Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senate Committees, FY2001-FY2015

The level of pay for congressional staff is a source of recurring questions among Members of Congress, congressional staff, and the public. There may be interest in congressional pay data from multiple perspectives, including assessment of the costs of congressional operations; guidance in setting pay levels for staff in committee offices; or comparison of congressional staff pay levels with those of other federal government pay systems.

This report provides pay data for 13 staff position titles used in Senate committees. The positions include the following: Chief Clerk, Chief Counsel, Communications Director, Counsel, Legislative Assistant, Minority Chief Counsel, Minority Staff Director, Press Secretary, Professional Staff Member, Senior Counsel, Staff Assistant, Staff Director, and Systems Administrator.

Tables provide tabular pay data for each Senate committee staff position. Graphic displays are also included, providing representations of pay from three perspectives, including the following:

a line graph showing change in pay, depending on data availability;

a comparison at 5-, 10-, and 15-year intervals from FY2015, depending on data availability, of the cumulative percentage change of pay for that position, to the change in pay of Members of Congress and federal civilian workers paid under the General Schedule in Washington, DC, and surrounding areas; and

distributions of FY2015 pay, when available, in $10,000 increments.

In the past five years (FY2011 and FY2015), the change in median pay, in constant 2016 dollars, ranged from a 16.93% increase for professional staff members to a -16.48% decrease for staff assistants. Of the seven staff positions for which data were available in FY2011 and FY2015, two saw pay increases while five saw declines (data are not available in FY2011 or FY2015 for chief counsels, communications directors, legislative assistants, minority chief counsels, minority staff directors, and press secretaries). This may be compared to changes to the pay of Members of Congress, -5.10%, and General Schedule, DC, -3.19%, over approximately the same period (calendar years 2011-2015).

Pay data for staff working in House committee offices are available in CRS Report R44322, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Committees, 2001-2014. Data describing the pay of congressional staff working in the personal offices of Senators and Members of the House are available in CRS Report R44324, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, FY2001-FY2014, and CRS Report R44323, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2001-2014, respectively.

Information about the duration of staff employment is available in CRS Report R44683, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in House Committees, 2006-2016, CRS Report R44685, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in Senate Committees, 2006-2016, CRS Report R44682, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2006-2016, and CRS Report R44684, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in Senators’ Offices, 2006-2016.

Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senate Committees, FY2001-FY2015

November 9, 2016 (R44325)
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Contents

Summary

The level of pay for congressional staff is a source of recurring questions among Members of Congress, congressional staff, and the public. There may be interest in congressional pay data from multiple perspectives, including assessment of the costs of congressional operations; guidance in setting pay levels for staff in committee offices; or comparison of congressional staff pay levels with those of other federal government pay systems.

This report provides pay data for 13 staff position titles used in Senate committees. The positions include the following: Chief Clerk, Chief Counsel, Communications Director, Counsel, Legislative Assistant, Minority Chief Counsel, Minority Staff Director, Press Secretary, Professional Staff Member, Senior Counsel, Staff Assistant, Staff Director, and Systems Administrator.

Tables provide tabular pay data for each Senate committee staff position. Graphic displays are also included, providing representations of pay from three perspectives, including the following:

  • a line graph showing change in pay, depending on data availability;
  • a comparison at 5-, 10-, and 15-year intervals from FY2015, depending on data availability, of the cumulative percentage change of pay for that position, to the change in pay of Members of Congress and federal civilian workers paid under the General Schedule in Washington, DC, and surrounding areas; and
  • distributions of FY2015 pay, when available, in $10,000 increments.

In the past five years (FY2011 and FY2015), the change in median pay, in constant 2016 dollars, ranged from a 16.93% increase for professional staff members to a -16.48% decrease for staff assistants. Of the seven staff positions for which data were available in FY2011 and FY2015, two saw pay increases while five saw declines (data are not available in FY2011 or FY2015 for chief counsels, communications directors, legislative assistants, minority chief counsels, minority staff directors, and press secretaries). This may be compared to changes to the pay of Members of Congress, -5.10%, and General Schedule, DC, -3.19%, over approximately the same period (calendar years 2011-2015).

Pay data for staff working in House committee offices are available in CRS Report R44322, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Committees, 2001-2014. Data describing the pay of congressional staff working in the personal offices of Senators and Members of the House are available in CRS Report R44324, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators' Offices, FY2001-FY2014, and CRS Report R44323, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2001-2014, respectively.

Information about the duration of staff employment is available in CRS Report R44683, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in House Committees, 2006-2016, CRS Report R44685, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in Senate Committees, 2006-2016, CRS Report R44682, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2006-2016, and CRS Report R44684, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in Senators' Offices, 2006-2016.


Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senate Committees, FY2001-FY2015

Introduction

The level of pay for congressional staff is a source of recurring questions among Members of Congress, congressional staff, and the public. In Senate committees, the chair and ranking Member set the terms and conditions of employment for majority and minority staff, respectively. This includes job titles and descriptions; rates of pay, subject to minimum and maximum levels;1 and resources available to staff to carry out their official duties.2 There may be interest in congressional pay data from multiple perspectives, including assessment of the costs of congressional operations; guidance in setting pay levels for staff in committee offices; or comparison of congressional staff pay levels with those of other federal government pay systems.

