Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD): FY2017 Appropriations

The House and Senate Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD) Appropriations Subcommittees are charged with providing annual appropriations for the Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and related agencies. THUD programs receive both discretionary and mandatory budget authority; HUD’s budget generally accounts for the largest share of discretionary appropriations in the THUD bill, but when mandatory funding is taken into account, DOT’s budget is larger than HUD’s budget. Mandatory funding typically accounts for around half of the THUD appropriation.

The Obama Administration requested net budget authority of $134.5 billion (after scorekeeping adjustments) for FY2017, $20.6 billion (18%) over the FY2016 level. Most of this increase was for highway, transit, and passenger rail programs.

On May 19, 2016, the Senate approved $114.2 billion in net budget authority ($121.2 billion in new budget authority before scorekeeping adjustments), an increase of $244 million (less than 1%) over FY2016, for THUD for FY2017 as part of a substitute amendment to H.R. 2577 that incorporated both the Senate-reported THUD bill (S. 2844) and the Senate-reported Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies bill. On May 24, 2016, the House Committee on Appropriations ordered to be reported H.R. 5394, an FY2017 THUD bill recommending $115.9 billion in net budget authority ($120.8 billion in new budget authority before scorekeeping adjustments). Congress passed two continuing appropriations resolutions to fund THUD and other federal agencies in FY2017; the current funding bill runs through April 28, 2017. The House and Senate THUD bills expired with the end of the 114th Congress.

DOT: The Obama Administration requested a $96.9 billion budget for DOT for FY2017. That was about $22 billion more than FY2016, with significant increases requested for highway, transit, and rail programs. Both the Senate and House bills largely rejected the proposed increases and recommended $76.9 billion in new budget authority for DOT, $1.8 billion more than the comparable figure in FY2016. Both bills would increase funding for federal highway and transit programs and would fund new grant programs for intercity passenger rail.

HUD: The Obama Administration requested $39.6 billion in net new budget authority for HUD for FY2017, $1.3 billion more than FY2016. The Senate bill recommended $39.2 billion in net new budget authority, representing $1.5 billion more than FY2016 and $600 million more in savings from offsets. Most of the increase is to maintain current services in HUD’s primary rental assistance programs, the project-based Section 8 rental assistance program and Housing Choice Voucher program. The House committee bill also proposed increases relative to FY2016, but less than proposed by the Senate.

Related Agencies: The Obama Administration requested $350 million for the agencies in Title III (the Related Agencies). This was about $33 million less than the comparable figure for FY2016, as the request included funding for an agency that was not in the Related Agencies title in FY2016, the Surface Transportation Board. The major change in funding from FY2016 levels in the request was a cut of $35 million (20%) for the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation (NRC). The Senate bill recommended $339 million, cutting another $5 million from the NRC; the House committee bill recommended $343 million, funding NRC at the requested level.

FY2017 funding is being provided through April 28, 2017, at roughly FY2016 levels through a continuing resolution. According to press reports, the Trump Administration has recommended cuts for FY2017 of $2.7 billion from FY2016 levels for THUD, including eliminating the Essential Air Services and TIGER grant programs and reducing funding for New Starts in DOT, and reducing funding for Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) in HUD.

Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD): FY2017 Appropriations

Updated April 5, 2017 (R44500)
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Contents

Summary

The House and Senate Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD) Appropriations Subcommittees are charged with providing annual appropriations for the Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and related agencies. THUD programs receive both discretionary and mandatory budget authority; HUD's budget generally accounts for the largest share of discretionary appropriations in the THUD bill, but when mandatory funding is taken into account, DOT's budget is larger than HUD's budget. Mandatory funding typically accounts for around half of the THUD appropriation.

The Obama Administration requested net budget authority of $134.5 billion (after scorekeeping adjustments) for FY2017, $20.6 billion (18%) over the FY2016 level. Most of this increase was for highway, transit, and passenger rail programs.

On May 19, 2016, the Senate approved $114.2 billion in net budget authority ($121.2 billion in new budget authority before scorekeeping adjustments), an increase of $244 million (less than 1%) over FY2016, for THUD for FY2017 as part of a substitute amendment to H.R. 2577 that incorporated both the Senate-reported THUD bill (S. 2844) and the Senate-reported Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies bill. On May 24, 2016, the House Committee on Appropriations ordered to be reported H.R. 5394, an FY2017 THUD bill recommending $115.9 billion in net budget authority ($120.8 billion in new budget authority before scorekeeping adjustments). Congress passed two continuing appropriations resolutions to fund THUD and other federal agencies in FY2017; the current funding bill runs through April 28, 2017. The House and Senate THUD bills expired with the end of the 114th Congress.

DOT: The Obama Administration requested a $96.9 billion budget for DOT for FY2017. That was about $22 billion more than FY2016, with significant increases requested for highway, transit, and rail programs. Both the Senate and House bills largely rejected the proposed increases and recommended $76.9 billion in new budget authority for DOT, $1.8 billion more than the comparable figure in FY2016. Both bills would increase funding for federal highway and transit programs and would fund new grant programs for intercity passenger rail.

