Grants and Foundations: Selected Print, Electronic, and Internet Sources on Government and Private Funding

This report describes more than 35 print, electronic, and Internet sources of information on financial support, and lists a few of the current general guides to writing grant proposals.

Order Code RL30013 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Grants and Foundations: Selected Print, Electronic, and Internet Sources on Government and Private Funding January 6, 1999 Rita Tehan Information Research Specialist Congressional Reference Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress ABSTRACT This report describes more than 35 print, electronic, and Internet sources of information on financial support, and lists a few of the current general guides to writing grant proposals. In addition, annotated Internet sources are provided for federal government, private foundation, corporate, and charity agencies. Another CRS report which may be helpful is Grants Work in a Congressional Office (97-220 C). This report will be revised annually. Grants and Foundations: Selected Print, Electronic, and Internet Sources on Government and Private Funding Summary Congressional offices receive numerous requests for information on how to obtain funds. Many worthwhile projects can only be carried out with outside assistance. This bibliography is intended to help planners learn about assistance programs and sources of funds. Of the many good guides to grants and foundation support, those listed in this report have been selected as representative of the variety of resources available. The publications and databases included in this bibliography describe general sources of support and a few of the current general guides to writing grant proposals. In addition, Internet sources are listed for federal government, private foundation, corporate, and charity agencies. In the descriptions of the publications and databases listed, Library of Congress call numbers have been provided where available. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Guides to Writing Grants and Proposals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Government Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Foundation Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Corporate Grants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Internet Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Grants and Foundations: Selected Print, Electronic, and Internet Sources on Government and Private Funding Introduction Congressional offices receive numerous requests for information on how to obtain funds. Many worthwhile projects can only be carried out with outside assistance. This bibliography was prepared to help planners learn about assistance programs and sources of funds. Of the many good guides to grants and foundation support, those listed below have been selected as representative of the variety of resources available. Before determining whether the best funding source is a federal program, a small private fund concerned primarily with local projects, an organization providing grants in a particular subject area, or a national foundation, the grant seeker should prepare an analysis of the contemplated project. Any request for funding will require a clear, brief, and specific presentation which describes: ! existing problems to be addressed by the project; ! anticipated immediate and long-term results; ! a description of proposed implementation, organization, staffing, budget, and evaluation of the project. A number of research tools are available to help choose a government agency or private foundation that may be interested in a particular project. It is important to know the organization’s or agency’s stated purposes, the amount of funds available, any conditions or restrictions on the grant, and the types of projects the organization has previously supported. Every attempt should be made to identify only those funding sources whose stated purposes are consistent with those of the grant seeker. Since more than 70% of foundations limit their giving to their own city, state, or region, important sources of funding are community foundations dedicated to the encouragement of local endeavors. The publications and databases included in this bibliography describe general sources of support and a few of the current general guides to writing grant proposals. In the descriptions of the publications and databases listed below, Library of Congress call numbers have been provided where available. CRS-2 Guides to Writing Grants and Proposals A number of guides to funding and grantsmanship in specific areas have been published in recent years. These may be available at public or research libraries under such subject headings as “fund raising,” “endowments,” “grants-in-aid,” “research grants,” and “federal aid to ...” [followed by broad categories such as education, hospitals, law enforcement agencies, libraries, outdoor recreation, the arts, or transportation]. Other titles may be located under a subject heading with “research grants” as a subdivision, such as “humanities—research grants.” Bauer, David G. The “How To” Grants Manual: Successful Grantseeking Techniques for Obtaining Public and Private Grants. Phoenix, Oryx Press, 1995. 234 p. HG177.B38 1995 Provides insights into the grants marketplace. The book gives advice on organizing a proposal-development workbook, writing proposals, and choosing the correct marketplace. The book also gives guidance on locating government and private funding sources. —— with contributions by Mary L. Otto. Administering Grants, Contracts, and Funds: Evaluating and Improving Your Grants System. Phoenix, Oryx Press, 1995. 