Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Energy and Water Development:
July 24, 2020
FY2021 Appropriations
Mark Holt
The Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies appropriations bill provides funding
Specialist in Energy Policy
for civil works projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE); the Department of the

Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Central Utah Project (CUP); the Department
Corrie E. Clark
of Energy (DOE); the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); the Appalachian Regional
Analyst in Energy Policy
Commission (ARC); and several other independent agencies. DOE typically accounts for about

80% of the bill’s funding.
Overall Funding Totals

President Trump submitted his FY2021 budget proposal to Congress on February 10, 2020. The budget requests for agencies
included in the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill total $43.183 billion, including budget offsets. This was
$5.160 billion (11%) below the FY2020 enacted Energy and Water Development total of $48.343 billion, not including
supplemental appropriations. The House Appropriations Committee approved its FY2021 Energy and Water Development
appropriations bill July 13, 2020, with total funding of $49.607 billion, including offsets (H.R. 7613, H.Rept. 116-449). This
is $1.264 billion (3%) above the FY2020 enacted level and $6.422 billion (15%) above the request. In addition, the bill
includes $43.5 billion in emergency FY2021 appropriations (described below), for a total of $93.107 billion. The Energy and
Water Development appropriations bill has been included as Division C in a seven-bill “minibus” (H.R. 7617) that is
scheduled for floor consideration the week of July 27, 2020.
DOE would receive $36.339 billion under the Administration’s FY2021 budget request (excluding offsets)—a decrease of
$2.318 billion (6%) from the FY2020 enacted level. The House Appropriations Committee recommended $40.867 billion for
DOE, up 6% from FY2020. The FY2021 request for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is $720 million,
which is $2.070 billion (74%) below the FY2020 enacted level. Nuclear Energy Research and Development (R&D) would
drop from $1.493 billion in FY2020 to $1.180 billion in FY2021 (21%), and Fossil Energy R&D would be reduced from
$750 million to $731 million (3%). DOE’s Office of Science would receive $5.838 billion, down $1.162 billion (17%) from
the FY2020 enacted level. Environmental Management (waste management and cleanup) would decline from $7.455 billion
in FY2020 to $6.066 billion in FY2021 (down $1.39 billion, or 19%). The National Nuclear Security Administration
(NNSA), the DOE agency responsible for defense-related nuclear activities, would be increased from $16.705 billion in
FY2020 to $19.771 billion in FY2021 (up $3.066 billion, or 18%). From the FY2020 funding levels, House Appropriations
recommended increases of $58 million for EERE, $50 million for Science, and $1.333 billion for NNSA. The committee
recommended reductions of $58 million for Nuclear Energy and $23 million for Fossil Energy.
The two major water agencies in the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill would see funding cuts under the
FY2021 budget request. USACE would decline from $7.650 billion in FY2020 to $5.966 billion in FY2020 (down $1.685
billion, or 22%). Reclamation (separately from CUP) would be reduced from $1.660 billion in FY2020 to $1.128 billion in
FY2021 (down $532 million, or 32%). The House Appropriations Committee recommended reductions of $21 million (0.3%)
for USACE and $24.1 million (1.4%) for Reclamation from their FY2020 enacted levels, excluding emergency
supplementals.
Emergency Funding
Title VI of the House committee bill includes $43.5 billion in emergency FY2021 funding—nearly doubling the bill’s total
appropriations. These “additional infrastructure investments” are intended “to support the economic recovery from the
coronavirus pandemic,” according to the committee report. USACE would receive $17.0 billion, Reclamation would receive
$3.0 billion, and DOE would receive $23.475 billion. The largest amounts of the DOE emergency funding would go to EERE
($7.780 billion), Science (6.250 billion), Defense Environmental Cleanup ($2.685 billion), Electricity ($3.350 billion),
Nuclear Energy ($1.250 billion), and Fossil Energy ($1.250 billion).
Major Issues
Major FY2021 Energy and Water Development funding issues include Administration proposals to reduce energy research
and development funding, eliminate weatherization grants for low-income households, and substantially increase DOE
nuclear weapons activities, as well as the emergency supplemental funding recommended by the House Appropriations
Committee.
Congressional Research Service


link to page 5 link to page 7 link to page 7 link to page 8 link to page 8 link to page 9 link to page 9 link to page 10 link to page 11 link to page 11 link to page 12 link to page 12 link to page 13 link to page 14 link to page 15 link to page 16 link to page 16 link to page 17 link to page 19 link to page 20 link to page 20 link to page 20 link to page 21 link to page 22 link to page 22 link to page 24 link to page 26 link to page 28 link to page 29 link to page 30 link to page 31 link to page 31 link to page 32 link to page 33 link to page 34 link to page 35 link to page 36 link to page 37 link to page 37 link to page 38 link to page 39 link to page 40 link to page 40 link to page 40 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Contents
Introduction and Overview .............................................................................................................. 1
Emergency Funding .................................................................................................................. 3
Earlier-Year Funding ................................................................................................................. 3
Budgetary Limits ....................................................................................................................... 4
Funding Issues and Initiatives ......................................................................................................... 4
Army Corps of Engineers and Reclamation Budgets ................................................................ 5
Power Marketing Administration Proposals ............................................................................. 5
Termination of Energy Efficiency Grants ................................................................................. 6
Proposed Reductions in Energy R&D ....................................................................................... 7
Nuclear Waste Management ...................................................................................................... 7
Advanced Reactor Demonstrations ........................................................................................... 8
Proposed Uranium Reserve ....................................................................................................... 8
Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sales and Purchases .................................................................... 9
Elimination of Energy Loans and Loan Guarantees ............................................................... 10
Artificial Intelligence and Quantum Computing Initiatives ..................................................... 11
International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Fusion Research Grants ................. 12
Elimination of Advanced Research Projects Agency—Energy............................................... 12
Weapons Activities Funding Increases .................................................................................... 13
Cleanup of Former Nuclear Sites: Reductions and Transfers ................................................. 15
Southwest Border Regional Commission and Southeast Crescent Regional
Commission Funding ........................................................................................................... 16
Bill Status and Recent Funding History ........................................................................................ 16
Description of Major Energy and Water Programs ....................................................................... 17
Agency Budget Justifications .................................................................................................. 18
Army Corps of Engineers ........................................................................................................ 18
Bureau of Reclamation and Central Utah Project ................................................................... 20
Department of Energy ............................................................................................................. 22
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy........................................................................ 24
Electricity Delivery, Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Energy Reliability .................. 25
Nuclear Energy ................................................................................................................. 26
Fossil Energy Research and Development ........................................................................ 27
Strategic Petroleum Reserve ............................................................................................. 27
Science and ARPA-E ........................................................................................................ 28
Loan Guarantees and Direct Loans ................................................................................... 29
Nuclear Weapons Activities .............................................................................................. 30
Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation .................................................................................... 31
Cleanup of Former Nuclear Weapons Production and Research Sites ............................. 32
Power Marketing Administrations .................................................................................... 33
Independent Agencies .................................................................................................................... 33
Appalachian Regional Commission ........................................................................................ 34
Nuclear Regulatory Commission ............................................................................................ 35
Congressional Hearings ................................................................................................................. 36
House ...................................................................................................................................... 36
Senate ...................................................................................................................................... 36


Congressional Research Service

link to page 5 link to page 5 link to page 20 link to page 20 link to page 21 link to page 23 link to page 25 link to page 26 link to page 38 link to page 38 link to page 39 link to page 40 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Figures
Figure 1. Funding for Major Components of Energy and Water Development
Appropriations Bill, FY2017 through FY2021 Consideration ..................................................... 1

Tables
Table 1. Status of Energy and Water Development Appropriations, FY2021 ............................... 16
Table 2. Energy and Water Development Appropriations, FY2012- FY2021 Request ................. 16
Table 3. Energy and Water Development Appropriations Summary ............................................. 17
Table 4. Army Corps of Engineers ................................................................................................ 19
Table 5. Bureau of Reclamation and CUP ..................................................................................... 21
Table 6. Department of Energy ...................................................................................................... 22
Table 7. Independent Agencies Funded by Energy and Water Development
Appropriations ............................................................................................................................ 34
Table 8. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Funding Categories .................................................... 35

Contacts
Author Information ........................................................................................................................ 36



Congressional Research Service

link to page 5
Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Introduction and Overview
The Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies appropriations bill includes funding
for civil works projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), in Title I; the Department
of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and Central Utah Project (CUP), in Title
II; the Department of Energy (DOE), in Title III; and a number of independent agencies,
including the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Appalachian Regional Commission
(ARC), in Title IV. Figure 1 compares the major components of the Energy and Water
Development appropriations bill from FY2018 through the FY2021 House Appropriations
Committee recommendation.
Figure 1. Funding for Major Components of Energy and Water Development
Appropriations Bill, FY2017 through FY2021 Consideration
(Excluding Emergency Supplementals)

Sources: H.Rept. 116-449; Explanatory Statement for Division C of H.R. 1865, 116th Congress; S.Rept. 116-102;
S. 2470; H.R. 2740; FY2021 Budget Appendix; and agency budget justifications. Includes some adjustments; see
tables 4-7 for details.
Notes: FY2021 DOE request total does not include asset sales and certain other offsets. Enacted amounts do
not include subsequent emergency supplemental appropriations. CUP = Central Utah Project Completion
Account. FY2021 House Committee levels exclude emergency appropriations.
President Trump submitted his FY2021 budget request to Congress on February 10, 2020. The
budget requests for agencies included in the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill
total $43.183 billion, including budget offsets. This was $5.160 billion (11%) below the FY2020
enacted Energy and Water Development total of $48.343 billion, not including supplemental
appropriations.1

1 Most figures for the FY2020 enacted appropriations, FY2021 Administration Request, and FY2021 House
Appropriations Committee recommendation are taken from the House Appropriations Committee report on the Energy
and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 2021 (H.Rept. 116-449), July 15, 2020. Figures for
some subaccounts not shown in the House Appropriations Committee report are taken from the DOE FY2021
Congressional Budget Justification, February 2020, https://www.energy.gov/cfo/downloads/fy-2021-budget-
justification.
Congressional Research Service

1

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

The House Appropriations Committee approved its FY2021 Energy and Water Development
appropriations bill July 13, 2020, with total funding of $49.607 billion, including offsets (H.R.
7613, H.Rept. 116-449). This is $1.264 billion (3%) above the FY2020 enacted level and $6.422
billion (15%) above the request. In addition, the bill includes $43.5 billion in emergency FY2021
appropriations (described below), for a total of $93.107 billion. The Energy and Water
Development appropriations bill has been included as Division C in a seven-bill “minibus” (H.R.
7617) that is scheduled for floor consideration the week of July 27, 2020.
DOE would receive $36.339 billion under the Administration’s FY2021 budget request
(excluding offsets)—a decrease of $2.318 billion (6%) from the FY2020 enacted level. The
FY2021 request for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is $720 million, which is
$2.070 billion (74%) below the FY2020 enacted level. This includes elimination of grants for
home weatherization assistance and state energy programs. Nuclear Energy Research and
Development (R&D) would drop from $1.493 billion in FY2020 to $1.180 billion in FY2021
(21%), and Fossil Energy R&D would be reduced from $750 million to $731 million (3%).
DOE’s Office of Science, which funds a wide range of research, would receive $5.838 billion,
down $1.162 billion (17%) from the FY2020 enacted level. Funding for the Advanced Research
Projects Agency—Energy (ARPA-E), which received $425 million in FY2020, would be
eliminated and $311 million in prior-year funding rescinded. Environmental Management (waste
management and cleanup) would decline from $7.455 billion in FY2020 to $6.066 billion in
FY2021 (down $1.39 billion, or 19%).
The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), the DOE agency responsible for defense-
related nuclear activities, would be increased from $16.705 billion in FY2020 to $19.771 billion
in FY2021 (up $3.066 billion, or 18%). Also proposed for increases are DOE’s Office of
Electricity (up $5 million, or 3%) and the Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and
Emergency Response (up $29 million, or 18%).
The two major water agencies in the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill would
see funding reductions under the FY2021 budget request. USACE would decline from $7.650
billion in FY2020 to $5.966 billion in FY2021 (down $1.684 billion, or 22%). Reclamation
(separately from CUP) would be reduced from $1.660 billion in FY2020 to $1.128 billion in
FY2021 (down $532 million, or 32%).
Among the independent agencies funded by the bill, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
would receive an increase in total appropriations from $856 million in FY2020 to $863 million in
FY2021 (up $7 million, or 1%). NRC’s budget is mostly offset by nuclear industry fees, which
may vary from year to year; the agency’s net appropriation would decline from $128 million in
FY2020 to $123 million in FY2021 (down $5 million, or 4%). Funding for the Appalachian
Regional Commission would decrease from $175 million in FY2020 to $165 million in FY2021
(down $10 million, or 6%). Deeper percentage reductions in appropriations were proposed for
smaller regional authorities in the bill: Denali Commission (-51%), Delta Regional Authority (-
92%), Northern Border Regional Commission (-97%), and Southeast Crescent Regional
Commission (-100%).
The House Appropriations Committee largely reversed the funding reductions proposed by the
Administration and reduced the Administration’s proposed increases for DOE defense programs.
DOE appropriations in the House committee bill total $40.867 billion, up $2.210 billion (6%)
from FY2020. From the enacted FY2020 levels, funding for EERE would increase by $58 million
(2%), Science would rise $50 million (1%), ARPA-E would increase by $10 million (2%), and
loan programs would continue unchanged. Nuclear Energy R&D would be reduced by $58
million (4%), less than the $313 million reduction sought by the Administration. On the other
hand, the bill includes a $3 million greater decrease for Fossil R&D than proposed by the
Congressional Research Service

