Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies:
September 10, 2020
Overview of FY2021 Appropriations
Carol Hardy Vincent
The Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bill contains funding for
Specialist in Natural
approximately 35 agencies and entities. They include most of the Department of the Interior
Resources Policy
(DOI) as well as agencies within other departments, such as the Forest Service within the

Department of Agriculture and the Indian Health Service within the Department of Health and
Human Services. The bill also provides funding for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),

arts and cultural agencies, and other organizations and entities. Issues for Congress include
determining the amount, terms, and conditions of funding for agencies and programs.
For FY2021, President Trump requested $34.07 billion for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies, including $31.72
billion in regular appropriations and $2.35 billion for DOI and Forest Service wildfire suppression under a discretionary cap
adjustment. The total request is broken out unevenly across three major titles and among agencies and entities within each
title, as is typically the case. For the 10 major DOI agencies in Title I of the bill, the request was $12.05 billion, or 35.4% of
the $34.07 billion total requested. Nearly half (47.7%) of the $12.05 billion requested for DOI agencies was for two agencies:
Indian Affairs ($2.96 billion) and the National Park Service ($2.79 billion). For EPA, funded in Title II of the bill, the re quest
was $6.70 billion, or 19.7% of the total. For the 25 agencies and other entities currently funded in Title III of the bill, the
request was $15.31 billion, or 44.9% of the total. For these “Related Agencies” in Title III, the President sought amounts
ranging from no funding for four entities to $7.38 billion for the Forest Service. The large majority of funds (89.3%) would
be for the Forest Service and the Indian Health Service ($6.29 billion).
The President’s FY2021 request would be $4.24 billion (11.1%) lower than the FY2020 enacted annual appropriation of
$38.30 billion (P.L. 116-94, Division D), which included $2.25 billion under the discretionary cap adjustment for wildfire
suppression. It would be $6.28 billion (15.6%) lower than the FY2020 total appropriation of $40.34 billion for Interior,
Environment, and Related Agencies, which included $2.04 billion in emergency supplemental appropriations for coronavirus
health response and agency operations (P.L. 116-136, Division B, Title VII).
On July 24, 2020, the House passed H.R. 7608 with $54.67 billion (in Division C) for agencies in the Interior bill. This total
included $39.17 billion in annual appropriations, composed of $36.82 billion in regular appropriations and $2.35 billion for
wildfire suppression under the cap adjustment. It also included $15.50 billion in emergency appropriations for additional
infrastructure investments. The emergency funds for additional infrastructure investments would be provided to three
agencies, with most of the monies for EPA—EPA ($13.50 billion), the Indian Health Service ($1.50 billion), and the Bureau
of Indian Affairs ($0.50 billion).
Due primarily to the emergency funds for infrastructure, the FY2021 House-passed total is higher than FY2020 enacted
appropriations and FY2021 requested appropriations. Specifically, the House-passed amount of $54.67 billion is
 $16.37 billion (42.7%) higher than the FY2020 annual appropriation of $38.30 billion;
 $14.33 billion (35.5%) higher than the FY2020 total appropriation of $40.34 billion, including emergency
supplemental appropriations to address coronavirus; and
 $20.61 billion (60.5%) higher than the FY2021 President’s request of $34.07 billion.
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

Figure 1. Appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies, by Major Title, FY2020-
FY2021

Source: Prepared by the Congressional Research Service with data from the House and Senate Appropriations Committees.
Notes: This figure depicts appropriations enacted for FY2020, requested by the President for FY2021, and passed by the House for
FY2021 as contained in H.R. 7608 (Division C). The FY2020 enacted total also includes a $1.0 mil ion rescission in Title IV (General
Provisions) of P.L. 116-94, Division D, as wel as $2.04 bil ion in emergency supplemental appropriations for several agencies for
coronavirus prevention, preparation, and response in P.L. 116-136, Division B. The FY2021 request also includes $4.0 mil ion in Title
IV (General Provisions). The FY2021 House-passed amount reflects $15.50 bil ion in emergency appropriations for additional
infrastructure investments.

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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1
Overview of Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies..................................................... 2
Title I. Department of the Interior................................................................................. 2
Title II. Environmental Protection Agency ..................................................................... 4
Title III. Related Agencies........................................................................................... 5
FY2021 Appropriations.................................................................................................... 6
Components of President Trump’s Request.................................................................... 6
Components of House-Passed Bill................................................................................ 7
Comparing FY2020 and FY2021 Appropriations ............................................................ 8

Figures
Figure 1. Appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies, by Major Title,
FY2020-FY2021 .......................................................................................................... 3
Figure 2. Components of President Trump’s FY2021 Request for Interior, Environment,
and Related Agencies .................................................................................................... 7
Figure 3. Appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies, by Major Title,
FY2020-FY2021 ........................................................................................................ 10

Tables
Table 1. Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2020-FY2021 Appropriations .......... 10

Contacts
Author Information ....................................................................................................... 13


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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

