Washington File,. Condoleezza Rice Outlines Bush Approach to Summit of the Americas (April 12, 2001), and Bush Outlines Goals of Quebec Summit of the Americas (April 17, 2001). 12 Summit of the Americas Information Network. Final Document, Recommendations by (continued...) CRS-10 Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) on Counter-Narcotics Efforts. Congress may be interested in future assessments of the application of the MEM on hemispheric countries’ counter-narcotics efforts, particularly when bills have been introduced. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee has reported out a substitute measure (S. 219), to suspend the U.S. drug certification requirements, and to develop more multilateral approaches.13 Following up on the Hemispheric Anti-Drug Strategy of 1996 and the Plan of Action of the 1998 Santiago Summit, the OAS’ InterAmerican Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) agreed upon the MEM in 1999. A CICAD working group subsequently developed a questionnaire with 61 indicators to which governments responded for the first time in 2000. A Governmental Experts Group, made up of one representative from each country, assessed achievements in 1999-2000 for all countries except their own country. The resulting overview Hemispheric Report and the individual National Reports made assessments and recommendations for future action. Critics argue that the reports are preliminary, bland, and without any sanctions. Proponents argue that the reports make important recommendations, that the MEM process will advance beyond this first effort, and that countries care about their performance under the agreed upon criteria.14 Multilateral Cooperation. Congress may be interested in any agreements on multilateral cooperation to promote a wide variety of socioeconomic reforms to the extent that U.S. resources are committed or required for bilateral or multilateral programs established by hemispheric leaders in the Quebec City Summit. Results of the Quebec Summit On April 20 - 22, 2001, Summit of the Americas III was held in Quebec City, Canada, with 34 democratically-elected Presidents and Prime Ministers from the Western Hemisphere in attendance, including George W. Bush from the United States. The summit had a high degree of consensus among the 34 heads of state, although there are still considerable differences regarding the final form of the FTAA. The hemispheric leaders dealt with three major themes: (1) Strengthening Democracy, where they agreed to a democracy clause that specified that democratic government was an essential condition for participation in the summit process; (2) Creating Prosperity, where they agreed to advance toward the conclusion of the agreement on 12 (...continued) Civil Society Organizations for the 2001 Quebec City Summit. January 2001. 13 For details, see CRS Report RL30892, Drug Certification Requirements and Proposed Congressional Modifications in 2001, and CRS Report 98-174, Mexican Drug Certification Issues: U.S. Congressional Action, 1986-2001, by (name redacted). 14 For more detail on the CICAD and the MEM, see CICAD’s internet site at [http://www.cicad.oas.org/en/mem/Main.htm]. For an assessment of the MEM process, see Can Anti-Narcotics Effort Be Multilateralized? Inter-American Dialogue Policy Brief, April 2001. CRS-11 the FTAA15 by January 2005; and (3) Realizing Human Potential, where they agreed to initiatives to promote education, health, and greater equity for women, youth, and indigenous peoples.16 Considerable press coverage focused on the protesters who argue that free trade agreements benefit business groups and the wealthy while resulting in the degradation of labor and environmental standards. 1. Strengthening Democracy Making Democracy Work Better. Initiatives to improve electoral processes and procedures to make democracy work better include the following: promote transparency and good governance; enhance the important role of media and communications in promoting a democratic culture; support the fight against corruption by considering signing and ratifying the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, establishing a follow-up mechanism, and continuing other anticorruption policies, processes, and mechanisms; and empower local governments by facilitating citizen participation, promoting autonomy and institutional strengthening, and supporting the OAS Program of Cooperation and Decentralization in Local Government. Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Initiatives to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms include the following: implement international obligations and respect for international standards on human rights issues through human rights instruments or other measures; strengthen and improve the inter-American human rights system, in particular the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR); strengthen institutional capacity of governments mandated with the promotion and protection of human rights; protect the human rights of migrant workers and their families through cooperative measures among countries, or a possible OAS program to promote and protect migrant rights; promote and protect the rights of women, particularly through specialized organs such as the Inter-American Commission on Women (CIM); promote and protect the rights of children and adolescents, particularly through the Inter-American Children’s Institute (IACI) and other international instruments on children’s rights; and support freedom of opinion and expression through the interAmerican human rights system and the equitable application of national laws on freedom of expression. Justice, Rule of Law, and Security of the Individual. Initiatives to promote equal access to independent, impartial, and timely justice include the following: increase access to justice through programs and initiatives such as legal rights education and information exchange on dispute resolution mechanisms; strengthen the independence of the judiciary by implementing transparency and accountability measures; support hemispheric meetings of justice ministers and exchange of best practices and recommendations; combat the drug problem as 15 16 Venezuela reserved its position on the FTAA. For more detail on the Quebec City Summit Declaration and Plan of Action, see the Summit of the Americas Information Network web site maintained by the OAS Office of Summit Followup [http://www.summit-americas.org/] and the U.S. State Department International Information Programs web site [http://www.usinfo.state.gov]. CRS-12 established in the Hemispheric Anti-Drug Strategy, and strengthen the efforts of the CICAD and