2

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Administration. The House Committee bill would reduce the Administration’s proposed 18%
increase for NNSA to 8% ($1.333 billion).
The Administration’s proposed FY2021 funding reductions for water development agencies
would be largely reversed under the House committee recommendations: regular (non-
emergency) appropriations for Reclamation would decrease by $24 million (1%) and for USACE
would decline by $21 million (a fraction of a percent) from their FY2020 enacted levels. For
independent agencies funded by the bill, the House Appropriations Committee recommendations
would reverse the proposed reductions, mostly calling for level funding or slight increases. The
primary exception is the Delta Regional Authority, which would be reduced by $15 million (50%)
from its FY2020 funding level (compared with the 92% reduction sought by the Administration).
The House committee bill also includes first-time funding of $250,000 for the Southwest Border
Regional Commission.
Emergency Funding
In addition to the House Appropriations Committee recommendations described above, Title VI
of the committee-passed bill includes $43.5 billion in emergency FY2021 funding—nearly
doubling the bill’s total appropriations. These “additional infrastructure investments” are intended
“to support the economic recovery from the coronavirus pandemic,” according to the committee
report. USACE would receive $17.0 billion, Reclamation would receive $3.0 billion, and DOE
would receive $23.475 billion. The emergency spending in Title VI is outside the annual budget
caps described below.
The largest amounts of the DOE emergency funding would go to EERE ($7.780 billion), of which
$3 billion would be for weatherization (energy efficiency) improvements to low-income housing,
$2 billion would be for energy efficiency block grants, and $1 billion would be for electric
vehicle infrastructure. Science would receive $6.250 billion in emergency appropriations for
upgrades to scientific research facilities. Other DOE programs receiving the largest amount of
emergency funding include Defense Environmental Cleanup ($2.685 billion), Electricity, for grid
modernization ($3.350 billion), Nuclear Energy ($1.250 billion), and Fossil Energy ($1.250
billion).
USACE’s emergency appropriations include $10.0 billion for construction and $5.0 billion for
operation and maintenance. Limitations on USACE construction projects in various existing
statutes would be waived. Emergency funding for Reclamation includes $300 million for
WaterSMART grants for water efficiency and infrastructure improvements, $605 million for
Indian Water Rights Settlements, and at least $700 million for various efforts in California
associated with the California Bay-Delta Restoration Act, the Central Valley Project Improvement
Act, and the San Joaquin River Restoration Settlement.
The House committee bill specifies that funds “designated in this Act by the Congress as being
for an emergency requirement” will become available only if the President “subsequently so
designates all such amounts and transmits such designations to the Congress” (Section 607).
Earlier-Year Funding
FY2020 funding was enacted in the FY2020 Energy and Water Development and Related
Agencies Appropriations Act on December 19, 2019, as Division C of the Further Continuing
Appropriations Act, 2020, which was signed by the President on December 20, 2019 (P.L. 116-
94). The enacted measure provided $48.324 billion for Energy and Water programs (including
rescissions), $3.663 billion (8%) above the FY2019 funding level (excluding emergency
Congressional Research Service

3

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

supplemental appropriations) and $10.368 billion (27%) above the Administration request.
Funding tables and other details are provided in the Explanatory Statement submitted with the
Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2020.2
Figures for FY2019 exclude emergency supplemental appropriations totaling $17.419 billion
provided to USACE and DOE for natural disaster response by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018
(P.L. 115-123), signed February 9, 2018. Similarly, the discussion and amounts in this report do
not reflect the emergency supplemental appropriations provided in the Additional Supplemental
Appropriations for Disaster Relief Act, 2019 (P.L. 116-20) for USACE ($3.258 billion) and
Reclamation ($16 million) or Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related supplemental
appropriations (e.g., P.L. 116-136). For more details, see CRS In Focus IF11435, Supplemental
Appropriations for Army Corps Flood Response and Recovery
, by Nicole T. Carter and Anna E.
Normand, and CRS Report R45708, Energy and Water Development: FY2020 Appropriations, by
Mark Holt and Corrie E. Clark.
Budgetary Limits
Congressional consideration of the annual Energy and Water Development appropriations bill is
affected by certain procedural and statutory budget enforcement requirements. These consist
primarily of procedural limits on discretionary spending (spending provided in annual
appropriations acts) established in a budget resolution or through some other means, and
allocations of this amount that apply to spending under the jurisdiction of each appropriations
subcommittee.
Statutory budget enforcement is currently derived from the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA;
P.L. 112-25). The BCA established separate limits on defense and nondefense discretionary
spending. These limits are in effect from FY2012 through FY2021 and are primarily enforced by
an automatic spending reduction process called sequestration, in which a breach of a spending
limit would trigger across-the-board cuts, known as a sequester, within that spending category.
The BCA’s statutory discretionary spending limits were increased for FY2020 and FY2021 by
the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019 (BBA 2019, P.L. 116-37, H.R. 3877), signed by the President
August 2, 2019. For FY2021, BBA 2019 sets discretionary spending limits of $671.5 billion for
defense funding and $626.5 billion for nondefense funding (the Energy and Water Development
Appropriations bill includes both). P.L. 116-136 (§14003) altered the accounting of certain harbor
maintenance spending toward the discretionary spending limits. From the FY2021 discretionary
spending limit, the House Appropriations Committee on July 13, 2020, allocated $49.607 billion
to the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Subcommittee (H.Rept. 116-443).or more
information, see CRS Insight IN11148, The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019: Changes to the BCA
and Debt Limit
, by Grant A. Driessen and Megan S. Lynch, and CRS Report R44874, The Budget
Control Act: Frequently Asked Questions
, by Grant A. Driessen and Megan S. Lynch.)
Funding Issues and Initiatives
Several issues have drawn particular attention during congressional consideration of Energy and
Water Development appropriations for FY2021. The issues described in this section—listed

2 Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020, Committee Print of the Committee on Appropriations, U.S. House of
Representatives, on H.R. 1865/P.L. 116-94, Legislative Text and Explanatory Statement, January 2020,
https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CPRT-116HPRT38679/pdf/CPRT-116HPRT38679.pdf.

Congressional Research Service

4

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

approximately in the order the affected agencies appear in the Energy and Water Development
bill—were selected based on total funding involved, percentage of proposed increases or
decreases, amount of congressional debate engendered, and potential impact on broader public
policy considerations. Substantial controversy arose during subcommittee and committee
markups about the bill’s $43.5 billion in emergency spending in response to the ongoing COVID-
19 outbreak; discussion of specific programs targeted with emergency funding is included in the
issue areas below. (For more information, see CRS Insight IN11300, COVID-19: Potential
Impacts on the Electric Power Sector
, by Ashley J. Lawson.)
Army Corps of Engineers and Reclamation Budgets
For USACE, the Trump Administration requested $5.966 billion for FY2021, which is $1.685
billion (22%) below the FY2020 appropriation. The request includes no funding for initiating new
studies and construction projects (referred to as new starts). The FY2021 request would limit
funding for ongoing navigation and flood risk-reduction construction projects to those whose
benefits are at least 2.5 times their costs, or projects that address safety concerns. Many
congressionally authorized USACE projects do not meet that standard. Congress has not
approved previous Administration requests to terminate funding for new starts.3
The Administration also seeks to transfer the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program
(FUSRAP) from USACE to DOE, a proposal included in prior budget requests that Congress has
not approved. Other USACE appropriations issues that may arise include efforts to shape the
activities of USACE’s regulatory program. USACE administers the permit program for Section
404 of the Clean Water Act. For Reclamation (not including CUP), the FY2021 request would
reduce funding by $532 million (32%) from the FY2020 level, to $1.128 billion.
For more details, see CRS In Focus IF11462, Army Corps of Engineers: FY2021 Appropriations,
by Anna E. Normand and Nicole T. Carter, CRS In Focus IF11465, Bureau of Reclamation:
FY2021 Appropriations
, by Charles V. Stern, and CRS Report R46320, U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers: Annual Appropriations Process and Issues for Congress
, by Anna E. Normand and
Nicole T. Carter.
Power Marketing Administration Proposals
DOE’s FY2021 budget request includes three spending proposals related to the Power Marketing
Administrations (PMAs)—Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southeastern Power
Administration (SEPA), Southwestern Power Administration (SWPA), and Western Area Power
Administration (WAPA). PMAs sell the power generated by various federal dams. The
Administration proposed to divest the assets of the three PMAs that own transmission
infrastructure: BPA, SWPA, and WAPA.4 These assets consist of thousands of miles of high

3 Congress also recommended up to two new starts for environmental infrastructure projects or programs under the
Construction account. For more on environmental infrastructure authorities, see CRS In Focus IF11184, Army Corps of
Engineers: Environmental Infrastructure Assistance
, by Anna E. Normand.
4 This proposal was also included in the Administration’s Delivering Government Solutions in the 21st Century: Reform
Plan and Reorganization Recommendations
, June 21, 2018, pp. 66-67, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/
uploads/2018/06/Government-Reform-and-Reorg-Plan.pdf. Total 10-year savings were estimated at $9.5 billion,
possibly including the proposed cancellation of WAPA borrowing authority. Mandatory spending is provided by
permanent law outside the annual appropriations process; for details, see CBO, “What is the difference between
mandatory and discretionary spending?,” https://www.cbo.gov/content/what-difference-between-mandatory-and-
discretionary-spending.
Congressional Research Service

5

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

voltage transmission lines and hundreds of power substations. The budget request projected that
mandatory spending savings from the sale of these assets would total approximately $4.1 billion
over a 10-year period.5 The budget request proposed to repeal the borrowing authority for
WAPA’s Transmission Infrastructure Program, which facilitates the delivery of renewable energy
resources.
The FY2021 budget also proposed eliminating the statutory requirement that PMAs limit rates to
amounts necessary to recover only construction, operations, and maintenance costs. The budget
proposed that the PMAs instead transition to a market-based approach to setting rates. The
Administration estimated that this proposal would yield $7.4 billion in new revenues over 10
years.6 The budget also called for repealing $3.25 billion in borrowing authority provided to
WAPA for transmission projects enacted under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of
2009 (P.L. 111-5). The proposal was estimated to save $500 million over 10 years.7
The Administration has made all of these proposals in previous years. To take effect, they would
need to be enacted in authorizing legislation, and no congressional action has been taken on them
to date. The proposals have been opposed by groups such as the American Public Power
Association and the National Rural Electrical Cooperative Association, and they have been the
subject of opposition letters to the Administration from several regionally based bipartisan groups
of Members of Congress. PMA reforms have been supported by some policy research institutes,
such as the Heritage Foundation.
For further information, see CRS Report R45548, The Power Marketing Administrations:
Background and Current Issues
, by Richard J. Campbell.
Termination of Energy Efficiency Grants
The FY2021 budget request proposed to terminate both the DOE Weatherization Assistance
Program and the State Energy Program (SEP). The Weatherization Assistance Program provides
formula grants to states to fund energy efficiency improvements for low-income housing units to
reduce their energy costs and save energy. The SEP provides grants and technical assistance to
states for planning and implementation of their energy programs. Both the weatherization and
SEP programs are under DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The
weatherization program received $305 million and SEP received $63 million for FY2020, after
also having been proposed for elimination in that year’s budget request, as well as in FY2019 and
FY2018. According to DOE, the proposed elimination of the grant programs is “due to a
departmental shift in focus away from deployment activities and towards early-stage R&D.”8
The House Appropriations Committee recommended funding for energy efficiency grants within
Title III and Title VI. Within Title III, the committee recommended an increase of $5 million (2%)
for weatherization grants and $2.5 million (3%) for SEP grants over their FY2020 enacted levels.
Title VI of the bill would provide emergency supplemental funding: $3 billion for weatherization
grants, $730 million for SEP grants, and $2 billion for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block
Grants (EECBGs). The EECBG program, which is authorized by the Energy Independence and
Security Act (EISA, P.L. 110-140), was funded at $3.2 billion under the American Recovery and

5 Office of Management and Budget, A Budget for America’s Future: Major Savings and Reforms, Fiscal Year 2021, p.
138, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/msar_fy21.pdf.
6 Ibid., p. 139.
7 Ibid., p. 140.
8 DOE, FY2021 Congressional Budget Request, Budget in Brief, p. 20, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/
02/f72/doe-fy2021-budget-in-brief_0.pdf.
Congressional Research Service

6

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Reinvestment Act (ARRA, P.L. 111-5). ARRA also provided supplemental funding for the
Weatherization Assistance Program ($5 billion) and SEP ($3.1 billion).
Proposed Reductions in Energy R&D
Appropriations for applied R&D on energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy, fossil
energy, and related energy activities at DOE would be reduced from $5.608 billion in FY2020 to
$3.208 billion (43%) under the Administration’s FY2021 budget request.9 Major proposed
reductions include bioenergy technologies (-83%), vehicle technologies (-81%), natural gas
technologies (-71%), advanced manufacturing (-75%), building technologies (-79%), wind energy
(-79%), solar energy (-76%), geothermal technologies (-76%), and nuclear fuel cycle R&D (-
39%), although some programs would be increased, such as energy storage (+49%) and advanced
coal energy systems (+115%). The House Appropriations Committee voted to maintain nearly
level funding for energy R&D, and, in addition, to provide approximately $2.6 billion in
emergency funding (Title VI) for energy demonstration and commercialization projects.
DOE said the proposed reductions would primarily affect the later stages of energy research,
which tend to be the most costly. “The Budget focuses DOE resources toward early-stage R&D,
where the Federal role is strongest, and reflects an increased reliance on the private sector to fund
later-stage research, development, commercialization, and deployment of energy technologies,”
according to the FY2021 DOE request.10 However, the House Appropriations Committee
responded, “The Committee rejects this short-sighted and limited approach, which will ensure
that technology advancements will remain in early-stage form and are unlikely to integrate the
results of this early-stage research into the nation’s energy system.”11
The Administration has proposed similar reductions in previous years but they have not been
approved by Congress.
Nuclear Waste Management
The Administration’s FY2021 budget request does not include new funding for a proposed
underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, after the Administration’s funding
requests for the repository were not approved by Congress in the last three fiscal years. Those
requests had included funding for DOE to pursue an NRC license for the repository and for NRC
to consider DOE’s license application. Although no FY2021 funding was requested for licensing
and developing Yucca Mountain, the Administration sought $27.5 million to develop nuclear
waste central interim storage capacity. “Funding is primarily dedicated to performing activities
that would lay the groundwork necessary to ensure near-term deployment of interim storage to
ensure safe and effective consolidation and temporary storage of nuclear waste,” according to
DOE’s budget justification. Funding for the program would come from the Nuclear Waste Fund,
which holds fees and interest paid by the nuclear power industry for waste management.12 The

