FY2018 Appropriations Overview: Census Bureau and Bureau of Economic Analysis

This report discusses FY2018 appropriations (discretionary budget authority) for the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau), historic components of the Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) in the U.S. Department of Commerce. This report will be updated as legislative developments warrant.

The Administration’s FY2018 budget request assumes the termination of ESA and proposes $97.0 million for BEA, $6.8 million (6.6%) less than the $103.8 million enacted for FY2017.

The FY2018 request for the Census Bureau is $1,497.0 million, $27.0 million (1.8%) more than the FY2017-enacted $1,470.0 million. The FY2018 request is divided between the bureau’s two major accounts: $246.0 million for Current Surveys and Programs, $24.0 million (8.9%) less than the $270.0 million enacted for FY2017; and $1,251.0 million for Periodic Censuses and Programs, $51.0 million (4.3%) more than the $1,200.0 million approved for FY2017. The foremost program under this account is the 2020 Decennial Census, with an $800.2 million FY2018 request that is $32.9 million (4.3%) above the $767.3 million enacted for FY2017. A second key program is the American Community Survey (ACS), with an FY2018 request of $213.6 million, $8.0 million (3.6%) below the $221.6 million FY2017-enacted amount.

The House Committee on Appropriations reported H.R. 3267, the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2018 (CJS), on July 17, 2017. Committee-recommended funding for BEA in FY2018 is $96.0 million, $1.0 million (1.0%) less than requested and $7.8 million (7.5%) less than enacted for FY2017. The Census Bureau would receive $1,507.0 million in FY2018, $37.0 million (2.5%) more than enacted for FY2017 and $10.0 million (0.7%) above the FY2018 request. The $256.0 million recommended for Current Surveys and Programs is $14.0 million (5.2%) below the FY2017-enacted amount and $10.0 million (4.1%) more than requested for FY2018. Periodic Censuses and Programs would receive the requested $1,251.0 million, $51.0 million (4.3%) more than enacted for FY2017. H.R. 3267, as reported, became Division C of H.R. 3354, which the House passed on September 14, 2017.

The Senate Committee on Appropriations reported its FY2018 CJS appropriations bill, S. 1662, on July 27, 2017. It continues to recognize ESA and recommends funding it at $99.0 million in FY2018, $8.3 million (7.7%) below the $107.3 million enacted for ESA in FY2017, $2.0 million (2.1%) more than the FY2018 request for BEA, and $3.0 million (3.1%) more than the House-passed BEA funding level. The Census Bureau would receive $1,521.0 million in FY2018, $51.0 million (3.5%) over the FY2017-enacted amount, $24.0 million (1.6%) above the request, and $14.0 million (0.9%) more than the House recommendation. The Senate committee recommends $270.0 million for Current Surveys and Programs in FY2018, identical to what was enacted for FY2017, $24.0 million (9.8%) more than the FY2018 request, and $14.0 million (5.5%) above the House-passed level. Periodic Censuses and Programs would receive $1,251.0 million in FY2018, which matches the requested and House-passed amounts and is $51.0 million (4.3%) above the FY2017-enacted level.

FY2017 ended without enactment of final FY2018 CJS appropriations legislation. Four continuing appropriations acts provided federal agencies with FY2018 funding at FY2017 appropriations levels, reduced by 0.6791%, through February 8, 2018. The Census Bureau, however, could apportion the funds for Periodic Censuses and Programs “up to the rate for operations necessary to maintain the schedule and deliver the required data according to statutory deadlines in the 2020 Decennial Census Program.” A fifth act, H.R. 1892, P.L. 115-123, continues these provisions through March 23, 2018, with an additional $182.0 million for the 2020 census.

FY2018 Appropriations Overview: Census Bureau and Bureau of Economic Analysis

Updated March 23, 2018 (R45140)
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Summary

This report discusses FY2018 appropriations (discretionary budget authority) for the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau), historic components of the Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) in the U.S. Department of Commerce. This report will be updated as legislative developments warrant.

The Administration's FY2018 budget request assumes the termination of ESA and proposes $97.0 million for BEA, $6.8 million (6.6%) less than the $103.8 million enacted for FY2017.

The FY2018 request for the Census Bureau is $1,497.0 million, $27.0 million (1.8%) more than the FY2017-enacted $1,470.0 million. The FY2018 request is divided between the bureau's two major accounts: $246.0 million for Current Surveys and Programs, $24.0 million (8.9%) less than the $270.0 million enacted for FY2017; and $1,251.0 million for Periodic Censuses and Programs, $51.0 million (4.3%) more than the $1,200.0 million approved for FY2017. The foremost program under this account is the 2020 Decennial Census, with an $800.2 million FY2018 request that is $32.9 million (4.3%) above the $767.3 million enacted for FY2017. A second key program is the American Community Survey (ACS), with an FY2018 request of $213.6 million, $8.0 million (3.6%) below the $221.6 million FY2017-enacted amount.

The House Committee on Appropriations reported H.R. 3267, the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2018 (CJS), on July 17, 2017. Committee-recommended funding for BEA in FY2018 is $96.0 million, $1.0 million (1.0%) less than requested and $7.8 million (7.5%) less than enacted for FY2017. The Census Bureau would receive $1,507.0 million in FY2018, $37.0 million (2.5%) more than enacted for FY2017 and $10.0 million (0.7%) above the FY2018 request. The $256.0 million recommended for Current Surveys and Programs is $14.0 million (5.2%) below the FY2017-enacted amount and $10.0 million (4.1%) more than requested for FY2018. Periodic Censuses and Programs would receive the requested $1,251.0 million, $51.0 million (4.3%) more than enacted for FY2017. H.R. 3267, as reported, became Division C of H.R. 3354, which the House passed on September 14, 2017.