Introduction
This report focuses on FY2021 discretionary appropriations for Interior, Environment, and
Related Agencies.1 At issue for Congress are determining the amount of funding for agencies and
programs in the bil and the terms and conditions of such funding.
For FY2021, President Trump sought $34.07 bil ion for agencies in the Interior bil , including
$31.72 bil ion in regular appropriations and $2.35 bil ion for wildfire suppression under a
discretionary cap adjustment.2 On July 14, 2020, the House Appropriations Committee reported
H.R. 7612 (accompanied by H.Rept. 116-448). Subsequently, on July 24, 2020, the House passed
H.R. 7608, containing FY2021 appropriations of $54.67 bil ion in Division C for Interior,
Environment, and Related Agencies in FY2021. This total included $39.17 bil ion in annual
appropriations, composed of $36.82 bil ion in regular appropriations and $2.35 bil ion as
requested by the President for wildfire suppression under the cap adjustment. It also included
$15.50 bil ion in emergency appropriations for additional infrastructure investments of three
agencies: the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, $13.50 bil ion), the Indian Health Service
($1.50 bil ion), and the Bureau of Indian Affairs ($0.50 bil ion).
This report first presents a short overview of the agencies and other entities funded in the bil . It
next describes the appropriations requested by President Trump for FY2021 for Interior,
Environment, and Related Agencies, and the appropriations passed by the House for FY2021. It
then briefly compares the total appropriations enacted for FY2020,3 requested by the President for
FY2021, and passed by the House for FY2021. Final y, it provides a table showing each agency’s
appropriations enacted for FY2020, requested by the President for FY2021, and passed by the
House for FY2021.
Appropriations are complex. Budget justifications for some agencies are large (often a few
hundred pages long) and contain numerous funding, programmatic, and legislative changes for
congressional consideration. Further, appropriations laws provide funds for numerous accounts,
activities, and subactivities, and their accompanying explanatory statements provide additional
directives and other important information. This report does not provide in-depth information at
the agency, account, and subaccount levels, nor does it general y detail budgetary reorganizations
or legislative changes enacted in law or proposed for FY2021. For information on a particular
agency or on individual accounts, programs, or activities administered by a particular agency,

1 Hereinafter, the annual Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bill is sometimes referred to as
the Interior bill. Many of the agencies that receive discretionary appropriations through the Interior bill also receive
mandatory appropriations under various authorizing statutes. T his report does not address mandatory appropriations.
For information on mandatory appropriations of the four main f ederal land management agencies—Bureau of Land
Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, and National Park Service —see CRS Report R45994, Federal
Land Management Agencies’ Mandatory Appropriations Accounts
, coordinated by Carol Hardy Vincent .
2 Under Division O of P.L. 115-141, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018, an adjustment can be made to
discretionary spending limits to accommodate enacted funding for wildfire suppression. T he adjustment may not
exceed specified amounts for each of FY2020 -FY2027. For information on discretionary spending limits, see CRS In
Focus IF10647, The Budget Resolution and the Budget Control Act’s Discretionary Spending Lim its, by Megan S.
Lynch; CRS Report R44874, The Budget Control Act: Frequently Asked Questions, by Grant A. Driessen and Megan
S. Lynch; and CRS Report R45778, Exceptions to the Budget Control Act’s Discretionary Spending Lim its, by Megan
S. Lynch, especially p. 8.
3 Regular appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies for FY2020 were included in Division D of
P.L. 116-94, the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020. Supplemental emergency appropriations for Interior,
Environment, and Related Agencies for FY2020 were included in P.L. 116-136, Division B, T itle VII of the
Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act).
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

contact the key policy staff listed at the end of this report. In addition, for selected reports related
to appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies, such as individual agencies
(e.g., National Park Service) or cross-cutting programs (e.g., Wildland Fire Management), see the
“Interior & Environment Appropriations” subissue under the “Appropriations” Issue Area page
on the Congressional Research Service (CRS) website.4
Overview of Interior, Environment, and
Related Agencies
The annual Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bil includes funding and
other provisions for agencies and programs in three federal departments and for numerous related
agencies. The Interior bil typical y contains three primary appropriations titles and a fourth title
with general provisions. Title I provides funding for most Department of the Interior (DOI)
agencies,5 many of which manage land and other natural resource or regulatory programs. Title I
also typical y includes general provisions related to DOI agencies. Title II contains appropriations
and administrative provisions for EPA. Title III, Related Agencies, currently funds 25 agencies in
other departments, such as the Forest Service in the Department of Agriculture and the Indian
Health Service in the Department of Health and Human Services; arts and cultural agencies,
including the Smithsonian Institution; and various other organizations and entities. Title III also
contains administrative provisions for some agencies funded therein. Title IV, General Provisions,
typical y contains additional guidance and direction for agencies in the bil . Selected major
agencies in the Interior bil are briefly described below.
Title I. Department of the Interior6
DOI’s mission is to conserve and manage the nation’s natural resources and cultural heritage;
provide scientific and other information about those resources and natural hazards; and exercise
trust responsibilities and other commitments to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and affiliated
island communities.7 There are eight DOI agencies and two other broad accounts funded in the
Interior bil that carry out this mission. Hereinafter, these 10 agencies and broad accounts are
referred to collectively as the DOI “agencies.” The DOI agencies and their functions funded in
the Interior bil include the following:
 The Bureau of Land Management administers about 244 mil ion acres of federal
public land, mostly in the West, for diverse uses such as energy and mineral
development, livestock grazing, recreation, and preservation. The agency also is
responsible for more than 700 mil ion acres of federal onshore subsurface
mineral estate throughout the nation and supervises the mineral operations on
about 60 mil ion acres of Indian trust lands.