Publicly available information sources do not provide aggregated congressional staff pay data in a readily retrievable form. Data in this report are based on official Senate reports, which afford the opportunity to use consistently collected data. Pay3 information in this report is based on the Senate's Report of the Secretary of the Senate, published semiannually, in periods from April 1 to September 30, and October 1 to March 31,4 as collected and organized by LegiStorm, a private entity that provides some congressional data by subscription.5 Additionally, this report provides annual data by fiscal year, which allows for observations about the nature of Senate committee staff compensation over time.

This report provides pay data for 13 staff position titles that are used in Senate committees, and for which sufficient data could be identified. Position titles and the years for which data are available since FY2001 are provided in Table 1. Titles were identified through a two-step process. The first step identified 302 job titles used in Senate committees in FY2014. Of those titles, 277, or 91.7%, were filled by only one staff member and excluded. In the second step, the remaining 25 titles were assessed to determine how many of the 20 Senate committees for which data were available6 employed staff with each title. Twelve position titles that were used by six or fewer panels (five for minority positions) were excluded.

Pay data were then collected for the remaining 13 positions. In order to be included, annual pay data for each position needed to be available from at least five committees (four for minority positions). When committees had more than one staff member with the same job title, data for no more than two staff per committee were collected.7 Senate committee staff had to hold a position with the same job title in the same committee for the entire fiscal year examined, and not receive pay from any other congressional employing authority for their data to be included. Every recorded payment ascribed in the LegiStorm data to those staff for the fiscal year is tabulated. Data collected for this report may differ from an employee's stated annual salary due to the inclusion of overtime, bonuses, or other payments8 in addition to base salary paid in the course of a year.

Table 1. Senate Committee Staff Positions and Availability of Pay Data Since FY2001

Position Title

Available data

Chief Clerk

FY2001-FY2015

Chief Counsel

FY2001-FY2010, FY2012-FY2015

Communications Director

FY2007-FY2013

Counsel

FY2001-FY2015

Legislative Assistant

FY2010, FY2012-FY2014

Minority Chief Counsel

FY2010-FY2012, FY2014

Minority Staff Director

FY2005-FY2014

Press Secretary

FY2009, FY2011-FY2014

Professional Staff Member

FY2001-FY2015

Senior Counsel

FY2005-FY2015

Staff Assistant

FY2001-FY2015

Staff Director

FY2001-FY2015

Systems Administrator

FY2001-FY2012, FY2014-FY2015

Source: CRS. Available data column provides years in which sufficient data (annual pay data for each position from at least five committees, four for minority positions), were available.

Pay data for staff working in House committee offices are available in CRS Report R44322, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Committees, 2001-2014. Data describing the pay of congressional staff working in the personal offices of Senators and Members of the House are available in CRS Report R44324, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senators' Offices, FY2001-FY2014, and CRS Report R44323, Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2001-2014, respectively.9

Data Concerns

Data presented here are subject to some challenges that could affect findings presented or their interpretation. Some of the concerns include the following:

  • Given the large number of positions with titles held by one Senate employee, data provided here almost certainly do not represent all of the jobs carried out by Senate committee staff.
  • The manner in which staff titles are assigned might have implications about the representativeness of the data provided. Of positions for which data were collected, two broad categories emerge. The first category identifies position titles that usually apply to one staff member per committee. 10 Since almost all available data were collected for those positions, pay information provided is likely to be highly representative of what Senate committees pay staff in those positions. The second category includes positions for which committees might hire two or more staff members,11 Since pay data were collected for no more than two staff per committee for each position, it is more likely that data for those positions is a sample of staff in those positions rather than nearly complete data, which may be less closely representative of what all staff in those positions are paid.
  • Pay data provide no insight into the education, work experience, position tenure, full- or part-time status of staff, or other potential explanations for levels of compensation.
  • Potential differences might exist in the job duties of positions with the same title. Aggregation of pay by job title rests on the assumption that staff with the same title carry out the same or similar tasks. Given the wide discretion congressional employing authorities have in setting the terms and conditions of employment, there may be differences in the duties of similarly titled staff that could have effects on their levels of pay. Acknowledging the imprecision inherent in congressional job titles, an older edition of the Senate Handbook states, "Throughout the Senate, individuals with the same job title perform vastly different duties."12

Data Tables and Visualizations

Tables in this section provide background information on Senate pay practices, comparative data for each position, and detailed data and visualizations for each position. Table 2 provides the maximum payable rates for Senate committee staff since 2001 in both nominal (current) and constant 2016 dollars.