HUD: The Obama Administration requested $39.6 billion in net new budget authority for HUD for FY2017, $1.3 billion more than FY2016. The Senate bill recommended $39.2 billion in net new budget authority, representing $1.5 billion more than FY2016 and $600 million more in savings from offsets. Most of the increase is to maintain current services in HUD's primary rental assistance programs, the project-based Section 8 rental assistance program and Housing Choice Voucher program. The House committee bill also proposed increases relative to FY2016, but less than proposed by the Senate.

Related Agencies: The Obama Administration requested $350 million for the agencies in Title III (the Related Agencies). This was about $33 million less than the comparable figure for FY2016, as the request included funding for an agency that was not in the Related Agencies title in FY2016, the Surface Transportation Board. The major change in funding from FY2016 levels in the request was a cut of $35 million (20%) for the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation (NRC). The Senate bill recommended $339 million, cutting another $5 million from the NRC; the House committee bill recommended $343 million, funding NRC at the requested level.

FY2017 funding is being provided through April 28, 2017, at roughly FY2016 levels through a continuing resolution. According to press reports, the Trump Administration has recommended cuts for FY2017 of $2.7 billion from FY2016 levels for THUD, including eliminating the Essential Air Services and TIGER grant programs and reducing funding for New Starts in DOT, and reducing funding for Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) in HUD.


Introduction to Transportation, HUD, and Related Agencies (THUD) Appropriations

The Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD) Appropriations Subcommittees are charged with drafting bills to provide annual appropriations for the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and six small related agencies.

Title I of the annual THUD appropriations bill funds DOT. The department is primarily a grant-making and regulatory organization. Its programs are organized roughly by mode of transportation, providing grants to state and local government agencies to support the construction of highways, transit, and intercity passenger rail infrastructure, while overseeing safety in the rail, public transportation, commercial trucking and intercity bus, and maritime industries. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is exceptional among DOT's large sub-agencies in that the largest portion of its budget is not for grants but for operating the U.S. air traffic control system. In support of that task, it employs over 80% of DOT's total workforce, roughly 46,000 of DOT's approximately 56,000 employees.

Title II of the annual THUD appropriations bill funds HUD. The department's programs are primarily designed to address housing problems faced by households with very low incomes or other special housing needs. These include several programs of rental assistance for persons who are poor, elderly, and/or have disabilities. Three rental assistance programs—Public Housing, Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers, and Section 8 project-based rental assistance—account for the majority of the department's funding. Two flexible block grant programs—the HOME Investment Partnership Program and Community Development Block Grants (CDBG)—help communities finance a variety of housing and community development activities designed to serve low-income families. Other, more specialized grant programs help communities meet the needs of homeless persons, including those with AIDS. HUD's Federal Housing Administration (FHA) insures mortgages made by lenders to home buyers with low down payments and to developers of multifamily rental buildings containing relatively affordable units.

Title III of the THUD appropriations bill funds a collection of agencies involved in transportation or housing and community development. They include the Access Board, the Federal Maritime Commission, the National Transportation Safety Board, the Amtrak Office of Inspector General (IG), the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation (often referred to as NeighborWorks), the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness, and the costs associated with the government conservatorship and regulation of the housing-related government-sponsored enterprises, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The Surface Transportation Board, formerly an agency of DOT, was made independent of DOT in 2015 legislation, and now appears in Title III of the THUD bill.

Budget Concepts Relevant to THUD Appropriations

Most of the programs and activities in the THUD bill are funded through regular annual appropriations, also referred to as discretionary appropriations.1 This is the amount of new funding allocated each year by the appropriations committees. Appropriations are drawn from the general fund of the Treasury. For some accounts, the appropriations committees provide advance appropriations, or regular appropriations that are not available until the next fiscal year.

In some years, Congress will also provide emergency appropriations, usually in response to disasters. These funds are sometimes provided outside of the regular appropriations acts—often in emergency supplemental spending bills. Although emergency appropriations typically come from the general fund, they may not be included in the discretionary appropriation total reported for an agency.

Most of DOT's budget is in the form of contract authority. Contract authority is a form of mandatory budget authority based on federal trust fund resources, in contrast to discretionary budget authority, which is based on resources in the general fund. Contract authority controls spending from the Highway Trust Fund and the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. Total annual discretionary budget authority for THUD is typically around half of the total funding provided in the bill, with the remainder made up of DOT's mandatory contract authority.

Congressional appropriators are generally subject to limits on the amount of new nonemergency discretionary funding they can provide in a year. One way to stay within these limits is to appropriate no more than the allocated amount of discretionary funding in the regular annual appropriations act. Another way is to find ways to offset a higher level of discretionary funding. A portion of the cost of regular annual appropriations for the THUD bill is generally offset in two ways. The first is through rescissions, or cancellations of unobligated or recaptured balances from previous years' funding. The second is through offsetting receipts and collections, generally derived from fees collected by federal agencies.

THUD Funding Trends

Table 1 shows funding trends for DOT and HUD over the period FY2010-FY2016, omitting emergency funding and other supplemental funding. The purpose of Table 1 is to indicate trends in the funding for these agencies; thus emergency supplemental appropriations are not included in the figures.

Table 1. Funding Trends for Department of Transportation and Department of Housing and Urban Development, FY2010-FY2016

(in billions of current dollars)

Department

FY2010

FY2011

FY2012

FY2013a

FY2014

FY2015

FY2016

DOT

$75.7

$68.7

$71.6

$70.7

$71.2

$71.3

$75.0

HUD

$46.9

$41.1

$37.4

$33.5

$32.8

$36.9

$38.3

Source: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, Comparative Statement of Budget Authority tables from FY2010 through FY2017. Unless otherwise noted, amounts are reduced to reflect across-the-board rescissions.

a. FY2013 figures do not reflect $29 billion in emergency funding for recovery from Hurricane Sandy (P.L. 113-2) or reductions due to sequestration.