4 T he “Interior & Environment Appropriations” subissue page is on the CRS website at https://www.crs.gov/iap/
appropriations.
5 T he exceptions are the Bureau of Reclamation and the Central Utah Project, which receive appropriations through
Energy and Water Development appropriations laws. For information on FY2021 appropriations for these entities, see
CRS Report R46384, Energy and Water Developm ent: FY2021 Appropriations, by Mark Holt and Corrie E. Clark.
6 For additional background on the Department of the Interior (DOI) and its agencies, see CRS Report R45480, U.S.
Departm ent of the Interior: An Overview
, by Mark K. DeSantis.
7 T his statement is taken from the DOI website at https://www.doi.gov/whoweare.
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

 The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service administers 89 mil ion acres of federal land
within the National Wildlife Refuge System and other areas,8 including 77
mil ion acres in Alaska. It also manages several large marine refuges and marine
national monuments, sometimes jointly with other federal agencies. In addition,
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, together with the National Marine Fisheries
Service (Department of Commerce), is responsible for implementing the
Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. §§1531 et seq.); promoting wildlife habitat;
enforcing federal wildlife laws; supporting wildlife and ecosystem science;
conserving migratory birds; administering grants to aid state fish and wildlife
programs; and coordinating with state, international, and other federal agencies
on fish and wildlife issues.9
 The National Park Service administers 80 mil ion acres of federal land within the
National Park System, including 419 separate units in the 50 states, District of
Columbia, and U.S. territories. Roughly two-thirds of the system’s lands are in
Alaska. The National Park Service has a dual mission—to preserve unique
resources and to provide for their enjoyment by the public. The agency also
supports and promotes some resource conservation activities outside the National
Park System through grant and technical assistance programs and cooperation
with partners.10
 The U.S. Geological Survey is a science agency that provides physical and
biological information related to geological resources; natural hazards; climate
and land use change; and energy, mineral, water, and biological sciences and
resources. In addition, it is the federal government’s principal civilian mapping
agency (e.g., topographical and geological mapping) and a primary source of data
on the quantity and quality of the nation’s water resources (e.g., streamgaging).
 The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management manages development of the nation’s
offshore conventional and renewable energy resources in the Atlantic, the Pacific,
the Gulf of Mexico, and the Arctic. These resources are located in areas covering
approximately 1.7 bil ion acres located beyond state waters, mostly in the Alaska
region (more than 1 bil ion acres) but also off al coastal states.11
 The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement provides regulatory and
safety oversight for resource development in the outer continental shelf. Among
its responsibilities are oil and gas permitting, facility inspections, environmental
compliance, and oil spil response planning.
 The Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement works with states
and tribes to reclaim abandoned coal mining sites. The agency also regulates
active coal mining sites to minimize environmental impacts during mining and to
reclaim affected lands and waters after mining.

8 T his is the acreage over which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has primary jurisdiction in the United States and the
territories. T he figure excludes acreage in marine national monuments over which the agency also has jurisdiction.
9 For additional information on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, see CRS Report R45265, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service: An Overview
, by R. Eliot Crafton.
10 For a discussion of the different types of national park units and an overview of their management, see CRS Report
R41816, National Park System : What Do the Different Park Titles Signify? , by Laura B. Comay.
11 For a discussion of state and federal waters, see CRS Report RL33404, Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal
Fram ework
, by Adam Vann.
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Indian Affairs agencies provide and fund a variety of services to American
Indians and Alaska Natives. Historical y, these agencies have taken the lead in
federal dealings with tribes. The Bureau of Indian Education funds an elementary
and secondary school system, institutions of higher education, and other
educational programs.12 The Bureau of Indian Affairs is responsible for programs
that include government operations, courts, law enforcement, fire protection,
social programs, roads, economic development, employment assistance, housing
repair, irrigation, dams, Indian rights protection, implementation of land and
water settlements, and management of trust assets (real estate and natural
resources).13
Departmental Offices cover diverse offices and programs. In FY2020, they
included the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, Insular Affairs, Office of the
Solicitor, Office of Inspector General, and Office of the Special Trustee for
American Indians.14
Department-Wide Programs cover varied programs and entities. In FY2020, they
included DOI Wildland Fire Management, the Central Hazardous Materials
Fund, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment Fund, the Working Capital
Fund, and the Office of Natural Resources Revenue.15
Title II. Environmental Protection Agency
EPA has no organic statute establishing an overal mission; rather, the agency administers various
environmental statutes that have an express or general objective to protect human health and the
environment. Primary responsibilities include the implementation of federal statutes regulating air
quality, water quality, drinking water safety, pesticides, toxic substances, management and
disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, and cleanup of environmental contamination. EPA awards
grants to assist states and local governments in implementing federal law and complying with
federal requirements to control pollution. The agency also administers programs that provide
financial assistance for public wastewater and drinking water infrastructure projects.16