The Senate Committee on Appropriations reported its FY2018 CJS appropriations bill, S. 1662, on July 27, 2017. It continues to recognize ESA and recommends funding it at $99.0 million in FY2018, $8.3 million (7.7%) below the $107.3 million enacted for ESA in FY2017, $2.0 million (2.1%) more than the FY2018 request for BEA, and $3.0 million (3.1%) more than the House-passed BEA funding level. The Census Bureau would receive $1,521.0 million in FY2018, $51.0 million (3.5%) over the FY2017-enacted amount, $24.0 million (1.6%) above the request, and $14.0 million (0.9%) more than the House recommendation. The Senate committee recommends $270.0 million for Current Surveys and Programs in FY2018, identical to what was enacted for FY2017, $24.0 million (9.8%) more than the FY2018 request, and $14.0 million (5.5%) above the House-passed level. Periodic Censuses and Programs would receive $1,251.0 million in FY2018, which matches the requested and House-passed amounts and is $51.0 million (4.3%) above the FY2017-enacted level.

FY2017 ended without enactment of final FY2018 CJS appropriations legislation. Four continuing appropriations acts provided federal agencies with FY2018 funding at FY2017 appropriations levels, reduced by 0.6791%, through February 8, 2018. The Census Bureau, however, could apportion the funds for Periodic Censuses and Programs "up to the rate for operations necessary to maintain the schedule and deliver the required data according to statutory deadlines in the 2020 Decennial Census Program." A fifth act, H.R. 1892, P.L. 115-123, continues these provisions through March 23, 2018, with an additional $182.0 million for the 2020 census.


Introduction

This report presents an overview of the FY2018 budget request, related congressional actions, and appropriations (discretionary budget authority) for the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau). These entities historically made up the Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) in the U.S. Department of Commerce, which is funded under annual appropriations for the Departments of Commerce and Justice, and science and related agencies (CJS).1

The Administration's FY2018 budget justification for the Economics and Statistics Administration/BEA2 states that the past functions of ESA encompassed "the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs and policy guidance in support of department-wide economic and statistical programs and initiatives." 3 The Under Secretary historically "performed as the Administrator"4 of ESA, but this role is proposed to end in FY2018 because ESA is to "cease operations," in "an effort to reduce duplication, streamline operations, and realize budget efficiency."5 The proposal calls for continued funding of BEA, while the Under Secretary is to "reside within the Office of the Secretary and provide direct support to the Secretary" and the Commerce Department's "economic and statistical community, which include[s] BEA and the Census Bureau."6

Table 1, below, shows the FY2017-enacted and FY2018-requested amounts for ESA, BEA, and the Census Bureau, with its two major accounts. Also shown are the FY2018 amounts passed by the House and recommended by the Senate Committee on Appropriations for ESA (Senate), BEA (House), and the Census Bureau.

Table 1. ESA, BEA, and Census Bureau Appropriations, FY2017 and FY2018

Budget authority in millions of dollars

Administration and Agencies

FY2017 Enacted

FY2018 Request

FY2018 House Passed

FY2018 Senate Committee Reported

FY2018 Enacted

Economics and Statistics Administration (Except Census Bureau)

$107.3

__

__

$99.0

__

Policy Support and Management Oversight

(3.5)

__

__

__

__

BEA

(103.8)

97.0

96.0

__

__

Census Bureau

1,470.0

1,497.0

1,507.0

1,521.0

__

Current Surveys and Programs

(270.0)

(246.0)

(256.0)

(270.0)

__

Periodic Censuses and Programs

(1,200.0)

(1,251.0)

(1,251.0)

(1,251.0)

__

Sources: The FY2017-enacted amounts for ESA (except the Census Bureau), the Census Bureau as a whole, and the bureau's two major accounts are from the joint explanatory statement to accompany the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017, H.R. 244, P.L. 115-31, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 163 (May 3, 2017), p. H3379. The FY2018-requested amount for BEA is from U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration/Bureau of Economic Analysis, Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2018, p. ESA-9. For the Census Bureau in FY2018, the request is from U.S. Department of Commerce, Department of Commerce Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 2018, p. 25. The FY2018 House-passed amounts for BEA and the Census Bureau are from U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 2018, report to accompany H.R. 3267, 115th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 115-231 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2017), p. 7. The Senate committee-recommended FY2018 amounts for the Census Bureau and ESA are from U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Departments of Commerce and Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 2018, report to accompany S. 1662, 115th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 115-139 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2017), pp. 15-16.

Note: The FY2017 approved spend plan for the Census Bureau reallocated the bureau's enacted funds, as permitted under P.L. 115-31, General Provisions, Department of Commerce, Section 103. Thus, the actual amount for Current Surveys and Programs was $257,075,000, not $270,000,000; the actual amount for Periodic Censuses and Programs was $1,210,345,000, not $1,200,000,000. In addition, as required under P.L. 115-31, $2,580,000 was transferred from Periodic Censuses and Programs to the Commerce Department's Office of Inspector General (OIG) for "investigations and audits" related to the Census Bureau. The total FY2017 actual amount for the bureau remained the same as enacted: $1,470,000,000 ($257,075,000 plus $1,210,345,000, with a transfer of $2,580,000 to the OIG).

Economics and Statistics Administration/Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Census Bureau

Economics and Statistics Administration

As noted above, the FY2018 budget justification for the Economics and Statistics Administration/BEA provides that ESA is to "cease operations"7 in this fiscal year and that the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs is to "reside within"8 the Commerce Secretary's office. Secretary Wilbur Ross testified to Congress in 2017 that the Under Secretary is to have "direct oversight" over BEA and the Census Bureau.9

Bureau of Economic Analysis

The Bureau of Economic Analysis,10 like the Census Bureau, is one of 13 principal federal statistical agencies, each of whose primary mission is statistical work.11 According to the FY2018 budget justification for ESA/BEA, "BEA's national, industry, regional, and international economic accounts present valuable information on critical issues such as U.S. economic growth, regional economic development, inter-industry relationships, and the Nation's position in the world economy."12 The "statistical measures produced by BEA include gross domestic product (GDP), personal income and outlays, corporate profits, GDP by state and county, GDP by metropolitan area, balance of payments, and GDP by industry."13

Census Bureau

The Census Bureau14 conducts the decennial census under Title 13 of the United States Code, which also authorizes the bureau to collect and compile a great variety of other sociodemographic, economic, and housing data, and information about different levels of government. The bureau's activities include the production of Current Economic Statistics that provide wide-ranging, detailed data about the U.S. economy; Current Demographic Statistics, among which are intercensal population estimates, population projections, and Current Population Reports; and, in addition to the decennial census, the American Community Survey and two quinquennial censuses, the economic census and the census of governments.