Status of the FY2017 THUD Appropriations Bill

Table 2 provides a timeline of legislative action on the FY2017 THUD appropriations bill.

Table 2. Status of FY2017 Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations

Bill

Subcommittee Markup

House Report

House Passage

Senate Report

Senate Passage

Conf. Report

Conference Approval

Public Law

 

House

Senate

 

 

 

 

 

House

Senate

 

S. 2844/ H.R. 2577

(114th)

 

4/19/2016 (voice vote)

 

 

4/21/2016
S.Rept. 114-243

5/19/2016 (89-8)

 

 

 

 

H.R. 5394

(114th)

5/18/2016 (voice vote)

 

5/24/2016

H.Rept. 114-606

 

 

 

 

 

Source: CRS Appropriations Status Table.

Note: By custom, appropriations bills originate in the House of Representatives. Since the House had not acted on FY2017 THUD appropriations as of May 12, the Senate added the text of Senate-reported S. 2844 to H.R. 2577 (which was originally the FY2016 THUD bill) as a substitute amendment. The new H.R. 2577 also contains the text of the Senate-reported FY2017 Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies bill.

FY2017 THUD Discretionary Funding Allocation

The annual budget resolution provides a budgetary framework within which Congress considers legislation affecting spending and revenue. It sets forth spending and revenue levels, including spending allocations to House and Senate committees. These levels are enforceable by a point of order. After the House and the Senate Appropriations Committees receive their discretionary spending allocations from the budget resolution (referred to as 302(a) allocations), they divide their allocations among their 12 subcommittees (referred to as the 302(b) allocations). Each subcommittee is responsible for one of the 12 regular appropriations bills. While a budget resolution and subcommittee allocations alone cannot be used to determine how much funding any individual account or program will receive, they do set the parameters within which decisions about funding for individual accounts and programs can be made.

The House and the Senate have not yet adopted a budget resolution for FY2017.2 In its absence, the Senate Budget Committee chair filed budgetary levels in the Congressional Record that are enforceable in the Senate as if they had been included in a budget resolution for FY2017.3 Based on these levels, the Senate Appropriations Committee reported their initial 302(b) suballocations on April 18, 2016. They included $56.474 billion for the THUD subcommittee, which is approximately $1 billion less than the comparable FY2016 level ($57.301 billion). In the absence of a budget resolution in the House, the House Appropriations Committee adopted "interim 302(b) suballocations" for the appropriations bills as they were marked up in full committee.4 These interim suballocations are not procedurally enforceable. A suballocation for the THUD subcommittee of $58.190 billion was included in H.Rept. 114-606.

Table 3 shows the discretionary funding provided for THUD in FY2016, the Obama Administration request for FY2017, and the amount allocated by the House and Senate Appropriations Committees to the THUD subcommittees. Table 4 lists the total funding provided for each of the titles in the bill for FY2016 and the amount requested for that title for FY2017.

As discussed earlier, much of the funding for this bill is in the form of contract authority, a type of mandatory budget authority. Thus the discretionary funding provided in the bill is only about half of the total funding provided in this bill.

Table 3. THUD FY2016 Discretionary Funding Appropriation, FY2017 302(b) Allocations, and FY2017 Discretionary Appropriation

(in billions of dollars)

FY2016 Enacted

FY2017

 

 

Budget Request

House 302(b)

Senate 302(b)

Enacted

$57.601

$52.0

$58.190

$56.474

 

Source: Figures are taken from the budget table in H.Rept. 114-129; House 302(b) from H.Rept. 114-118; Senate 302(b) from S.Rept. 114-55; and the budget table in S.Rept. 114-243.

Note: FY2016 enacted and FY2017 request and enacted are net of advance appropriations, rescissions, offsetting collections, and other adjustments. The FY2017 budget request proposed shifting several billion dollars from discretionary to mandatory funding, which had the effect of reducing the amount of discretionary funding requested.

FY2017 THUD Funding

Continuing Resolution

None of the FY2017 regular appropriations bills were enacted before the end of FY2016. Instead, Congress has approved two continuing resolutions to provide temporary funding. The first CR provided funding for most federal agencies through December 9, 2016 (P.L. 114-223); it also contained the Military Construction and Veterans Affairs Appropriations Act for all of FY2017. The second CR, which was enacted before expiration of the first, provides funding through April 28, 2017 (P.L. 114-254).

Under the terms of the CRs, funding for most programs, projects, and activities—including those administered by HUD—is continued at FY2016 levels, less an across-the-board reduction of 0.496% in the first CR and 0.1901% in the second CR. Additionally, the two CRs also provided appropriations for disaster relief grants through HUD's Community Development Block Grant program: P.L. 114-223 appropriated $500 million for grants for areas that experienced presidentially declared disasters that occurred prior to the law's enactment (including flooding in Louisiana); P.L. 114-254 appropriated $1.8 billion for areas that experienced presidentially declared disasters that occurred prior to the law's enactment (including flooding in South Carolina).

