Armed Conflicts in the World Since the End of the Cold War (1989 - Present)

This report contains a compiled list of wars and armed conflicts in the world -- both civil and inter-state -- that began after 1989 or were in progress at that date. Because of definitional problems related to classifying wars, this information should be used with some caution. This report includes lists arranged both chronologically and alphabetically.

Order Code RL30625 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Armed Conflicts in the World Since the End of the Cold War (1989 - Present) August 2, 2000 (name redacted) and(name redacted)e Research Associates Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Armed Conflicts in the World Since the End of the Cold War (1989 - Present) Summary This report contains a compiled list of wars and armed conflicts in the world – both civil and inter-state – that began after 1989 or were in progress at that date. Because of definitional problems related to classifying wars, this information should be used with some caution. This report includes lists arranged both chronologically and alphabetically. Contents Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Wars (Chronological) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Wars (Alphabetical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 List of Tables Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Civil Wars (1989 to Present) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inter-State Wars (1989 to Present) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Civil Wars (1989 to Present) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inter-State Wars (1989 to Present) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This report has been prepared in consultation with (name redacted), National Defense, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. 3 5 6 8 Specialist in Armed Conflicts in the World Since the End of the Cold War (1989 - Present) Background The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 was the most dramatic signal that the Cold War between the world’s two superpowers was coming to an end. During the Cold War, most wars were considered an extension of the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. However, the end of the Cold War did not bring the end of armed conflict. Despite the termination of the Cold War, nations continue to fight wars, both internally and with their neighbors. The following tables are a listing, compiled from several sources (see attached source list), of post-1989 civil and interstate wars, including those conflicts that began prior to that date. Sources differ as to what constitutes a war. For the purposes of this compilation, a civil war is a conflict contained within the borders of one country where national government military forces were actively involved in fighting, the opposing side offered effective resistance, and there were at least 1,000 combatant casualties. An inter-state war is a military conflict between two entities that are commonly recognized as sovereign states where at least 1,000 battle deaths occurred. Various discrepancies exist among the sources used in this compilation regarding data on casualties, onset and termination dates, and the nature of some conflicts: ! A common definition of war includes conflicts with at least 1,000 casualties. However, reliable casualty figures – especially for smaller conflicts – often do not exist. It is not unusual for different sources to report conflicting casualty figures. ! Fixing dates as to when a war began or ended is also problematic. ! Flare-ups or resumptions of fighting pose one problem. For example, a renewal of fighting after a break in hostilities is sometimes classified as a continuation of a previous war and at other times as a new war. ! In some conflicts, the participants disagree about when the conflict is resolved. One may claim victory while the other vows to carry on the struggle. ! In some cases, delineating between wars where one party is fighting several others is a point of disagreement among sources. Some CRS-2 sources consider such a case to be multiple wars, but other sources consider it to be one extended war. ! Since most wars include aspects of both civil and interstate conflict, definitional problems also extend to classifying wars as either civil or inter-state. Because of these difficulties, credible sources