Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Compilation of Selected Indices

This report provides a regional snapshot of the political climate in Latin America and the Caribbean, based on the U.S. Department of State’s description of each country’s political system and selected nongovernmental indices that measure democracy trends worldwide. Using tables and graphs to illustrate regional trends, this report provides a snapshot of democracy indicators from the following sources: (1) the U.S. Department of State’s 2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices; (2) Bertelsmann Stiftung’s 2018 Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI); (3) the Economist Intelligence Unit’s (EIU’s) Democracy Index 2018; (4) Freedom House’s Freedom in the World 2019; and (5) the Varieties of Democracy Institute’s (V-DEM’s) Liberal Democracy Index in its Democracy Report 2019. A bibliography at the end provides sources for further information.

Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Compilation of Selected Indices

November 20, 2019 (R46016)
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Contents

Summary

This report provides a regional snapshot of the political climate in Latin America and the Caribbean, based on the U.S. Department of State's description of each country's political system and selected nongovernmental indices that measure democracy trends worldwide. Using tables and graphs to illustrate regional trends, this report provides a snapshot of democracy indicators from the following sources: (1) the U.S. Department of State's 2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices; (2) Bertelsmann Stiftung's 2018 Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI); (3) the Economist Intelligence Unit's (EIU's) Democracy Index 2018; (4) Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2019; and (5) the Varieties of Democracy Institute's (V-DEM's) Liberal Democracy Index in its Democracy Report 2019. A bibliography at the end provides sources for further information.


Introduction

The current trajectory of democracy around the world is an issue of interest for Congress, which has contributed to U.S. democracy promotion objectives overseas. For decades, U.S. policy has broadly reflected the view that the spread of democracy around the world is favorable to U.S. interests. This report provides a regional snapshot of the political climate in Latin America and the Caribbean, based on the U.S. Department of State's description of each country's political system and selected nongovernmental (NGO) indices that measure democracy trends worldwide.

For additional information on democracy in the global context, see CRS Report R45344, Global Trends in Democracy: Background, U.S. Policy, and Issues for Congress, by Michael A. Weber.

For related information about democracy in Latin American and the Caribbean, see the following products:

CRS also publishes reports on specific Latin American and Caribbean countries.

Source Notes

This report compiles information from the U.S. State Department and data from four nongovernmental (NGO) indices. For a discussion about definitions of democracy and critiques of democracy indices, see CRS Report R45344, Global Trends in Democracy: Background, U.S. Policy, and Issues for Congress, by Michael A. Weber. CRS does not endorse the methodology or accuracy of any particular democracy index.

In parentheses following the country name in the tables below is the nature of the country's political system, as described in the U.S. State Department's 2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. While the publication focuses broadly on human rights conditions in each country, the first sentence of each country report provides a characterization of the country's political system. This U.S. government information is included here for comparison with findings from the democracy indicators published by NGOs.

Bertelsmann Stiftung, a private foundation based in Germany, has published the Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI) biannually since 2006. Key regional findings and country reports are available in English (BTI publishes the full regional report in German). BTI 2018 evaluates the quality of democracy, a market economy, and political management in 129 developing and transition countries. For political transformation specifically, BTI ranks countries using 18 indicators grouped into five criteria: (1) stateness, (2) political participation, (3) rule of law, (4) stability of democratic institutions, and (5) political and social integration.1 Based on the criteria, BTI assigns a category: democracy in consolidation, defective democracy, highly defective democracy, moderate autocracy, and hardline autocracy. In its regional report, BTI notes that since 2008, it "has recorded a decline in the quality of democracy in Latin America—not dramatic, but continual."2 BTI evaluates all Central and South American nations. With the exception of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica, BTI does not evaluate Caribbean nations.