According to press reports,5 the Trump Administration has recommended cuts for FY2017 of $2.7 billion from FY2016 levels for THUD, including eliminating the Essential Air Services and TIGER grant programs and reducing funding for New Starts in DOT, and reducing funding for Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) in HUD.

For more information about the two CRs, see CRS Report R44653, Overview of Continuing Appropriations for FY2017 (H.R. 5325), coordinated by [author name scrubbed]; and CRS Report R44723, Overview of Further Continuing Appropriations for FY2017 (H.R. 2028), coordinated by [author name scrubbed].

As shown in Table 4, the Obama Administration's FY2017 budget requested $134.5 billion for the programs in the THUD bill, $20.5 billion more than the $114.0 provided in FY2016. Most of the requested increase was for additional highway, transit, and rail funding; the request for DOT was $22 billion over FY2016. The request for HUD was $1.3 billion more than provided in FY2016. According to press reports, the Trump Administration has requested a reduction of $2.7 billion from FY2016 funding levels, zeroing out the Essential Air Services program and the TIGER (National Infrastructure Improvements) grant program and cutting funding for the New Starts program in DOT, and reducing funding for the Community Development Block Grants program in HUD.

Table 4. Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations, FY2016-FY2017

(in millions of dollars)

Title

FY2016 Enacted

FY2017 Request

FY2017 House Committee

FY2017 Senate

FY2017 Enacted

Title I: Transportation

 

 

 

 

 

Title I Discretionary

18,648

11,995a

19,162

16,933

 

Title 1 Mandatory

56,355

82,510

57,725

57,725

 

Title I Total

75,003

94,505

76,882

74,659

 

Title II: Housing and Urban Development

38,311

39,647

38,695

39,201

 

Title III: Related Agencies

342

350

343

339

 

Title IV: General Provisions

300

-4

 

Total

$113,956

$134,502

$115,915

$114,197

 

Net Total Discretionary

$57,601

$51,992

$58,190

$56,474

 

Total Mandatory

$56,355

$82,510

$57,725

$57,725

 

Sources: Table prepared by CRS based on information in S.Rept. 114-243 and H.Rept. 114-606.

Note: Figures are net after rescissions, offsets, and other adjustments. Figures include advance appropriations provided in the bill, rather than advance appropriations that will become available in the fiscal year. The former are the amounts generally shown in committee press releases; the latter are the amounts against which the committee is generally "scored" for purposes of budget enforcement. Totals may not add up due to rounding and scorekeeping adjustments.

a. In FY2016 the Surface Transportation Board was funded under DOT in Title I at $31 million; starting in FY2017, the board is an independent agency funded under Title III.

The Senate-reported S. 2844 recommended $114.2 billion for THUD; after accounting for the differences in rescissions and offsetting receipts in FY2016, this represents an increase of less than 1% over FY2016 funding. This situation is explored further in the next section of this report and in Table 5. Currently, FY2017 funding is being provided through April 28, 2017, through a Continuing Appropriations Resolution (P.L. 114-254) at roughly the same level as in FY2016.

How Lower Budget Authority Becomes Greater Funding—The Impact of Offsets

In the case of the THUD bill, net discretionary budget authority (which is the level of funding measured against the 302(b) allocation) is not the same as the amount of new discretionary budget authority made available to THUD agencies, due to budgetary savings available from rescissions and offsets. Each dollar available to the subcommittees in rescissions and offsets enables the subcommittee to provide funding that does not count against the 302(b) level. As shown in Table 5, in FY2016, due to rescissions and offsets, the THUD subcommittees were able to provide $8.7 billion in discretionary appropriations to THUD agencies above the net discretionary budget authority level.

Table 5. Budget Adjustments in FY2016 and FY2017 THUD Appropriations Act

(in millions of dollars)

Components of THUD Budget Authority

FY2016 Enacted

FY2017 Senate

FY2017 House Comm.

New discretionary budget authority

 

 

 

New discretionary appropriations

$61,916

$63,519

$63,061

Advance Appropriation

4,400

4,400

4,400

Gross new discretionary budget authority

66,316

67,919

67,461

Minus Savings

 

 

 

Rescissions of prior-year funding and contract authority

-61

-2,211

-36

Offsetting collections and receipts

-8,655

-9,234

-9,235

Total Savings (subtracted from new budget authority)

-8,716

-11,445

-9,736

Net Total Discretionary Budget Authority

$57,601

$56,474

$57,725

Source: Table prepared by CRS based on Comparative Statement of New Budget (Obligational) Authority for Fiscal Year 2017, S.Rept. 114-243, and H.Rept. 114-606.

Note: The FY2016 act included $300 million in emergency funding, which is counted as discretionary funding.

The amount of these "budget savings" can vary from year to year, meaning that the "cost" in terms of 302(b) allocation of providing the appropriation may vary as well. With $2.15 billion more in rescissions and $579 million more in offsetting receipts and collections in FY2017 compared to FY2016, the Senate Committee on Appropriations was able to recommend $1.9 billion more discretionary funding for THUD for FY2017, even though the committee had given THUD a discretionary allocation that was $1.1 billion less than in FY2016.