The FY2018 Budget Request

Economics and Statistics Administration/Bureau of Economic Analysis

The Administration's FY2018 budget request for BEA is $97.0 million, $6.8 million (6.6%) less than the $103.8 million enacted for FY2017. No FY2018 funding is requested for ESA, because, under the proposed budget, it is to terminate.15 Proposed reductions within BEA include efforts to measure separately the "impact of small businesses on the U.S. economy, the incorporation of enhanced healthcare measures into the core GDP accounts, and trade in services data for dynamic industries of the U.S. economy," such as research and development, intellectual property, financial services, health services, and information technology services.16 The budget justification states that "Careful consideration was given to those initiatives that could be reduced with minimal impact on BEA's core programs."17 The Administration "proposes no new initiatives" for BEA in FY2018.18

Census Bureau

The Administration's FY2018 budget request for the Census Bureau is $1,497.0 million,19 $27.0 million (1.8%) more than the FY2017-enacted amount of $1,470.0 million.20 As noted later in this report, the bureau typically seeks large funding increases toward the end of every decade, due to its heightened preparations for the census that occurs in each calendar year ending in zero. Requested funding for the decennial census, by far the bureau's most costly and visible endeavor, usually peaks in the census year and decreases steeply thereafter.21

The FY2018 request is divided between the bureau's two major accounts:

  • Current Surveys and Programs would receive $246.0 million,22 $24.0 million (8.9%) less than the $270.0 million enacted for FY201723 and 16.4% of the total requested for the bureau;
  • Periodic Censuses and Programs—the account that funds the decennial census—would receive $1,251.0 million,24 $51.0 million (4.3%) more than the $1,200.0 million approved for FY2017 25 and 83.6% of the bureau's total request.

Current Surveys and Programs

The Current Surveys and Programs account consists of Current Economic Statistics and Current Demographic Statistics.

Current Economic Statistics

The FY2018 budget request for Current Economic Statistics is $171.9 million,26 $5.1 million (2.9%) less than the $177.0 million approved for FY2017.27

These statistics, from the major sources and programs noted below, provide wide-ranging, detailed data about the U.S. economy.

  • Business statistics come from sources such as current retail, wholesale, and service trade reports and, according to the FY2018 budget justification for the Census Bureau, "are important inputs" to BEA's estimates of gross domestic product and to "the Federal Reserve Board and Council of Economic Advisers for the formulation of monetary and fiscal policies and analysis of economic policies."28
  • Construction statistics "provide national performance indicators for the construction sector of the economy." They are derived from data on building permits, housing starts, and "construction put in place,"29 which refers to the estimated total dollar value of construction work done in the nation each month.30
  • Manufacturing statistics come from sources including the Annual Survey of Manufactures and the Annual Capital Expenditures Survey of capital investments by private nonfarm businesses. They supplement data from the economic census and, as the budget justification points out, provide a "critical economic benchmark" by measuring "the overall performance of the U.S. manufacturing sector."31
  • General economic statistics encompass, to cite examples from the budget justification, the business register, which "identifies the business populations covered by economic censuses and surveys"; the North American Industry Classification System, which "provides a consistent industry classification system for the U.S., Canada, and Mexico every five years"; and surveys on the finances of U.S. corporations for the bureau's Quarterly Financial Reports. The budget proposal characterizes general economic statistics as "essential to understanding the changing economic structure" of the United States.32
  • Foreign trade statistics, from sources such as U.S. Customs and Border Protection and Canadian agencies, "provide official monthly statistics on imports, exports, and balance of trade for all types of merchandise moving between the U.S. and its international trading partners."33
  • Government statistics are compiled from surveys of state and local governments. They cover the "revenues, expenditures, debt, and financial assets" of these governments, as well as "public employment and payroll."34
Current Demographic Statistics

For Current Demographic Statistics in FY2018, the budget request is $74.1 million,35 $5.9 million (7.4%) below the $80.0 million FY2017 funding level.36

These statistics include the following collections and analyses of demographic data:

  • A key household survey under Current Demographic Statistics is the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) of about 58,000 U.S. households that the Census Bureau has conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) "for more than 50 years," with about two-thirds of the funding supplied by BLS. Although the CPS's primary purpose is "to provide detailed labor force characteristics of the civilian non-institutional population and the monthly unemployment rate, a leading economic indicator," the survey also produces housing vacancy data and includes regular supplements that gather additional data.37 As examples, the CPS conducts the Annual Social and Economic Supplement every March, a Fertility Supplement every other June, a School Enrollment Supplement every October, and a Voting and Registration Supplement every other November.38 Further, "other agencies sponsor supplements to the CPS in other months." These supplements cover topics such as "child support and alimony, tobacco use, volunteers, and food security."39
  • The bureau's population and housing analyses include the Current Population Reports, based on CPS and other data, about various characteristics of the U.S. population; research concerning income, poverty, and wealth in the United States; and housing statistics compiled from the Housing Vacancy Survey.40
  • The bureau's intercensal demographic estimates provide, between the decennial censuses, a series of population estimates by age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity for the total United States, states, and counties; estimated population totals for sub-county areas and metropolitan areas; estimates by age and sex for Puerto Rico and the municipios;41 and national-, state-, and county-level estimates of housing units.42 In addition, population projections analyze administrative data and population trends to indicate the future sizes of the U.S. and state populations.43
  • The bureau's demographic surveys sample redesign provides improved sampling methods, sample designs, and data processing systems "essential to maintain the relevance, accuracy, and quality" of "the major household surveys" that the bureau conducts wholly or partly under the sponsorship of other federal agencies.44

Periodic Censuses and Programs

Under this account—with an FY2018 budget request that, as previously mentioned, constitutes 83.6% of the total for the Census Bureau—the bureau has identified certain programs considered critical for creating "a data-driven government." They include the 2020 Decennial Census, American Community Survey (ACS), 2017 Economic Census, and 2017 Census of Governments.45 Below is a discussion of each program, followed by information about the bureau's new IT initiative, the Census Enterprise Data Collection and Processing System (CEDCaP), which will affect multiple data collections.