Constant dollar calculations throughout the report are based on the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) for various years, expressed in constant, 2016 dollars.13

Table 3 provides the available cumulative percentage changes in median pay for each of the 13 positions, Members of Congress, and salaries paid under the General Schedule in Washington, DC, and surrounding areas.14 Table 4 - Table 16 provide tabular pay data for each Senate committee staff position. The numbers of staff whose data were counted are identified as observations in the data tables. Graphic displays are also included, providing representations of pay from three perspectives, including the following:

  • a line graph showing change in pay, depending on data availability, in nominal (current) and constant 2016 dollars;
  • a comparison at 5-, 10-, and 15-year intervals from FY2015,15 depending on data availability, of the cumulative percentage change of that position to changes in pay, in constant 2016 dollars, of Members of Congress and federal civilian workers paid under the General Schedule in Washington, DC, and surrounding areas;16 and
  • distributions of FY2015 pay, when available, in 2016 dollars, in $10,000 increments.

Between FY2011 and FY2015, the change in median17 pay, in constant 2016 dollars, ranged from a 16.93% increase for professional staff members to a -16.48% decrease for staff assistants. Of the seven staff positions for which data were available in FY2011 and FY2015,18 two positions saw pay increases while seven saw declines. This may be compared to changes to the pay of Members of Congress, -5.10%, and General Schedule, DC, -3.19%, over approximately the same period (calendar years 2011-2015).

Between FY2006 and FY2015, the change in median pay, in constant 2016 dollars, ranged from a 22.01% increase for senior counsels to a -26.72% decrease for staff assistants. Of the eight staff positions for which data were available in FY2006 and FY2015,19 four positions saw pay increases and four saw declines. This may be compared to changes to the pay of Members of Congress, -10.41%, and General Schedule, DC, -0.13%, over approximately the same period (calendar years 2006-2015).

Between FY2001 and FY2015, the change in median pay, in constant 2016 dollars, ranged from a 30.88% increase for systems administrators to a -26.67% decrease for staff assistants. Of seven staff positions for which data were available in FY2001 and FY2015,20 five positions saw pay increases while two saw declines. This may be compared to changes to the pay of Members of Congress, -10.40%, and General Schedule, DC, 7.36%, over approximately the same period (calendar years 2001-2015).

Table 2. Senate Committee Pay, Annual Maximums, 2001-2015

Year

Nominal $

Constant 2016 $

2001

$142,415

$192,017

2002

$147,315

$195,532

2003

$152,015

$197,274

2004

$155,415

$196,455

2005

$159,415

$194,907

2006

$162,515

$192,488

2007

$162,515

$187,158

2008

$166,615

$184,785

2009

$171,315

$190,675

2010

$171,315

$187,598

2011

$171,315

$181,858

2012

$171,315

$178,171

2013

$171,315

$175,599

2014

$171,315

$172,796

2015

$171,315

$172,591

Source: 2 U.S.C. 4571, 2 U.S.C. 4575, note, CRS calculations. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 3. Selected Senate Committee Staff Change in Pay, Selected Periods

 

Change
(Based on Constant, 2016 Dollars)

 

5 Years

FY11-15

10 Years

FY06-15

15 Years

FY01-15

Chief Clerk

-11.80%

4.77%

22.55%

Chief Counsel

-2.35%

20.05%

Communications Director

Counsel

0.87%

-4.59%

2.85%

Legislative Assistant

Minority Chief Counsel

Minority Staff Director

Press Secretary

Professional Staff Member

16.93%

5.03%

20.18%

Senior Counsel

-2.45%

22.01%

Staff Assistant

-16.48%

-26.72%

-26.67%

Staff Director

-5.01%

-8.63%

-3.52%

Systems Administrator

-7.82%

0.82%

30.88%

Members of Congress

-5.10%

-10.41%

-10.40%

General Schedule, DC

-3.19%

-0.13%

7.36%

Source: CRS calculations, based on data provided in Table 4-Table 16 for congressional positions, CRS Report 97-1011, Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables, by [author name scrubbed], for Members of Congress, and the Office of Personnel Management for federal civilian workers in the District of Columbia and surrounding areas, various years. "—" indicates no data available.

Notes: Insufficient data were available for communications directors for FY2014-FY2015. Between FY2007 and FY2013, change in pay for that position was 17.43%. Insufficient data were available for legislative assistants for FY2011 and FY2015. Between FY2010 and FY2014, change in pay for that position was -12.19%. Insufficient data were available for minority chief counsels for FY2015. Between FY2010 and FY2014, change in pay for that position was -2.84%. Insufficient data were available for minority staff directors for FY2015. Between FY2005 and FY2014, change in pay for that position was -8.52%. Insufficient data were available for press secretaries for FY2010 and FY2015. Between FY2009 and FY2014, change in pay for that position was 38.10%. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 4. Chief Clerk, FY2001-FY2015

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY01

12

13

 

$61,583

$80,403

$76,604

$103,271

 

$83,032

$108,407

$103,285

$139,240

FY02

15

18

 

$66,562

$88,542

$86,431

$113,739

 

$88,349

$117,522

$114,720

$150,966

FY03

14

15

 

$70,431

$94,909

$89,524

$135,000

 

$91,400

$123,167

$116,178

$175,193

FY04

16

18

 

$34,704

$97,442

$95,339

$149,295

 

$43,868

$123,173

$120,515

$188,719

FY05

13

15

 

$40,558

$100,062

$104,792

$142,402

 

$49,588

$122,340

$128,123

$174,106

FY06

13

14

 