Detailed Tables and Selected Key Issues

Title I: Department of Transportation

Table 6 presents FY2017 appropriations totals and selected accounts for DOT, compared to FY2016 enacted levels. A brief summary of key highlights follows the table. For an expanded discussion, see CRS Report R44499, Department of Transportation (DOT): FY2017 Appropriations, by [author name scrubbed].

Table 6. Department of Transportation FY2016-FY2017 Selected Budget Details

(in millions of current dollars)

Department of Transportation Selected Account

FY2016 Enacted

FY2017 Request

FY2017 House Comm.

FY2017 Senate

FY2017 Enacted

Office of the Secretary (OST)

 

 

 

 

 

Payments to air carriers (Essential Air Service)a

$175

$150

$150

$150

 

National infrastructure investments (TIGER)

500

1,250

450

525

 

Total, OST

832

1,604

774

854

 

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

Operations

9,910

9,994

9,994

10,048

 

Facilities & equipment

2,855

2,838

2,838

2,838

 

Research, engineering, & development

166

168

168

176

 

Grants-in-aid for airports (Airport Improvement Program) (limitation on obligations)

3,350

2,900

3,350

3,350

 

Total, FAA

16,281

15,900

16,350

16,412

 

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)

 

 

 

 

 

Total, FHWA (Federal-aid highways: limitation on obligations + exempt contract authority)

43,100

51,505

44,005

44,005

 

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)

 

 

 

 

 

Motor carrier safety operations and programs

267

277

277

277

 

Motor carrier safety grants to states

313

367

367

367

 

Total, FMCSA

580

794

644

644

 

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

 

 

 

 

 

Operations and research

296

396

333

306

 

Highway traffic safety grants to states (limitation on obligations)

573

585

585

585

 

Total, NHTSA

869

1,181

918

891

 

Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)

 

 

 

 

 

Safety and operations

199

213

207

209

 

Research and development

39

53

43

40

 

Railroad safety grants

50

 

Amtrak

 

 

 

 

 

Amtrak operating grants

250

 

Amtrak capital and debt service grants

1,140

 

Current passenger rail service

2,300

 

Northeast Corridor Grants

420

345

 

National Network

1,000

1,075

 

Total Amtrak grants

1,390

2,300

1,420

1,420

 

Intercity Passenger Rail

Rail Service Improvement Program

3,700

 

Consolidated Rail infrastructure and safety improvements

25

50

 

Federal-state partnership for State of Good Repair

25

20

 

Restoration and enhancement grants

15

 

Total, FRA

1,678

6,267

1,720

1,754

 

Federal Transit Administration (FTA)

 

 

 

 

 

Formula grants (M)

9,348

9,734

9,734

9,734

 

Capital investment grants (New Starts)

2,177

3,500

2,500

2,338

 

Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority

150

150

150

150

 

Total, FTA

11,783

19,769

12,500

12,332

 

Maritime Administration (MARAD)

 

 

 

 

 

Assistance to small shipyards

5

10

 

Total, MARAD

399

428

483

485

 

Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA)

 

 

 

 

 

Subtotal

223

267

228

231

 

Offsetting user fees

-125

-155

-128

-130

 

Emergency preparedness grants (M)

29

28

28

28

 

Total, PHMSA

99

111

100

101

 

Office of Inspector General

87

90

90

94

 

Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation

28

36

36

36

 

DOT Totalsb

 

 

 

 

 

Appropriation (discretionary funding)

18,696

14,436

19,162

19,144

 

Limitations on obligations (M)

56,355

82,510

57,725

57,725

 

New funding before adjustments

75,051

96,946

76,887

76,869

 

Rescissions of discretionary funding

-47

-5

-5

 

Rescissions of contract authority

-2,436

-2,211

 

Net new discretionary funding

$18,648

$24,008

$19,157

$16,933

 

Net new budget authority

$75,003

$94,505

$76,882

$74,659

 

Sources: Table prepared by CRS based on information in S.Rept. 114-243 and H.Rept. 114-606.

Notes: "M" stands for mandatory budget authority. Line items may not add up to the subtotals due to omission of some accounts. Subtotals and totals may differ from those in the source documents due to treatment of rescissions, offsetting collections, and other adjustments. The figures in this table reflect new budget authority made available for the fiscal year. For budgetary calculation purposes, the source documents may subtract rescissions of prior-year funding or contract authority, or offsetting collections, in calculating subtotals and totals.

a. The Essential Air Service (EAS) program receives an additional amount of mandatory budget authority; for FY2017 that additional amount is $104 million, for a total of $254 million.

b. The FY2016 totals include $31 million for the Surface Transportation Board, which was made an independent agency beginning in FY2017; its funding will henceforth be provided in Title III, Related Agencies.

DOT in Brief

Trump Administration Budget

According to press reports, the Trump Administration has requested a $1 billion reduction in DOT from FY2016 levels: zeroing out the Essential Air Services program (-$150 million) and the TIGER (National Infrastructure Investments) grant program (-$500 million), and reducing funding for the transit New Starts program by $400 million.

Senate Action

For DOT, the Senate bill included the following:

  • $76.9 billion in new budgetary resources, $1.8 billion (2%) above the comparable FY2016 figure and $20 billion below the Administration request (for budget scoring purposes, a rescission of $2.2 billion reduces the net total to $74.7 billion). On an inflation-adjusted basis, this would be the largest DOT appropriation since FY2011.
  • Increases in funding for the federal-aid highway program ($905 million) and the federal public transportation program ($575 million).
  • $85 million for new intercity rail grant programs, in addition to $1.42 billion for Amtrak, $30 million (2%) more than Amtrak received in FY2016.