9 Related energy activities include state energy efficiency and weatherization grants, energy security programs, and
electricity programs. The Office of Science and ARPA-E are not included.
10 DOE, FY2021 Congressional Budget Request, Budget in Brief, p. 17, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/
02/f72/doe-fy2021-budget-in-brief_0.pdf.
11 House Committee on Appropriations, Report on Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies
Appropriations Bill, 2021, H.Rept. 116-449, July 15, 2020, p. 93, https://www.congress.gov/116/crpt/hrpt449/CRPT-
116hrpt449.pdf.
12 DOE, Budget in Brief, February 2020, p. 38, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/02/f72/doe-fy2021-
budget-in-brief_0.pdf.
Congressional Research Service

7

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

House Appropriations Committee approved the Administration’s request but specified that only
$7.5 million come from the Nuclear Waste Fund.
For more background, see CRS Report RL33461, Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal, by Mark
Holt.
Advanced Reactor Demonstrations
A new, $230 million sub-account for an Advanced Reactors Demonstration Program within the
DOE Nuclear Energy account was included in the Explanatory Statement for the FY2020 enacted
appropriations measure. Of that funding, $160 million was provided for DOE to begin two
advanced nuclear reactor demonstration projects, with a cost-share of at least 50% from
nonfederal sources. Another $30 million was provided for grants to reduce the technical risk of
two-to-five additional reactor demonstration proposals, with a nonfederal cost-share of at least
20%. The FY2021 DOE request includes no further funding for reactor demonstrations but would
provide $20 million to continue R&D related to the program. The budget request would formally
establish the Versatile Test Reactor (VTR) as a DOE construction project and more than
quadruple its funding to $295 million. The VTR would be a new reactor to provide fast (high
energy) neutrons for testing advanced reactor fuels and materials. DOE estimates the project’s
total construction cost at between $3 billion and $6 billion, with completion ranging from 2026 to
2030.13
The House Appropriations Committee recommended $240 million for Advanced Reactor
Demonstrations in FY2021, $10 million above the FY2020 enacted amount. However, the
Committee sharply reduced VTR construction funding below the requested amount,
recommending $65 million, the same as the FY2020 appropriation for preconstruction activities.
Proposed Uranium Reserve
The FY2021 budget request for the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy includes $150 million to
establish a Uranium Reserve. Under this initiative, DOE would purchase uranium from domestic
uranium producers and have it converted to uranium hexafluoride (a necessary step in making
nuclear reactor fuel) by a domestic conversion facility. According to DOE, this stockpile of
uranium would be available for nuclear power operators in the event of a civilian nuclear fuel
market disruption and provide a source of U.S.-origin uranium for defense purposes.
“Establishing a reserve is an urgent step needed in response to an overreliance on imported
uranium product that has undermined U.S. energy security and impacted U.S. fuel supply
capabilities,” according to the DOE budget justification. However, the justification notes that, for
the newly stockpiled uranium, “no immediate national security need has been identified.”14
“Subsequent support will be considered as deemed necessary across a 10-year period as the
government and private sector work to reestablish US technology and market share,” according to
a report released April 23, 2020, by the Administration’s Nuclear Fuel Working Group
(NFWG).15

13 Thomas J. O’Connor, VTR Program Director, DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, “Versatile Test Reactor Update,”
March 28, 2019, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2019/04/f61/
VTR%20NEAC%20Rev%202%20%28003%29_1.pdf.
14 DOE, Budget in Brief, February 2020, p. 39, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/02/f72/doe-fy2021-
budget-in-brief_0.pdf.
15 DOE, “Strategy to Restore American Nuclear Energy Leadership,” news release, April 23, 2020,
https://www.energy.gov/strategy-restore-american-nuclear-energy-leadership.
Congressional Research Service

8

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

The House Appropriations Committee recommended no funding for the proposed Uranium
Reserve. “The Department has been unable to provide specific information about how it would
implement the program, including in congressional justifications, briefings, and in responses to
questions from the Committee about how the funds would be spent, including the process for the
purchase, conversion, or sale of uranium in a reserve,” according to the committee report. Instead,
the committee directed DOE within 180 days after enactment to provide a detailed plan for
establishing the Uranium Reserve.
U.S. uranium production in calendar year 2019 was the lowest since before 1949, according to the
Energy Information Administration (EIA). As of the fourth quarter of 2019, EIA reported that
three domestic in-situ uranium plants (solution mining operations in which a solvent is pumped
through underground ore bodies to recover uranium) were operating and that three domestic
conventional uranium mills were on standby. Two domestic uranium producers petitioned the
Department of Commerce (DOC) in 2018 to investigate foreign uranium imports under Section
232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. §1862). DOC subsequently recommended
presidential action to restrict imports, but President Trump did not concur.16 Nonetheless, the
Trump Administration expressed significant concerns regarding national security and responded
by establishing the NFWG. The DOE FY2021 budget justification called the Uranium Reserve
initiative “consistent with the priorities” of the NFWG and said it would “directly support the
operation of at least two U.S. uranium mines and the reestablishment of active domestic
conversion capabilities” and was “not designed to replace or disrupt market mechanisms.”17
For more information, see CRS In Focus IF11505, Uranium Reserve Program Proposal: Policy
Implications
, by Lance N. Larson.
Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sales and Purchases
The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), managed by DOE, holds more than 600 million barrels
of crude oil in storage caverns along the Texas and Louisiana coasts. In 2015, Congress began
mandating sales of SPR oil.18 Mandated sales direct the Secretary of Energy to sell a specified
quantity of SPR oil, with proceeds deposited into the general fund of the U.S. Treasury. In
addition to mandated sales, modernization sales under various laws authorize the Secretary of
Energy to draw down and sell SPR oil from FY2017 through FY2020.19 Proceeds from these
sales are to be deposited in the Energy Security and Infrastructure Modernization Fund (ESIMF)
for construction and maintenance of SPR facilities.
Global oil prices have declined precipitously since January 2020, as a result of a number of
factors, including reduced demand and economic impacts related to the evolving COVID-19

16 White House, “Memorandum on the Effect of Uranium Imports on the National Security and Establishment of the
United States Nuclear Fuel Working Group,” July 12, 2019, https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/
memorandum-effect-uranium-imports-national-security-establishment-united-states-nuclear-fuel-working-group.
17 Ibid.
18 Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-74); Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act (P.L. 114-94);
21st Century Cures Act of 2016 (P.L. 114-255); An Act to Provide for Reconciliation Pursuant to Titles II and V of the
Current Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018 (P.L. 115-97); Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-123);
Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (P.L. 115-141); and America’s Water Infrastructure Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-
270).
19 These laws include the Further Continuing and Security Assistance Appropriations Act, 2017 (P.L. 114-254), which
allows sales up to $375.4 million; Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-123), which allows sales up to $350
million; and Energy and Water, Legislative Branch, and Military Construction and Veterans Affairs Appropriations
Act, 2019 (P.L. 115-244), which allows sales up to $300 million.
Congressional Research Service

9

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

pandemic. Due to these recent developments, a plan to sell crude oil from the SPR for the
ESIMF—as required in FY2020 by P.L. 116-94—was suspended. Discussions transitioned from
selling oil from the SPR to purchasing oil to fill it to capacity. Acquiring crude oil for SPR
storage could absorb a limited amount of market oversupply. Physical SPR capacity is
approximately 713.5 million barrels, while actual inventories are 635 million barrels.20 At the
direction of President Trump, DOE issued a solicitation to purchase an initial 30 million barrels of
crude oil as part of a plan to acquire 77 million barrels. However, on March 25, 2020, DOE
cancelled this solicitation, noting “uncertainty related to adequate Congressional
Appropriations.”21 On April 2, 2020, DOE announced a solicitation for storage of 30 million
barrels in exchange for a certain percentage of the stored oil, which would become part of the
SPR stockpile.22
DOE’s FY2021 budget request, similar to FY2020’s request, is not requesting appropriations for
the SPR Petroleum Account, which is used for oil purchases. Instead, DOE seeks to dissolve the
Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve (NGSR), which consists of government-owned refined
petroleum products in storage in the Northeast. According to DOE, the NGSR has never been
utilized and is “not considered to be cost efficient or operationally effective.”23 DOE would use
proceeds from the NGSR sale to fund drawdown costs related to Mandated and Modernization
sales of crude oil from the SPR. DOE is requesting $187 million in appropriations for SPR
facilities development, management, and operations.24 The House Appropriations Committee
recommended $20 million to maintain the NGSR at 1 million barrels and a total SPR
appropriation of $195 million, plus $7.5 million for the Petroleum Account. For more
information, see CRS Insight IN11373, Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Recent Developments, by
Phillip Brown, and CRS Insight IN11246, Low Oil Prices and U.S. Oil Producers: Policy
Considerations
, by Phillip Brown and Michael Ratner. Also see CRS Congressional Distribution
Memo CD1308862, Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Mandated and Modernization Oil Sales, by
Phillip Brown and Heather L. Greenley, available to congressional clients from the authors.
Elimination of Energy Loans and Loan Guarantees
The FY2021 budget request would halt further loans and loan guarantees under DOE’s Advanced
Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program and the Title 17 Innovative Technology Loan
Guarantee Program. Similar proposals to eliminate the programs in FY2018 through FY2020
were not enacted. The FY2021 budget request would also halt further loan guarantees under
DOE’s Tribal Energy Loan Guarantee Program, a proposal that also was not approved by
Congress in previous years. Under the FY2021 budget proposal, DOE would receive $3 million
(offset by fees) to administer its existing portfolio of loans and loan guarantees. Unused prior-
year authority, or ceiling levels, for loan guarantee commitments would be rescinded, as well as
$170 million in unspent appropriations to cover loan guarantee “subsidy costs” (which are

20 U.S. Department of Energy, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Inventory, April 17, 2020, https://www.spr.doe.gov/dir/
dir.html.
21 U.S. Department of Energy, Amendment of Solicitation, 89243520RFE000015, March 25, 2020, available at
https://www.spr.doe.gov/doeec/2020-03_CrudeOilPurchase/Docs/89243520RFE000015_Amendment_0001.pdf.
22 U.S. Department of Energy, “U.S. Department of Energy to Make Strategic Petroleum Reserve Storage Capacity
Available to Struggling U.S. Oil Producers,” press release, April 2, 2020, https://www.energy.gov/articles/us-
department-energy-make-strategic-petroleum-reserve-storage-capacity-available-struggling.
23 U.S. Department of Energy, “FY 2021 Congressional Budget Request, Budget in Brief,” February 2020, p. 31.
24 U.S. Department of Energy, “FY 2021 Congressional Budget Request, Budget in Brief,” February 2020, p. 30.
Congressional Research Service

10

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

primarily intended to cover potential losses). The House Appropriations Committee
recommended that funding continue for the loan and loan guarantee programs.
Artificial Intelligence and Quantum Computing Initiatives
DOE’s FY2021 budget justification emphasizes the importance of the Office of Science’s
crosscutting research on quantum information science (QIS) and artificial intelligence (AI) in
supporting “U.S.-based leadership in microelectronics.”25 The FY2021 request includes $237
million for QIS and $125 million for AI, plus $12 million requested by NNSA in support of QIS
research. The DOE Office of Science’s funding for QIS has grown in the past five years, from $6
million in FY2017 to $195 million in FY2020—with a further 21% increase sought for FY2021.
The funding request is spread across six Office of Science program areas, mostly in Advanced
Scientific Computing Research ($86 million) and Basic Energy Sciences ($72 million).26
The House Appropriations Committee recommended $235 million for quantum information
science, about the same as the request, “including not less than $120,000,000 for research and not
less than $100,000,000 for up to five National Quantum Information Science Research Centers.”
The committee recommended funding of up to $125 million for AI and machine learning, similar
to the Administration request. In addition, Title VI includes emergency supplemental funding of
$75 million for equipment and infrastructure for the QIS Research Centers.
QIS, including quantum computing, builds on the principles governing the smallest particles of
matter and energy to obtain and process information in ways that cannot be achieved based on
classical physics principles. AI generally involves computerized systems that work and react in
ways commonly thought to require intelligence, such as solving complex problems in real-world
situations. AI is often considered to include machine learning as a subfield. DOE’s budget
documents describe the QIS and AI program areas as “fundamental for the Industries of the
Future Initiative” and the National Quantum Initiative, which are intended to advance U.S.
industrial and scientific leadership.27 DOE established the Artificial Intelligence and Technology
Office (AITO) in September 2019 to coordinate AI activities. The FY2021 DOE request includes
a new appropriations account for AITO, which would receive $5 million—nearly double the
FY2020 funding level for AI coordination, which had been included in the Departmental
Administration account. Additionally, the National Security Commission on AI recommended in
March 2020 that federal AI funding be doubled, including $300 million for DOE.28
For more information, see CRS Report R45409, Quantum Information Science: Applications,
Global Research and Development, and Policy Considerations
, by Patricia Moloney Figliola,
CRS In Focus IF10608, Overview of Artificial Intelligence, by Laurie A. Harris, and CRS Video
WVB00311, Artificial Intelligence: An Overview of Technologies and Issues for Congress, by
Laurie A. Harris.