$41,878

$100,753

$101,996

$146,260

 

$49,601

$119,335

$120,808

$173,235

FY07

12

13

 

$69,966

$114,958

$108,688

$162,515

 

$80,576

$132,390

$125,169

$187,157

FY08

14

14

 

$76,761

$113,709

$113,782

$162,473

 

$85,131

$126,109

$126,190

$180,191

FY09

17

18

 

$81,166

$126,366

$128,157

$168,757

 

$90,338

$140,646

$142,640

$187,829

FY10

18

19

 

$83,962

$134,475

$130,663

$171,000

 

$91,942

$147,256

$143,083

$187,253

FY11

17

18

 

$87,078

$138,801

$135,185

$171,000

 

$92,437

$147,343

$143,505

$181,524

FY12

17

18

 

$48,227

$132,908

$135,083

$171,000

 

$50,157

$138,226

$140,489

$177,843

FY13

12

12

 

$117,090

$139,721

$133,680

$171,000

 

$120,018

$143,215

$137,022

$175,276

FY14

13

14

 

$75,540

$126,002

$130,396

$171,000

 

$76,193

$127,091

$131,523

$172,478

FY15

13

13

 

$88,270

$127,237

$125,640

$171,000

 

$88,928

$128,185

$126,576

$172,273

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY11-FY15

-11.80%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Years, FY06-FY15

4.77%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 Years, FY01-FY15:

22.55%

Median Pay

Change in Pay

FY15 Distribution of Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 5. Chief Counsel, FY2001-FY2015

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY01

6

7

 

$84,486

$107,951

$101,201

$136,993

 

$113,912

$145,550

$136,448

$184,706

FY02

7

8

 

$61,650

$113,507

$122,944

$146,090

 

$81,828

$150,659

$163,185

$193,906

FY03

5

6

 

$90,508

$123,015

$123,692

$150,840

 

$117,455

$159,640

$160,519

$195,749

FY04

6

7

 

$120,165

$144,151

$152,992

$154,382

 

$151,896

$182,217

$193,392

$195,148

FY05

5

6

 

$91,457

$136,380

$145,667

$158,032

 

$111,820

$166,744

$178,099

$193,216

FY06

9

11

 

$79,000

$132,776

$141,617

$161,740

 

$93,570

$157,265

$167,736

$191,570

FY07

6

6

 

$88,208

$135,139

$139,245

$161,776

 

$101,583

$155,630

$160,359

$186,306

FY08

5

6

 

$102,844

$140,442

$146,107

$163,542

 

$114,059

$155,757

$162,040

$181,376

FY09

5

6

 

$115,811

$147,836

$151,134

$168,091

 

$128,899

$164,543

$168,214

$187,088

FY10

5

6

 

$104,500

$141,385

$141,350

$171,315

 

$114,433

$154,823

$154,786

$187,598

FY11

 

 

FY12

5

7

 

$82,588

$144,430

$156,360

$171,315

 

$85,893

$150,209

$162,617

$178,171

FY13

6

8

 

$117,667

$151,158

$157,650

$171,315

 

$120,609

$154,938

$161,592

$175,599

FY14

6

8

 

$56,250

$144,077

$157,255

$171,315

 

$56,736

$145,323

$158,615

$172,795

FY15

8

9

 

$103,000

$154,973

$162,590

$171,315

 

$103,767

$156,127

$163,800

$172,591

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

6 Years, FY10-FY15

5.82%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Years, FY06-FY15

-2.35%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 Years, FY01-FY15:

20.05%

Median Pay

Change in Pay

FY15 Distribution of Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. "—" indicates insufficient data were available. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 6. Communications Director, FY2007-F20Y13

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY07

9

10

 

$73,556

$107,862

$109,160

$134,132

 

$84,709

$124,218

$125,712

$154,471

FY08

9

12

 

$85,026

$119,613

$122,042

$145,043

 

$94,298

$132,657

$135,351

$160,860

FY09

7

7

 

$96,248

$131,961

$135,050

$158,855

 

$107,125

$146,874

$150,312

$176,807

FY10

7

9

 

$100,995

$139,589

$142,102

$163,230

 

$110,595

$152,857

$155,609

$178,745

FY11

5

5

 

$116,096

$128,866

$125,214

$153,024

 

$123,241

$136,796

$132,920

$162,441

FY12

7

8

 

$45,555

$122,498

$134,026

$171,000

 

$47,379

$127,400

$139,390

$177,843

FY13

5

5

 

$85,000

$139,038

$144,026

$171,000

 

$87,125

$142,515

$147,628

$175,276

FY14

 

 

FY15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

7 Years, FY07-FY13

17.43%

Median Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. "—" indicates insufficient data were available. Tabular change is based on median change in pay expressed in constant dollars for the period noted. In the visualization, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars is presented in blue. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 7. Counsel, FY2001-FY2015

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY01

11

15

 

$45,667

$82,655

$84,134

$113,854

 

$61,572

$111,443

$113,437

$153,508

FY02

15

23

 

$64,750

$88,242

$86,862

$133,302

 

$85,943

$117,124

$115,292

$176,933

FY03

12

18

 