The 2020 Decennial Census

The U.S. Constitution requires a population census every 10 years, to serve as the basis for apportioning seats in the House of Representatives.46 Decennial census data also are used for within-state redistricting and, together with census-related American Community Survey data and intercensal population estimates, in certain formulas that partly or entirely determine the annual distribution of more than $675 billion in federal funds to states and localities.47

The Administration requests $800.2 million for the 2020 Decennial Census in FY2018,48 a $32.9 million (4.3%) increase from the $767.3 million enacted for FY2017.49 The 2020 census request, which is 64.0% of the total for the Periodic Censuses and Programs account and 53.5% of the total for the Census Bureau, reflects the cyclical "ramp-up" of preparations for the next census.

Mandate to Control the Cost of the Census. As directed by Congress,50 the Census Bureau is attempting to design and conduct the 2020 census at a lower inflation-adjusted cost per housing unit than in 2010. In April 2015 congressional testimony, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) stated that the cost to enumerate each housing unit "escalated from around $16 in 1970 to around $94 in 2010, in constant 2010 dollars (an increase of over 500 percent)."51 At a total life-cycle cost approaching $13 billion, the 2010 census was the most expensive in U.S. history. Its cost was about 56% greater than the 2000 census total of $8.1 billion, in constant 2010 dollars.52

The bureau is focusing on 2020 census cost-control innovations in four major areas

  • Before past censuses, the bureau conducted address canvassing to try to ensure that it had the correct addresses and map locations of all U.S. residences. For the 2020 census, the bureau proposes canvassing the whole nation, as in previous censuses, but, to the extent possible, updating its Master Address File and Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing system (MAF/TIGER) by in-office use of geographic information systems and aerial imagery, not by more labor intensive, and thus more costly, in-field canvassing.53
  • The 1970 through 2010 censuses were primarily mail-out, mail-back operations. The bureau proposes replacing as much of the mail phase of the 2020 census as possible by offering the public an online response option. Other options will include by telephone, with assistance from census telephone interviewers, and by mailed paper questionnaires. Besides placing greater reliance on technology to promote the census, the bureau is implementing a "communications and partnership campaign to engage and encourage the use of the Internet as the primary response mode." The campaign "will provide information to government agencies, host events at community, recreation, and faith-based organizations," and publicize the census "through radio advertising and social media." The bureau also will permit online responses to be submitted "without a unique identification code" for each questionnaire.54
  • In past censuses, the bureau generally followed up with nonrespondents by telephoning them or visiting their homes. The bureau proposes using administrative records, such as existing information from the federal and state governments, as well as "third-party data" from, for example, "commercial sources," to reduce the extent of nonresponse follow-up in 2020.55
  • For whatever nonresponse follow-up remains necessary, the bureau proposes using an "operational control system" to automate certain tasks and make "decisions that were previously made by people during field operations," such as case assignments and number of attempted contacts with nonrespondents. The objective is to "reduce the staffing, infrastructure, and brick and mortar footprint required for the 2020 Census." The bureau expects to establish six regional census centers, instead of the 12 established for the 2010 census; two paper processing centers, versus three for 2010; and about 250 area census offices, versus almost 500 local census offices for 2010. The number of enumerators is to be reduced by about half, from almost 600,000 for 2010 to about 300,000 for 2020.56

The bureau initially estimated that these innovations could save more than $5 billion.57 Its estimate of the cost to repeat the 2010 design in the 2020 census was $17.8 billion, compared with $12.5 billion for a reengineered census.58 In 2017 congressional testimony, however, Commerce Secretary Ross gave a revised 2020 census cost estimate of $15.6 billion, which he attributed to an earlier "overestimation of savings and an underestimation of the difficulty of implementing and integrating technological innovations to conduct the Decennial Census." Secretary Ross testified that the Commerce Department was "working with our House and Senate appropriators" on a request for "a $187 million adjustment for FY2018." The additional funds, he said, would permit "a significant course correction to keep crucial programs on track for the 2020 Census and provide much-needed financial oversight and better management at the Census Bureau."59

FY2018 Activities in Preparation for the 2020 Census. Summarized below are the major census-related activities that the bureau has begun or intends to undertake or complete in FY2018.

  • The foremost activity for FY2018 is the end-to-end 2020 census test. It originally was to cover more than 700,000 housing units: approximately 330,000 units in Pierce County, Washington; 265,000 units in Providence County, Rhode Island; and 175,000 units in nine West Virginia counties that include the cities of Beckley, Bluefield, and Oak Hill.60 Address canvassing for the test still will occur in these sites, but, due to past budget shortfalls, other operations will be limited to Providence County. As the budget justification notes, this site was retained "because it presents specific opportunities and challenges" for the bureau, including high housing vacancy rates, varying levels of internet connectivity, a combination of urban and suburban areas, communication in multiple languages rather than uniformly English, a large group quarters population,61 "non-traditional addressing styles," and sociodemographic diversity.62
  • The budget justification cautions that delayed or insufficient FY2018 appropriations could "result in the Census Bureau not being ready" for the crucial test, which will afford the "last opportunity" before 2020 to determine whether "reengineered census operations and systems" function as intended. "An inability to test and refine major pieces of this complex architecture" could jeopardize the census and result in "significant cost increases or deterioration in data quality."63
  • The budget justification states that, by the end of FY2017, the bureau expected to have processed 70% of U.S. addresses through in-office canvassing and was "on schedule" to finish the remaining 30% in FY2018.64 In-field canvassing of addresses needing further verification is to begin in the first quarter of FY2019.65
  • In FY2018, the bureau is to continue developing the 2020 census communications and partnership program that it began in FY2017. Among its features will be a 2020 census website, a paid advertising campaign, "national and regional partnership efforts," with a "partnership database," a "social media presence," and a "Statistics in Schools program" to engage students and, by extension, their parents in the census process.66
  • "Significant in FY2018," according to the budget justification, will be the opening and staffing of six regional census centers, with associated IT infrastructure, to "serve as the hub of field operations" during the census. "Additionally, during FY2018, the acquisition, leasing, and build-out processes" for "acquiring approximately 250 area census offices and a second paper data capture center will begin."67
  • Also, as required under Title 13, Section 141 (f)(2), of the United States Code, the bureau is to deliver the 2020 census questions to Congress by April 1, 2018. The questions will cover the census topics, which were delivered on March 28, 2017. They include gender, age, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, relationship of each household member to the person filling out the census form, and whether the housing unit is owned or rented.68 In the words of the budget justification, "Any changes to the topics or questions after that point would have significant cost and schedule impacts on all English and Non-English questionnaires, the questionnaire vehicles (Internet, telephone, and paper), translation, and printing, and will put the 2020 Census at risk."69
The American Community Survey