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), based in London and New York, has offices and analysts in various countries. Since 2006, EIU has produced a democracy index that provides an annual snapshot of the state of democracy for 165 independent states and two territories.3 The EIU classifies countries as full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes, or authoritarian regimes based on an aggregate score of 60 indicators in five categories: (1) electoral process and pluralism, (2) civil liberties, (3) the functioning of government, (4) political participation, and (5) political culture. According to the EIU's Democracy Index 2018, the Latin America and Caribbean region's overall score went down from 6.26 in 2017 to 6.24 in 2018 (on a 0 to 10 scale).4 The two countries in the region classified in 2018 as full democracies are Uruguay and, new to the group, Costa Rica. EIU's Democracy Index 2018 identified three countries in the region as authoritarian regimes: Nicaragua moved to join Venezuela and Cuba.5 EIU evaluates all Central and South American nations. With the exceptions of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago, EIU does not evaluate Caribbean nations.

Freedom House is a U.S.-based NGO that conducts research on democracy, political freedom, and human rights worldwide. It has published Freedom in the World since 1978, and the current report covers 195 countries and 14 territories. Freedom House assigns each country 0 to 4 points on 25 indicators (10 political rights indicators and 15 civil liberties indicators) for a total of up to 100 points. The scores determine numerical ratings for political rights and civil liberties freedoms on a scale of 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). The political rights and civil liberties ratings are averaged to produce an overall status of free, partly free, or not free. Freedom House's report covering 2018 found that Nicaragua was the country with the greatest decline in the world regarding conditions for political rights and civil liberties as compared to 2017. Venezuela had the third-greatest decline; Brazil, El Salvador, and Guatemala also made the top 20 for steepest declines.6 The report's analysis is based on data that are detailed in full on the Freedom House web page on "Countries," which ranks the state of democracy for 197 countries and 15 territories.7 This web page lists the top three aggregate scores in Latin America and the Caribbean: Uruguay, Barbados, and Chile; the region's lowest aggregate scores are those for Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Cuba. Freedom House evaluates democracy in all Central and South American and Caribbean nations.

The Varieties of Democracy Institute (V-DEM), headquartered at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, collects democracy data through its research team in collaboration with country experts. In 2017, V-Dem published its first global report measuring the status of democracy with an index. Democracy Report 2019 includes the Liberal Democracy Index, which examines 71 indicators included in the Liberal Component Index and the Electoral Democracy Index.8 V-Dem groups 179 countries into four categories: liberal democracy, electoral democracy, electoral autocracy, and closed autocracy. The current report notes "the regional average for Latin America is down to 0.51 in 2018, bringing the region back to about 1996-levels."9 V-DEM evaluates all Central and South American nations. With the exceptions of Barbados, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago, V-DEM does not evaluate Caribbean nations.

Table 1 looks at Caribbean countries' global democracy rankings according to EIU's Democracy Index 2018, Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2019, V-Dem's Democracy Report 2019, and Bertelsmann Stiftung's 2018 Transformation Index. Table 2 compares the same reports for Mexico and Central America, as does Table 3 for South America. Each report evaluates a different number of countries, so there are missing rankings for some countries. Countries are listed alphabetically in each table.

Table 1. Caribbean: 2018 Democracy Rankings

 

Bertelsmann Stiftung Transformation Index 2018

EIU Democracy Index 2018

Freedom House
Freedom in the World 2019

V-Dem Democracy Report 2019

Country
(U.S. State Dept. political system description)

Political Transfor-mation Global Rank

Status Indexa

Global Rankb

Regime Typec

Aggregate Scored

Political Rights Score

Civil Liberties Score

Freedom Statuse

Liberal Democracy Index Rank

Regime Typef

Antigua & Barbuda (parliamentary multiparty democracy)

84

2

2

Free

Bahamas (constitutional parliamentary democracy)

91

1

1

Free

Barbados (parliamentary multiparty democracy)

96

1

1

Free

42

Liberal democracy

Belize (constitutional parliamentary democracy)

86

1

2

Free

Cuba (authoritarian state)

102

Hardline autocracy

142

Authoritarian

14

7

6

Not free

163

Closed autocracy

Dominica (parliamentary multiparty democracy)

93

1

1

Free

Dominican Republic (representative constitutional democracy)

35

Defective democracy

61

Flawed democracy

67

3

3

Partly free

98

Electoral democracy

Grenada (parliamentary democracy)

89

1

2

Free

Guyana (multiparty democracy)