House Action

The House Committee on Appropriations recommended the following:

  • The same amount of new budgetary resources as the Senate bill (unlike the Senate bill, there is no rescission of contract authority in the House-recommended bill, so the net total is larger than in the Senate bill).
  • Increases in funding for the federal-aid highway program ($905 million) and the federal public transportation program ($743 million).
  • $50 million for new intercity rail grant programs, in addition to $1.42 billion for Amtrak, $30 million (2%) more than Amtrak received in FY2016.

Obama Administration Budget

The Obama Administration's budget proposal for DOT included the following:

  • A request for $96.9 billion in budgetary resources, an increase of 29% over the amount provided for FY2016 (for budget scoring purposes, a rescission of $2.4 billion reduces the net total requested to $94.5 billion).
  • $1.25 billion for National Infrastructure Investment (TIGER grants), a 150% increase in funding over FY2016.
  • $51.5 billion for federal-aid highways, a 20% increase in funding over FY2016.
  • $19.8 billion for public transportation, a 68% increase in funding over FY2016.
  • $1.9 billion for Amtrak, a 37% increase in funding over FY2016, plus $4.1 billion for other programs to develop intercity passenger rail service.

Title II: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

Table 7 presents account-level funding information for HUD, comparing FY2016 with the FY2017 Obama Administration budget request and congressional action. It is followed by a brief summary of key highlights. For an expanded discussion, see CRS Report R44495, Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): FY2017 Appropriations, coordinated by [author name scrubbed].

Table 7. HUD FY2016-FY2017 Detailed Appropriations

(in billions of dollars)

Accounts

FY2016 Enacted

FY2017 Request

FY2017 House Comm.

FY2017 Senate

FY2017 Enacted

Appropriations

 

 

 

 

 

Salaries and Expenses (Mgmt. & Adm.)

1.360

1.365

1.345

1.365

 

Tenant-Based Rental Assistance (Sec. 8 vouchers)a

19.629

20.854

20.189

20.432

 

Rental Assistance Demonstration

0.000

0.050

0.000

0.004

 

Public housing capital fund

1.900

1.865

1.900

1.925

 

Public housing operating fund

4.500

4.569

4.500

4.675

 

Choice Neighborhoods

0.125

0.200

0.100

0.080

 

Family Self Sufficiency

0.075

0.075

0.075

0.075

 

Native American housing block grants

0.650

0.700

0.655

0.714b

 

Indian housing loan guarantee

0.008

0.006

0.006

0.007

 

Native Hawaiian block grant

0.000

0.001

0.000

0.005

 

Native Hawaiian loan guarantee

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

 

Housing, persons with AIDS (HOPWA)

0.335

0.335

0.335

0.335

 

Community Development Fund (Including CDBG)

3.060

2.880

3.060

3.000c

 

HOME Investment Partnerships

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

 

Self-Help Homeownershipd

0.056

0.000

0.050

0.054

 

Homeless Assistance Grants

2.250

2.664

2.487

2.330

 

Project-Based Rental Assistance (Sec. 8)e

10.620

10.816

10.901

10.901

 

Housing for the Elderly

0.433

0.505

0.505

0.505

 

Housing for Persons with Disabilities

0.151

0.154

0.154

0.154

 

Housing Counseling Assistancef

0.047

0.047

0.055

0.047

 

Manufactured Housing Fees Trust Fundg

0.011

0.012

0.012

0.011

 

Rental Housing Assistanceh

0.030

0.020

0.020

0.020

 

Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Expensesg

0.130

0.160

0.130

0.130

 

Government National Mortgage Assn. (GNMA) Expensesg

0.024

0.024

0.024

0.024

 

Research and technology

0.085

0.065

0.080

0.090

 

Fair housing activities

0.065

0.070

0.065

0.065

 

Office, lead hazard control

0.110

0.110

0.130

0.135

 

Information Technology Fund

0.250

0.286

0.100i

0.273

 

Inspector General

0.126

0.129

0.128

0.129

 

Gross Appropriations Subtotal

46.978

48.911

47.955

48.434

 

Rescissions

 

 

 

 

 

Administrative Provisions

-0.014j

0.000

-0.027k

0.000

 

Rescissions Subtotal

-0.014

0.000

-0.027

0.000

 

Offsetting Collections and Receipts

 

 

 

 

 

Manufactured Housing Fees Trust Fund

-0.011

-0.012

-0.012

-0.011

 

FHA

-7.757

-8.028

-7.998

-7.998

 

GNMA

-0.886

-1.224

-1.224

-1.224

 

Offsets Subtotal

-8.654

-9.264

-9.234

-9.233

 

Total Budget Authority

38.311

39.647

38.695

39.201

 

Disaster Relief Funding

0.300l

0.000

0.000

0.000

 

Total w/ Disaster Funding

38.611

39.647

38.695

39.201

 

Source: Table prepared by CRS based on the Comparative Statement of New Budget (Obligational) Authority as published in S.Rept. 114-243, beginning on p. 167; and H.Rept. 114-606, beginning on p. 153.

a. The Section 8 tenant-based rental assistance account includes both current-year and advance appropriations. Typically, Congress appropriates about $4 billion for tenant-based rental assistance for the subsequent fiscal year in addition to funds for the current year.