The American Community Survey, which the Census Bureau implemented nationwide in 2005 and 2006, is the replacement for the decennial census long form. From 1940 to 2000, the bureau used the long form to collect detailed socioeconomic and housing data from a representative sample of U.S. residents in conjunction with the once-a-decade count of the whole resident population.70 The ACS covers about 3.5 million households a year.71 It is sent monthly to small samples of the population, and the results are aggregated to produce data at regular intervals, yearly for areas with at least 65,000 people and every five years for areas from the most populous to those with fewer than 20,000 people. The survey is conducted in every county of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and all Puerto Rican municipios. The bureau releases more than 11 billion ACS estimates every year on more than 40 "social, demographic, housing, and economic" topics.72 For rural areas and small groups within the population, the ACS is the sole source of data on many of these topics.73

The Administration's FY2018 request for the ACS is $213.6 million,74 $8.0 million (3.6%) below the FY2017-enacted amount of $221.6 million.75

According to the budget justification, the Census Bureau plans certain modifications to ACS data collection efforts in FY2018.

  • In this fiscal year, the bureau will rely primarily on mail, internet, and Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) to collect ACS data. It will rely less on Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) for nonresponse follow-up and increase use of CAPI. The declining popularity of landline phones has made CATI less productive, so that the cost of "successful follow-up interviews has risen to the point where it equals" the cost of "personal visits to non-responding households." Simultaneously, "the number of attempts required to reach respondents via telephone has become a source of respondent complaints about the ACS." Cutting back on CATI, however, "will result in some loss to the quality of ACS data, especially in the smallest geographic areas," because CAPI will not include all nonresponding households.76
  • The bureau, too, "will reduce for FY2018 operations aimed at ensuring that field representatives working on the survey are fully trained and are following best practices."77
  • Another reduction will pertain to "planned research" on new ACS contents and methods.78
The 2017 Economic Census

The economic census originated in the early 19th century, when "Congress responded to a rapid increase in industrial activity" by instructing 1810 census enumerators to "'take an account of the several manufactures within their several districts, territories and divisions.'"79 As the budget justification states, the modern economic census, conducted every five years, is "the cornerstone of the Nation's economic statistics programs. It is the primary source of facts about the structure and functioning of the U.S. economy."80 Data from this census provide "the foundation for other key measures of economic performance," including GDP and the Bureau of Economic Analysis's national income and product accounts.81 Indeed, "practically all major Federal government economic statistical series are directly or indirectly dependent" on the economic census.82

The Administration requests $100.6 million for economic census activities in FY2018,83 the same as enacted for FY2017.84

FY2018 is the fourth year of the six-year funding cycle for the 2017 Economic Census,85 when efforts have shifted "from preparatory activities," like designing the census operations and determining the census contents, to "collection and processing of the data."86 The major activities for the census in FY2018 will consist of gathering data "on over 29 million establishments," providing "new products that are essential to understanding the modern economy,"87 and "implementing 2017 revisions to the supply-oriented North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)," to reflect better "the structure of the U.S. economy."88

As a cost-control measure and a way to reduce the burden of the census on respondents, according to the budget justification, the bureau has planned a 2017 Economic Census with "100% Internet" reporting.89 Also for the purpose of reducing respondent burden, the bureau is "exploring 'Big Data' concepts using third-party data" either in the 2017 census or later.90

The 2017 Census of Governments

The census of governments, conducted since 1957, is the Census Bureau's other major quinquennial census.91 The budget justification states that, together, the economic census and census of governments account for "nearly all" of GDP and "provide baseline data" for the bureau's Current Economic Statistics.92 The census of governments is the principal source of information about the structure and functioning of state and local governments, which account for about 12% of GDP and 15% of the civilian labor force.93 Among the topics the census covers are government organization and "intergovernmental relationships"; the number of full-time and part-time government employees and their pay; and government finances, including revenues, expenditures, debt, "cash and securities holdings," and "assets of public pension systems."94

The Administration's FY2018 request for the census of governments is $8.9 million,95 identical to the FY2017-enacted amount.96

FY2018 is the third year of the five-year funding cycle for the 2017 Census of Governments, when the census design and contents have been set and attention is focused on data collection and processing.97 In this census, as in the economic census, the emphasis is on "100% Internet reporting."98 In addition, to reduce the reporting burden on respondents, the bureau "hopes to expand" the use of administrative records to obtain data through more data-sharing "agreements with governmental units." The bureau currently has such agreements with about 25 states.99 The bureau also plans more timely release of products from the 2017 census and updated product contents to give "a fuller picture of the financial situation of state and local governments and the economy as a whole."100

Census Enterprise Data Collection and Processing System

FY2018 is the fourth year for the Census Enterprise Data Collection and Processing initiative,101 funded under the Periodic Censuses and Programs account. The budget justification states that CEDCaP is designed to be an "integrated and standardized enterprise suite of systems,"102 encompassing such major data collections as the decennial census, ACS, economic census, and census of governments. It is intended to "reduce inefficiencies" through "shared data collection and processing services." With it, the bureau expects to "retire unique, survey-specific system and redundant capabilities and bring a greater portion" of IT expenditures under one "centrally managed program."103

The Administration requests $137.3 million for CEDCaP in FY2018,104 $22.1 million (13.9%) below the $159.4 million FY2017-enacted amount.105

The bureau plans "to finalize" certain CEDCaP capabilities in FY2018, "including delivery of several capabilities into production to support" the 2018 end-to-end census test.106 Another priority for this fiscal year is "to provide enterprise data collection capabilities for the 2017 Economic Census."107

The development of CEDCaP has presented challenges, however. In April 2015 congressional testimony, GAO identified CEDCaP as "an IT investment in need of attention."108 Two months earlier, GAO had reported that