54=

Flawed democracy

75

2

3

Free

84

Electoral democracy

Haiti (constitutional multiparty republic)

109

Moderate autocracy

102

Hybrid regime

41

5

5

Partly free

132

Electoral autocracy

Jamaica (constitutional parliamentary democracy)

15

Democracy in consolidation

47=

Flawed democracy

78

2

3

Free

35

Electoral democracy

St. Kitts and Nevis (parliamentary multiparty democracy and federation)

89

1

1

Free

St. Lucia (parliamentary multiparty democracy)

92

1

1

Free

St. Vincent and the Grenadines (parliamentary multiparty democracy)

91

1

1

Free

Suriname (constitutional democracy)

49

Flawed democracy

77

2

2

Free

43

(+) Electoral democracy

Trinidad & Tobago (parliamentary democracy)

43

Flawed democracy

82

2

2

Free

39

Liberal democracy

Source: Compiled by CRS using the U.S. State Department's 2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, EIU's Democracy Index 2018, Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2019, the Varieties of Democracy Institute's Democracy Report 2019, and Bertelsmann Stiftung's Transformation Index.

Notes: Although Belize is located in Central America and Guyana and Suriname are located in South America, all three are members of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).

a. BTI classifies a country as an autocracy if one of seven political transformation indicators falls short of the relevant threshold. BTI considers failing states autocracies.

b. The symbol "=" indicates a tying score or equal rank with another country.

c. Definitions from EIU: Full democracies are countries where the "functioning of government is satisfactory. Media are independent and diverse.... effective checks and balances.... judiciary is independent and judicial decisions are enforced.... only limited problems." Flawed democracies have "free and fair elections ... basic civil liberties are respected. However, there are significant weaknesses in other aspects of democracy, including problems in governance, an underdeveloped political culture and low levels of political participation." Hybrid regimes have "substantial election irregularities.... government pressure on opposition parties and candidates.... corruption tends to be widespread and the rule of law is weak. Civil society is weak.... and the judiciary is not independent." In authoritarian regimes, "state political pluralism is absent or heavily circumscribed.... some formal institutions of democracy may exist, but these have little substance.... elections ... are not free and fair.... disregard for abuses and infringements of civil liberties.... repression of criticism of the government and pervasive censorship. There is no independent judiciary."

d. Freedom House assigns each country 0 to 4 points on 25 indicators (10 political rights indicators and 15 civil liberties indicators) for a total of up to 100 points.

e. Freedom House assigns each country a rating for political rights and one for civil liberties, where 1 represents the greatest degree of freedom and 7 the smallest degree of freedom. The average of a country's political rights and civil liberties ratings determines the status of free (1.0 to 2.5), partly free (3.0 to 5.0), or not free (5.5 to 7.0).

f. The symbol (-) indicates that, taking uncertainty into account, the country could belong to the lower category while (+) signifies that the country could belong to the higher category.

Table 2. Mexico and Central America: 2018 Democracy Rankings

 

Bertelsmann Stiftung Transformation Index 2018

EIU Democracy Index 2018

Freedom House
Freedom in the World 2019

V-Dem Democracy Report 2019

Country (U.S. State Dept. political system description)

Political Transfor-mation Global Rank

Status Indexa

Global Rank

Regime Typeb

Aggregate Scorec

Political Rights Score

Civil Liberties Score

Freedom Statusd

Liberal Democracy Index Rank

Regime Typee

Costa Rica (constitutional republic)

8

Democracy in consolidation

20

Full democracy

91

1

1

Free

6

Liberal democracy

El Salvador (constitutional multiparty republic)

29

Defective democracy

77

Hybrid regime

67

2

3

Free

73

Electoral democracy

Guatemala (constitutional multiparty republic)

74

Highly defective democracy

87

Hybrid regime

53

4

4

Partly free

88

(-) Electoral democracy

Honduras (constitutional multiparty republic)

64

Highly defective democracy

85

Hybrid regime

46

4

4

Partly free

124

Electoral autocracy

Mexico (federal multiparty republic)

57

Defective democracy

71=

Flawed democracy

63

3

3

Partly free

60

Electoral democracy

Nicaraguaf (constitutional multiparty republic)