25 Secretary of Energy Dan Brouillette, Testimony Before the Senate Appropriations Committee, Subcommittee on
Energy and Water Development, March 4, 2020, https://www.appropriations.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/
03.04.20%20—%20Brouillette%20Testimony.pdf.
26 Email from Robert Tuttle, DOE Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, April 16, 2020.
27 Ibid., and DOE, FY 2021 Congressional Budget Justification, vol. 4, February 2020, p. 150, https://www.energy.gov/
sites/prod/files/2020/03/f72/doe-fy2021-budget-volume-4_0.pdf.
28 National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence, First Quarter Recommendations, March 2020, p. 9,
https://sites.google.com/nscai.gov/home/reports.
Congressional Research Service

11

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Fusion
Research Grants
The Administration’s FY2021 request for DOE’s Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program under
the Office of Science includes $107 million for the U.S. contribution to the International
Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is under construction in France by a
multinational consortium. “ITER will be the first fusion device to maintain fusion for long
periods of time” and is to lay the technical foundation “for the commercial production of fusion-
based electricity,” according to the consortium’s website.29 The FY2021 DOE appropriation
request, 56% below the FY2020 enacted level of $242 million (which had been an 83% increase
from FY2019), includes funding to pay for components supplied by U.S. companies for the
project, such as central solenoid superconducting magnet modules.
The House Appropriations Committee recommended $260 million for the U.S. contribution to
ITER, “of which not less than $100,000,000 is for in-cash contributions.” An additional $65
million for ITER is provided by Title VI as an emergency supplemental.
ITER has long attracted congressional concern about management, schedule, and cost. The
United States is to pay 9% of the project’s construction costs, including contributions of
components, cash, and personnel. Other collaborators in the project include the European Union,
Russia, Japan, India, South Korea, and China. The total U.S. share of the cost was estimated in
2015 to be between $4.0 billion and $6.5 billion, up from $1.45 billion to $2.2 billion in 2008.
Some private-sector fusion companies contend that the technologies they are pursuing could
produce practical fusion power sooner and less expensively than ITER.30 The FY2021 FES
budget request includes $4 million, the same as in FY2020, for the Innovation Network for
Fusion Energy (INFUSE) program, which provides private-sector fusion companies with access
to DOE national laboratory facilities and expertise.31 In addition, ARPA-E is funding some
alternative fusion concepts.32
Elimination of Advanced Research Projects Agency—Energy
The Trump Administration’s FY2021 budget would eliminate the Advanced Research Projects
Agency—Energy and rescind $332 million of the agency’s unobligated balances. ARPA-E funds
research on technologies that are determined to have potential to transform energy production,
storage, and use.33 According to the budget request, DOE would end ARPA-E “while
incorporating ARPA-E’s approach to technology development into the execution of applied
energy office Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology.”34 The
Administration also proposed to terminate ARPA-E in its FY2018, FY2019, and FY2020 budget
requests, but Congress increased the program’s funding in all three years. The FY2020 enacted

29 ITER website, https://www.iter.org/.
30 Bourzac, Katherine, “Fusion Start-Ups Hope to Revolutionize Energy in the Coming Decades,” Chemical and
Engineering News
, August 6, 2018, https://cen.acs.org/energy/nuclear-power/Fusion-start-ups-hope-revolutionize/96/
i32.
31 DOE, FY 2021 Congressional Budget Justification, vol. 4, February 2020, p. 188, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/
files/2020/03/f72/doe-fy2021-budget-volume-4_0.pdf.
32 DOE, “Department of Energy Announces $32 Million for Lower-Cost Fusion Concepts,” April 7, 2020,
https://www.energy.gov/articles/department-energy-announces-32-million-lower-cost-fusion-concepts.
33 DOE, “About ARPA-E,” https://arpa-e.energy.gov/?q=arpa-e-site-page/about.
34 DOE, FY2021 Congressional Budget Request, Budget in Brief, p. 75, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/
02/f72/doe-fy2021-budget-in-brief_0.pdf.
Congressional Research Service

12

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

appropriations measure provided $425 million for ARPA-E, $59 million (16%) above the FY2019
level. The Administration requested $21 million for ARPA-E close-out activities and oversight of
existing projects in FY2021.
The House Appropriations Committee recommended increasing ARPA-E’s funding to $435
million in FY2021, $10 million (2%) above the FY2020 enacted amount. In addition, Title VI of
the committee bill includes $250 million for ARPA-E in emergency supplemental funding. “The
Committee again strongly rejects the short-sighted proposal to terminate ARPA-E. Instead, the
Committee continues investment in this transformational program and directs the Department to
continue to spend funds provided on research and development and program direction,” said the
committee report.
Weapons Activities Funding Increases
The FY2021 budget request for DOE Weapons Activities is 25% greater than the FY2020 enacted
level ($15.602 billion vs. $12.457 billion). The FY2020 enacted appropriation for Weapons
Activities was 12% above the FY2019 level. Weapons Activities programs are carried out by the
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a semiautonomous agency within DOE.
Under Weapons Activities, the FY2021 budget request includes funding for several major nuclear
warhead life-extension programs (LEPs):
 NNSA requests $816 million for the B61-12 LEP in FY2021, an increase of $23
million over the $793 million enacted for FY2020. The B61-12 is to combine
four existing types of B61 warheads. The first production unit (FPU) had been
scheduled for FY2020 but was delayed due to an issue with capacitors used in six
major electrical components. According to NNSA, FPU is now scheduled for
FY2022, and the program is to be completed in FY2026.
 NNSA requests $257 million for the W88 Alteration in FY2021, a reduction of
$47 million from the $304 million enacted in FY2020. The program is to upgrade
the arming-fuzing-firing system on the warhead and refresh the warhead’s
conventional high explosives. This warhead is carried on a portion of the D-5
(Trident) submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). NNSA expected to
provide the FPU of this warhead in 2020, but according to NNSA, the delivery
was delayed due to an issue with capacitors used in three major components.
According to its budget documents, NNSA now estimates that it will provide the
FPU in FY2021.
 NNSA is requesting $1.000 billion for the W80-4 in FY2021, an increase of 11%
over the $899 million enacted in FY2020. This is the warhead for the new long-
range cruise missile. The LEP would seek to use common components from other
LEPs and to improve warhead safety and security. The increase in the budget
request for FY2021 reflects an increase in the scope of work on the program. The
FPU is scheduled for FY2025.
 NNSA is requesting $541 million for the W87-1 warhead modification program
for FY2021, a nearly fivefold increase over the $112 million enacted for FY2020.
This increase reflects a “ramp-up” of activities across all program areas. The Air
Force plans to deploy the W87-1 on the new U.S. land-based intercontinental
ballistic missile (ICBM), the Ground-Based Strategic Deterrent (GBSD). NNSA
has indicated that the FPU for the W87-1 is currently planned for FY2030.
However, the FY2021 budget documents also note that the W87-0 warhead,
which is currently deployed on U.S. ICBMs, will also be “qualified and deployed
Congressional Research Service

13

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

onto the GBSD.” This would provide the Air Force with an alternative warhead if
the W87-1 FPU is delayed.35
NNSA is requesting $2.458 billion for a new program area—Production Modernization. This new
program area funds many of the nuclear materials projects that were a part of Directed Stockpile
Work in the FY2020 budget. It has four subprograms: Primary Capability Modernization,
Secondary Capability Modernization, Non-nuclear Capability Modernization, and Tritium and
Domestic Uranium Enrichment. The budget request seeks increases in funding for each of the
subprograms, although nearly 70% of the added funding supports Primary Capability
Modernization.
According to NNSA’s budget documents, the Primary Capability Modernization program
“consolidates management of nuclear material processing capabilities … needed for the
production of primaries.”36 Primaries are the plutonium pits and high explosives that serve as the
core of nuclear weapons. In FY2020, Congress approved $797.8 million for the plutonium
modernization programs that are now a part of this program area; NNSA is requesting $1.369
million for FY2021. Congress approved $13.8 million for high explosives and energetics in
FY2020; NNSA is requesting $67.4 million in FY2021.
The Plutonium Sustainment subprogram plans to expand production of plutonium pits from
existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to a new facility
(repurposed from the canceled Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility) at the Savannah River Site
in South Carolina. The Plutonium Sustainment subprogram, which received $712 million for
FY2020, is to be divided into four subprograms for FY2021: Los Alamos Plutonium
Modernization ($593.5 million), Plutonium Pit Production Project at Los Alamos ($226 million),
Savannah River Plutonium Modernization ($200 million), and Savannah River Plutonium
Processing ($241.9 million). The two program areas at Los Alamos fund activities needed to
recapitalize buildings and capacity to meet pit production requirements at Los Alamos. The
programs at Savannah River support efforts to plan for operations at the new pit facility, to work
on its design and site and facility preparation, and to begin long-lead procurement.
The House Committee on Appropriations approved $13.660 billion for Weapons Activities in its
version of the FY2021 Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill.
While this is an increase of $1.203 billion (10%) over the amount appropriated in FY2020, it is a
reduction of $1.942 billion from the FY2021 budget request of $15.602 billion. The House
Appropriations Committee also rejected some of NNSA’s proposed changes in the structure of
the Weapons Activities programs, noting in the Committee Report (H.Rept. 116-449) that,
although NNSA had sought “to engage in a constructive and transparent manner in
communicating the proposed changes,” these efforts were not sufficient and “the Committee
believes additional oversight and monitoring is necessary.”
The Committee Bill also contains a provision that would bar the use of funds “to conduct, or
make specific preparations for, any explosive nuclear weapons test that produces any yield.”
Administration officials have indicated that they do not plan to conduct such a test at this time,
and would only consider doing so if there were concerns about the safety or reliability of U.S.

35 DOE, FY 2021 Congressional Budget Justification, vol. 1, February 2020, p. 118, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/
files/2020/03/f72/doe-fy2021-budget-volume-1_2.pdf.
36 Ibid., p. 92.
Congressional Research Service

14

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

nuclear weapons. Recent reports indicate that the Administration has considered using such a test
to exhibit U.S. nuclear weapons capabilities.37
For more information, see CRS Report R44442, Energy and Water Development Appropriations:
Nuclear Weapons Activities
, by Amy F. Woolf.
Cleanup of Former Nuclear Sites: Reductions and Transfers
DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for environmental cleanup and
waste management at the department’s nuclear facilities. The $6.066 billion request for EM
activities for FY2021 would be a decrease of $1.390 billion (19%) from the FY2020 enacted level
of $7.455 billion. The budgetary components of the EM program are Defense Environmental
Cleanup (-20%) and Non-Defense Environmental Cleanup (-14%). The largest proposed
decreases are at the Hanford Site (WA), where projects managed by the Richland Operations
Office would be reduced by $347 million (-35%) and those by the Office of River Protection by
$358 million (-22%). Other relatively large EM reductions are proposed for the Oak Ridge Site
(TN), down by $251 million (-37%); Idaho National Laboratory, down by $175 million (-39%);
and Los Alamos National Laboratory, down by $100 million (-46%). The DOE budget
justification attributed many of the proposed funding decreases to completion of various cleanup
projects at the sites involved.38
The FY2021 request includes a proposal to transfer management of the Formerly Utilized Sites
Remedial Action Program from USACE to the Office of Legacy Management (LM), the DOE
office responsible for long-term stewardship of remediated sites. The transfer was also proposed
for FY2020 but not approved by Congress. The FY2021 LM budget request includes $150
million for FUSRAP, down from $200 million appropriated to USACE for the program in
FY2020. According to the DOE budget justification, “LM will be responsible for the
administration of FUSRAP, USACE will continue to conduct cleanup of FUSRAP sites, and LM
will continue to conduct LTS&M [long-term surveillance and maintenance] after cleanup
activities are completed.” Under the proposal, LM would reimburse USACE for the cost of the
cleanup activities.39
The House Appropriations Committee recommended $7.458 billion for EM activities, an increase
of $2 million from the FY2020 enacted level. In addition, the committee bill includes $3.125
billion in EM emergency supplemental funding, including $2.685 billion for defense cleanup,
$200 million for non-defense cleanup, and $240 million for the Uranium Enrichment
Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund. The committee did not approve the proposed
transfer of FUSRAP to DOE or proposed funding reduction, recommending an FY2021
appropriation of $210 million, up $10 million (5%) from the FY2020 enacted amount. In
addition, Title VI of the bill includes $500 million in emergency supplemental appropriations for
FUSRAP.

37 Hudson, John and Paul Sonne, “Trump Administration Discussed Conducting First U.S. Nuclear Test in Decades,”
Washington Post, May 22, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/trump-administration-discussed-
conducting-first-us-nuclear-test-in-decades/2020/05/22/a805c904-9c5b-11ea-b60c-3be060a4f8e1_story.html.
38 DOE, FY2021 Congressional Budget Request, Budget in Brief, p. 53, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/
02/f72/doe-fy2021-budget-in-brief_0.pdf.
39 DOE, FY2021 Budget in Brief, February 2020, p. 56, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/02/f72/doe-
fy2021-budget-in-brief_0.pdf.
Congressional Research Service

15

link to page 20 link to page 20 link to page 21 link to page 21 link to page 21 link to page 21 link to page 21 link to page 21 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Southwest Border Regional Commission and Southeast Crescent
Regional Commission Funding
The House Appropriations Committee recommended $250,000 in appropriations for the
Southwest Border Regional Commission (SBRC)—the first time appropriations have been
recommended for the SBRC since it was authorized in the 2008 farm bill (P.L. 110-234) along
with the Southeast Crescent Regional Commission (SCRC) and the Northern Border Regional
Commission (NBRC). The SBRC is one of seven authorized federal regional commissions and
authorities, of which four are currently active: the Appalachian Regional Commission, the NBRC,
the Denali Commission, and the Delta Regional Authority.40 If formed, the SBRC would be the
fifth active federal regional commission. However, even if the appropriation were to be enacted,
the SBRC’s formation would additionally depend on the appointment of a federal co-chair by the
President with the advice and consent of the Senate, as required by statute.
The House committee bill also includes $1 million for the SCRC, which is inactive as well. Since
FY2010, the SCRC has received annual appropriations of $250,000, but has yet to form, as no
federal co-chair has ever been appointed. Although the SCRC’s increased appropriation would
provide it with the ability to conduct some limited grantmaking upon formation, its development
would still require a presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed federal co-chair.
Bill Status and Recent Funding History
Table 1
indicates the steps taken during consideration of FY2021 Energy and Water Development
appropriations. (For more details, see the CRS Appropriations Status Table at http://www.crs.gov/
AppropriationsStatusTable/Index.)
Table 1. Status of Energy and Water Development Appropriations, FY2021
Subcommittee
Markup





Final Approval

House
House
Senate
Senate
Conf.
Public
House
Senate Comm.
Passed
Comm.
Passed
Report
House
Senate
Law
7/7/20

7/13/20







Source: CRS Appropriations Status Table.
Table 2 includes budget totals for energy and water development appropriations enacted for
FY2012 through the FY2021 House committee markup.
Table 2. Energy and Water Development Appropriations,
FY2012- FY2021 Request
(budget authority in billions of current dollars)
FY2021
FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 FY2019 FY2020 Request
32.7a
30.7b
34.1
34.8
37.3
37.4c
43.2d
44.7e
48.3f
43.2
Source: Compiled by CRS from totals provided by congressional budget documents.