12 For a discussion of Indian education programs, see CRS Report RL34205, Indian Elementary-Secondary Education:
Program s, Background, and Issues
, by Cassandria Dortch; and CRS In Focus IF10554, Postsecondary Education of
Native Am ericans
, by Cassandria Dortch.
13 T his description reflects appropriations for “Indian Affairs” for FY2020. FY2020 appropriations for Indian Affairs
included funding for two separate bureaus: the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and the Bureau of Indian Education
(BIE). Historically, BIE has been funded within Indian Affairs. For FY2021, the Administration and the House both
supported funding other entities within “Indian Affairs.” Specifically, the House-passed bill included funding for the
Office of the Special T rustee for American Indians. T he Admin istration’s request proposed moving the functions of the
Office of the Special T rustee for American Indians into a (proposed) new Bureau of T rust Funds Administration and
funding the new bureau under Indian Affairs. Hereinafter, “Indian Affairs” refers to funding for the BIA, the BIE, and
the Office of the Special T rustee for American Indians.
14 An overview of the responsibilities of these entities is on the DOI website at https://www.doi.gov/bureaus/offices.
15 Descriptions of these programs are contained on the DOI website as follows. For DOI wildland fire management, see
https://www.doi.gov/wildlandfire. For the Central Hazardous Materials Fund, see https://www.doi.gov/oepc/central-
hazardous-materials-fund-chf. For the Natural Resource Damage Assessment Fund, see Budget Justifications and
Perform ance Inform ation, Fiscal Year 2021, Natural Resource Dam age Assessm ent and Restoration Program
at
https://www.doi.gov/budget/appropriations/2021. For the Working Capital Fund, see Budget Justifications and
Perform ance Inform ation, Fiscal Year 2021, Office of the Secretary, Departm ent-Wide Program s
, pp. OS-13-OS-14, at
https://www.doi.gov/budget/appropriations/2021. For the Office of Natural Resources Revenue, see
https://www.onrr.gov/.
16 For a detailed compendium of environmental laws administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), see
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

Title III. Related Agencies
Title III of the Interior bil currently funds 25 agencies, organizations, and other entities, which
are collectively referred to hereinafter as the “Related Agencies.” Among the Related Agencies
funded in the Interior bil , roughly 95% of the funding is typical y provided to the following:
 The Forest Service in the Department of Agriculture manages 193 mil ion acres
of federal land within the National Forest System—consisting of national forests,
national grasslands, and other areas—in 43 states, the Commonwealth of Puerto
Rico, and the Virgin Islands. It also provides technical and financial assistance to
states, tribes, and private forest landowners and conducts research on sustaining
forest resources for future generations.17
 The Indian Health Service in the Department of Health and Human Services
provides medical and environmental health services for approximately 2.6
mil ion American Indians and Alaska Natives. Health care is provided through a
system of facilities and programs operated by the agency, tribes and tribal
organizations, and urban Indian organizations. The agency operates 24 hospitals,
50 health centers, 24 health stations, and 11 school health centers. Tribes and
tribal organizations, through Indian Health Service contracts and compacts,
operate another 22 hospitals, 285 health centers, 54 health stations, 127 Alaska
vil age clinics, and 5 school health centers.18
 The Smithsonian Institution is a museum and research complex consisting of 19
museums and gal eries, the National Zoological Park (“National Zoo”), and 9
research facilities throughout the United States and around the world.19
Established by federal legislation in 1846 with the acceptance of a trust donation
by the institution’s namesake benefactor, the Smithsonian is funded by both
federal appropriations and a private trust.20
 The National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the
Humanities make up the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities.
The National Endowment for the Arts is a major federal source of support for al
arts disciplines. Since 1965, it has awarded more than 145,000 grants, which
have been distributed to al states. The National Endowment for the Humanities
general y supports grants for humanities education, research, preservation, and
public humanities programs; creation of regional humanities centers; and
development of humanities programs under the jurisdiction of state humanities
councils. Since 1965, it has awarded more than 64,000 grants. It also supports a

CRS Report RL30798, Environm ental Laws: Sum m aries of Major Statutes Adm inistered by the Environm ental
Protection Agency
, coordinated by David M. Bearden.
17 For an overview of Forest Service land management, see CRS Report R43872, National Forest System Management:
Overview, Appropriations, and Issues for Congress
, by Katie Hoover and Anne A. Riddle.
18 Department of Health and Human Services, Indian Healt h Service (IHS), Justification of Estimates for
Appropriations Com m ittees
, FY2021, p. CJ-68, at https://www.ihs.gov/budgetformulation/congressionaljustifications/.
For additional information on the agency, see CRS Report R43330, The Indian Health Service (IHS): An Overview, by
Elayne J. Heisler.
19 T hese statistics are from the Smithsonian Institution’s website at http://www.si.edu/About.
20 For an overview of the Smithsonian Institution and related issues for Congress, see CRS Report R44370,
Sm ithsonian Institution: Background, Issues for Congress, and Selected Legislation, by R. Eric Petersen.
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