often differ in what they include in their listings of current wars. In compiling this list, the authors loosely followed the definition of civil and inter-state wars offered by the University of Michigan’s Correlates of War Project. However, when questions arose about a conflict’s exact identifying characteristics, the most expansive estimates were used. CRS-3 Wars (Chronological) Table 1. Civil Wars (1989 to Present) Name Begin End Notes Burma 1950 Ongoing Basque Separatist Movement India 1958 Ongoing 1967 Ongoing Burmese (Myanmar) gov. vs. ethnic guerrilla armies, political opposition groups and narcotics dealers. Basque Fatherland and Liberty Group vs. both Spain and France. Various ethnic and separatist conflicts. Guatemala 1969 1996 Northern Ireland Philippines (Moro Rebellion) Philippines (New People’s Army) Indonesia 1969 1969 1999 Ongoing 1972 1995 1974 1999 Angola 1975 Ongoing Lebanon 1975 1990 Afghanistan 1978 Ongoing Ethiopia - Tigrean War 1978 Cambodia (Kampuchea) 1979 El Salvador 1979 Mozambique (RENAMO 1979 War) Senegal (Casamance) 1980s Israel (Lebanon conflict) 1982 1991 1991 1985 1992 Ongoing 2000 Nicaragua Peru Somalia 1982 1982 1982 1998 Ongoing Ongoing Sri Lanka (Tamils) Sudan 1983 1983 Ongoing Ongoing Colombia Turkey (Kurds) Iraq (Kurds/Shiites) Indonesia (Aceh) Azerbaijan (Nagorno-Kharabak) 1984 1984 1985 1986 1988 Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing 1994 Liberia 1989 1997 Gov. of Guatemala vs. UNRG (coalition of anti-government forces). Political conflict with religious overtones. Internal ethnic and religious conflict. Philippines gov. vs. NPA (includes communist, Muslims, and other rebels). Indonesian gov. vs. East Timor. Ended by international intervention. Angola gov. and Namibia (since 1989) vs. UNITA. Conflict between Muslim and Christian forces. Power struggle between religious and secular forces. Ethnic conflict in Ethiopia. Cambodian gov. vs. PDK (Khmer Rouge). Gov. vs. National Liberation Front. Mozambique gov. vs. opposition party RENAMO. Civil war vs. southern rebels. Israel and South Lebanese Army vs. Lebanese gov., various Islamic militias and Palestinian guerrillas. Sandinistas vs. Contras. Peruvian gov. vs. Shining Path guerillas. Fighting among rival faction leaders for control of the state government. Sri Lanka gov. vs. Tamil Tigers. Sudan gov. vs. National Democratic Alliance. Colombia gov. vs. FARC and ELN. Internal ethnic conflict. Internal ethnic conflict. Internal ethnic conflict. Fighting over disputed territory (Armenian) with Russian involvement. Has inter-state elements. Rebels vs. rebels vs. Liberian gov. CRS-4 Name Begin End Notes Mali Romania 1989 1989 1994 1989 Bougainville 1990 1998 Chad Rwanda Sierra Leone 1990 1990 1990 Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Georgia 1991 1991 Haiti 1991 1995 Yugoslavia - Croatia Independence Algeria 1991 1995 1992 Ongoing Internal conflict. Violent overthrow of the Communist regime. Residents of Bougainville vs. Gov. of Papua New Guinea for independence. Gov. vs. various rebel groups. Ethnic conflict between Tutsis and Hutus. Sierra Leone gov. and ECOMOG vs. AFRC and RUF. Struggle for power following collapse of Communist government. Military vs. democratically elected government. War securing independence for Croatia from Yugoslavia following Communist collapse. Algerian gov. vs. Islamic rebels. Egypt Georgia (Abkhazia) Georgia (Ossetia) Moldova 1992 1992 1992 1992 Ongoing 1995 1995 1992 Russia Tajikistan Yugoslavia - Bosnia (Serb rebellion) Burundi Mexico Uganda Yemen Central African Republic Cambodia Congo (Brazzaville) Dem. Rep. of Congo 1992 1992 1992 Ongoing 1997 1995 1993 1994 1994 1994 1996 1997 1997 1998 Ongoing Ongoing 1999 1994 1997 1998 Ongoing Ongoing Guinea-Bissau 1998 Ongoing Yugoslavia - Kosovo 1998 1999 Indonesia (Moluccas/ Irian Jaya) 1999 Ongoing Egyptian gov. vs. Muslim rebels. Georgian gov. vs. Abkhazian separatist. Georgian gov. vs. Ossetian separatists. Ethnic conflict following Communist collapse. Russian gov. vs. Chechen rebel separatists. Tajikistan gov. vs. Muslim rebels. Fighting for Bosnian independence with international intervention. Burundi gov. vs. CNDD and Palipehutu. Mexico gov. vs. Zapatista rebels. Ugandan gov. vs. LRA and ADF. Gov. vs. secessionists. Military coup and civil war. Internal armed conflict. Congolese gov. vs. local ethnic militias. Formerly Zaire. Gov. of Dem. Rep. of Congo with support from Angola, Namimbia, Zimbabwe and Chad vs. RCD and MLC, supported by Rwanda, and Uganda. Also has elements of an inter-state war. Gov. of Guinea-Bissau with Senegal and Guinea vs. military faction. Serb-led gov. vs ethnic Albanians with inter-state intervention. Gov. of Indonesia vs. separatist forces. CRS-5 Table 2. Inter-State Wars (1989 to Present) Name Begin End Notes Eritrea 1958 1992 For independence from Ethiopia. Afghanistan 1979 1989 Soviet invasion. Israel 1982 2000 Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Iran-Iraq War 1980 1989 Iraqi invasion of Iran led to protracted conflict. Gulf War 1990 1991 U.S.