40 For more information, see CRS Report R45997, Federal Regional Commissions and Authorities: Structural Features
and Function
, by Michael H. Cecire.
Congressional Research Service

16

link to page 21 link to page 8 link to page 8 link to page 22 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Notes: Figures exclude permanent budget authorities and reflect rescissions.
a. Amount does not include $1.7 bil ion in emergency funding for the Corps of Engineers.
b. Amount does not include $5.4 bil ion in funding for USACE ($1.9 bil ion emergency and $3.5 bil ion
additional).
c. Amount does not includes $1.0 bil ion in emergency funding for the USACE.
d. Amount does not include $17.4 bil ion in emergency funding for USACE ($17.4 bil ion) and Department of
Energy programs ($22 mil ion).
e. Amount does not include supplemental funding provided by P.L. 116-20 ($3.258 bil ion for USACE and
$15.85 mil ion for Reclamation).
f.
Amount does not include supplemental funding provided by P.L. 116-136.
Description of Major Energy and Water Programs
The annual Energy and Water Development appropriations bill includes four titles: Title I—Corps
of Engineers—Civil; Title II—Department of the Interior (Bureau of Reclamation and Central
Utah Project); Title III—Department of Energy; and Title IV—Independent Agencies, as shown
in Table 3. Major programs in the bill are described in this section in the approximate order they
appear in the bill. Previous appropriations and the amounts recommended and approved during
the major stages of the FY2021 appropriations process are shown in the accompanying tables,
and additional details about many of these programs are provided in separate CRS reports as
indicated. For a discussion of current funding issues related to these programs, see “Funding
Issues and Initiatives,
” above. Congressional clients may obtain more detailed information by
contacting CRS analysts listed in CRS Report R42638, Appropriations: CRS Experts, by James
M. Specht and Justin Murray.
Table 3. Energy and Water Development Appropriations Summary
(budget authority in millions of current dollars)
FY2017
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021
Title
Approp.
Approp.
Approp.
Request
Approp.
Request
H. Com.
Title I: Corps of
6,038
6,827
6,999
4,964
7,650
5,966
7,629
Engineers
Title II: CUP and
1,317
1,480
1,565
1,120
1,680
1,138
1,656
Reclamation
Title III: Department
30,150
34,569
35,709
32,198
38,586
35,729
40,865
of Energy
Title IV: Independent
349
392
390
370
407
333
389
Agencies
General provisions
-62
-
21
-
-
-
-
Subtotal
37,791
43,268
44,684
38,652
48,324
43,166
50,539
Rescissions and
-436
-49
-24
-696
19
17
-931
Scorekeeping
Adjustmentsa
E&W Total
37,355
43,219
44,660
37,956
48,343
43,183
49,607
FY2021 Emergency






43,500
Supplemental
Total with






93,107
Supplemental
Congressional Research Service

17

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Sources: H.Rept. 116-449; President’s Budget FY2021; Explanatory Statement for Division C of H.R. 1865, 116th
Congress; S.Rept. 116-102; S. 2470; H.R. 2740; CBO Current Status Report; H.Rept. 116-83; H.Rept. 115-929;
S.Rept. 115-258; and P.L. 115-31 and explanatory statement. Subtotals may include other adjustments. Columns
may not sum to totals because of rounding and adjustments.
a. Budget “scorekeeping” refers to official determinations of spending amounts for congressional budget
enforcement purposes. These scorekeeping adjustments may include rescissions and offsetting revenues
from various sources.
Agency Budget Justifications
FY2021 budget justifications for the largest agencies funded by the annual Energy and Water
Development appropriations bill can be found through the links below. The justifications provide
detailed descriptions and funding breakouts for programs, projects, and activities under the
agencies’ jurisdiction.
 Title I, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Civil Works, http://www.usace.army.mil/
Missions/CivilWorks/Budget
 Title II
 Bureau of Reclamation, https://www.usbr.gov/budget/
 Central Utah Project, https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/uploads/
fy2020_cupca_budget_justification.pdf
 Title III, Department of Energy, https://www.energy.gov/cfo/downloads/fy-2021-
budget-justification
 Title IV, Independent Agencies
 Appalachian Regional Commission, https://www.arc.gov/publications/
BudgetDocuments.asp
 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-
collections/nuregs/staff/sr1100/
 Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, https://www.dnfsb.gov/about/
congressional-budget-requests
 Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, http://www.nwtrb.gov/about-us/
plans
Army Corps of Engineers
USACE is an agency in the Department of Defense with both military and civilian
responsibilities. Under its civil works program, which is funded by the Energy and Water
Development appropriations bill, USACE plans, builds, operates, and in some cases maintains
water resource facilities for coastal and inland navigation, riverine and coastal flood risk
reduction, and aquatic ecosystem restoration.41
In recent decades, Congress has generally authorized USACE studies, construction projects, and
other activities in omnibus water authorization bills, typically titled as Water Resources
Development Acts (WRDA), prior to funding them through appropriations legislation. Recent
Congresses enacted the following omnibus water resources authorization acts: in June 2014, the
Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 (WRRDA, P.L. 113-121); in December

41 Military responsibilities are funded through the Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies
appropriations bill.
Congressional Research Service

18

link to page 23 link to page 24 link to page 24 link to page 24 link to page 24 link to page 24 link to page 24 link to page 24 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

2016, the Water Resources Development Act of 2016 (Title I of P.L. 114-322, the Water
Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act [WIIN Act]); and in October 2018, the Water
Resources Development Act of 2018 (Title I of P.L. 115-270, America’s Water Infrastructure Act
of 2018 [AWIA 2018]). These acts consisted largely of authorizations for new USACE projects,
and they altered numerous USACE policies and procedures.42
Unlike for highways and in municipal water infrastructure programs, federal funds for USACE
are not distributed to states or projects based on formulas or delivered via competitive grants.
Instead, USACE generally is directly involved in planning, designing, and managing the
construction of projects that are cost-shared with nonfederal project sponsors.
Since the 112th Congress, earmark moratorium policies have limited congressionally directed
funding of site-specific projects (i.e., earmarks). Prior to the 112th Congress, Congress would
direct funds to specific projects not in the budget request or increase funds for certain projects.
Each year since FY2011, Congress has appropriated additional funding for categories of USACE
work without identifying specific projects. For example, in FY2020, Congress provided $2.53
billion in additional funding for 26 categories of USACE activities (e.g., construction related to
flood and storm damage reduction). After congressional enactment of the appropriations
legislation and accompanying report language on priorities and other guidance for use of the
additional funding, the Administration develops a work plan that reports on (1) the studies and
construction projects selected to receive funding for the first time (new starts) and (2) the specific
projects receiving additional funds. For more information, see CRS In Focus IF11462, Army
Corps of Engineers: FY2021 Appropriations
, by Anna E. Normand and Nicole T. Carter, and CRS
Report R46320, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Annual Appropriations Process and Issues for
Congress
, by Anna E. Normand and Nicole T. Carter. Previous appropriations and the FY2020
and FY2021 requests are shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Army Corps of Engineers
(budget authority in millions of current dollars)
FY2017
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021
Program
Approp.
Approp.
Approp.
Request
Approp.
Request
H. Com.
Investigations and
121.0
123.0
125.0
77.0
151.0
102.6
151.0
Planning
Construction
1,876.0
2,085.0
2,183.0
1,306.9a
2,681.0
2,173.2a
2,619.9
Mississippi River
362.0
425.0
368.0
209.9a
375.0
209.9a
365.0
and Tributaries
(MR&T)
Operation and
3,149.0
3,630.0
3,739.5
1,930.4a
3,790.0
1,996.5a
3,838.0
Maintenance
(O&M)
Regulatory
200.0
200.0
200.0
200.0
210.0
200.0
205.0
General
181.0
185.0
193.0
187.0
203.0
187.0
200.0
Expenses
FUSRAPb
112.0
139.0
150.0
0
200.0
0
210.0

42 For more information on USACE authorization legislation, see CRS In Focus IF11322, Water Resources
Development Act: Primer
, by Nicole T. Carter and Anna E. Normand, and CRS Report R45185, Army Corps of
Engineers: Water Resource Authorization and Project Delivery Processes
, by Nicole T. Carter and Anna E. Normand.
Congressional Research Service

19

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

FY2017
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021
Program
Approp.
Approp.
Approp.
Request
Approp.
Request
H. Com.
Flood Control
32.0
35.0
35.0
27.0
35.0
77.0
35.0
and Coastal
Emergencies
(FCCE)
Office of the
4.8
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
Asst. Secretary
of the Army
Harbor



965.0

1,015.0

Maintenance
Trust Fund
Inland



55.5

0

Waterways Trust
Fund
Total Title I
6,037.8
6,827.0
6,998.5
4,963.8
7,650.0
5,966.2
7,628.9
FY2021






17,000.0
Emergency
Supplemental
Total with






24,628.9
Supplemental
Sources: H.Rept. 116-449; President’s Budget, FY2021; Explanatory Statement for Division C of H.R. 1865,
116th Congress; S.Rept. 116-102; S. 2470; H.R. 2740; CBO Current Status Report; H.Rept. 116-83; FY2020
Budget Justification; H.Rept. 115-929; S.Rept. 115-258; S.Rept. 115-132; H.Rept. 115-230; and P.L. 115-31 and
explanatory statement. FY2020 and FY2021 request numbers can be found at https://www.usace.army.mil/
Missions/Civil-Works/Budget/. Columns may not sum to totals because of rounding.
a. In the Administration’s request, some activities that would have previously been funded in these accounts
were proposed to be funded directly from the Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund (HMTF) and Inland
Waterway Trust Fund (IWTF) accounts. That is, the Administration proposed funding eligible USACE
activities directly from the trust funds. This would replace the current practice of having USACE’s O&M,
Construction, and MR&T accounts incur expenses for HMTF-eligible and IWTF-eligible activities, and for
these expenses to be reimbursed from the HMTF and IWTF accounts. For example, HMTF-eligible
maintenance dredging would no longer be funded by the O&M account and reimbursed by the HMTF ;
instead the dredging would be funded directly from the HMTF account. Similar proposals were not enacted
in FY2019 and FY2020.
b. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The Administration’s FY2020 request proposed
transferring administration and funding of FUSRAP to the DOE Office of Legacy Management, but the
proposal was not enacted. The proposal is also included in the FY2021 budget request.
Bureau of Reclamation and Central Utah Project
Most of the large dams and water diversion structures in the West were built by, or with the
assistance of, the Bureau of Reclamation. While the Corps of Engineers built hundreds of flood
control and navigation projects, Reclamation’s original mission was to develop water supplies,
primarily for irrigation to reclaim arid lands in the West for farming and ranching. Reclamation
has evolved into an agency that assists in meeting the water demands in the West while working
to protect the environment and the public’s investment in Reclamation infrastructure. The
agency’s municipal and industrial water deliveries have more than doubled since 1970.
Today, Reclamation manages hundreds of dams and diversion projects, including more than 300
storage reservoirs, in 17 western states. These projects provide water to approximately 10 million
acres of farmland and 31 million people. Reclamation is the largest wholesale supplier of water in
Congressional Research Service

20

link to page 25 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

the 17 western states and the second-largest hydroelectric power producer in the nation.
Reclamation facilities also provide substantial flood control, recreation, and other benefits.
Reclamation facility operations are often controversial, particularly for their effect on fish and
wildlife species and because of conflicts among competing water users during drought conditions.
As with the Corps of Engineers, the Reclamation budget is made up largely of individual project
funding lines, rather than general programs that would not be covered by congressional earmark
requirements. Therefore, as with USACE, these Reclamation projects have often been subject to
earmark disclosure rules. The current moratorium on earmarks restricts congressional steering of
money directly toward specific Reclamation projects.
Reclamation’s single largest account, Water and Related Resources, encompasses the agency’s
traditional programs and projects, including construction, operations and maintenance, dam
safety, and ecosystem restoration, among others.43 Reclamation also typically requests funds in a
number of smaller accounts, and has proposed additional accounts in recent years.
Implementation and oversight of the Central Utah Project, also funded by Title II, is conducted by
a separate office within the Department of the Interior.44
For more information, see CRS In Focus IF11465, Bureau of Reclamation: FY2021
Appropriations
, by Charles V. Stern. Previous appropriations and the amounts recommended and
approved during the major stages of the FY2021 appropriations process are shown in Table 5.
Table 5. Bureau of Reclamation and CUP
(budget authority in millions of current dollars)
FY2017
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021
Program
Approp
Approp
Approp Request Approp Request H.Com.
Water and Related
1,155.9
1,332.1
1,392.0
962.0
1,512.2
979.0
1,487.0
Resources
Policy and Administration
59.0
59.0
61.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
60.0
CVP Restoration Fund
55.6
41.4
62.0
54.9
54.8
55.9
55.9
(CVPRF)
Calif. Bay-Delta (CALFED)
36.0
37.0
35.0
33.0
33.0
33.0
33.0
Gross Current
1,306.5
1,469.5
1,550.0
1,109.9
1,660.0
1,127.9
1,635.9
Reclamation Authority
Central Utah Project
10.5
10.5
15.0
10.0
20.0
10.0
20.0
(CUP) Completion

43 The Water and Related Resources Account is largely funded by the Reclamation Fund, which receives and
distributes receipts related to a number of federal activities (including royalties received from oil and gas leasing on
federal lands). For more on this fund and financing of selected Reclamation Projects, see CRS Report R41844, The
Reclamation Fund: A Primer
, by Charles V. Stern.
44 The Central Utah Project moves water from the Colorado River basin in eastern Utah to the western slopes of the
Wasatch Mountain range. It was authorized in 1956 under the Colorado River Storage Project Act (P.L. 84-485). For
more information, see the CUP website at https://www.cupcao.gov/.
Congressional Research Service

21

link to page 26 link to page 28 link to page 28 link to page 28 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