233 p. HG4027.65.B38 1995 This book is designed for use by nonprofit organizations. Provides assistance in developing a work plan (using worksheets and checklists) to identify grants sources. Belcher, Jane C., and Julia M. Jacobsen. From Idea to Funded Project: Grant Proposals That Work. Phoenix, Oryx Press, 1992. 138 p. LB2336.B43 This book provides guidance in writing a proposal, including developing the idea into a detailed outline, finding a potential sponsor, submitting and evaluating the proposal, and administering the grant. DeVaul, Diane, and Heather Twomey. Federal Grant Programs: A Shrinking Resource. Washington, Northeast-Midwest Institute Center for Regional Policy, 1990. 200 p. HJ275.D425 Covers the principles and skills involved in preparing and presenting written proposals. The authors emphasize the importance of developing a strategic approach to proposal writing and grant seeking, and discuss various components and types of proposals. An appendix presents a sample proposal with criticisms and suggestions for improving it. Ferguson, Jacqueline. The Effective Grant Office: Streamlining Grants Development and Management. Alexandria, VA, Capitol Publications, 1994. 94 p. HG176.7.F47 1994 This book outlines how to locate funding sources, develop project ideas, prepare grant proposals, communicate and negotiate with funders, monitor projects and their budgets, retain grant records, and seek continued funding. It explains how to set up an organized, well-coordinated system for bringing new funds into organizations and making sure they are used properly. CRS-3 Frost, Gordon Jay, ed. Winning Grant Proposals: Eleven Successful Appeals by American Nonprofits to Corporations, Foundations, Individuals, and Government Agencies. Rockville, MD, Fund Raising Institute, 1993. 160 p. HG177.5.U6.W565 1993 The institutions which agreed to participate in this collection selected the proposals they wished to include. The only direction they were given was to supply a proposal of which they were especially proud, both for its quality and its success, and that had received support since 1990. The result is a fairly diverse lot, with a wide range of applications and projects. Provides examples of good work. Hall, Mary S. Getting Funded: A Complete Guide to Proposal Writing. 3rd ed. Portland, OR, Continuing Education Publications, Portland State University, 1988. 206 p. LB2825.H223 Besides providing information on funding trends, funding sources, and databases, Getting Funded gives a broad range of examples of both how to and how not to go about proposal writing. In addition, it offers many critical checklists, sample formats, and models. Kiritz, Norton J. Program Planning and Proposal Writing. Los Angeles, Grantsmanship Center, 1980. 48 p. Outlines grant application procedures and a standardized application format, which has been adopted by many government agencies and private foundations. It describes appropriate cover letters and provides examples. Nauffts, Mitchell F., ed. Foundation Fundamentals: A Guide for Grantseekers. New York, Foundation Center, 1994. 220 p. HV41.9.U5.N37 This book describes the various types of foundations, the regulations that govern their activities, and the relationship of foundations to other funding sources. Describes the planning process prior to seeking funding. Discusses the resources available and how grant seekers can use them to find the funders most likely to be interested in their proposals. Takes the reader step by step through the three basic approaches to finding a funder: subject, geographic, and type of support. Ries, Joanne B. Applying for Research Funding: Getting Started and Getting Funded. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 1995. HG177.R53 Focuses on strategies for developing a competitive application for research funding. Presents the components of making choices in preparing the application. Discusses key contacts that the author has found useful. Presents the strengths and weaknesses of various research environments. Gives practical suggestions for writing persuasive applications. Government Grants The best single resource for leads on federal funding programs is published by the federal government and is called the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance. This manual of more than a thousand pages provides the most comprehensive CRS-4 information on federal funds, cross-indexed by agency, program type, applicant eligibility, and subject. The Catalog and some of the other publications listed in this guide are also available as online databases, both through commercial services and on the Internet at no cost. Such databases can be searched using personal computers with modems, or perhaps by arranging for a search to be conducted at a local library. While not all libraries offer online searching services, many larger public and research libraries do, generally for a fee. If a local library does not have online searching capabilities, library personnel may be able to direct interested parties to outside search services or consultants. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance. Washington, GPO. Annual and update vol., looseleaf. HC110.P63U53a [year] A government publication available in many libraries, describing federal programs which provide funds or nonfinancial assistance to state and local governments, public agencies, organizations, institutions, and, very rarely, individuals. Included are the program’s legislative authority, explanations of each program, types of assistance provided, restrictions, eligibility requirements, financial information, application and award procedures, information contacts, and related programs. Updated information on federal programs and grant awards appears in the daily Federal Register, also available from the Government Printing Office. Online availability: ! Internet: [http://www.gsa.gov/fdac/default.htm]. ! The full text of the Federal Register is available online on NEXIS, produced by LEXIS/NEXIS, Inc.; LEGI-SLATE, produced by LEGI-SLATE, Inc.; DIALOG (file 669), produced by Knight-Ridder; WESTLAW, produced by West Publishing Corporation; and GPO Access, on the Internet. ! Information given in the printed Catalog is also available online through the Federal Assistance Program Retrieval System (FAPRS) database. Access is by both category and keyword. To request a FAPRS search, contact the General Services Administration to inquire about obtaining the FAPRS database information on magnetic tape, floppy disks, or CD-ROM. (FDAC Staff, Ground Floor, Reporters Building, 300 7th Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20407. Telephone: 202-401-8135.) DIALOG. DIALOG, a commercial online service, offers a number of grants databases (described below), including: ! Federal Research in Progress: file 266 (FEDRIP) ! NTIS: file 6 ! Foundation Directory: file 26 ! Foundation Grants Index: file 27 ! Grants: file 85 Many large university and research libraries offer DIALOG searching for a fee. For information about obtaining DIALOG service, contact: Knight-Ridder Information, Inc., 2440 El Camino Real, Mountain View, CA 94040. Telephone: (650) 254-7000 or (800) 334-2564. Internet: [http://www.dialog.com]. CRS-5 Federal Research in Progress database. Washington, National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Contains summaries of ongoing, federally-funded research projects in the physical sciences, engineering, and life sciences. Project descriptions generally include title, keywords, start date, estimated completion date, principal investigator, performing and sponsoring organizations, summary, and progress report. Although primarily used to avoid research duplication, it can also be used to locate sources of support. No print equivalent. ! ! ! ! Online availability: DIALOG (file 266) Knowledge Express Data Systems [http://www.knowledgexpress.com] NERAC [http://www.nerac.com] Internet: [http://www.ntis.gov/fedrip.htm] National Technical Information Service (NTIS) database. Washington, National Technical Information Service. (DIALOG file 6.) Consists of unclassified government-sponsored research, development, and engineering reports, as well as other analyses prepared by government agencies, their contractors, or grantees. It is particularly useful in identifying sources of support. Internet: [http://www.ntis.gov/]. Blum, Laurie. Free Money from the Federal Government for Small Businesses and Entrepreneurs. New York, J. Wiley, 1996. 358 p. HG 4027.7.B6 This directory lists grant programs in seven general areas: agriculture, community development, environment/conservation, general business, research and development, minorities, and housing. Lists the individual state or regional offices through which a grant seeker from a given state should apply. Foundation Grants The Foundation Center is a nonprofit organization which gathers and disseminates factual information on foundations. The Center’s libraries in New York City, Atlanta, San Francisco, Cleveland, and Washington, D.C., contain copies of foundations’ tax returns, extensive collections of books, documents, and reports about the foundation field, and current files on the activities and programs of about 37,000 U.S. foundations, plus knowledgeable staff to assist users in locating appropriate information. The Foundation Center also publishes funding directories specific to certain fields, such as: aging; arts and culture; children, youth, and families; health; higher education; international programs; libraries and information services; religion; women and girls; and elementary and secondary education. In addition, the Center has established cooperating reference collections in each state, where Center publications and information on foundations in the immediate state or region can be consulted. A list of cooperating libraries housing these CRS-6 regional collections appears in most of the Center’s publications, and on its Web site at [http://fdncenter.org/library/corporat.html]. It is most often a good idea to look for foundations close to home; they are more likely to have an interest in local problems than would larger foundations with a national focus. Foundation Center resources are a good starting point for identifying likely funding sources. The next step is to learn more about these foundations by obtaining copies of their annual reports and/or grants guidelines. Some may be available at the Foundation Center’s cooperating libraries. Grantseekers will need to find out whether their projected proposals match the foundation’s areas of interest and geographic guidelines, whether the proposal is within the foundation’s budgetary constraints, and whether the foundation normally funds the type of project being considered. For further information, contact the Foundation Center, 79 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Telephone: (800) 424-9836 or in Washington, D.C., (202) 331-1400. Foundation Directory. New York, Foundation Center. Annual. 