Chal enge Grant program to stimulate and match private donations in support of
humanities institutions.
FY2021 Appropriations
Components of President Trump’s Request
For FY2021, President Trump requested $34.07 bil ion for the 36 agencies and entities funded in
FY2020 in the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies appropriations bill.21 This total
included $31.72 bil ion in regular appropriations and $2.35 bil ion for certain wildfire suppression
activities under an adjustment to discretionary spending limits for FY2021. Budget authority
designated for those activities would cause the spending limits to be adjusted, making it
effectively not subject to the limits.22
The total request is broken out unevenly across the three major funding titles in Interior bil s and
among agencies and entities within each title, as is typical y the case. For the 10 major DOI
agencies in Title I of the bil , the request was $12.05 bil ion, or 35.4% of the $34.07 bil ion total
requested. For EPA, funded in Title II of the bil , the request was $6.70 bil ion, or 19.7% of the
total. For the 25 agencies and other entities currently funded in Title III of the bil , the request was
$15.31 bil ion, or 44.9% of the total.
Appropriations for agencies vary widely for reasons relating to the number, breadth, and
complexity of agency responsibilities; alternative sources of funding (e.g., mandatory
appropriations); and Administration and congressional priorities, among other factors. Thus,
although the President’s FY2021 request covered more than 30 agencies, funding for a smal
subset of these agencies accounted for most of the total. For example, the requested
appropriations for three agencies—Forest Service, EPA, and Indian Health Service—were more
than half (59.8%) of the total request. Further, more than three-quarters (76.7%) of the request
was for these three agencies and two others, Indian Affairs and National Park Service.
For DOI agencies, the President’s requests for FY2021 ranged from $116.2 mil ion for the Office
of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement to $2.96 bil ion for Indian Affairs. The requests
for 5 of the 10 agencies exceeded $1 bil ion. Nearly half (47.7%) of the $12.05 bil ion requested
for DOI agencies was for two agencies: Indian Affairs ($2.96 bil ion) and the National Park
Service ($2.79 bil ion).
For Related Agencies in Title III, the President’s requested funding levels exhibited more
variation. The President sought amounts ranging from -$1.0 mil ion for the Presidio Trust to
$7.38 bil ion for the Forest Service.23 The Indian Health Service, with a request of $6.29 bil ion,
and the Smithsonian Institution, with a request of $1.11 bil ion, were the only other agencies in
Title III for which the President requested more than $1 bil ion. The next-largest request was
$161.6 mil ion for the National Gal ery of Art. By contrast, 13 Title III entities each had requests

21 Agency and bill totals in this report generally reflect rescissions.
22 T he President’s request for a $2.35 billion discretionary cap adjustment for wildfire suppression included $2.0 4
billion for the Forest Service and $310.0 million for DOI.
23 As noted, the Forest Service request included $2.04 billion under a discretionary cap adjustment for wildfire
suppression. In addition to the -$1.0 million for the Presidio T rust, the Presiden t requested no funding for three entities:
National Capital Arts and Cultural Affairs, Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, and Alyce Spotted Bear and
Walter Soboleff Commission on Native Children.
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

of less than $10 mil ion each. Figure 2 identifies the share of the President’s FY2021 request for
particular agencies in the Interior bil .
Figure 2. Components of President Trump’s FY2021 Request for
Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies
$ bil ions

Source: Prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) with data from the House and Senate
Appropriations Committees.
Notes: Agencies shown in shades of red are in the Department of the Interior, Title I of the bil . The
Environmental Protection Agency, shown in blue-grey, is in Title II of the bil . Agencies shown in shades of green-
brown are Related Agencies, Title III of the bil . Figures may not add to total shown due to rounding.
Components of House-Passed Bill
On July 24, 2020, the House passed H.R. 7608 with $54.67 bil ion (in Division C) for agencies in
the Interior bil .24 This total included $39.17 bil ion, including $36.82 bil ion in regular
appropriations and $2.35 bil ion for wildfire suppression under the cap adjustment. It also
included $15.50 bil ion in emergency appropriations for additional infrastructure investments.
Of the $39.17 bil ion (which excludes the emergency infrastructure funds), the 10 major DOI
agencies in Title I would receive $13.80 bil ion, or 35.2% of the total. For EPA, funded in Title II
of the bil , the House-passed bil contained $9.38 bil ion, or 23.9% of the total. For the 25