Particular attention to this area is warranted in order to avoid repeating the mistakes of the 2010 Decennial Census, in which the bureau had to abandon its plans for the use of handheld data collection devices, due in part to fundamental weaknesses in its implementation of key IT management practices.109

Uncertainties surrounding CEDCaP were a factor when GAO included the 2020 census in its "high-risk" list in 2015 and 2017.110

In 2017 congressional testimony, Commerce Secretary Ross acknowledged a 40% cost overrun in CEDCaP, the result, he observed, of initially underestimating how difficult the "technological innovations" for the 2020 census would be to implement and integrate.111

House Action

Economics and Statistics Administration/Bureau of Economic Analysis

The House Committee on Appropriations reported H.R. 3267, the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2018, on July 17, 2017. The committee-recommended funding for BEA in FY2018 is $96.0 million, $1.0 million (1.0%) less than the requested $97.0 million, and $7.8 million (7.5%) below the $103.8 million enacted for FY2017. The House bill does not mention ESA, which, as previously discussed, the Administration has proposed to terminate. The accompanying committee report states that the $96.0 million recommendation "adopts the reorganization proposal," in which ESA is to cease operating and the Commerce Under Secretary for Economic Affairs is to be located in the Office of the Secretary.112 H.R. 3267, as reported, became Division C of H.R. 3354, an omnibus appropriations bill that the House passed on September 14, 2017.

Census Bureau

H.R. 3267, as reported by the House Appropriations Committee and incorporated into H.R. 3354, would provide $1,507.0 million for the Census Bureau in FY2018, $37.0 million (2.5%) more than the FY2017 funding level of $1,470.0 million and $10.0 million (0.7%) above the $1,497.0 million requested for FY2018.113

Current Surveys and Programs would receive $256.0 million, $14.0 million (5.2%) below the FY2017-enacted amount of $270.0 million and $10.0 million (4.1%) more than the $246.0 million requested for FY2018.114

Periodic Censuses and Programs would be funded at $1,251.0 million, the same amount as requested for FY2018 and $51.0 million (4.3%) more than the $1,200.0 million enacted for FY2017.115 The bill provides for transferring $2.6 million of the amount for Periodic Censuses and Programs to the Commerce Department's Office of Inspector General (OIG) for Census Bureau oversight.116

The House committee report's minority views express concern that the Census Bureau is "inadequately funded. Although the Periodic Censuses and Programs account is given the requested amount in FY2018," the Administration is proposing to "scale back" greatly the "2020 Census planning and testing tools that are needed now to prevent higher costs in the next few years." Less early testing, these Members state, also considerably "increases the risk of information technology failures like those in the last [2010] decennial census, which would cause significant future cost overruns."117

Senate Action

Economics and Statistics Administration/Bureau of Economic Analysis

The Senate Committee on Appropriations reported its FY2018 CJS appropriations bill, S. 1662, on July 27, 2017, with recommended funding of $99.0 million for ESA. The $99.0 million is $8.3 million (7.7%) less than the $107.3 million enacted for ESA in FY2017, $2.0 million (2.1%) more than the $97.0 million FY2018 request for BEA, 118 and $3.0 million (3.1%) more than the House-passed $96.0 million for BEA in FY2018.119 The committee report states that

The Committee does not object to the Department's proposed consolidation of the Economics and Statistics Administration and the Bureau of Economic Analysis [BEA]; however, the proposed consolidation will not be approved until a reprogramming package detailing the planned consolidation is approved by the Committee. The reprogramming should include additional information about the impacts of the consolidation, including whether Gross Domestic Product [GDP] estimates and other critical economic reports will be released by BEA or by the Office of the Secretary; an accounting of which positions will be moved to BEA or to the Office of the Secretary, or will be eliminated entirely; and how the Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs will oversee BEA, the Bureau of the Census, and activities conducted within the Office of the Secretary.

Census Bureau

As reported by the Senate Appropriations Committee, S. 1662 recommends $1,521.0 million for the Census Bureau in FY2018, $51.0 million (3.5%) over the $1,470.0 million FY2017-enacted amount, $24.0 million (1.6%) above the $1,497.0 million budget request, and $14.0 million (0.9%) more than the $1,507.0 million House-passed amount.

The FY2018 committee-recommended amount for Current Surveys and Programs is $270.0 million, identical to what was enacted for FY2017, $24.0 million (9.8%) more than the $246.0 million FY2018 request, and $14.0 million (5.5%) above the House-passed $256.0 million.

For Periodic Censuses and Programs in FY2018, the committee recommends $1,251.0 million, which matches the requested and House-passed amounts and is $51.0 million (4.3%) above the $1,200.0 million FY2017-enacted level. The committee-reported bill, like its House-passed counterpart, would provide the Commerce Department's OIG with $2.6 million for continued "oversight and audits of periodic censuses" and "independent recommendations" for operational improvements.120

The committee report directs that "The Bureau shall continue to work to bring down the cost of the 2020 Decennial Census to a level less than the 2010 Census, not adjusting for inflation."121 At the same time, the report mentions the committee's concern that its recommendation of the requested funding level for Periodic Censuses and Programs "may not be adequate to meet the Bureau's planning, testing, and development needs" for the approaching census, "particularly in light of the 47-percent increase in the lifecycle cost estimate" for CEDCaP.122 Commerce Secretary Ross, as previously noted, acknowledged in congressional testimony a 40% cost overrun in CEDCaP and stated that the Census Bureau was seeking an extra $187 million for the census in FY2018.123

Continuing Appropriations Acts, 2018

Final FY2018 CJS appropriations legislation was not enacted by the end of FY2017. Four short-term continuing appropriations acts funded federal agencies from October 1, 2017, through February 8, 2018, except for an appropriations lapse that began on January 20, 2018, and ended on January 22, 2018.