the MEM; consider ratifying or acceding to the United Nations’ Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and implementing collective strategies to combat transnational organized crime; develop an integral approach toward the prevention of violence in the home or against vulnerable groups of people through law enforcement programs that are community-based or established through national institutions or multilateral organizations. Hemispheric Security. Initiatives to promote hemispheric security for strengthening democracy include the following: strengthen mutual confidence by supporting on-going efforts such as the Special Conference on Security planned for 2004, continuing with prior activities on conflict prevention and peaceful dispute resolution, and increasing transparency and accountability of defense and security institutions; and support the fight against terrorism by supporting the work of the Inter-American Committee on Terrorism (CICTE) established within the OAS and ratifying or acceding to international agreements related to anti-terrorism. Civil Society. The plan of action states that civil society has an important role in the consolidation of democracy, and it includes an initiative to strengthen civil society participation in hemispheric and national processes through a number of mechanisms such as funding strategies and educational programs to build organizational capacity for civil society groups. 2. Creating Prosperity Trade, Investment, and Financial Stability. The main focus of the initiative for trade, investment, and financial stability is the FTAA process. The Plan of Action places a deadline of January 2005 for concluding negotiations of the FTAA and of December 2005 for the agreement’s entry into force. Other goals include ensuring transparency of the process by providing the public with the preliminary draft of the FTAA Agreement in the four official languages as soon as possible; fostering mechanisms for civil society participation in the FTAA negotiating process; ensuring full participation of all countries and creating opportunities for full participation by the smaller economies; improving more equitable access to goods, services, capital, and technology; supporting the efforts of Finance Ministers to address challenges associated with globalization; and incorporating corporate social responsibility by including private sector participation in the FTAA process and raising awareness of corporate responsibility through dialogues with the OAS and other multilateral organizations. Infrastructure and Regulatory Environment. Initiatives to encourage the development of infrastructure and the regulatory environment include the following: encourage the modernization and expansion of telecommunications sectors through regulatory frameworks, human resources development programs, adequate standards, and the expansion of telecommunications infrastructure; increase the integration of transportation systems and practices through increased country cooperation, human resources development programs, encouragement of compliance with international standards, and the modernization of air services; and pursue regional integration of energy markets. CRS-13 Disaster Management. Initiatives to implement and sustain shared comprehensive disaster management strategies include the following: develop the capacity to assess potential impacts of natural and man-made hazards; establish or strengthen partnerships among private sector, professional associations, civil society, and other organizations in the development of disaster management policies and programs; promote information exchange on inappropriate practices that increase vulnerability to natural disasters; establish information networks to exchange scientific knowledge; request the IDB, the OAS, the World Bank, and other inter-American organizations to conduct a study on methods of reducing premiums on catastrophic insurance and facilitating reconstruction financing. Environmental Foundation for Sustainable Development. Initiatives on the protection of the environment and sustainable development include the following: implement Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs); support the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development; request that the OAS organize a ministerial level meeting in Bolivia before the end of 2001(Bolivia+5) to present contributions to the Rio+10 Summit in 2002; pursue the objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; promote and enforce national legislation on environmental protection; coordinate to ensure that regional economic, social, and environmental policies are in accordance with principles of sustainable development; promote and support initiatives such as the Hemispheric Round-table for Cleaner Production, the Bahia Declaration on Chemical Safety, Convention on Biological Diversity, and the U.N. Convention to Combat Desertification; and promote improved environmental management at the municipal level. Agriculture Management and Rural Development. Initiatives on the role of agriculture in creating prosperity include the following: promote dialogues involving government officials and civil society to develop strategies in sustainable improvement in agriculture and rural life; support national efforts to strengthen smalland medium-sized rural enterprises; encourage the development of markets for goods obtained through the sustainable use of natural resources and from the substitution of illicit crops; encourage cooperation among all entities involved in the agriculture sector to work towards the improvement of agricultural and rural life. Labor and Employment. Initiatives on labor matters and employment issues include the following: reaffirm the importance of the Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor and previous regional efforts to address the social dimensions of globalization; respect the International Labor Organization Declaration on the Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-Up; consult and coordinate on raising the living standards and improving the working conditions of all people in the hemisphere; develop technical assistance programs to increase institutional capacity of the smaller economies on enforcing labor laws and fostering equal opportunity; continue the work on eliminating child labor and promote ratification of the International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999; and promote and protect the rights of all workers, particularly women. Growth with Equity. Initiatives to achieve sustained economic growth and provide equitable access to opportunities include the following: acknowledge the need for development financing from international lending institutions and bilateral donors; CRS-14 continue the work on enabling the economic environment that was begun after the 1998 Santiago Summit, such as fostering development of community finance institutions, improving access to information systems, or increasing access to opportunities for sustainable entrepreneurship; address issues related to migration as factors contributing to economic growth and development; and enhance social stability and mobility by improving property registration and recognizing the economic contributions made by unpaid work and women’s activities in the informal sectors. 