2 v. AS911.A2F65 [year] Provides a description of over 7,900 large American foundations having at least $2 million in assets or $200,000 in annual giving. Each entry includes factual and financial data, statement of purpose and activities, and grant application procedures; indexed by fields of interest, names of donors, trustees, and administrators, and by state and city. The Foundation Directory, Part 2, which provides information on 4,800 private and community foundations making grants of $50,000-$199,000 annually and holding assets of less than $2 million is a guide to smaller but significant grantmakers whose giving often supports local organizations. Over 83% of the entries include geographic limitation statements showing preferences for giving within specific cities or states. The directory provides lists of sample grants whenever available, to provide concrete indications of the foundation’s fields of interest, geographic preferences, and range of giving. A supplement is issued 6 months after parts 1 and 2 are published in order to update the information. Online availability: DIALOG. File: 26 (FOUNDATION DIRECTORY). Foundation Grants Index. New York, Foundation Center. Annual. AS911.A2F66 [year] Describes over 73,000 grants awarded by approximately 1,000 foundations within the previous year or two. This is a selective listing, useful for identifying potential funding sources based on previously awarded foundation grants. The main listing of grants is arranged by major subject fields with the grants listed alphabetically by state. A typical grant record includes the name and location of the recipient, the amount awarded, the date authorized, and a description of the grant. Grant descriptions are succinct but descriptive, for example: “To promote community involvement in ground water protection in Ohio.” Includes a detailed subject index. Online availability: DIALOG. File: 27 (FOUNDATION GRANTS INDEX). CRS-7 Foundation Grants to Individuals. New York, Foundation Center. Biennial. LB2336.F598 [year] While the majority of foundations in the United States limit their grants to nonprofit organizations, this publication gives information on funds available to individuals from approximately 2,600 foundations. Emphasis is placed on educational and scholarship awards. Six indexes help users target prospective grants by subject area, types of support, geographic area, sponsoring company (for employee-restricted awards), educational institutions, and foundation name. Bibliography included. Guide to U.S. Foundations, Their Trustees, Officers, and Donors. New York, Foundation Center. Annual. 2 v. AS911.A2F64 [year] Lists over 40,000 private, corporate, operating, and community foundations, including thousands of smaller ones not described in other sources. These smaller foundations are especially important as local sources of funding. Overall arrangement is by state, with foundations listed from largest to smallest in terms of grants awarded. For each foundation, the Guide gives the foundation’s address, telephone number (when available), financial summary, list of officers, trustees and donors, geographic limitation, and (when available) contact person. Online availability: DIALOG. File: 26 (FOUNDATION DIRECTORY). The Foundation 1000. New York, Foundation Center. Annual. HV97.F65.F67a [year] Provides data on the 1,000 largest U.S. foundations, including names of officers and staff to contact, current program interests, and names of nonprofit organizations which have already received grants for similar projects. Indexed by subject field, foundation name, type of support, and geographic location. Corporate Grants When government funding on the federal, state, and local levels has declined, there is an increase in the number of grant seekers pursuing corporate support. Many corporations provide funds for local projects in areas where they have their headquarters or plants, or sponsor projects which somehow enhance their corporate image. Information on corporate foundations and direct corporate giving is listed below. Corporate Foundation Profiles. 9th ed. New York, Foundation Center, 1996. 778 p. HV89.C68 1996 Detailed profiles of over 228 of the largest corporate foundations (those that give at least $1.25 million annually). Includes address, contact person, purpose, statement on limitations in giving, application guidelines, key officials, and sponsoring company profile. Subject, type of support, and geographic area indexes are included. CRS-8 National Directory of Corporate Giving. New York, Foundation Center. Biennial. HV89.N26 [year] Comprehensive descriptions of over 2,500 corporate foundations plus 650 direct giving programs. Alphabetically arranged by company name with a general description of the company and its activities and a description of the company’s direct giving program and/or foundation for each entry. Indexed by corporation, officers, donors, trustees, geographic areas, types of support, subject, and types of business. National Directory of Corporate Public Affairs. New York, Columbia Books, 1995. 967 p. HD59.N24 1995 This directory identifies the key people in the corporate public affairs profession. The first section is an alphabetical list of almost 2,000 companies of varied sizes with public affairs programs. It includes corporate headquarters, and (where they exist) Washington, D.C., area offices; political action committees; foundation or corporate giving programs; and corporate publications. Key facts and figures on corporate philanthropic activity and political action committee involvement are also summarized. Also included is a list of each company’s public affairs personnel, and the office in which they are located. The second section of the book is an alphabetical list of approximately 16,000 individuals in the public affairs field. Taft Corporate Giving Directory. Washington, The Taft Corporation. Annual. HV97.A3T29 [year] Describes the giving programs of 1,002 corporate contribution programs. The entries are arranged alphabetically by company (or company foundation), and list size, locations of operation, products, contacts, amounts and types of grants, philosophy of giving, typical recipients, executives, and a statistical breakdown of the year’s giving. The indexes to biographical information on corporate officers and program decision makers include officers and directors by name, place of birth, alma mater, corporate