75

Moderate autocracy

122

Authoritarian

32

5

4

Not free

168

Electoral autocracy

Panama (constitutional multiparty democracy)

29

Defective democracy

45

Flawed democracy

84

2

2

Free

46

(+) Electoral democracy

Source: Compiled by the Congressional Research Service using the U.S. State Department's 2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, EIU's Democracy Index 2018, Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2019, the Varieties of Democracy Institute's Democracy Report 2019, and Bertelsmann Stiftung's Transformation Index.

a. BTI classifies a country as an autocracy if one of seven political transformation indicators falls short of the relevant threshold. BTI considers failing states autocracies.

b. Definitions from EIU: Full democracies are countries where the "functioning of government is satisfactory. Media are independent and diverse.... effective checks and balances.... judiciary is independent and judicial decisions are enforced.... only limited problems." Flawed democracies have "free and fair elections ... basic civil liberties are respected. However, there are significant weaknesses in other aspects of democracy, including problems in governance, an underdeveloped political culture and low levels of political participation." Hybrid regimes have "substantial election irregularities.... government pressure on opposition parties and candidates.... corruption tends to be widespread and the rule of law is weak. Civil society is weak.... and the judiciary is not independent." In authoritarian regimes, "state political pluralism is absent or heavily circumscribed.... some formal institutions of democracy may exist, but these have little substance.... elections ... are not free and fair.... disregard for abuses and infringements of civil liberties.... repression of criticism of the government and pervasive censorship. There is no independent judiciary."

c. Freedom House assigns each country 0 to 4 points on 25 indicators (10 political rights indicators and 15 civil liberties indicators) for a total of up to 100 points.

d. Freedom House assigns each country a rating for political rights and one for civil liberties where 1 represents the greatest degree of freedom and 7 the smallest degree of freedom. The average of a country's political rights and civil liberties ratings determines the status of free (1.0 to 2.5), partly free (3.0 to 5.0), or not free (5.5 to 7.0).

e. The symbol (-) indicates that, taking uncertainty into account, the country could belong to the lower category while (+) signifies that the country could belong to the higher category.

f. "Nicaragua has a highly centralized, authoritarian political system dominated by President Daniel Ortega Saavedra and his wife, Vice President Rosario Murillo Zambrana. Ortega's Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) party exercises total control over the executive, legislative, judicial, and electoral functions despite the country's official status as a multiparty constitutional republic."

Table 3. South America: 2018 Democracy Rankings

 

Bertelsmann Stiftung Transformation Index 2018

EIU Democracy Index 2018

Freedom House
Freedom in the World 2019

V-Dem Democracy Report 2019

Country (U.S. State Dept. political system description)

Political Transfor-mation Global Rank

Status Indexa

Global Rankb

Regime Typec

Aggregate Scored

Political Rights Score

Civil Liberties Score

Freedom Statuse

Liberal Democracy Index Rank

Regime Typef

Argentina (federal constitutional republic)

19

Democracy in consolidation

47=

Flawed democracy

84

2

2

Free

40

Electoral democracy

Bolivia (constitutional multiparty republic)

31

Defective democracy

83

Hybrid regime

67

3

3

Partly free

89

Electoral democracy

Brazil (constitutional multiparty republic)

23

Defective democracy

50

Flawed democracy

75

2

2

Free

53

Electoral democracy

Chile (constitutional multiparty democracy)

7

Democracy in consolidation

23=

Flawed democracy

93

1

1

Free

21

(+) Electoral democracy

Colombia (constitutional multiparty republic)

38

Defective democracy

51

Flawed democracy

66

3

3

Partly free

68

Electoral democracy

Ecuador (constitutional multiparty republic)

63

Highly defective democracy

68

Flawed democracy

63

3

3

Partly free

69

Electoral democracy

Paraguay (constitutional multiparty republic)

45

Defective democracy

70

Flawed democracy

65

3

3

Partly free

81

Electoral democracy

Peru (constitutional multiparty republic)

39

Defective democracy

59

Flawed democracy

73

2

3

Free

45

Electoral democracy

Uruguay (constitutional republic)