$46,625

$94,565

$92,492

$144,254

 

$60,506

$122,719

$120,029

$187,202

FY04

14

22

 

$52,750

$96,079

$94,462

$149,251

 

$66,679

$121,450

$119,406

$188,663

FY05

11

17

 

$58,926

$100,903

$99,076

$158,248

 

$72,046

$123,369

$121,135

$193,481

FY06

11

17

 

$57,500

$107,137

$103,245

$161,611

 

$68,105

$126,897

$122,287

$191,417

FY07

10

17

 

$51,083

$108,590

$104,969

$151,620

 

$58,829

$125,056

$120,886

$174,611

FY08

11

19

 

$82,694

$120,259

$122,423

$155,544

 

$91,712

$133,373

$135,773

$172,506

FY09

13

19

 

$68,347

$118,728

$118,751

$168,189

 

$76,071

$132,146

$132,171

$187,196

FY10

14

24

 

$53,125

$115,834

$124,146

$161,504

 

$58,174

$126,843

$135,946

$176,855

FY11

12

21

 

$65,587

$115,139

$108,961

$171,147

 

$69,623

$122,225

$115,666

$181,679

FY12

14

23

 

$62,167

$112,031

$107,330

$157,000

 

$64,654

$116,514

$111,625

$163,283

FY13

11

17

 

$53,000

$113,373

$105,000

$160,300

 

$54,325

$116,208

$107,625

$164,308

FY14

14

22

 

$53,000

$103,676

$101,875

$148,087

 

$53,458

$104,572

$102,755

$149,367

FY15

10

15

 

$63,425

$110,316

$115,812

$161,667

 

$63,897

$111,138

$116,675

$162,871

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY11-FY15

0.87%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Years, FY06-FY15

-4.59%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 Years, FY01-FY15:

2.85%

Median Pay

Change in Pay

FY15 Distribution of Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 8. Legislative Assistant, FY2010-FY2014

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY10

5

9

 

$44,000

$54,821

$52,795

$75,698

 

$48,182

$60,032

$57,813

$82,892

FY11

 

 

FY12

6

10

 

$44,167

$51,990

$49,285

$69,091

 

$45,934

$54,071

$51,258

$71,856

FY13

6

8

 

$34,500

$45,915

$46,186

$60,623

 

$35,363

$47,063

$47,341

$62,139

FY14

5

7

 

$38,262

$51,101

$50,333

$75,250

 

$38,593

$51,543

$50,768

$75,900

FY15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY10-FY14

-12.19%

Median Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. "—" indicates insufficient data were available. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 9. Minority Chief Counsel, FY2010-FY2014

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY10

4

4

 

$155,750

$160,401

$158,359

$169,136

 

$170,554

$175,647

$173,411

$185,213

FY11

5

5

 

$145,083

$161,337

$160,054

$171,187

 

$154,012

$171,266

$169,904

$181,722

FY12

4

4

 

$159,030

$164,649

$164,125

$171,315

 

$165,394

$171,238

$170,693

$178,171

FY13

 

 

FY14

5

6

 

$50,000

$142,659

$167,041

$171,315

 

$50,432

$143,892

$168,485

$172,795

FY15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY10-FY14

-2.84%

Median Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. "—" indicates insufficient data were available. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 10. Minority Staff Director, FY2005-FY2014

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY05

4

4

 

$153,248

$156,659

$157,487

$158,415

 

$187,368

$191,538

$192,550

$193,685

FY06

6

6

 

$142,577

$156,150

$158,976

$161,740

 

$168,874

$184,949

$188,297

$191,570

FY07

4

4

 

$146,354

$158,185

$161,936

$162,515

 

$168,546

$182,171

$186,491

$187,157

FY08

9

9

 

$86,829

$155,917

$165,419

$165,590

 

$96,298

$172,920

$183,458

$183,648

FY09

8

8

 

$164,496

$167,310

$167,489

$169,161

 

$183,086

$186,218

$186,417

$188,278

FY10

10

10

 

$98,583

$162,978

$170,947

$171,315

 

$107,953

$178,469

$187,195

$187,598

FY11

10

11

 

$103,750

$160,060

$170,900

$171,315

 

$110,135

$169,910

$181,417

$181,858

FY12

13

14

 

$125,000

$164,312

$171,315

$171,315

 

$130,002

$170,887

$178,171

$178,171

FY13

5

5

 

$143,497

$164,241

$168,276

$171,315

 

$147,085

$168,347

$172,484

$175,599

FY14

9

10

 

$90,500

$160,094

$169,785

$171,315

 

$91,282

$161,477

$171,252

$172,795

FY15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY10-FY14

-8.52%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Years, FY05-FY14

-11.06%

Median Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 11. Press Secretary, FY2009-FY2014

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY09

6

7

 

$45,070

$69,463

$63,500

$108,072

 

$50,163

$77,313

$70,676

$120,285

FY10

 

 

FY11

5

5

 

$55,263

$82,915

$86,500

$101,146

 

$58,664

$88,018

$91,823

$107,370

FY12

8

8

 