affiliation, and nonprofit affiliation. A monthly newsletter, Corporate Giving Watch, updates the directory. Other Annual Register of Grant Support. New Providence, NJ, R. R. Bowker. Annual. AS911.A2A67 [year] Descriptions of over 3,000 government and private programs, arranged by broad fields of interest, which give purpose, types of awards, eligibility requirements, financial data, application, and deadline information. Access is provided by subject, organization, geographic, and personnel indexes. Directory of Research Grants. Phoenix, Oryx Press. Annual. LB2338.D57 [year] Concise descriptions of nearly 6,000 research programs that offer nonrepayable funding for projects in medicine, the physical and social sciences, education, the arts, and humanities. Grant programs are listed in alphabetical CRS-9 order, followed by three indexes: subject, sponsoring organization, and program type. Online availability: DIALOG. File: 85 (GRANTS). Internet Resources Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Programs (CFDA) is a government-wide compendium of all federal programs, projects, services, and activities that provide assistance or benefits to the American public. These programs provide grants, loans, services, information, scholarships, training, insurance, etc., to millions of Americans every day. Searchable by keyword. [http://www.gsa.gov/fdac/default.htm] Community Resource Institute This site provides information on national, local, and corporate grant foundations. Can be searched by grant categories (e.g., Arts & Culture, Community Development, Education, Environment, Health, and Youth). [http://www.granted.org] Council on Foundations The Council is a nonprofit membership association of grantmaking foundations and corporations, with a mission of promoting responsible and effective philanthropy by assisting existing and future grantmakers. Provides press releases, legislative updates, and fact sheets on foundations and the Council. [http://www.cof.org] The Foundation Center The Foundation Center is an independent nonprofit information clearinghouse established which collects, organizes, analyzes, and disseminates information on foundations, corporate giving, and related subjects. The Web site provides links to grantmakers (private foundations, corporations, public charities, and community foundations), the Philanthropy News Digest, and seminars, workshops, and training. [http://fdncenter.org] Foundations On-Line This Web site provides information on foundations, charities, government grants, fund-raising events, and incorporation resources. [http://www.foundations.org/page2.html] Fundsnet Fundsnet provides extensive resources in the areas of philanthropy for nonprofit organizations, grantwriters and consultants seeking information on funding sources for their projects, scholarships and financial aid for college and high school students, and other resources. [http://www.fundsnetservices.com/main.htm] CRS-10 The Grantsmanship Center (TGCI) The Grantsmanship Center was founded in 1972 to offer grantsmanship training and low-cost publications to nonprofit organizations and government agencies. It also offers daily summaries of Federal Register new grant announcements. [http://www.tgci.com] The Internet Nonprofit Center This Web site links to home pages of nonprofits and charities, information about nonprofits (e.g., top 40 charities, how to evaluate nonprofits, and standards in philanthropy), and information for donors and volunteers. [http://www.nonprofits.org] Nonprofit Gateway (Grants & Non-Financial Support, Federal Agencies) This Web page is a collection of direct links to the Grants and Non-Financial Support Home Pages of cabinet departments and other federal agencies. [http://www.nonprofit.gov/resource/support.html#departments] SRA’s GrantsWeb (Society of Research Administrators) This is a collection of hundreds of links to funding resources from federal and state governments and private, international, and general organizations. It includes links to federal agency policies, electronic journals, grant forms, and writing guides. [http://web.fie.com/cws/sra/resource.htm] U.S. Business Advisor (Loans and Grants) The U.S. Business Advisor exists to provide businesses with one-stop access to federal government information, services, and transactions. The Loans and Grants section of the Finance page contains information on obtaining funds from the U.S. Departments of Transportation, Energy, Commerce, Agriculture, the Export-Import Bank, National Science Foundation, Small Business Administration, and the National Institute of Science and Technology. [http://www.business.gov/Finance.html#L&G] The dynamic nature of the Internet means that information sources appear and disappear without warning. The sources listed above were chosen because they are relatively stable, and committed to providing grant information on the Internet. It is possible to find additional Internet resources by using different search engines, such as: ! AltaVista [http://www.altavista.com/] ! Excite [http://www.excite.com/] ! Hotbot [http://www.hotbot.com/] ! InfoSeek [http://www.infoseek.com/] ! Metacrawler [http://www.metacrawler.com] ! Northern Light [http://www.nlsearch.com] ! Yahoo [http://www.yahoo.com/] When searching for grants or funding resources, combine a subject of interest (e.g., education, small business, or environment) with terms such as: ! grants ! financial aid or financial assistance CRS-11 ! charities or charity ! foundations ! fund raising or fundraising It is possible to further limit search results by adding additional terms, or specifying particular domains (e.g., government, nonprofit, or educational). Searchers should consult the search engine’s help screens for further information on effective search strategies