-led coalition countering Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Kashmir 1991 Azeri-Armenian 1992 1994 An extension of the Nagorno-Kharabakh dispute. Nigeria 1994 1995 vs. Cameroon; border conflict. Ethiopia 1995 Ongoing vs. Sudan; border conflict. Sudan 1995 Ongoing vs. Uganda; border conflict. Ethiopia 1997 Ongoing vs. Somalia; border conflict. Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) 1998 Ongoing Govt. of Dem. Rep. of Congo, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Chad vs. Congolese Democratic Rally, Congolese Liberation Movement, Rwanda, Uganda. Also has elements of a civil war. Eritrea 1998 Ongoing vs. Ethiopia; border conflict. Kosovo 1998 Ongoing Indian and Pakistani border dispute. 1999 With NATO intervention vs. Serbia. CRS-6 Wars (Alphabetical) Table 3. Civil Wars (1989 to Present) Name Begin End Afghanistan 1978 Ongoing Algeria Angola 1992 Ongoing 1975 Ongoing Azerbaijan (Nagorno-Kharabak) 1988 Basque Separatist Movement 1958 Ongoing Bougainville 1990 Burma 1950 Ongoing Burundi Cambodia (Kampuchea) Cambodia Central African Republic Chad Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Dem. Rep. of Congo 1993 1979 1997 1996 1990 1984 1997 1998 Egypt El Salvador Ethiopia - Tigrean War Georgia 1992 Ongoing 1979 1985 1978 1991 1991 1991 Georgia (Ossetia) Georgia (Abkhazia) Guatemala 1992 1992 1969 Guinea-Bissau 1998 Ongoing Haiti 1991 India Indonesia (Moluccas/ Irian Jaya) Indonesia (Aceh) 1967 Ongoing 1999 Ongoing Power struggle between religious and secular forces. Algerian gov. vs. Islamic rebels. Angola gov. and Namibia (since 1989) vs. UNITA. Fighting over disputed territory (Armenian) with Russian involvement. Has inter-state elements. Basque Fatherland and Liberty Group vs. both Spain and France. Residents of Bougainville vs. Gov. of Papua New Guinea for independence. Burmese (Myanmar) gov. vs. ethnic guerrilla armies, political opposition groups and narcotics dealers. Burundi gov. vs. CNDD and Palipehutu. Cambodian gov. vs. PDK (Khmer Rouge). Internal armed conflict. Military coup and civil war. Gov. vs. various rebel groups. Colombia gov. vs. FARC and ELN. Congolese gov. vs. local ethnic militias. Formerly Zaire. Gov. of Dem. Rep. of Congo with support from Angola, Namimbia, Zimbabwe and Chad vs. RCD and MLC, supported by Rwanda, and Uganda. Also has elements of an interstate war. Egyptian gov. vs. Muslim rebels. Gov. vs. National Liberation Front. Ethnic Conflict in Ethiopia. Struggle for power following collapse of Communist government. Georgian gov. vs. Ossetian separatists. Georgian gov. vs. Abkhazian separatist. Gov. of Guatemala vs. UNRG (coalition of anti-government forces). Gov. of Guinea-Bissau with Senegal and Guinea vs. military faction. Military vs. democratically elected government. Various ethnic and separatist conflicts. Gov. of Indonesia vs. separatist forces. 1986 Ongoing Internal ethnic conflict. 1994 1998 Ongoing 1991 1998 1997 Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing 1995 1995 1996 1995 Notes CRS-7 Name Begin End Notes Indonesia 1974 1999 Iraq (Kurds/Shiites) Israel (Lebanon conflict) 1985 Ongoing 1982 2000 Lebanon 1975 Liberia Mali Mexico Moldova 1989 1997 1989 1994 1994 Ongoing 1992 1992 Indonesian gov. vs. East Timor. Ended by international intervention. Internal ethnic conflict. Israel and South Lebanese Army vs. Lebanese gov., various Islamic militias and Palestinian guerrillas. Conflict between Muslim and Christian forces. Rebels vs. rebels vs. Liberian gov. Internal conflict. Mexico gov. vs. Zapatista rebels. Ethnic conflict following Communist collapse. Mozambique gov. vs. opposition party RENAMO. Sandinistas vs. Contras. Political conflict with religious overtones. Peruvian gov. vs. Shining Path guerillas. Philippines gov. vs. NPA (includes communist, Muslims, and