1

Democracy in consolidation

15

Full democracy

98

1

1

Free

15

(-) Liberal democracy

Venezuelag (constitutional multiparty republic)

93

Hardline autocracy

134=

Authoritarian

19

6

5

Not free

158

Electoral autocracy

Source: Compiled by the Congressional Research Service using the U.S. State Department's 2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, EIU's Democracy Index 2018, Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2019, the Varieties of Democracy Institute's Democracy Report 2019, and Bertelsmann Stiftung's Transformation Index.

a. BTI classifies a country as an autocracy if one of seven political transformation indicators falls short of the relevant threshold. BTI considers failing states autocracies.

b. The symbol "=" indicates a tying score or equal rank with another country.

c. Definitions from EIU: Full democracies are countries where the "functioning of government is satisfactory. Media are independent and diverse.... effective checks and balances.... judiciary is independent and judicial decisions are enforced.... only limited problems." Flawed democracies have "free and fair elections ... basic civil liberties are respected. However, there are significant weaknesses in other aspects of democracy, including problems in governance, an underdeveloped political culture and low levels of political participation." Hybrid regimes have "substantial election irregularities.... government pressure on opposition parties and candidates.... corruption tends to be widespread and the rule of law is weak. Civil society is weak.... and the judiciary is not independent." In authoritarian regimes, "state political pluralism is absent or heavily circumscribed.... some formal institutions of democracy may exist, but these have little substance.... elections ... are not free and fair.... disregard for abuses and infringements of civil liberties.... repression of criticism of the government and pervasive censorship. There is no independent judiciary."

d. Freedom House assigns each country 0 to 4 points on 25 indicators (10 political rights indicators and 15 civil liberties indicators) for a total of up to 100 points.

e. Freedom House assigns each country a rating for political rights and one for civil liberties where 1 represents the greatest degree of freedom and 7 the smallest degree of freedom. The average of a country's political rights and civil liberties ratings determines the status of free (1.0 to 2.5), partly free (3.0 to 5.0), or not free (5.5 to 7.0).

f. The symbol (-) indicates that, taking uncertainty into account, the country could belong to the lower category while (+) signifies that the country could belong to the higher category.

g. "Venezuela is formally a multiparty, constitutional republic, but for more than a decade, political power has been concentrated in a single party with an increasingly authoritarian executive exercising significant control over the legislative, judicial, citizens' power (which includes the prosecutor general and ombudsman), and electoral branches of government."

Figure 1 shows the global rank and classification of all Central and South American and Caribbean countries according to the Political Transformation Rank, a component of the 2018 Bertelsmann Stiftung Transformation Index (BTI).

Figure 1. BTI's 2018 Political Transformation Global Ranking of
Latin American and Caribbean Countries

Source: Created by CRS Graphics using Bertelsmann Stiftung's 2018 Transformation Index.


Figure 2 shows the global rank and classification of Central and South American and Caribbean countries according to the EIU's Democracy Index 2018.

Figure 2. EIU Democracy Index 2018 Global Ranking for
Latin American and Caribbean Countries

Source: Created by CRS Graphics using EIU's Democracy Index 2018.


Figure 3 shows the aggregate scores of all Central and South American and Caribbean countries according to the Freedom House country web page for Freedom in the World 2019. Countries receive 0 to 4 points on 25 indicators (10 political rights indicators and 15 civil liberties indicators) for a total of up to 100 points.

Figure 3. Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2019 Aggregate Scores for
Latin American and Caribbean Countries

Source: Created by CRS Graphics using Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2019.


Figure 4 shows the political rights and civil liberties scores of all Central and South American and Caribbean countries according to Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2019. The scale used is 1-7, with 1 indicating the most free conditions and 7 the least free.

Figure 4. Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2019 Political Rights and Civil Liberties Scores for Latin American and Caribbean Countries

Source: Created by CRS Graphics using Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2019.


Figure 5 shows the liberal democracy index rank and classification of all Central and South American and Caribbean countries according to the Varieties of Democracy Institute's Democracy Report 2019.