$61,333

$89,138

$86,275

$140,225

 

$63,788

$92,705

$89,728

$145,836

FY13

5

6

 

$48,833

$86,476

$87,000

$141,520

 

$50,054

$88,638

$89,175

$145,059

FY14

6

8

 

$51,049

$96,271

$96,768

$144,277

 

$51,490

$97,103

$97,605

$145,524

FY15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

6 Years, FY09-FY14

38.10%

Median Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. "—" indicates insufficient data were available. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 12. Professional Staff Member, FY2001-FY2015

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY01

12

20

 

$39,833

$77,309

$72,950

$132,792

 

$53,707

$104,234

$98,358

$179,041

FY02

17

29

 

$45,310

$77,372

$67,750

$142,500

 

$60,140

$102,696

$89,925

$189,141

FY03

16

27

 

$52,241

$84,021

$75,431

$130,622

 

$67,795

$109,037

$97,889

$169,512

FY04

18

32

 

$34,065

$85,743

$85,378

$134,736

 

$43,061

$108,385

$107,923

$170,315

FY05

16

29

 

$43,750

$90,783

$92,670

$146,717

 

$53,490

$110,995

$113,302

$179,382

FY06

17

31

 

$46,383

$90,325

$95,025

$132,982

 

$54,938

$106,984

$112,551

$157,508

FY07

18

34

 

$50,011

$88,776

$80,515

$154,750

 

$57,595

$102,238

$92,724

$178,215

FY08

19

35

 

$50,667

$93,804

$88,375

$160,473

 

$56,192

$104,034

$98,012

$177,973

FY09

17

29

 

$18,224

$101,308

$96,104

$169,161

 

$20,284

$112,756

$106,965

$188,278

FY10

18

34

 

$18,952

$94,800

$92,474

$169,839

 

$20,754

$103,811

$101,264

$185,982

FY11

17

31

 

$20,065

$97,814

$95,228

$171,184

 

$21,300

$103,834

$101,088

$181,719

FY12

19

33

 

$40,250

$97,808

$94,597

$168,500

 

$41,861

$101,722

$98,382

$175,243

FY13

14

25

 

$46,089

$102,714

$82,000

$170,837

 

$47,241

$105,282

$84,050

$175,109

FY14

15

26

 

$19,208

$96,447

$97,792

$165,659

 

$19,374

$97,281

$98,637

$167,090

FY15

13

23

 

$50,000

$103,805

$117,333

$141,513

 

$50,372

$104,578

$118,207

$142,567

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY11-FY15

16.93%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Years, FY06-FY15

5.03%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 Years, FY01-FY15:

20.18%

Median Pay

Change in Pay

FY15 Distribution of Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 13. Senior Counsel, FY2005-FY2015

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY05

5

6

 

$76,979

$112,844

$110,836

$139,937

 

$94,118

$137,968

$135,513

$171,093

FY06

5

8

 

$87,268

$104,884

$99,871

$143,270

 

$103,364

$124,229

$118,291

$169,694

FY07

6

7

 

$97,000

$125,969

$125,221

$162,515

 

$111,708

$145,070

$144,208

$187,157

FY08

6

8

 

$113,665

$131,615

$130,872

$151,715

 

$126,061

$145,968

$145,144

$168,260

FY09

8

13

 

$97,585

$131,288

$134,472

$158,651

 

$108,613

$146,125

$149,669

$176,581

FY10

5

9

 

$111,026

$139,345

$138,367

$165,567

 

$121,579

$152,589

$151,518

$181,304

FY11

6

10

 

$79,792

$131,807

$139,372

$171,315

 

$84,702

$139,919

$147,949

$181,858

FY12

7

12

 

$95,917

$130,086

$130,992

$165,070

 

$99,755

$135,292

$136,234

$171,676

FY13

7

11

 

$92,417

$130,145

$134,000

$167,320

 

$94,727

$133,399

$137,351

$171,504

FY14

8

12

 

$86,690

$133,079

$132,443

$170,650

 

$87,439

$134,229

$133,587

$172,125

FY15

8

12

 

$112,179

$136,273

$143,259

$159,458

 

$113,014

$137,288

$144,326

$160,646

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY11-FY15

-2.45%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Years, FY06-FY15

22.01%

Median Pay

Change in Pay

FY15 Distribution of Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 14. Staff Assistant, FY2001-2015

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY01

12

19

 

$25,750

$40,255

$37,480

$62,500

 

$34,718

$54,275

$50,533

$84,268

FY02

16

28

 

$15,017

$38,281

$34,275

$67,500

 

$19,931

$50,811

$45,493

$89,593

FY03

11

22

 

$15,875

$35,769

$33,648

$59,252

 

$20,601

$46,418

$43,666

$76,893

FY04

16

25

 

$24,374

$40,718

$36,510

$74,208

 

$30,811

$51,470

$46,151

$93,803

FY05

14

24

 

$27,031

$44,228

$38,210

$74,760

 

$33,049

$54,075

$46,717

$91,404

FY06

9

15

 

$20,379

$49,025

$42,693

$82,667

 

$24,138

$58,067

$50,567

$97,913

FY07

9

15

 