  • H.R. 601, Continuing Appropriations Act, 2018, and Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Relief Requirements Act, 2017, was enacted on September 8, 2017, as P.L. 115-56. In general, Division D, Continuing Appropriations Act, 2018, Section 101, provided federal agencies with FY2018 funding at FY2017 appropriations levels, reduced by 0.6791%, through December 8, 2017. Division D, Section 118, however, allowed the Census Bureau to apportion the funds provided under Section 101 for Periodic Censuses and Programs "up to the rate for operations necessary to maintain the schedule and deliver the required data according to statutory deadlines in the 2020 Decennial Census Program."
  • H.J.Res. 123, P.L. 115-90, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2018, and for Other Purposes, became law on December 8, 2017. Division A, Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2018, extended the provisions of P.L. 115-56, Division D, through December 22, 2017.
  • H.R. 1370, P.L. 115-96, An Act to Amend the Homeland Security Act of 2002, and for Other Purposes, was enacted on December 22, 2017. Division A, Further Additional Continuing Appropriations Act, 2018, extended the provisions of P.L. 115-56, Division D, through January 19, 2018.
  • H.R. 195, P.L. 115-120, Making Further Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2018, and for Other Purposes, became law on January 22, 2018. Division B, Extension of Continuing Appropriations Act, 2018, extended the provisions of P.L. 115-56, Division D, through February 8, 2018.

A fifth bill, H.R. 1892, P.L. 115-123, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, was signed into law on February 9, 2018. Division B, Supplemental Appropriations, Tax Relief, and Medicaid Changes Relating to Certain Disasters and Further Extension of Continuing Appropriations, extends the provisions of P.L. 115-56, Division D, through March 23, 2018, with an additional $182.0 million for the 2020 census.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Specialist in American National Government ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

For a summary of FY2018 CJS appropriations, see CRS Report R44877, Overview of FY2018 Appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS), by [author name scrubbed].

2.

The FY2018 budget justification for the Census Bureau is presented as a separate document.

3.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration/Bureau of Economic Analysis, Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2018, p. ESA-3.

4.

Ibid.

5.

Ibid., p. ESA-5.

6.

Ibid., p. ESA-3.

7.

Ibid., p. ESA-5.

8.

Ibid., p. ESA-3.

9.

Testimony of Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross, in U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2020 Census: Examining Cost Overruns, Information Security, and Accuracy, hearing, 115th Cong., 1st sess., October 31, 2017, at https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/hearings/2020-census-examining-cost-overruns-information-security-and-accuracy, p. 4.

10.

For BEA's statement of organization, see 45 Federal Register 85496, December 29, 1980.

11.

Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Statistical Programs of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2017, January 10, 2017, p. 5.

12.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration/Bureau of Economic Analysis, Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2018, p. ESA-3.

13.

Ibid.

14.

The Census Bureau was established as a permanent office on March 6, 1902. See 32 Stat. 51.

15.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration/Bureau of Economic Analysis, Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2018, p. ESA-9.

16.

Ibid., p. ESA-5.

17.

Ibid.

18.

Ibid., p. ESA-19.

19.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Department of Commerce Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 2018, p. 25.

20.

Joint explanatory statement to accompany the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017, H.R. 244, P.L. 115-31, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 163 (May 3, 2017), p. H3379.

21.

For an illustration of how fluctuating funding levels for the decennial census affected total Census Bureau and Commerce Department funding in FY2008 through FY2017 (building to a 2010 census peak in FY2010, dropping off sharply in FY2011, then rising again after FY2013, with increased preparations for the 2020 census), see CRS Report R44877, Overview of FY2018 Appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS), by [author name scrubbed], pp. 15-16.

22.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Department of Commerce Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 2018, p. 25.

23.

Joint explanatory statement to accompany the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017, H.R. 244, P.L. 115-31, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 163 (May 3, 2017), p. H3379. Under the FY2017 approved spend plan for the Census Bureau, Current Surveys and Programs received $257,075,000; the FY2018 request for this account is $11.1 million (4.3%) below the $257,075,000.

24.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Department of Commerce Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 2018, p. 25.

25.

Joint explanatory statement to accompany the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2017, H.R. 244, P.L. 115-31, Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 163 (May 3, 2017), p. H3379. The bureau's FY2017 approved spend plan provided $1,210,345,000 for Periodic Censuses and Programs; the FY2018 request for this account is $40,655,000 (3.4%) more than the $1,210,345,000.

26.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Department of Commerce Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 2018, p. 27.

27.

The $177.0 million is from the Census Bureau's FY2017 approved spend plan.

28.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-16.

29.

Ibid., p. CEN-17.

30.

U.S. Census Bureau, "Value of Construction Put in Place," at https://www.census.gov/econ/overview/co0300.html.

31.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-17.

32.

Ibid., pp. CEN-17 and CEN-18.

33.

Ibid., p. CEN-19.

34.

Ibid.

35.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Department of Commerce Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 2018, p. 27.

36.

The $80.0 million is from the Census Bureau's FY2017 approved spend plan.

37.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-24.

38.

U.S. Census Bureau, "About the Current Population Survey," at http://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/cps/about.html.

39.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-24.

40.

Ibid., p. CEN-25.

41.

As explained in U.S. Census Bureau, "Geographic Terms and Concepts," at http://www.census.gov/geo/reference/gtc/gtc_pr.html#municipio, "The primary legal divisions of Puerto Rico are termed 'municipios.' For data presentation purposes, the Census Bureau treats a municipio as the equivalent of a county in the United States."

42.

U.S. Census Bureau, "Population and Housing Unit Estimates," at https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/about.html.

43.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-26.

44.

Ibid.

45.

Ibid., pp. CEN-50 and CEN-78.

46.

U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 2, clause 3, as modified by Section 2 of the 14th Amendment.

47.

U.S. Census Bureau, "About the American Community Survey," at https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/about.html.

48.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-77. As discussed below, however, the Secretary of Commerce reported that the Commerce Department was working with House and Senate appropriators to direct an additional $187 million to the decennial census in FY2018. Testimony of Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, The 2020 Census, hearing, 115th Cong., 1st sess., October 12, 2017, p. 3, at https://oversight.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Written-SWLR-HOGR-Testimony-FINAL.pdf. See also Secretary Ross's related testimony, in U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2020 Census: Examining Cost Overruns, Information Security, and Accuracy, hearing, 115th Cong., 1st sess., October 31, 2017, pp. 2-3, at https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/hearings/2020-census-examining-cost-overruns-information-security-and-accuracy.

49.

The $767.3 million is from the Census Bureau's FY2017 approved spend plan.

50.