Figure 5. V-Dem Democracy Report 2019's Liberal Democracy Index Rank
for Latin American and Caribbean Countries

Source: Created by CRS Graphics using the Varieties of Democracy Institute's Democracy Report 2019.


Table 4 provides resources for further information about democracy indicators in Central and South America and the Caribbean, although many cover other geographic areas as well. The sources are organized alphabetically by title. This is not an exhaustive list.

Table 4. Resources for Democracy Indicators

Title

Organization

Resource Type

URL

Bertelsmann Stiftung's Transformation Index

Bertelsmann Stiftung

Data on status index and governance index in table and graphic formats

https://www.bti-project.org/en/data/

 

Bertelsmann Stiftung

Regional report on Latin America and the Caribbean

https://www.bti-project.org/en/key-findings/regional/latin-america-and-the-caribbean/

 

Bertelsmann Stiftung

Reports on 129 countries, including 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries

https://www.bti-project.org/en/reports/country-reports/

Democracy Report 2019

Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem)

Report covers 179 countries

https://www.v-dem.net/media/filer_public/99/de/99dedd73-f8bc-484c-8b91-44ba601b6e6b/v-dem_democracy_report_2019.pdf

Electoral Integrity Worldwide

Electoral Integrity Project, an independent academic project based at Harvard University and the University of Sydney

Report and data from cumulative study covering national presidential and parliamentary elections from July 1, 2012 to December 31, 2018

https://www.electoralintegrityproject.com/the-year-in-elections-2017

Freedom in the World 2019

Freedom House

Report

https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/Feb2019_FH_FITW_2019_Report_ForWeb-compressed.pdf

 

Freedom House

Map

https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2019/map

 

Freedom House

Ranking list (includes more countries than report)

https://freedomhouse.org/report/countries-world-freedom-2019?order=field_fiw_pr_rating&sort=asc

Global State of Democracy Indices

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance's (International IDEA) Global State of Democracy Initiative

Interactive map looks at 97 indicators for 158 countries from 1975-2018

https://www.idea.int/gsod-indices/#/indices/world-map

Global State of Democracy 2019

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance

Report looks at global trends in democracy 1975-2015

https://www.idea.int/gsod/

Rule of Law Index 2019

World Justice Project

Report measures how the rule of law is experienced and perceived in 126 countries

https://worldjusticeproject.org/sites/default/files/documents/WJP-ROLI-2019-Single%20Page%20View-Reduced_0.pdf

 

World Justice Project

Interactive map and data tables cover 126 countries

http://data.worldjusticeproject.org/#

WJP Mexico States Rule of Law Index 2018

World Justice Project

A report on the adherence to the rule of law in Mexico's 32 states (also available in Spanish)

https://worldjusticeproject.org/sites/default/files/documents/WJP-Mexico-States-Index-2018_0.pdf

Worldwide Governance Indicators

World Bank

Data on 43 indicators of governance for 200+ countries from 1996-2017; in particular, see Voice and Accountability indicator

https://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#home

Source: Compiled by the Congressional Research Service.

Author Contact Information

Carla Y. Davis-Castro, Research Librarian ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

Bertelsmann Stiftung, "Methodology," accessed November 18, 2019, available at https://www.bti-project.org/en/about/project/methodology/.

2.

Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI), Latin America and the Caribbean: Growing Frustration, Lagging Response, 2018, Bertelsmann Stiftung, available at https://www.bti-project.org/en/key-findings/regional/latin-america-and-the-caribbean/.

3.

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) did not produce a democracy index report covering 2007 or 2009.

4.

EIU, Democracy Index 2018: Me Too? Political Participation, Protest and Democracy, 2019, available at https://www.eiu.com/topic/democracy-index, p. 19.

5.

EIU, Democracy Index 2018, p. 20.

6.

Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2019: Democracy in Retreat, 2019, available at https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2019/democracy-in-retreat, p. 6.

7.

Freedom House, "Freedom in the World 2019: Countries," 2019, available at https://freedomhouse.org/report/countries-world-freedom-2019.

8.

Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project, Democracy Facing Global Challenges: V-Dem Annual Democracy Report 2019, 2019, p. 53.

9.

V-Dem, Democracy Facing Global Challenges, p. 14.