$20,379

$49,025

$42,693

$82,667

 

$23,469

$56,459

$49,167

$95,202

FY08

16

26

 

$18,057

$41,565

$36,767

$82,055

 

$20,026

$46,098

$40,777

$91,003

FY09

18

30

 

$29,405

$45,395

$39,156

$85,670

 

$32,728

$50,525

$43,582

$95,351

FY10

14

27

 

$30,250

$46,016

$41,237

$90,145

 

$33,125

$50,390

$45,156

$98,713

FY11

14

24

 

$32,169

$43,959

$41,793

$87,002

 

$34,148

$46,665

$44,365

$92,356

FY12

14

23

 

$26,081

$41,748

$38,543

$85,000

 

$27,125

$43,419

$40,085

$88,401

FY13

12

16

 

$32,750

$45,196

$40,455

$99,000

 

$33,569

$46,327

$41,466

$101,475

FY14

10

16

 

$30,081

$48,008

$40,174

$99,667

 

$30,341

$48,423

$40,521

$100,528

FY15

7

10

 

$31,458

$39,836

$36,780

$55,000

 

$31,692

$40,133

$37,054

$55,409

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY11-FY15

-16.48%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Years, FY06-FY15

-26.72%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 Years, FY01-FY15:

-26.67%

Median Pay

Change in Pay

FY15 Distribution of Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 15. Staff Director, FY2001-FY2015

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY01

7

7

 

$122,300

$132,763

$131,658

$141,465

 

$164,896

$179,003

$177,513

$190,735

FY02

12

15

 

$124,538

$141,015

$144,234

$146,090

 

$165,300

$187,169

$191,442

$193,906

FY03

8

10

 

$70,500

$135,431

$142,182

$150,840

 

$91,490

$175,753

$184,514

$195,749

FY04

10

13

 

$95,875

$145,224

$152,015

$154,565

 

$121,192

$183,573

$192,157

$195,380

FY05

7

10

 

$103,500

$148,838

$154,594

$158,415

 

$126,543

$181,976

$189,013

$193,685

FY06

11

16

 

$101,512

$146,915

$158,261

$161,740

 

$120,234

$174,011

$187,449

$191,570

FY07

13

15

 

$112,500

$151,560

$159,500

$162,515

 

$129,559

$174,542

$183,685

$187,157

FY08

12

14

 

$101,790

$148,983

$155,671

$165,590

 

$112,891

$165,230

$172,647

$183,648

FY09

6

6

 

$108,585

$154,373

$167,386

$169,161

 

$120,856

$171,819

$186,302

$188,278

FY10

11

12

 

$114,197

$163,801

$169,776

$171,315

 

$125,052

$179,370

$185,913

$187,598

FY11

11

12

 

$102,000

$160,654

$169,838

$171,315

 

$108,277

$170,541

$180,290

$181,858

FY12

14

15

 

$115,000

$163,053

$170,647

$171,315

 

$119,602

$169,578

$177,476

$178,171

FY13

7

8

 

$91,890

$159,899

$170,573

$171,315

 

$94,187

$163,897

$174,839

$175,599

FY14

12

14

 

$96,250

$153,548

$169,729

$171,315

 

$97,082

$154,875

$171,196

$172,795

FY15

8

11

 

$101,875

$154,371

$169,999

$171,315

 

$102,634

$155,520

$171,265

$172,591

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY11-FY15

-5.01%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Years, FY06-FY15

-8.63%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 Years, FY01-FY15:

-3.52%

Median Pay

Change in Pay

FY15 Distribution of Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Table 16. Systems Administrator, FY2001-FY2015

 

 

 

 

Nominal $

 

Constant $

Year

Committees

Observations

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

 

Minimum

Average

Median

Maximum

FY01

7

7

 

$37,766

$55,418

$53,000

$79,902

 

$50,920

$74,720

$71,459

$107,731

FY02

6

6

 

$41,866

$53,576

$55,982

$65,386

 

$55,569

$71,112

$74,306

$86,787

FY03

8

8

 

$46,175

$60,691

$59,910

$72,926

 

$59,922

$78,761

$77,747

$94,638

FY04

8

8

 

$57,215

$65,508

$64,965

$75,258

 

$72,323

$82,807

$82,120

$95,131

FY05

6

6

 

$66,000

$75,151

$74,667

$84,447

 

$80,694

$91,882

$91,291

$103,248

FY06

9

9

 

$61,917

$79,205

$78,318

$104,374

 

$73,336

$93,814

$92,762

$123,624

FY07

8

8

 

$70,677

$86,261

$85,579

$104,631

 

$81,394

$99,341

$98,556

$120,497

FY08

7

7

 

$66,755

$87,822

$86,062

$104,286

 

$74,035

$97,399

$95,447

$115,658

FY09

6

6

 

$70,344

$93,240

$94,181

$112,571

 

$78,294

$103,777

$104,825

$125,293

FY10

7

7

 

$75,788

$93,062

$92,375

$109,958

 

$82,992

$101,908

$101,155

$120,410

FY11

7

7

 

$79,802

$95,981

$95,578

$112,625

 

$84,713

$101,888

$101,460

$119,556

FY12

5

5

 

$75,802

$98,218

$97,083

$116,773

 

$78,835

$102,148

$100,968

$121,446

FY13

 

 

FY14

5

5

 

$77,563

$98,631

$103,212

$124,791

 

$78,233

$99,484

$104,104

$125,870

FY15

5

5

 

$79,635

$95,415

$92,833

$116,870

 

$80,228

$96,126

$93,525

$117,740

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change

5 Years, FY11-FY15

-7.82%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 Years, FY06-FY15

0.82%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 Years, FY01-FY15:

30.88%

Median Pay

Change in Pay

FY15 Distribution of Pay

Dollars in figures are in thousands.