FY2017
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021
Program
Approp
Approp
Approp Request Approp Request H.Com.
Total, Title II Current
1,317.0
1,480.0
1,565.0
1,119.9
1,680.0
1,137.9
1,655.9
Authority (CUP and
Reclamation)

FY2021 Emergency






3,000.0
Supplemental
Total with






4,655.9
Supplemental
Sources: H.Rept. 116-449; President’s Budget, FY2021; Explanatory Statement for Division C of H.R. 1865,
116th Congress; S.Rept. 116-102; H.R. 2740; CBO Current Status Report; H.Rept. 116-83; FY2020 Budget
Justifications; H.Rept. 115-929; S.Rept. 115-258; S.Rept. 115-132; H.Rept. 115-230; and P.L. 115-31 and
explanatory statement. Excludes offsets and permanent appropriations.
Notes: Columns may not sum to totals because of rounding. CVP = Central Valley Project.
Department of Energy
The Energy and Water Development appropriations bill has funded all DOE programs since
FY2005. Major DOE activities include (1) R&D on renewable energy, energy efficiency, nuclear
power, fossil energy, and electricity; (2) the Strategic Petroleum Reserve; (3) energy statistics; (4)
general science; (5) environmental cleanup; and (6) nuclear weapons and nonproliferation
programs. Table 6 provides the recent funding history for DOE programs, which are briefly
described further below.
Table 6. Department of Energy
(budget authority in millions of current dollars)
FY2017
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021

Approp. Approp. Approp. Request Approp. Request H.Com.
ENERGY PROGRAMS







Energy Efficiency and
2,034.6
2,321.8
2,379.0
343.0
2,799.0
719.6
2,848.0
Renewable Energy
Electricity Delivery and
229.6
248.3





Energy Reliabilitya
Electricity Delivery


156.0
182.5
190.0
195.0
195.0
Cybersecurity, Energy


120.0
156.5
156.0
184.6
160.0
Security, and Emerg. Resp.
Nuclear Energy
1,015.8
1,205.1
1,326.1
824.0
1,493.4b
1,179.9c
1,435.8
Fossil Energy R&D
421.2
726.8
740.0
562.0
750.0
730.6
727.5
Uranium Reserve





150.0
0
Naval Petroleum and Oil
12.0
4.9
10.0
14.0
14.0
13.0
13.0
Shale Reserves
Strategic Petroleum
222.6
260.4
245.0
105.0
205.0
119.1
202,5
Reserve
Northeast Home Heating
6.5
6.5
10.0
-90.0
10.0
-84.0
10.0
Oil Reserve
Congressional Research Service

22

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

FY2017
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021

Approp. Approp. Approp. Request Approp. Request H.Com.
Energy Information
122.0
125.0
125.0
118.0
126.8
128.7
126.8
Administration
Non-Defense
246.8
298.4
310.0
247.5
319.2
275.8
315.0
Environmental Cleanup
Uranium Enrichment
767.9
840.0
841.1
715.1
881.0
806.2
821.6
Decontamination and
Decommissioning Fund
Science
5,391.0
6,259.9
6,585.0
5,546.0
7,000.0
5,837.8
7,050.0
AI Technology Office





4.9
0
Advanced Research
305.3
353.3
366.0
-287.0
425.0
-310.7
435.0
Projects Agency—Energy
(ARPA-E)
Nuclear Waste Disposal
0
0
0
90.0
0
27.5
27.5
Departmental Admin.
120.7
189.7
165.9
117.6
161.0
136.1
159.0
(net)
Office of Inspector
44.4
49.0
51.3
54.2
54.2
57.7
57.7
General
International Affairs


0
36.1
0
33.0
0
Office of Indian Energy
0
0
18.0
8.0
22.0
8.0
22.3
Advanced Technology
3.9
5.0
5.0
0
5.0
0
5.0
Vehicles Manufacturing
Loans
Title 17 Loan Guarantee
0.1
23.0
18.0
-384.7
29.0
384.7
29.0
Tribal Indian Energy Loan
9.0
1.0
1.0
-8.5
2.0
-8.5
2.0
Guarantee
TOTAL, ENERGY
10,953.3 12,918.0 13,472.4
8,349.3 14,633.6
9,819.7 14,642.7
PROGRAMS
DEFENSE







ACTIVITIES
National Nuclear







Security
Administration
(NNSA)

Weapons Activities
9,240.7
10,642.1
11,100.0
12,408.6
12,457.1 15,602.0
13,659.6
Nuclear Nonproliferation
1,879.7
1,999.2
1,930.0
1,993.3
2,164.4
2,031.0
2,240.0
Naval Reactors
1,419.8
1,620.0
1,788.6
1,648.4
1,648.4
1,684.0
1,684.0
Office of Admin./Salaries
387.4
407.6
410.0
434.7
434.7
454.0
454.0
and Expenses
Total, NNSA
12,927.6 14,669.0 15,228.6 16,485.0 16,704.6 19,771.0 18,037.6
Defense Environmental
5,404.2
5,988.0
6,024.0
5,506.5
6,255.0
4,983.6
6,321.0
Cleanup
Defense Uranium






821.6
Enrichment D&D
Congressional Research Service

23

link to page 28 link to page 28 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

FY2017
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021

Approp. Approp. Approp. Request Approp. Request H.Com.
Other Defense Activities
781.7
840.0
860.3
1,035.3b
906.0
1,054.7b
942.3
Defense Nuclear Waste
0
0
0
26.0
0
0
0
Disposal
TOTAL, DEFENSE
19,113.6 21,497.0 22,112.9 23,052.8 23,865.6 25,809.3 26,122.5
ACTIVITIES
POWER MARKETING







ADMINISTRATION
(PMAs)

Southwestern
11.1
11.4
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4
Western
94.7
93.4
89.4
89.2
89.2
89.4
89.4
Falcon and Amistad O&M
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
Colorado River Basins
-23.0






Power Marketing Fund
TOTAL, PMAs
83.0
105.0
100.0
99.8
99.8
100.0
100.0
General provisions
-62.7



-12.7


DOE total
30,149.9 34,569.1 35,708.9 32,197.8 38,657.2 36,339.2 40,867.4
appropriations
Offsets and adjustments
-62.7
-49.0
-23.6
-695.9
-70.9
-610.2
-2.2
Total, DOE
30,087.2 34,520.1 35,685.3 31,501.9 38,586.3 35,729.1 40,865.2
FY2021 Emergency





23,475.0
Supplemental
Total with





64,340.2
Supplemental
Sources: H.Rept. 116-449; President’s Budget, FY2021; Explanatory Statement for Division C of H.R. 1865,
116th Congress; S.Rept. 116-102; H.R. 2740; CBO Current Status Report; H.Rept. 116-83; H.Rept. 115-929;
S.Rept. 115-258; S.Rept. 115-132; H.Rept. 115-230; and P.L. 115-31 and explanatory statement.
Notes: Columns may not sum to totals because of rounding. AI = Artificial Intelligence.
a. The Office of Electric Delivery and Energy Reliability was split in FY2019 into the Office of Electricity
Delivery and the Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response.
b. Includes defense budget function funding of $153.4 mil ion in FY2020 and $137.8 mil ion.
c. Includes $141 mil ion for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program that is currently managed by
USACE.
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) conducts research and
development on transportation energy technology, energy efficiency in buildings and
manufacturing processes, and the production of solar, wind, geothermal, and other renewable
energy. EERE also administers formula grants to states for making energy efficiency
improvements to low-income housing units and for state energy planning.
The Sustainable Transportation program area includes electric vehicles, vehicle efficiency, and
alternative fuels. DOE’s electric vehicle program aims to “reduce the cost of electric vehicle
batteries by more than half, to less than $100/kWh [kilowatt-hour] (ultimate goal is $80/kWh),
increase range to 300 miles, and decrease charge time to 15 minutes or less.” DOE’s vehicle fuel
Congressional Research Service

24

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

cell program is focusing on the costs of fuel cells and hydrogen to fuel them. According to the
FY2021 budget request, “Investments in fuel cell technologies will increase the emphasis on
heavy-duty vehicles and new applications (e.g. trucks, marine, rail, aviation, data centers).”
Regarding biofuels R&D, the DOE request says, “By 2030, the U.S. has the potential to produce
1 billion dry tons of non-food biomass resources without disrupting agricultural markets for food
and animal feed.”45
Renewable power programs focus on electricity generation from solar, wind, water, and
geothermal sources. The solar energy program has a goal of achieving, by 2030, costs of 3 cents
per kWh for unsubsidized, utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) and 5 cents/kWh for baseload
concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. This would require cost reductions of 40%-65% below
DOE’s 2018 benchmarks. Wind R&D is to focus on early-stage research and testing to reduce
costs and improve performance and reliability. For the geothermal program, DOE is requesting
funding in FY2021 to “support two new subsurface enhancement and sustainability efforts”: one
on well technology to isolate geothermal target zones, and the other on assessing reservoir
properties for enhanced geothermal systems.46
In the energy efficiency program area, the advanced manufacturing program focuses on
improving the energy efficiency of manufacturing processes and on the manufacturing of energy-
related products. The building technologies program includes R&D on lighting, space
conditioning, windows, and control technologies to reduce building energy-use intensity. The
energy efficiency program also provides weatherization grants to states for improving the energy
efficiency of low-income housing units and state energy planning grants.47
For more details, see CRS Report R44980, DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
Energy (EERE): Appropriations Status
, by Corrie E. Clark.
Electricity Delivery, Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Energy Reliability
The Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response (CESER) was created
from programs that were previously part of the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy
Reliability. The programs that were not moved into CESER became part of the DOE Office of
Electricity (OE).48
OE’s mission is to lead DOE efforts “to strengthen, transform, and improve energy infrastructure
so that consumers have access to secure and resilient sources of energy.” Major priorities of OE
are developing a model of North American energy vulnerabilities, pursuing megawatt-scale
electricity storage, integrating electric power system sensing technology, and analyzing
electricity-related policy issues.49 The office also includes the DOE power marketing
administrations, which are funded from separate appropriations accounts.

45 DOE, FY2021 Congressional Budget Justification, vol. 3, part 1, p. 12, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/
04/f73/doe-fy2021-budget-volume-3-part-1.pdf.
46 Ibid., p. 13.
47 Ibid., p. 14.
48 DOE, “Secretary of Energy Rick Perry Forms New Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency
Response,” press release, February 14, 2018, https://www.energy.gov/articles/secretary-energy-rick-perry-forms-new-
office-cybersecurity-energy-security-and-emergency.
49 DOE, FY 2021 Congressional Budget Justification, vol. 3, part 1, February 2020, p. 262, https://www.energy.gov/
sites/prod/files/2020/04/f73/doe-fy2021-budget-volume-3-part-1.pdf.
Congressional Research Service

25

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

CESER is the federal government’s lead entity for energy sector-specific responses to energy
security emergencies—whether caused by physical infrastructure problems or by cybersecurity
issues. The office conducts R&D on energy infrastructure security technology; provides energy
sector security guidelines, training, and technical assistance; and enhances energy sector
emergency preparedness and response.50
DOE’s Multiyear Plan for Energy Sector Cybersecurity describes the department’s strategy to
“strengthen today’s energy delivery systems by working with our partners to address growing
threats and promote continuous improvement, and develop game-changing solutions that will
create inherently secure, resilient, and self-defending energy systems for tomorrow.”51 The plan
includes three goals that DOE has established for energy sector cybersecurity:
 strengthen energy sector cybersecurity preparedness;
 coordinate cyber incident response and recovery; and
 accelerate research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) of resilient energy
delivery systems.
Nuclear Energy
DOE’s Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) “focuses on three major mission areas: the nation’s
existing nuclear fleet, the development of advanced nuclear reactor concepts, and fuel cycle
technologies,” according to DOE’s FY2021 budget justification. It calls nuclear energy “a key
element of United States energy independence, energy dominance, electricity grid resiliency,
national security, and clean baseload power.”52
The Reactor Concepts program area includes research on advanced reactors, including advanced
small modular reactors, and research to enhance the “sustainability” of existing commercial light
water reactors. Advanced reactor research focuses on “Generation IV” reactors, as opposed to the
existing fleet of commercial light water reactors, which are generally classified as generations II
and III. R&D under this program focuses on advanced coolants, fuels, materials, and other
technology areas that could apply to a variety of advanced reactors. To help develop those
technologies, the Reactor Concepts program is developing a Versatile Test Reactor that would
allow fuels and materials to be tested in a fast neutron environment (in which neutrons would not
be slowed by water, graphite, or other “moderators”). Research on extending the life of existing
commercial light water reactors (moderated and cooled by ordinary water) beyond 60 years, the
maximum operating period currently licensed by NRC, is being conducted by this program with
industry cost-sharing.
The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program includes generic research on nuclear waste
management and disposal. One of the program’s primary activities is the development of
technologies to separate the radioactive constituents of spent fuel for reuse or solidifying into
stable waste forms. Other major research areas in the Fuel Cycle R&D program include the
development of accident-tolerant fuels for existing commercial reactors, evaluation of fuel cycle
options, and development of improved technologies to prevent diversion of nuclear materials for
weapons. The program is also developing sources of high-assay low enriched uranium (HALEU),

50 Ibid., p. 317.
51 DOE, Multiyear Plan for Energy Sector Cybersecurity, March 2018, p. 5, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/
2018/05/f51/DOE%20Multiyear%20Plan%20for%20Energy%20Sector%20Cybersecurity%20_0.pdf.
52 DOE, FY 2021 Congressional Budget Justification, vol. 3, part 2, February 2020, p. 9, https://www.energy.gov/sites/
prod/files/2020/04/f73/doe-fy2021-budget-volume-3-part-2.pdf.
Congressional Research Service