other rebels). Internal ethnic and religious conflict. Violent overthrow of the Communist regime. Russian vs. Chechen rebel separatists. Ethnic conflict between Tutsis and Hutus. Civil war vs. southern rebels. Sierra Leone gov. and ECOMOG vs. AFRC and RUF. Fighting among rival faction leaders for control of the state government. Sri Lanka gov. vs. Tamil Tigers. Sudan gov. vs. National Democratic Alliance. Tajikistan gov. vs. Muslim rebels. Internal ethnic conflict. Ugandan gov. vs. LRA and ADF. Gov. vs. secessionists. Serb-led gov. vs ethnic Albanians with inter-state intervention. Fighting for Bosnian independence with international intervention. War securing independence for Croatia from Yugoslavia following Communist collapse. Mozambique (RENAMO War) 1979 1990 1992 Nicaragua Northern Ireland Peru Philippines (New People’s Army) Philippines (Moro Rebellion) Romania 1982 1998 1969 1999 1982 Ongoing 1972 1995 Russia Rwanda Senegal (Casamance) Sierra Leone 1992 1990 1980s 1990 Somalia 1982 Ongoing Sri Lanka (Tamils) Sudan 1983 Ongoing 1983 Ongoing Tajikistan Turkey (Kurds) Uganda Yemen Yugoslavia - Kosovo 1992 1997 1984 Ongoing 1994 1999 1994 1994 1998 1999 Yugoslavia - Bosnia (Serb rebellion) Yugoslavia - Croatia Independence 1992 1995 1991 1995 1969 Ongoing 1989 1989 Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing CRS-8 Table 4. Inter-State Wars (1989 to Present) Name Begin End Afghanistan Azeri-Armenian 1979 1992 1989 1994 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) 1998 Ongoing Eritrea Eritrea Ethiopia Ethiopia Gulf War 1998 1958 1997 1995 1990 Ongoing 1992 Ongoing Ongoing 1991 Iran-Iraq War 1980 1989 Israel Kashmir Kosovo Nigeria Sudan 1982 1991 1998 1994 1995 2000 Ongoing 1999 1995 Ongoing Notes Soviet invasion. An extension of the Nagorno-Kharabakh dispute. Govt. of Dem. Rep. of Congo, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Chad vs. Congolese Democratic Rally, Congolese Liberation Movement, Rwanda, Uganda. Also has elements of a civil war. vs. Ethiopia; border conflict. For independence from Ethiopia. vs. Somalia; border conflict. vs. Sudan; border conflict. U.S.-led coalition countering Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Iraqi invasion of Iran led to protracted conflict. Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Indian and Pakistani border dispute. with NATO intervention vs. Serbia. vs. Cameroon; border conflict. vs. Uganda; border conflict. CRS-9 Sources The tables in this report were compiled from the following sources: Correlates of War Project. 2000. Available at [http://www.umich.edu/~cowproj/]. Federation of American Scientists. 2000. The World at War. Available at [http://fas.org/man/dod-101/ops/war/index.html]. The History Guy. 2000. New and Recent Conflicts of the World. Available at [http://www.historyguy.com/new_and_recent_conflicts.html]. International Institute for Strategic Studies. 2000. The Military Balance, (The 1999 Chart of Armed Conflict). London: Oxford University Press. Peace and Conflict Studies. 2000. Current Armed Conflicts. Available at [http://www.uni-muenster.de/PeaCon/linkall/conflict.html]. Peace Pledge Union. 1999. Wars 1900-1995. [http://www.ppu.org.uk/wars/facts/www00-95a.html]. Available at Peace Pledge Union. 2000. Wars and Armed Conflicts 2000. Available at [http://www.ppu.org.uk/wars/n-text/n-index.html]. Policy.com. 2000. Global Hotspots. Available at [http://www.policy.com/hotspots/]. Project Ploughshares. 2000. Armed Conflicts Report 1999. Available at [http://www.ploughshares.ca/content/ACR/ACR99.html]. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. (various years). SIPRI Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament, and International Security. Oxford University Press. EveryCRSReport.com The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is a federal legislative branch agency, housed inside the Library of Congress, charged with providing the United States Congress non-partisan advice on issues that may come before Congress. EveryCRSReport.com republishes CRS reports that are available to all Congressional staff. The reports are not classified, and Members of Congress routinely make individual reports available to the public. Prior to our republication, we redacted names, phone numbers and email addresses of analysts who produced the reports. We also added this page to the report. 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