Source: Report of the Secretary of the Senate, as collated by LegiStorm, various years, and CRS calculations. "—" indicates insufficient data were available. Tabular change is based on change in median pay expressed in constant dollars for the periods noted. In the visualizations, position pay information based on constant 2016 dollars in thousands of dollars, or change in those levels, is presented in blue. Change in Pay visualizations for General Schedule, Washington, DC, and Members of Congress are based on calendar year change calculated in constant, 2016 dollars; staff position is based on change by fiscal year. Detailed information about data sources is available above in "Data Tables and Visualizations."

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Coordinator, Specialist in American National Government ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])
[author name scrubbed], Research Assistant ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Acknowledgments

[author name scrubbed], Research Assistant, provided update support. Jacobo Licona, Brian Hamel, Joe Wisniewski and Claire Laurence, former CRS interns, collected data for this report. [author name scrubbed], Visual Information Specialist, created the visualizations for this report. Claudia Guidi and Sandra L. Edwards, User Support Specialists, and Alex Marine, Publications Editor, provided formatting and editorial support.

Footnotes

1.

Since 2014, the minimum level of gross pay has been $2,267 for Senate staff. The maximum annual pay for Senate committee staff has since 2009 been $171,315, 2 U.S.C. 4571, 2 U.S.C. 4575. Maximum payable rates for Senate committee staff since 2001 are available in Table 2.

2.

For discussion of resources available to committees, and their distribution, see CRS Report R43160, Senate Committee Funding: Description of Process and Analysis of Disbursements, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed]

3.

In this report, pay refers to monies paid by the Senate to staff, and excludes other components of total compensation, which might include paid leave or employer contributions to various insurance and retirement benefits.

4.

The Report of the Secretary of the Senate since April, 2011, is available at https://www.senate.gov/legislative/common/generic/report_secsen.htm.

5.

http://www.legistorm.com/.

6.

The Reports of the Secretary provided data for the following panels in FY2015: Aging; Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry; Appropriations; Armed Services; Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs; Budget; Commerce, Science and Transportation; Energy and Natural Resources; Environment and Public Works; Ethics; Finance; Foreign Relations; Health, Education, Labor and Pensions; Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs; Indian Affairs; Intelligence; Judiciary; Rules and Administration; Small Business and Entrepreneurship; and Veterans' Affairs.

7.

The numbers of staff whose data were counted are identified as observations in the data tables.

8.

Other forms of payment do not appear to be recorded in a consistent manner. Sometimes overtime and other pay is listed as separate entries and in other instances, significant one-time changes in a quarterly total may suggest payments in addition to regular salary.

9.

Information about the duration of staff employment is available in CRS Report R44683, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in House Committees, 2006-2016, CRS Report R44685, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in Senate Committees, 2006-2016, CRS Report R44682, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2006-2016, and CRS Report R44684, Staff Tenure in Selected Positions in Senators' Offices, 2006-2016.

10.

Positions that typically employ one staff member per committee include staff director and systems administrator.

11.

Positions that typically employ two or more staff members per committee include counsel, staff assistant, and professional staff member.

12.

U.S. Senate, Committee on Rules and Administration, Senate Handbook (Washington: 1996), pp. I-13, available from the authors.

13.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Price Index, at http://www.bls.gov/cpi/tables.htm.

14.

General Schedule pay change is based on changes in pay levels, and not the pay of individuals. General Schedule pay tables are available at https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/salaries-wages/2015/general-schedule/. For a complete description of areas covered under the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA locality pay table, see http://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/salaries-wages/2014/locality-pay-area-definitions/#w.

15.

5 years, FY2011-FY2015; 10 years, FY2006-FY2015; and 15 years, FY2001-FY2015.

16.

For a complete description of areas covered under the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA locality pay table, see http://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/salaries-wages/2014/locality-pay-area-definitions/#w.

17.

The median is the midpoint at which half of the numbers in a list are higher and the other half lower.

18.

Sufficient data are not available in FY2011 and FY2015 for chief counsels, communications directors, legislative assistants, minority chief counsels, minority staff directors, and press secretaries.

19.

Sufficient data are not available in FY2006 and FY2015 for communications directors, legislative assistants, minority chief counsels, minority staff directors, and press secretaries.

20.

Sufficient data are not available in FY 2001 and FY 2015 for communications directors, legislative assistants, minority chief counsels, minority staff directors, senior counsels, and press secretaries.