24 In earlier action, on July 14, 2020, the House Appropriations Committee reported H.R. 7612 (accompanied by
H.Rept. 116-448) containing FY2021 appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. As reported by
the committee, H.R. 7612 contained $54.17 billion for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. T he prim ary
difference between H.R. 7612 as reported and H.R. 7608 as passed is an additional $0.50 billion for infrastructure
investments of EPA in H.R. 7608. More specifically, H.R. 7612 as reported contained $39.17 billion, composed of
$36.82 in regular appropriations and $2.35 billion for wildfire suppression under the discretionary cap adjustment and
$15.0 billion in emergency appropriations for additional infrastructure investments.
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agencies and other entities currently funded in Title III of the bil , the House-passed bil would
provide $15.99 bil ion, or 40.8% of the total.
As in the President’s request, the House-passed appropriations for five agencies constituted more
than three-quarters of the $39.17 bil ion total. The appropriations for EPA, Forest Service, Indian
Health Service, Indian Affairs, and National Park Service totaled $30.18 bil ion, or 77.0% of the
total.
For DOI agencies, the House-passed amounts of the $39.17 bil ion total ranged from $121.8
mil ion for the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management to $3.52 bil ion for Indian Affairs. The
House-passed amounts for 6 of the 10 agencies exceeded $1 bil ion. For Related Agencies in Title
III, the House-passed amounts ranged from $0 for two agencies to $7.56 bil ion for the Forest
Service.25 Like under the President’s request, only three Title III agencies would receive more
than $1 bil ion. In addition to the Forest Service, they include the Indian Health Service ($6.49
bil ion) and the Smithsonian Institution ($1.06 bil ion). The next-largest amounts in Title III were
$179.4 mil ion for the National Gal ery of Art and $170.0 mil ion for each of the National
Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities. For each of 11 Title III
agencies, the House-passed bil included less than $10 mil ion
A proposed new Title V of the House-passed bil contained $15.50 bil ion in emergency
appropriations for additional infrastructure investments of three agencies. Most of the funds
would be provided to EPA as follows: EPA, $13.50 bil ion (87.1%); Indian Health Service, $1.50
bil ion (9.7%); and Bureau of Indian Education, $0.50 bil ion (3.2%). Among other activities, the
funds would be used for the following purposes. For EPA, funds would be directed to State and
Tribal Assistance Grants, including for the Clean Water and Drinking Water State Revolving
Funds; the Hazardous Substance Superfund program, including cleanup activities; and the Office
of Inspector General. For the Indian Health Service, monies would be used for health facilities
construction, maintenance and improvements, and equipment. For the Bureau of Indian
Education, funding would be provided for education construction general y, to include
construction, repair, and improvement of schools, utilities, and other facilities. Al Title V funds
would be available for multiple years, with most of the funds available until expended.
Comparing FY2020 and FY2021 Appropriations
For FY2020, the total enacted appropriation for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies was
$40.34 bil ion. This total included $38.30 in P.L. 116-94, Division D (composed of $36.05 bil ion
in regular appropriations and a $2.25 bil ion discretionary cap adjustment for wildfire
suppression) and $2.04 bil ion in emergency supplemental appropriations for coronavirus health
response and agency operations in P.L. 116-136, Division B.26 Although the coronavirus monies
were provided to several agencies, approximately three-quarters of the funds (76.2%) were
appropriated for Indian Affairs and the Indian Health Service (as shown in Table 1). For al
agencies, the funds were appropriated “to prevent, prepare for, and respond to coronavirus,
domestical y or international y,” and they are available until September 30, 2021.27

25 T he Forest Service appropriation included $2.04 billion under a discretionary cap adjustment for wildfire
suppression. T he two entities for which the House approved no funding were the Women’s Suffrage Centennial
Commission and the Alyce Spotted Bear and Walter Soboleff Commission on Native Children.
26 P.L. 116-94 was enacted as the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020. P.L. 116-136 was enacted as the
Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act).
27 See P.L. 116-136, Division B, T itle VII.
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As noted, the President’s FY2021 request of $34.07 bil ion for agencies in the Interior bil was
composed of $31.72 bil ion in regular appropriations and $2.35 bil ion for wildfire suppression
under a discretionary cap adjustment. The President’s request would be $4.24 bil ion (11.1%)
lower than the FY2020 enacted annual appropriation of $38.30 bil ion (in P.L. 116-94) and $6.28
bil ion (15.6%) lower than the FY2020 enacted total of $40.34 bil ion, including emergency
supplemental appropriations to address coronavirus.
Also as noted, H.R. 7608, as passed by the House, contained $54.67 bil ion (in Division C) for
agencies in the Interior bil . This total included annual appropriations of $39.17 bil ion
(composed of $36.82 bil ion in regular appropriations and $2.35 bil ion for wildfire suppression
under the cap adjustment) and $15.50 bil ion in emergency appropriations for additional
infrastructure investments of three agencies.
Due to the inclusion of the emergency funding for additional infrastructure investments, the
FY2021 House-passed total is higher than FY2020 enacted appropriations and FY2021 requested
appropriations. Specifical y, the $54.67 bil ion House-passed amount is
 $16.37 bil ion (42.7%) higher than the FY2020 enacted annual appropriations of
$38.30 bil ion (including $2.25 bil ion under the discretionary cap adjustment for
wildfire suppression);
 $14.33 bil ion (35.5%) higher than the FY2020 total appropriations of $40.34
bil ion (including the $38.30 bil ion annual total and $2.04 bil ion in emergency
supplemental appropriations to address coronavirus); and
 $20.61 bil ion (60.5%) higher than the FY2021 President’s requested
appropriations of $34.07 bil ion (which included $2.35 bil ion under the
discretionary cap adjustment for wildfire suppression).
Figure 3 depicts the FY2020 enacted appropriations, the FY2021 appropriations requested by the
President, and the FY2021 appropriations passed by the House in H.R. 7608. It shows the
appropriations contained in each of the three main appropriations titles of the Interior bil —Title I
(DOI), Title II (EPA), and Title III (Related Agencies). For FY2020 enacted appropriations, it
depicts the regular annual appropriations and the emergency supplemental appropriations (in P.L.
116-136) for several agencies to address coronavirus. For the FY2021 House-passed
appropriations, it depicts the regular annual appropriations and emergency appropriations for
several agencies for additional infrastructure investments. Table 1, at the end of this report, lists
the appropriations for each agency that were enacted for FY2020, requested by the President for
FY2021, and passed by the House for FY2021 in H.R. 7608.
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