26

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

in which uranium is enriched to between 5% and 20% in the fissile isotope U-235, for potential
use in advanced reactors.
A new Advanced Reactors Demonstration Program was included in the Explanatory Statement for
the enacted FY2020 appropriations measure. The program is to provide up to 50% cost sharing
for two nuclear reactor demonstration projects, up to 20% cost sharing for development work for
two to five additional demonstrations, and funding for related advanced reactor
commercialization activities. For more information, see CRS Report R45706, Advanced Nuclear
Reactors: Technology Overview and Current Issues
, by Danielle A. Arostegui and Mark Holt.
Fossil Energy Research and Development
Much of DOE’s Fossil Energy R&D Program focuses on technologies for use by coal-fired power
plants. Major activities include Advanced Coal Energy Systems and Carbon Capture, Utilization,
and Storage (CCUS); Natural Gas Technologies; and Unconventional Fossil Energy Technologies
from Petroleum—Oil Technologies.
Advanced Coal Energy Systems includes R&D on modular coal-gasification systems, advanced
turbines, solid oxide fuel cells, advanced sensors and controls, and power generation efficiency.
Elements of the CCUS program include the following:
 Carbon Capture subprogram for separating CO2 in both precombustion and
postcombustion systems;
 Carbon Utilization subprogram for R&D on technologies, including direct air
capture, to convert carbon to marketable products, such as chemicals and
polymers; and
 Carbon Storage subprogram on long-term geologic storage of CO2, focusing on
saline formations, oil and natural gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, basalts,
and organic shales.53
For more information, see CRS In Focus IF11501, Carbon Capture Versus Direct Air Capture, by
Ashley J. Lawson.
Strategic Petroleum Reserve
The SPR, authorized by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163) in 1975, consists
of caverns built within naturally occurring salt domes in Louisiana and Texas. The SPR is the
U.S. emergency stockpile of crude oil, providing strategic and economic security against foreign
and domestic disruptions in U.S. oil supply. The program fulfills U.S. obligations under the
International Energy Program agreement, which avails the United States of International Energy
Agency (IEA) assistance through its coordinated energy emergency response plans, and provides
a deterrent against energy supply disruptions.
The federal government has not purchased oil for the SPR since 1994, but has acquired oil
through exchanges and “royalty-in-kind.” Statute (codified at 42 U.S.C. §6240) identifies the
various objectives and procedures for the Secretary of Energy to acquire crude oil for the SPR.
The Secretary may acquire petroleum products through purchase or exchange. For purchase,
Congress must appropriate funds to the SPR. During an exchange (also sometimes referred to as a

53 DOE, FY 2021 Congressional Budget Justification, vol. 3, part 2, February 2020, p. 195, https://www.energy.gov/
sites/prod/files/2020/04/f73/doe-fy2021-budget-volume-3-part-2.pdf.
Congressional Research Service

27

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

loan), an entity borrows SPR crude and later replaces it with a similar quality crude, “plus
payment of an in-kind premium determined according to the period negotiated for return.”54
For more information, see CRS Report R46355, The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Background,
Authorities, and Considerations
, by Heather L. Greenley.
Science and ARPA-E
The DOE Office of Science conducts basic research in six program areas: advanced scientific
computing research, basic energy sciences, biological and environmental research, fusion energy
sciences, high-energy physics, and nuclear physics. According to DOE’s FY2021 budget
justification, the Office of Science “is the Nation’s largest Federal sponsor of basic research in the
physical sciences and the lead Federal agency supporting fundamental scientific research for our
Nation’s energy future.”55
DOE’s Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program focuses on developing and
maintaining computing and networking capabilities for science and research in applied
mathematics, computer science, and advanced networking. The program plays a key role in the
DOE-wide effort to advance the development of exascale computing, which seeks to build a
computer that can solve scientific problems 1,000 times faster than today’s best machines. DOE
has asserted that the department is on a path to have a capable exascale machine by the early
2020s.
Basic Energy Sciences (BES), the largest program area in the Office of Science, focuses on
understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at the electronic, atomic,
and molecular levels. The program supports research in disciplines such as condensed matter and
materials physics, chemistry, and geosciences. BES also provides funding for scientific user
facilities (e.g., the National Synchrotron Light Source II, and the Linac Coherent Light Source-
II), and certain DOE research centers and hubs (e.g., Energy Frontier Research Centers, as well as
the Batteries and Energy Storage and Fuels from Sunlight Energy Innovation Hubs).
Biological and Environmental Research (BER) seeks a predictive understanding of complex
biological, climate, and environmental systems across a continuum from the small scale (e.g.,
genomic research) to the large (e.g., Earth systems and climate). Within BER, Biological Systems
Science focuses on plant and microbial systems, while Biological and Environmental Research
supports climate-relevant atmospheric and ecosystem modeling and research. BER facilities and
centers include four Bioenergy Research Centers and the Environmental Molecular Science
Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) seeks to increase understanding of the behavior of matter at very
high temperatures and to establish the science needed to develop a fusion energy source. FES
provides funding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, a
multinational effort to design and build an experimental fusion reactor.
The High Energy Physics (HEP) program conducts research on the fundamental constituents of
matter and energy, including studies of dark energy and the search for dark matter. Nuclear
Physics supports research on the nature of matter, including its basic constituents and their

54 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, “Guidance for Requesting Emergency Oil Exchange from the
SPR,” https://www.energy.gov/fe/services/petroleum-reserves/strategic-petroleum-reserve/guidance-requesting-
emergency-oil.
55 DOE, FY 2021 Congressional Budget Justification, vol. 4, February 2020, p, 7, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/
files/2020/03/f72/doe-fy2021-budget-volume-4_0.pdf.
Congressional Research Service

28

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

interactions. A major project in the Nuclear Physics program is the construction of the Facility for
Rare Isotope Beams at Michigan State University.
Two significant research efforts in the Office of Science cut across multiple program areas:
quantum information science, which aims to use quantum physics to process information, and
artificial intelligence and machine learning, which use computerized systems that work and react
in ways commonly thought to require intelligence.
A separate DOE office, the Advanced Research Projects Agency—Energy, was authorized by the
America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69) to support transformational energy technology research
projects. DOE budget documents describe ARPA-E’s mission as overcoming long-term, high-risk
technological barriers to the development of energy technologies.
For more details, see CRS Report R46341, Federal Research and Development (R&D) Funding:
FY2021
, coordinated by John F. Sargent Jr.
Loan Guarantees and Direct Loans
DOE’s Loan Programs Office provides loan guarantees for projects that deploy innovative energy
technologies, as authorized by Title 17 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT05, P.L. 109-
58), direct loans for advanced vehicle manufacturing technologies, and loan guarantees for tribal
energy projects. Section 1703 of the EPACT05 authorizes loan guarantees for advanced energy
technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and Section 1705 authorized a temporary
program through FY2011 for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.
Title 17 allows DOE to provide loan guarantees for up to 80% of construction costs for eligible
energy projects. Successful applicants must pay an up-front fee, or “subsidy cost,” to cover
potential losses under the loan guarantee program. Under the loan guarantee agreements, the
federal government would repay all covered loans if the borrower defaulted. Such guarantees
would reduce the risk to lenders and allow them to provide financing at below-market interest
rates.
DOE currently has more than $40 billion in authority available to make direct loans and loan
guarantees in the following categories:56
 Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Loan Guarantees, $8.5 billion;
 Advanced Nuclear Energy Projects Loan Guarantees, $10.9 billion;
 Renewable Energy and Efficient Energy Projects Loan Guarantees, up to $4.5
billion;
 Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program, $17.7 billion in
direct loan authority; and
 Tribal Energy Loan Guarantee Program, up to $2 billion in partial loan guarantee
authority.
The only loan guarantees under Section 1703 have been $8.3 billion in guarantees provided to the
consortium building two new nuclear reactors at the Vogtle plant in Georgia. DOE committed an
additional $3.7 billion in loan guarantees for the Vogtle project on March 22, 2019.57 Another

56 DOE, “Products and Services,” as of April 23, 2020, https://www.energy.gov/lpo/title-xvii/products-
services#innovativeenergy.
57 DOE, “Secretary Perry Announces Financial Close on Additional Loan Guarantees During Trip to Vogtle Advanced
Nuclear Energy Project,” news release, March 22, 2019, https://www.energy.gov/articles/secretary-perry-announces-
Congressional Research Service

29

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

nuclear loan guarantee is being sought by NuScale Power to build a small modular reactor in
Idaho.58
Nuclear Weapons Activities
In the absence of explosive testing of nuclear weapons, the United States has adopted a science-
based program to maintain and sustain confidence in the reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile.
Congress established the Stockpile Stewardship Program in the National Defense Authorization
Act for Fiscal Year 1994 (P.L. 103-160). The goal of the program, as amended by the National
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (P.L. 111-84, §3111), is to ensure “that the
nuclear weapons stockpile is safe, secure, and reliable without the use of underground nuclear
weapons testing.” The program is operated by NNSA, a semiautonomous agency within DOE
established by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (P.L. 106-65, Title
XXXII). NNSA implements the Stockpile Stewardship Program through the activities funded by
the Weapons Activities account in the NNSA budget.
Most of NNSA’s weapons activities take place at the nuclear weapons complex, which consists of
three laboratories (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM; Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory, CA; and Sandia National Laboratories, NM and CA); four production sites (Kansas
City National Security Campus, MO; Pantex Plant, TX; Savannah River Site, SC; and Y-12
National Security Complex, TN); and the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada
Test Site). NNSA manages and sets policy for the weapons complex; contractors to NNSA
operate the eight sites. Radiological activities at these sites are subject to oversight and
recommendations by the independent Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, funded by Title IV
of the annual Energy and Water Development appropriations bill.
NNSA has reorganized and renamed its program areas in its FY2021 budget request. The four
main programs, each with a request of over $2 billion for FY2021, include the following:
Stockpile Management, which contains many of the projects included in Directed
Stockpile Work from previous years, supports work directly on nuclear weapons.
These include life extension programs, warhead surveillance, maintenance, and
other activities.
Stockpile Production programs focus on maintaining and expanding the
production capabilities for the components of nuclear weapons that are critical to
weapons performance. According to NNSA, these include primaries, canned
subassemblies, radiation cases, and non-nuclear components.
Stockpile Research, Technology, and Engineering replaces the Research,
Development, Test, and Evaluation program area. These programs provide the
scientific foundation for science-based stockpile decisions.
Infrastructure and Operations maintains, operates, and modernizes the NNSA
infrastructure. It supports construction of new facilities and funds deferred
maintenance in older facilities.
Nuclear Weapons Activities also has several smaller programs, including the following:

financial-close-additional-loan-guarantees-during-trip-vogtle.
58 NuScale Power, “NuScale Power, LLC Submits Part II of DOE Loan Guarantee Application,” news release,
September 6, 2017, http://newsroom.nuscalepower.com/press-release/nuscale-power-llc-submits-part-ii-doe-loan-
guarantee-application. More information about DOE loans and loan guarantees is
at the Loan Programs Office website, https://www.energy.gov/lpo/loan-programs-office.
Congressional Research Service

30

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Secure Transportation Asset, providing for safe and secure transport of nuclear
weapons, components, and materials;
Defense Nuclear Security, providing operations, maintenance, and construction
funds for protective forces, physical security systems, personnel security, and
related activities; and
Information Technology and Cybersecurity, whose elements include
cybersecurity, secure enterprise computing, and Federal Unclassified Information
Technology.
For more information, see CRS Report R44442, Energy and Water Development Appropriations:
Nuclear Weapons Activities
, by Amy F. Woolf, and CRS Report R45306, The U.S. Nuclear
Weapons Complex: Overview of Department of Energy Sites
, by Amy F. Woolf and James D.
Werner.
Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation
DOE’s nonproliferation and national security programs provide technical capabilities to support
U.S. efforts to prevent, detect, and counter the spread of nuclear weapons worldwide. These
programs are administered by NNSA’s Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN).
The Materials Management and Minimization program conducts activities to minimize and,
where possible, eliminate stockpiles of weapons-useable material around the world. Major
activities include conversion of reactors that use highly enriched uranium (useable for weapons)
to low-enriched uranium, removal and consolidation of nuclear material stockpiles, and
disposition of excess nuclear materials.
Global Materials Security has three major program elements. International Nuclear Security
focuses on increasing the security of vulnerable stockpiles of nuclear material in other countries.
Radiological Security promotes the worldwide reduction and security of radioactive sources
(typically used in medical and industrial devices), including the removal of surplus sources and
substitution of technologies that do not use radioactive materials. Nuclear Smuggling Detection
and Deterrence works to improve the capability of other countries to halt illicit trafficking of
nuclear materials.
Nonproliferation and Arms Control works to “to support U.S. nonproliferation and arms control
objectives to prevent proliferation, ensure peaceful nuclear uses, and enable verifiable nuclear
reductions,” according to the FY2021 DOE justification.59 This program conducts reviews of
nuclear export applications and technology transfer authorizations, implements treaty obligations,
and analyzes nonproliferation policies and proposals.
National Technical Nuclear Forensics Research and Development (NTNF R&D) is proposed as a
new NNSA program for FY2021, with the request moving $40 million for NTNF from the
Nuclear Detonation Detection subprogram under Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation R&D. The
NTNF operational readiness mission is currently located in the Department of Homeland
Security. The budget request says that the NTNF program would allow NNSA to “take on a more
active leadership role” in nuclear forensics. Another, existing DNN program, Nuclear
Counterterrorism and Incident Response, carries out activities to “protect our nation and its
citizens from nuclear terrorism and incidents or accidents involving the release of radiological

59 DOE, FY 2021 Congressional Budget Justification, vol. 1, p. 613, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/03/
f72/doe-fy2021-budget-volume-1_2.pdf.
Congressional Research Service