b. The Senate-passed bill would create a new Indian Block Grants account that would include (1) the programs currently funded in the Native American Housing Block Grant account and (2) the Indian Community Development Block Grant, which is currently funded in the Community Development Fund account. The amount in the table reflects the total amount that would be provided for this new account.

c. Funding for the Indian Community Development Block Grant, which is usually provided in the Community Development Fund account, is included in a new Indian Block Grants account in the Senate-passed bill.

d. The Self-Help and Assisted Homeownership Opportunity Program account provides funds for both the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) and certain capacity building activities. The President's budget proposed funding SHOP as a set-aside within the HOME account and capacity building activities within the Research and Technology account, rather than within their own account.

e. The Section 8 project-based rental assistance account includes both current-year and advance appropriations. Typically, Congress appropriates about $400 million for project-based rental assistance for the subsequent fiscal year in addition to funds for the current year.

f. In addition to HUD's housing counseling assistance program, in recent years Congress has provided funding specifically for foreclosure mitigation counseling known as the National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program (NFMCP), administered by the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation (also known as NeighborWorks America). NeighborWorks is not part of HUD, but is usually funded as a related agency in the annual HUD appropriations laws. The President's budget did not request funding for the NFMCP in FY2017, and neither the House committee-passed bill nor the Senate-passed bill would provide funding for the NFMCP.

g. Some or all of the cost of funding these accounts is offset by the collection of fees or other receipts, shown later in this table.

h. The Rental Housing Assistance account is used to provide supplemental funding to some older HUD rent-assisted properties and, when funding is provided, it is typically offset by recaptures. Funding is not requested in this account every year.

i. H.Rept. 114-606, on p. 95, notes that maintenance of basic IT-related systems and activities at HUD requires at least $250 million and states that "prior to enactment, the Committee will work to identify sources of funds to maintain and upgrade the Department's systems."

j. Section 233 of the General Provisions included a rescission of $7 million in unobligated balances from the Neighborhood Stabilization Program and a rescission from FHA's General and Special Risk Program account.

k. Section 237 of the General Provisions includes rescissions of unobligated balances from HUD's Management and Administration and Salaries and Expenses accounts, as well as unobligated balanced available from certain HUD recaptures.

l. Section 420 of the General Provisions included $300 million in disaster recovery assistance for states and communities impacted by Hurricane Joaquin and Hurricane Patricia and other storms and flooding events occurring in 2015. This amount was provided as "disaster relief" funding, and is thus effectively exempt from the statutory limits on discretionary spending that apply to the remainder of HUD funding in the bill.

HUD in Brief

Trump Administration Budget

According to press reports, the Trump Administration has recommended a $1.5 billion reduction in funding from the FY2016 level for the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program.

House Action

H.R. 5394, as reported by the House Appropriations Committee, would provide the following for HUD:

  • $47.95 billion in gross appropriations, which is approximately $1 billion more in appropriations than was provided in FY2016 but about $1 billion less than was requested by the Obama Administration.
  • $38.7 billion in net budget authority, reflecting savings from offsets and other sources, which is about $84 million more than FY2016.
  • Level funding for Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) relative to FY2016, which is a $200 million increase over the Obama Administration's requested funding level.
  • Funding increases, to cover the cost of renewing subsidies in the Section 8 tenant-based (Housing Choice Voucher) and project-based rental assistance accounts (+$560 million and +$281 million relative to FY2016). No funding for new incremental vouchers.

Senate Action

For HUD the Senate bill (the substitute amendment to H.R. 2577, as passed by the Senate) would provide the following:

  • $48.4 billion in gross appropriations, which is approximately $1.5 billion more in appropriations than was provided in FY2016 but about $500 million less than was requested by the Obama Administration.
  • $39.2 billion in net budget authority, reflecting savings from offsets and other sources, which is $890 million more than FY2016 ($1.5 billion more in appropriations and $610 million more in savings from offsets, excluding disaster funding).
  • Level funding for Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) relative to FY2016, which is a $200 million increase over the Obama Administration's requested funding level.
  • Funding increases, largely to cover the cost of renewing subsidies in the Section 8 tenant-based (Housing Choice Voucher) and project-based rental assistance accounts (+$800 million and +$281 million relative to FY2016). Proposes funding for new incremental vouchers for youth aging out of foster care and homeless veterans.

Obama Administration's Budget

The Obama Administration's FY2017 budget request for HUD included the following:

  • $48.9 billion in gross appropriations, which is $1.9 billion more in gross appropriations than was provided in FY2016, excluding disaster funding.
  • $39.7 billion in net budget authority, reflecting savings from offsets and other sources, which is $1.3 billion more than FY2016 ($1.9 billion more in appropriations and $600 million more in savings available from offsets).
  • Increases in funding for most HUD programs, including funding for new incremental Section 8 Housing Choice vouchers.
  • A 7% funding cut for CDBG, with a proposal to revisit the way funding is distributed to communities.

Title III: Related Agencies

Table 8 shows appropriations levels for the various related agencies funded within the Transportation, HUD, and Related Agencies appropriations bill. The Surface Transportation Board was transferred from the DOT title to the Related Agencies title starting with FY2017.