Figure 3. Appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies,
by Major Title, FY2020-FY2021

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from the House and Senate Appropriations Committees.
Notes: This figure depicts appropriations enacted for FY2020, requested by the President for FY2021, and
passed by the House for FY2021 as contained in H.R. 7608 (Division C). The FY2020 enacted total also includes
a $1.0 mil ion rescission in Title IV (General Provisions) of P.L. 116-94, Division D and $2.04 bil ion in emergency
supplemental appropriations for several agencies for coronavirus prevention, preparation, and response in P.L.
116-136, Division B. The FY2021 request also includes $4.0 mil ion in Title IV (General Provisions). The FY2021
House-passed amount reflects $15.50 bil ion in emergency appropriations for additional infrastructure
investments.
Table 1. Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies:
FY2020-FY2021 Appropriations
(in thousands of dol ars)
FY2021
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021 House
Enacted P.L.
Suppl. P.L.
Admin. Passed H.R.
Bureau or Agency
116-94
116-136
Request 7608
Title I: Department of the Interior



Bureau of Land Management
$1,369,838
$0
$1,222,358
$1,294,728
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
$1,643,520
$0
$1,378,631
$1,579,277
National Park Service
$3,377,284
$0
$2,792,561
$3,224,266
U.S. Geological Survey
$1,270,957
$0
$971,185
$1,294,987
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
$131,611
$0
$125,760
$121,760
Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement
$133,444
$0
$130,339
$129,038
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement
$257,481
$0
$116,166
$222,400
Indian Affairsa
$3,331,998
$522,000
$2,960,824
$3,523,311
—Bureau of Indian Affairs
$2,032,124
$453,000
$1,907,881
$2,183,938
—Bureau of Indian Education
$1,191,334
$69,000
$944,544
$1,230,974
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FY2021
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021 House
Enacted P.L.
Suppl. P.L.
Admin. Passed H.R.
Bureau or Agency
116-94
116-136
Request 7608
—Bureau of Trust Funds Administration
$0
$0
$108,399
$0
—Office of the Special Trustee for American Indians
$108,540
$0
$0
$108,399
Departmental Officesb
$365,978
$0
$363,292
$365,663
Office of the Secretary
$131,832
158,400
$127,938
$97,248
Insular Affairs
$111,344
55,000
$89,199
$119,760
Office of the Solicitor
$66,816
$0
$86,813
$86,813
Office of Inspector General
$55,986
$0
$59,342
$61,842
Department-Wide Programs
$1,485,180
$0
$1,546,660
$1,532,528
Wildland Fire Management
$1,252,338
$0
$1,313,090
$1,301,479
Central Hazardous Materials Fund
$22,010
$0
$1,874
$10,010
Natural Resource Damage Assessment Fund
$7,767
$0
$4,709
$7,767
Working Capital Fund
$55,735
$0
$78,513
$64,798
Office of Natural Resources Revenue
$147,330
$0
$148,474
$148,474
General Provisions: Payments in Lieu of Taxesc
$500,000
$0
$441,976
$515,000
Subtotal, Title I: Department of the Interior
$13,867,291
$735,400
$12,050,752d
$13,802,958
Title II: Environmental Protection Agency




Subtotal, Title II: Environmental Protection Agency
$9,057,401
$7,230
$6,704,071
$9,381,191
Title III: Related Agencies




Dept. of Agri. Under Secretary for Natural Resources & Envt.
$875
$0
$875
$875
Forest Service
$7,433,413
$70,800
$7,378,836
$7,556,709
Indian Health Service
$6,047,094
$1,032,000
$6,293,568
$6,492,191
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
$81,000
$0
$73,688
$83,000
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
$76,691
$12,500
$62,000
$79,000
Council on Environmental Quality and Office of
$2,994
$0
$3,500
$2,994
Environmental Quality
Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board
$12,000
$0
$10,200
$12,000
Office of Navajo and Hopi Indian Relocation
$7,500
$0
$4,000
$4,000
Institute of American Indian and Alaska Native Culture and
$10,458
$78
$10,710
$10,772
Arts Development
Smithsonian Institution
$1,047,358
$7,500
$1,110,313
$1,060,013
National Gal ery of Art
$173,225
$0
$161,587
$179,445
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
$43,490
$25,000
$40,400
$40,400
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
$14,000
$0
$8,211
$14,800
National Endowment for the Arts
$162,250
$75,000
$30,175
$170,000
National Endowment for the Humanities
$162,250
$75,000
$33,420
$170,000
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