3. Realizing Human Potential Education. Initiatives to improve access to quality education by all groups of people include the following: entrust the OAS to organize a meeting of Education Ministers before the end of 2001 to ensure implementation of education initiatives, establish time lines and benchmarks for follow-up, encourage government partnerships to support sustained investment in education, and strengthen the dialogue with civil society organizations; implement policies to resolve social inequalities and promote access to quality basic education for all; strengthen education systems by encouraging civil society participation to obtain consensus on viable policies; enhance the performance of teachers by improving working conditions and raising the profile of the profession; ensure that secondary education is more responsive to evolving labor market requirements; support the mobility between countries of students, teachers, and administrators; promote access to new information technologies by teachers, students, and administrators; and support the advancement of science and technology within the region. Health. Initiatives to improve health conditions and equitable access to quality health services include the following: support health actions in the hemisphere that are consistent with the Shared Agenda for Health in the Americas signed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the IDB, and the World Bank; reaffirm a commitment to an equity-oriented health sector reform process; commit at the highest level to combat HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases and their consequences; implement community-based healthcare programs to reduce non-communicable diseases; and utilize connectivity to provide sound, scientific, and technical information to health workers and the public. Gender Equality. Initiatives for promoting gender equality and women’s human rights in the Americas include the following: endorse the Inter-American Program on the Promotion of Women’s Human Rights and Gender Equity and Equality, the Regional Programme of Action for the Women in Latin America and the Caribbean 1995-2000 and other international programs to promote gender equality; strengthen government bodies responsible for the advancement of women; strengthen and foster women’s participation in political life; reinforce the role of the Inter-American Commission on Women (CIM) as the technical advisor on all aspects of gender equity and equality; promote the use of information technologies to address inequalities between men and women and ensure women’s equality of access to these new technologies; and strengthen systems for collecting and processing statistical data on gender indicators. CRS-15 Indigenous Peoples. Initiatives for assisting indigenous peoples of the Americas in reaching their full human potential include the following: support hemispheric and national conferences to exchange information on experiences and activities related to the cultural, economic, and social development of indigenous peoples; develop strategies to consider and respect indigenous peoples’ cultural practices and protect their traditional knowledge in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity; increase the availability and accessibility of educational services in consultation with indigenous peoples; promote the cultural, linguistic, and developmental needs of indigenous peoples; support the Health of Indigenous Peoples Initiative, promoted by PAHO to assist states, in consultation with indigenous peoples, to form public health policies and health systems; reduce the communications and information gaps between the national average and indigenous communities; promote collection and publication of national statistics on the composition and socioeconomic characteristics of indigenous populations; and support the reform process of the Inter-American Indian Institute. Cultural Diversity. Initiatives to recognize the value of cultural diversity to social and economic dynamism include the following: enhance partnerships and exchange of information on the importance of linguistic and cultural diversity of the hemisphere; encourage ministerial meetings to discuss cultural diversity and deepen hemispheric cooperation on this issue; foster awareness and understanding of cultural diversity through communications technologies, media projects, and preservation and restoration of cultural property; promote social cohesion by encouraging physical education and sports; and promote cooperation among diverse national and international institutions and civil society. Children and Youth. Initiatives to promote the rights of children and their development include the following: implement and support the Agenda for WarAffected Children agreed to by 132 states at the International Conference on WarAffected Children held in Canada in September 2000; promote policies to ensure children’s and adolescent’s rights, well-being, and development; ensure that every child in conflict with the law is treated in a manner consistent with his/her best interests and in accordance with relevant international human rights instruments; promote best practices and approaches to support families in meeting the needs of children and adolescents at risk; endorse and seek cooperative means to advance the Kingston Consensus of the Fifth Ministerial Meeting on Children and Social Policy held in Jamaica in October 2000; promote cooperation to reduce cases of international abduction of children by one of their parents; encourage participation by young people in matters affecting them; provide access to reliable information and opportunities for their contribution to discussions in local, national, and international fora; and reinforce the roles of PAHO, the Inter-American Children’s Institute (IACI), and the InterAmerican Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) on all aspects of children’s issues. 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