Testimony of then-Census Bureau Director John H. Thompson, in U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2020 Census: Challenges Facing the Bureau for a Modern, Cost-Effective Survey, hearing, 114th Cong., 1st sess., April 20, 2015, p. 1, at http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/hearings/2020-census-challenges-facing-the-bureau-for-a-modern-cost-effective-survey.

51.

U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2020 Census: Recommended Actions Need to Be Implemented before Potential Cost Savings Can Be Realized, GAO-15-546T, April 20, 2015, p. 2.

52.

Ibid., p. 1.

53.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-82.

54.

Ibid., p. CEN-83.

55.

Ibid., p. CEN-84.

56.

Ibid., p. CEN-85.

57.

Testimony of then-Census Bureau Director John H. Thompson, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Government Oversight and Reform, Subcommittee on Government Operations and Subcommittee on Information Technology, Preparing for the 2020 Census: Will the Technology Be Ready? hearing, 114th Cong., 1st sess., November 3, 2015, p. 2, at https://oversight.house.gov/hearing/preparing-for-the-2020-census-will-the-technology-be-ready/.

58.

Ibid.

59.

Testimony of Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, The 2020 Census, hearing, 115th Cong., 1st sess., October 12, 2017, p. 3, at https://oversight.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Written-SWLR-HOGR-Testimony-FINAL.pdf. See also Secretary Ross's related testimony, in U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2020 Census: Examining Cost Overruns, Information Security, and Accuracy, hearing, 115th Cong., 1st sess., October 31, 2017, pp. 2-3, at https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/hearings/2020-census-examining-cost-overruns-information-security-and-accuracy.

60.

U.S. Census Bureau, "Census Bureau Selects Sites for 2018 End-to-End Census Test in Preparation for 2020 Census," press release, July 22, 2016, at https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2016/cb16-126.html.

61.

In Census Bureau terminology, "group quarters" are places "where people live or stay, in a group living arrangement." These quarters are "owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents." Examples include "college residence halls, residential treatment centers, skilled nursing facilities, group homes, military barracks, correctional facilities, and workers' dormitories." U.S. Census Bureau, Glossary, "Group Quarters," at http://www.census.gov/glossary/#term_GroupQuartersGQ.

62.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-81.

63.

Ibid., p. CEN-87.

64.

Ibid., p. CEN-82.

65.

Ibid.

66.

Ibid., p. CEN-83.

67.

Ibid., p. CEN-86.

68.

U.S. Census Bureau, "Census Bureau Submits Subjects for 2020 Census to Congress," press release CB17-47.

69.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-84.

70.

For more information about the ACS and the long form, see CRS Report R41532, The American Community Survey: Development, Implementation, and Issues for Congress, by [author name scrubbed].

71.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-105.

72.

Ibid.

73.

Ibid.

74.

Ibid., p. CEN-77.

75.

The $221.6 million is from the Census Bureau's FY2017 approved spend plan.

76.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-108.

77.

Ibid.

78.

Ibid.

79.

U.S. Census Bureau, History, "Economic Census," at https://www.census.gov/history/www/programs/economic/economic_census.html.

80.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-60. Besides being conducted in the 50 states, the economic census takes place as the "Census of Island Areas," in Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Ibid., p. CEN-51.

81.

Ibid., p. CEN-50.

82.

Ibid.

83.

Ibid., p. CEN-49.

84.

This amount is from the Census Bureau's FY2017 approved spend plan.

85.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-52.

86.

Ibid.

87.

Ibid., p. CEN-60.

88.

Ibid., p. CEN-54.

89.

Ibid., p. CEN-51.

90.

Ibid., p. CEN-57.

91.

Ibid., p. CEN-66.

92.

Ibid., p. CEN-50.

93.

Ibid., p. CEN-66.

94.

Ibid.

95.

Ibid., p. CEN-49.

96.

This amount is from the Census Bureau's FY2017 approved spend plan.

97.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-67.

98.

Ibid.

99.

Ibid., p. CEN-68.

100.

Ibid., p. CEN-69.

101.

Ibid., p. CEN-123.

102.

Ibid., p. CEN-121.

103.

Ibid.

104.

Ibid., p. CEN-125.

105.

The $159.4 million is from the Census Bureau's FY2017 approved spend plan.

106.

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's Budget, Fiscal Year 2018, p. CEN-123.

107.

Ibid., p. CEN-121.

108.

U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2020 Census; Recommended Actions Need to Be Implemented before Potential Cost Savings Can Be Realized, GAO-15-546T, April 20, 2015, pp. 12 and 14.

109.

U.S. Government Accountability Office, High-Risk Series: An Update, GAO-15-290, February 2015, p. 41. See also CRS Report R40551, The 2010 Decennial Census: Background and Issues, by [author name scrubbed].

110.

U.S. Government Accountability Office, High-Risk Series: An Update, GAO-15-290, February 2015, p. 41; U.S. Government Accountability Office, High-Risk Series: Progress on Many High-Risk Areas, While Substantial Efforts Needed on Others, GAO-17-317, February 2017, p. 222.

111.

Testimony of Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, The 2020 Census, hearing, 115th Cong., 1st sess., October 12, 2017, p. 3, at https://oversight.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Written-SWLR-HOGR-Testimony-FINAL.pdf.

112.

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Appropriations, Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 2018, report to accompany H.R. 3267, 115th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 115-231 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2017), p. 7.

113.

Ibid.

114.

Ibid.

115.

Ibid.

116.

Ibid.

117.

Ibid., p. 126.

118.

U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Departments of Commerce and Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 2018, report to accompany S. 1662, 115th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 115-139 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2017), p. 15. As previously discussed, the Administration assumes termination of ESA in FY2018.

119.

The House-passed bill, which accepts the proposed termination of ESA, refers to BEA, not ESA.

120.

U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Departments of Commerce and Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 2018, report to accompany S. 1662, 115th Cong., 1st sess., S.Rept. 115-139 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2017), p. 17.

121.

Ibid.

122.

Ibid., p. 16.

123.

Testimony of Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross, in U.S. Congress, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, The 2020 Census, hearing, 115th Cong., 1st sess., October 12, 2017, p. 3, at https://oversight.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Written-SWLR-HOGR-Testimony-FINAL.pdf.