FY2021
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021 House
Enacted P.L.
Suppl. P.L.
Admin. Passed H.R.
Bureau or Agency
116-94
116-136
Request 7608
Commission of Fine Arts
$3,240
$0
$3,240
$3,240
National Capital Arts and Cultural Affairs
$5,000
$0
$0
$5,000
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation
$7,378
$0
$7,400
$7,400
National Capital Planning Commission
$8,124
$0
$8,124
$8,124
U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum
$60,388
$0
$60,388
$63,388
Presidio Trust
$10,000
$0
-$1,000
$20,000
Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission
$1,800
$0
$0
$220
Women’s Suffrage Centennial Commission
$1,000
$0
$1,000
$0
World War I Centennial Commission
$7,000
$0
$6,000
$6,000
Alyce Spotted Bear and Walter Soboleff Commission on
$500
$0
$0
$0
Native Children
Subtotal, Title III: Related Agencies
$15,379,028
$1,297,878
$15,306,635
$15,989,571
Title IV: General Provisions




Subtotal, Title IV: General Provisions
-$1,000
$0
$4,000
$0
Title V: Additional Infrastructure Investments




Bureau of Indian Education
$0
$0
$0
$500,000
Environmental Protection Agency
$0
$0
$0
$13,500,000
Indian Health Service
$0
$0
$0
$1,500,000
Subtotal, Title V: Additional infrastructure Investments
$0
$0
$0
$15,500,000
Total Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies
$38,302,720
$2,040,508
$34,065,458
$54,673,720
Source: Prepared by CRS with data from the House and Senate Appropriations Committees. Agency and bil
totals general y reflect rescissions.
Notes: This table depicts regular and supplemental appropriations enacted for FY2020, appropriations
requested by the President for FY2021, and appropriations contained in H.R. 7608 as passed by the House.
a. This row shows total funding for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Indian Education, and Office of the
Special Trustee for American Indians, which was funded in FY2020 as part of the Departmental Offices
Account. For FY2021, the President sought to move the functions of the Office of Special Trustee for
American Indians into a (proposed) new Bureau of Trust Funds Administration.
b. For FY2020, appropriations for the Office of Special Trustee for American Indians were provided as part of
the “Departmental Offices” account. For FY2021, appropriations were requested for a proposed Bureau of
Trust Funds Administration as part of the Indian Affairs account. For FY2021, appropriations were included
in the House-passed bil for the Office of Special Trustee for American Indians as part of the Indian Affairs
account. For comparison purposes, al these appropriations are shown in the Indian Affairs account.
c. The FY2020 enacted and FY2021 House-passed appropriations for the Payments in Lieu of Taxes Program
were included in the General Provisions of Title I. The FY2021 requested appropriations for the program
were included under Department-Wide Programs. For easier comparison, al these appropriations are
shown in this table under General Provisions.
d. This figure includes $1.0 mil ion for a general provision not shown in the column figures above.

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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations

Author Information

Carol Hardy Vincent

Specialist in Natural Resources Policy


Key Policy Staff
Area of Expertise
Name
Interior Appropriations, coordinator
Carol Hardy Vincent
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
David M. Bearden
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Tana Fitzpatrick
Bureau of Indian Education
Cassandria Dortch
Bureau of Land Management
Carol Hardy Vincent
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
Laura B. Comay
Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement
Laura B. Comay
Environmental Protection Agency
Robert Esworthy
Forest Service
Katie Hoover
Indian Health Service
Elayne J. Heisler
Land and Water Conservation Fund
Carol Hardy Vincent
Office of Insular Affairs
R. Sam Garrett
Office of Natural Resources Revenue
Laura B. Comay
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement
Lance N. Larson
National Endowment for the Arts and National Endowment for the
Shannon S. Loane
Humanities
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (Superfund authorities)
David M. Bearden
National Park Service
Laura B. Comay
Payments in Lieu of Taxes
R. Eliot Crafton
Reorganization of DOI
Mark DeSantis; Carol Hardy Vincent
Smithsonian Institution
Shannon S. Loane
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
R. Eliot Crafton
U.S. Geological Survey
Anna E. Normand
Wildland Fire Management
Katie Hoover
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Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Overview of FY2021 Appropriations




Disclaimer
This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan
shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress. It operates solely at the behest of and
under the direction of Congress. Information in a CRS Report should n ot be relied upon for purposes other
than public understanding of information that has been provided by CRS to Members of Congress in
connection with CRS’s institutional role. CRS Reports, as a work of the United States Government, are not
subject to copyright protection in the United States. Any CRS Report may be reproduced and distributed in
its entirety without permission from CRS. However, as a CRS Report may include copyrighted images or
material from a third party, you may need to obtain the permission of the copyright holder if you wish to
copy or otherwise use copyrighted material.

Congressional Research Service
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