31

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

material,” according to the FY2021 budget justification.60 Other DNN programs include R&D
and Nonproliferation Construction.
For more information, see CRS Report R44413, Energy and Water Development Appropriations
for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation: In Brief
, by Mary Beth D. Nikitin.
Cleanup of Former Nuclear Weapons Production and Research Sites
The development and production of nuclear weapons since the beginning of the Manhattan
Project61 during World War II resulted in a waste and contamination legacy managed by DOE that
continues to present substantial challenges. DOE also manages legacy environmental
contamination at sites used for nondefense nuclear research. In 1989, DOE established the Office
of Environmental Management primarily to consolidate its responsibilities for the cleanup of
former nuclear weapons production sites that had been administered under multiple offices.62
DOE’s nuclear cleanup efforts are broad in scope and include the disposal of large quantities of
radioactive and other hazardous wastes generated over decades; management and disposal of
surplus nuclear materials; remediation of extensive contamination in soil and groundwater;
decontamination and decommissioning of excess buildings and facilities; and safeguarding,
securing, and maintaining facilities while cleanup is underway.63 DOE’s cleanup of nuclear
research sites adds a nondefense component to the EM’s mission, albeit smaller in terms of the
scope of their cleanup and associated funding.64
DOE has identified more than 100 separate sites in over 30 states that historically were involved
in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy research for civilian purposes.65 The
geographic scope of these sites is substantial, collectively encompassing a land area of
approximately 2 million acres. Cleanup remedies are in place and operational at the majority of
these sites. Responsibility for the long-term stewardship of them has been transferred to the
Office of Legacy Management and other offices within DOE for the operation and maintenance
of cleanup remedies and monitoring.66 Some of the smaller sites for which DOE initially was
responsible were transferred to the Army Corps of Engineers in 1997 under the Formerly Utilized
Sites Remedial Action Program. Once USACE completes the cleanup of a FUSRAP site, it is

60 Ibid., p. 665.
61 As described by the Manhattan Project National Historical Park, “The Manhattan Project was a massive, top secret
national mobilization of scientists, engineers, technicians, and military personnel charged with producing a deployable
atomic weapon during World War II. Coordinated by the US Army, Manhattan Project activities were located in
numerous locations across the United States.” The nuclear weapons activities begun by the Manhattan Project are now
the responsibility of DOE. See National Park Service, Manhattan Project National Historical Park web site,
https://www.nps.gov/mapr/learn/historyculture/index.htm.
62 In 1989, DOE created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, which later was renamed the
Office of Environmental Management.
63 The term “cleanup” often refers to the remediation of risks at a site. Cleanup may not necessarily entail the removal
of all hazards from a site, but in some instances may involve the permanent containment of wastes or contamination to
address exposure risks. If residual waste or contamination remains on-site after cleanup is complete, long-term
stewardship may continue to monitor the site and ensure that cleanup measures continue to operate effectively.
64 For additional information on the history, mission, and scope of the Office of Environmental Management, see
DOE’s website: http://energy.gov/em/office-environmental-management.
65 For a list of each active and completed site, see DOE’s Office of Environmental Management website,
http://energy.gov/em/cleanup-sites.
66 The Office of Legacy Management administers the long-term stewardship of DOE sites that do not have a continuing
mission once cleanup remedies are in place. Sites that have a continuing mission are transferred to the DOE offices that
administer those missions, which are responsible for their long-term stewardship.
Congressional Research Service

32

link to page 38 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

transferred back to DOE for long-term stewardship under the Office of Legacy Management,
which is separate from EM and has its own DOE funding subaccount within Other Defense
Activities.
Three appropriations accounts fund the Office of Environmental Management. The Defense
Environmental Cleanup account is the largest in terms of funding, and it finances the cleanup of
former nuclear weapons production sites. The Non-Defense Environmental Cleanup account
funds the cleanup of federal nuclear energy research sites. Title XI of the Energy Policy Act of
1992 (P.L. 102-486) established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and
Decommissioning Fund to pay for the cleanup of three federal facilities that enriched uranium for
national defense and civilian purposes.67 Those facilities are located near Paducah, KY; Piketon,
OH (Portsmouth plant); and Oak Ridge, TN. Title X of P.L. 102-486 authorized the
reimbursement of uranium and thorium producers for their costs of cleaning up contamination
attributable to uranium and thorium sold to the federal government.68
The adequacy of funding for the Office of Environmental Management to attain cleanup
milestones across the entire site inventory has been a recurring issue. Cleanup milestones are
enforceable measures incorporated into compliance agreements negotiated among DOE, the
Environmental Protection Agency, and the states. These milestones establish time frames for the
completion of specific actions to satisfy applicable requirements at individual sites.
Power Marketing Administrations
DOE’s four Power Marketing Administrations were established to sell the power generated by
various federal dams. Preference in the sale of power is given to publicly owned and
cooperatively owned utilities. The PMAs operate in 34 states; their assets consist primarily of
transmission infrastructure in the form of more than 33,000 miles of high voltage transmission
lines and 587 substations. PMA customers are responsible for repaying all power program
expenses, plus the interest on capital projects. Since FY2011, power revenues associated with the
PMAs have been classified as discretionary offsetting receipts (i.e., receipts that are available for
spending by the PMAs), thus the agencies are sometimes noted as having a “net-zero” spending
authority. Only the capital expenses of the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) and
Southwestern Power Administration (SWPA) are supported by appropriations from Congress.
For more information, see CRS Report R45548, The Power Marketing Administrations:
Background and Current Issues
, by Richard J. Campbell.
Independent Agencies
Independent agencies that receive funding in Title IV of the Energy and Water Development bill
include the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Appalachian Regional Commission
(ARC), and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. NRC is by far the largest of the
independent agencies, with a total budget of nearly $900 million. However, as noted in the
description of NRC below, about 90% of NRC’s budget is offset by fees, so that the agency’s net
appropriation is less than half of the total funding in Title IV. NRC and ARC are discussed in
more detail below. The recent appropriations history for all the Title IV agencies is shown in
Table 7.

67 42 U.S.C. §2297g.
68 42 U.S.C. §2296a.
Congressional Research Service

33

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Table 7. Independent Agencies Funded by Energy and Water Development
Appropriations
(budget authority in millions of current dollars)
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021
Program
Approp.
Approp.
Request
Approp.
Request
H. Com.
Appalachian Regional Commission
155.0
165.0
165.0
175.0
165.0
175.0
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
922.0
911.0
921.1
855.6
863.4
863.4
(Revenues)
-790.4
-780.8
-759.6
-728.1
-740.4
-740.4
Net NRC (including Inspector General)
131.6
130.1
161.5
127.5
123.0
123.0
Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board
31.0
31.0
29.5
31.0
28.8
31.0
Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
Denali Commission
30.0
15.0
7.3
15.0
7.3
15.0
Delta Regional Authority
25.0
25.0
2.5
30.0
2.5
15.0
Northern Border Regional Commission
15.0
20.0
0.9
25.0
0.9
25.0
Southeast Crescent Regional Commission
0.3
0.3
0
0.3
0
1.0
Southwest Border Regional Commission





0.3
Total
391.5
390.0
370.2
407.3
333.1
388.9
Sources: H.Rept. 116-449; FY2021 President’s Request; Explanatory Statement for Division C of H.R. 1865,
116th Congress; S.Rept. 116-102; S. 2470; H.R. 2740; CBO Current Status Report; H.Rept. 116-83; H.Rept. 115-
929; S.Rept. 115-258; S.Rept. 115-132; H.Rept. 115-230; P.L. 115-31 and explanatory statement.
Note: Columns may not sum to totals because of rounding.
Appalachian Regional Commission
Established in 1965,69 the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) is a regional economic
development agency. It awards grants and contracts to state and local governments and nonprofit
organizations to foster economic opportunities, improve workforce skills, build critical
infrastructure, strengthen natural and cultural assets, and improve leadership skills and capacity in
the region. ARC’s authorizing statute defines the Appalachian Region as including all of West
Virginia and parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North
Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. More than 25 million
people currently live in the region as defined.
ARC provides funding to several hundred projects each year, with particular focus on the region’s
most economically distressed counties. Major areas of infrastructure support include broadband
communication systems, transportation, and water and wastewater systems. ARC has supported
development of the Appalachian Development Highway System (ADHS), a planned 3,000-mile
system of highways that connect with the U.S. Interstate Highway System. According to ARC,
90.8% of ADHS is “complete, open to traffic, or under construction.”70
Since FY2016, Congress has appropriated approximately $50 million per year as a set-aside for
ARC’s POWER Initiative (Partnerships for Opportunity and Workforce and Economic
Revitalization), which assists communities impacted by the decline of the coal industry. The

69 Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965, P.L. 89-4.
70 For more information, see ARC home page at https://www.arc.gov.
Congressional Research Service

34

link to page 39 Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

POWER Initiative funds a variety of economic, workforce, and community development projects
to stabilize and stimulate economic activity in affected communities.
For more background on ARC and other regional commissions and authorities, see CRS Report
R45997, Federal Regional Commissions and Authorities: Structural Features and Function, by
Michael H. Cecire, and CRS In Focus IF11140, Federal Regional Commissions and Authorities:
Overview of Structure and Activities
, by Michael H. Cecire.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NRC is an independent agency that establishes and enforces safety and security standards for
nuclear power plants and users of nuclear materials. Major appropriations categories for NRC are
shown in Table 8. Nuclear Reactor Safety is NRC’s largest program and is responsible for
licensing and regulating the U.S. fleet of 95 power reactors, plus two under construction. NRC is
also responsible for licensing and regulating nuclear waste facilities, such as the proposed
underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV (for which no funding is requested
for FY2021).
NRC is required by law to offset about 90% of its total budget, excluding specified items, through
fees charged to nuclear reactor owners and other holders of NRC licenses. As a result, NRC’s net
appropriation can be as low as 10% of its total funding level, depending on the activities that
Congress excludes from fee recovery. For example, excluded items in NRC’s FY2020 enacted
appropriation are prior-year balances, development of advanced reactor regulations, and
international activities.
Table 8. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Funding Categories
(budget authority in millions of current dollars)
FY2017
FY2018
FY2019
FY2020
FY2020
FY2021
FY2021
Funding Category
Approp. Approp. Approp. Request Approp. Request
H.Com.
Nuclear Reactor Safety
460.2
462.6
469.8
449.5
447.6
452.9
452.9
Nuclear Materials and
114.3
113.0
108.6
104.3
103.2
102.9
102.9
Waste Safety
Decommissioning and
26.8
27.1
25.4
22.9
22.9
22.8
22.8
Low-Level Waste
Yucca Mountain
0
0.1
0
38.5
0
0
0
Licensing
Corporate Support
306.7
296.4
299.6
292.6
292.6
271.4
271.4
Integrated University
15.0
15.5
15.0
0
16.0
0
16.0
Program
Prior-Year Balances


-20

-40.0

-16.0
Inspector General
12.2
13.3
12.6
13.3
13.3
13.5
13.5
Total
935.2
922.0
911.0
921.1
855.6
863.4
863.4
Source: H.Rept. 116-449; NRC FY2021 Budget Justification; Explanatory Statement for Division C of H.R. 1865,
116th Congress; S.Rept. 116-102; H.R. 2740; H.Rept. 116-83; H.Rept. 115-929, NRC FY2020 Budget Justification;
H.Rept. 115-697; S.Rept. 115-258.
Note: Fee offsets and some adjustments are excluded.
Congressional Research Service

35

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Congressional Hearings
The following hearings were held by the Energy and Water Development subcommittees of the
House and Senate Appropriations Committees on the FY2021 budget request. Testimony and
opening statements are posted on most of the web pages cited for each hearing, along with
webcasts in many cases.
House
Department of Energy, February 27, 2020, https://appropriations.house.gov/
events/hearings/department-of-energy-budget-request-for-fy2021.
DOE Applied Energy Programs, March 3, 2020,
https://appropriations.house.gov/events/hearings/department-of-energy-applied-
energy-programs-budget-requests-for-fy2021.
DOE National Nuclear Security Administration, March 4, 2020,
https://appropriations.house.gov/events/hearings/department-of-energynational-
nuclear-security-administration.
Corps of Engineers and Bureau of Reclamation, March 10, 2020,
https://appropriations.house.gov/events/hearings/us-army-corps-of-engineers-
and-bureau-of-reclamation-budget-requests-for-fy2021.
DOE Advanced Research Projects Agency—Energy, Office of Science, and
Environmental Management, March 11, 2020, https://appropriations.house.gov/
events/hearings/department-of-energy-fy2021-budget-request-for-advanced-
research-projects-agency.
Senate
Department of Energy, March 4, 2020, https://www.appropriations.senate.gov/
hearings/review-of-the-fy2021-budget-request-for-the-us-department-of-energy.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, March 11, 2020,
https://www.appropriations.senate.gov/hearings/review-of-the-fy2021-budget-request-for-us-
army-corps-of-engineers-and-bureau-of-reclamation-within-dept-of-interior.

Author Information

Mark Holt
Corrie E. Clark
Specialist in Energy Policy
Analyst in Energy Policy



Acknowledgments
Former CRS Research Assistant Danielle A. Arostegui developed the spreadsheet used for appropriations
analysis in this report.
Congressional Research Service

36

Energy and Water Development: FY2021 Appropriations

Key Policy Staff
Area of Expertise
Name
General (Coordinator)
Mark Holt
Corps of Engineers
Anna Normand
Nicole Carter
Bureau of Reclamation
Charles V. Stern
Renewable energy
Corrie E. Clark
Energy efficiency
Corrie E. Clark
Fossil energy research
Ashley Lawson
Strategic Petroleum Reserve
Mark Holt
Nuclear energy
Mark Holt
Science and ARPA-E
Daniel Morgan
Quantum Information Science
Patricia Moloney Figliola
Artificial intelligence
Laurie A. Harris
Nuclear weapons stewardship
Amy Woolf
Nonproliferation
Mary Beth Nikitin
DOE Environmental Management
David Bearden
Lance Larson
Power Marketing Administrations
Charles V. Stern
Bonneville Power Administration
Charles V. Stern
Federal regional authorities and
Michael H. Cecire
commissions
Alyssa R. Casey
Appropriations legislative procedures
James V. Saturno
Bil Heniff
Megan Lynch


Disclaimer
This document was prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS). CRS serves as nonpartisan
shared staff to congressional committees and Members of Congress. It operates solely at the behest of and
under the direction of Congress. Information in a CRS Report should not be relied upon for purposes other
than public understanding of information that has been provided by CRS to Members of Congress in
connection with CRS’s institutional role. CRS Reports, as a work of the United States Government, are not
subject to copyright protection in the United States. Any CRS Report may be reproduced and distributed in
its entirety without permission from CRS. However, as a CRS Report may include copyrighted images or
material from a third party, you may need to obtain the permission of the copyright holder if you wish to
copy or otherwise use copyrighted material.

Congressional Research Service
R46384 · VERSION 4 · UPDATED
37