Table 8. Appropriations for Related Agencies, FY2016-FY2017

(in millions of dollars)

Related Agencies

FY2016
Enacted

FY2017 Request

FY2017 House

FY2017 Senate

FY2017 Enacted

Access Board

$8

$8

$8

$8

 

Federal Maritime Commission

26

27

27

27

 

National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) Office of Inspector General

24

23

23

23

 

National Transportation Safety Board

105

106

106

106

 

Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation (NeighborWorks)

175

140

140

135

 

Surface Transportation Board

a

42

36

37

 

Offsetting Collections

-1

-1

-1

-1

 

U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness

4

4

2

4

 

Total

$342

$350

$343

$339

 

Source: Table prepared by CRS based on the Comparative Statement of New Budget (Obligational) Authority as published in S.Rept. 114-243, beginning on p. 167; and H.Rept. 114-606, beginning on p. 153.

Note: Totals may not add due to rounding.

a. The Surface Transportation Board was funded at $32 million in FY2016 (less $1 million in offsetting receipts) in the DOT title of the THUD appropriations act.

Related Agencies, In Brief

  • U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH). The House Appropriations Committee-passed bill would reduce funding for the USICH by $1.5 million, from $3.5 million in FY2016 to $2 million in FY2017. The law establishing the USICH provides that it will sunset on October 1, 2017. The committee report (H.Rept. 114-606) notes that funding is reduced in anticipation of the sunset date, states that funding could be better used to serve individuals experiencing homelessness directly, and encourages member agencies to establish working relationships that will extend beyond the USICH's sunset. The Obama Administration's budget requested that the sunset date be extended until October 1, 2020. The Senate Appropriations Committee-passed bill would extend the sunset date to October 1, 2018.
  • NeighborWorks America. Neither the House Committee-passed bill nor the Senate-passed bill would provide funding for foreclosure mitigation counseling administered by the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation, commonly known as NeighborWorks America. Funding for foreclosure mitigation counseling has been provided to NeighborWorks America in each year since FY2008; this funding was intended to be temporary, and both the House and Senate committee reports note that home foreclosure rates have been declining in recent years. The Obama Administration's budget also did not request funding for foreclosure mitigation counseling for NeighborWorks America for FY2017. Both the House Committee-passed bill and the Senate-passed bill (and the Obama Administration's budget request) would continue to provide funding to NeighborWorks America for broader community reinvestment activities, and would continue to provide other funding for housing counseling activities to HUD.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Specialist in Housing Policy ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])
[author name scrubbed], Analyst in Transportation Policy ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Key Policy Staff

Area of Expertise

Name

Transportation

 

General DOT funding, passenger rail, NHTSA, FMCSA, surface transportation safety and security

[email address scrubbed]

Aviation safety, aviation security, Federal Aviation Administration, National Transportation Safety Board

[email address scrubbed]

Federal Highway Administration, Highway and Airport and Airway Trust Funds, tolling

[email address scrubbed]

Federal Railroad Administration, freight transportation, Maritime Administration, Surface Transportation Board

[email address scrubbed]

Federal Transit Administration, surface transportation policy, private investment in infrastructure

[email address scrubbed]

Airport Improvement Program, Essential Air Service, airport and airline issues

[email address scrubbed]

Motor vehicle safety, electric and alternative-fuel vehicles and infrastructure

[email address scrubbed]

Housing and Urban Development

 

Public Housing, Section 8 rent assistance, (project-based and vouchers), general HUD funding

[email address scrubbed]

Community Development, including CDBG

[email address scrubbed]

FHA, HOME, Housing Counseling, NAHASDA

[email address scrubbed]

Section 202 and Section 811, homelessness assistance, including HOPWA

[email address scrubbed]

Related Agencies

 

Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation/NeighborWorks, FHFA

[email address scrubbed]

Interagency Council on Homelessness

[email address scrubbed]

U.S. Access Board

[email address scrubbed]

Amtrak IG

[email address scrubbed]

Federal Maritime Commission

[email address scrubbed]

Footnotes

1.

According to Congressional Quarterly's American Congressional Dictionary, discretionary appropriations are appropriations not mandated by existing law and therefore made available annually in appropriations bills in such amounts as Congress chooses. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 defines discretionary appropriations as budget authority provided in annual appropriations acts and the outlays derived from that authority, but it excludes appropriations for entitlements.

2.

For a discussion of budget enforcement mechanisms that may be adopted in the absence of a budget resolution, see CRS Report R44296, Deeming Resolutions: Budget Enforcement in the Absence of a Budget Resolution, by [author name scrubbed]; and CRS Report R43535, Provisions in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 as an Alternative to a Traditional Budget Resolution, by [author name scrubbed].

3.

The authority for these actions is provided by Section 102 of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-74). The levels were filed by the Senate Budget Committee chair on April 18, 2016 ("Allocation of Spending Authority to Senate Committee on Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2017," Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 162, no. 59 (April 18, 2016), p. S2121). No comparable authority for the House Budget Committee chair was provided by the Bipartisan Budget Act.

4.

These interim suballocations are available on the House Appropriations Committee website, at http://appropriations.house.gov/files/?CatagoryID=34785.

5.

Paul M. Krawzak and Kellie Mejdrich, "Details on Trump's Fiscal 2017 Budget Cuts," CQ News, March 27, 2017, http://www.cq.com/doc/news-5071248?8.