Federal Land Management Agencies: Appropriations and Revenues

Congressional Research Service

7-5700

www.crs.gov

R43822

Summary

A perennial focus for Congress is on appropriations for management of federal lands and resources. Issues include the purposes for which appropriations are used, factors influencing their distribution among states, and the extent to which appropriations are used on nonfederal lands. Congress also continues to be interested in the revenues derived from federal lands and resources. Questions relate to the amount of revenue generated on federal lands, the sources of revenue, and factors affecting the variation among states in the amount and type of revenue generated.

Approximately 95% of federal lands are managed by four agencies: the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS), and Forest Service (FS). Their FY2013 appropriations were $2,048.1 million for BLM, $2,591.6 million for FWS, $3,305.8 million for NPS, and $5,709.8 million for FS. Of these totals, FS received the largest discretionary appropriation ($4,934.7 million) while FWS had the highest mandatory appropriation ($1,053.1 million). The largest discretionary appropriation for FS was for Wildland Fire Management; for the other three agencies, it was the main operations account. The agencies have many sources of mandatory appropriations, some of which are common among them and across states (e.g., recreation fees) while others are unique to one agency or allocated to one state. Another distinction concerns the portion of appropriations used on lands not managed by the agencies, ranging from little in the case of BLM to roughly two-thirds for FWS.

Revenue collections during FY2013 differed among the agencies, with $18.9 million for FWS, $223.6 million for FS, $333.4 million for NPS, and $525.0 million for BLM. Depending on the agency and state, sources of revenue might include land sales, grazing, timber, hardrock minerals, recreation, and rights of way. Influencing the allocation of appropriations among states and the amount of revenue collected in each state were the acreage of federal land; land resources, conditions, availability, uses, and impacts; demographics; fire activity; and other factors.

BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS also receive federal lands highway funds from the Federal Highway Administration. A total of $573.8 million in highway funding for federal lands was distributed in FY2013, with almost half ($280.6 million) going to NPS and another two-fifths ($227.2 million) to state Programming Decisions Committees (bodies that make some project funding decisions). The remainder went to FWS ($36.5 million), FS ($19.8 million), and BLM ($9.6 million). Distributions among states ranged from less than $0.1 million to $86.5 million.

The Payments in Lieu of Taxes program and FS Payments to States program compensate local governments for the presence of federally owned land. PILT applies to many types of federal lands, and payments are calculated under a formula. The total PILT payment in FY2013 was $401.8 million, with state totals ranging from $0 to $41.4 million (for California). The FS Payments to States program—which includes Secure Rural Schools (SRS) payments—applies to counties with national forest lands and certain BLM forested lands. Payments are based on either historic or current revenue generated on the lands, and other considerations. FY2013 payments to states totaled $312.5 million, ranging from less than $0.1 million to $97.1 million (for Oregon).

The Department of the Interior’s Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) collects mineral leasing revenues from all federal onshore areas. Revenue is derived from many commodities, including coal, gas, hardrock minerals, oil, phosphate, sodium, and sulfur. For FY2013, ONRR reported $4,296.9 million from federal lands in 37 states, with revenues by state of less than $0.1 million to $1,998.9 million (for Wyoming).

Contents

Introduction 1

Organization of Report 2

Caveats 4

Overview 5

Bureau of Land Management 8

Appropriations 8

Discretionary Appropriations 9

Mandatory Appropriations 10

Discussion 10

Revenue 15

Fish and Wildlife Service 17

Appropriations 17

Discretionary Appropriations 18

Mandatory Appropriations 19

Discussion 19

Revenue 29

National Park Service 30

Appropriations 30

Discretionary Appropriations 31

Mandatory Appropriations 32

Discussion 33

Revenue 36

Forest Service 40

Appropriations 40

Discretionary Appropriations 41

Mandatory Appropriations 42

Discussion 42

Revenue 47

Distributions from Federal Highway Administration 52

Payment Programs 56

Payments in Lieu of Taxes 56

Forest Service Payments to States 59

Office of Natural Resources Revenue 62

Figures

Figure 1. Comparison of Appropriations by Agency, FY2013 6

Figure 2. Comparison of Revenues Collected by Agency, FY2013 7

Figure 3. Bureau of Land Management Appropriations by State, FY2013 12

Figure 4. Bureau of Land Management Revenue by Type, FY2013 17

Figure 5. Fish and Wildlife Service Revenue by Type, FY2013 30

Figure 6. National Park Service Revenue by Type, FY2013 40

Figure 7. Forest Service Appropriations for 12 Western States, FY2013 44

Figure 8. Forest Service Revenue by Type, FY2013 52

Figure 9. Federal Highway Administration Distributions for Federal Lands by Agency, FY2013 56

Figure 10. PILT and Forest Service Payments to States, FY2013 62

Figure 11. Office of Natural Resources Reported Revenue by State, FY2013 66

Tables

Table 1. Bureau of Land Management Appropriations by State, FY2013 11

Table 2. Bureau of Land Management Discretionary Appropriations by State, FY2013 13

Table 3. Bureau of Land Management Mandatory Appropriations by State, FY2013 14

Table 4. Bureau of Land Management Revenue by State, FY2013 16

Table 5. Fish and Wildlife Service Appropriations by State, FY2013 20

Table 6. Fish and Wildlife Service Discretionary Appropriations by State, FY2013 23

Table 7. Fish and Wildlife Service Mandatory Appropriations by State, FY2013 27

Table 8. National Park Service Discretionary Appropriations by State, FY2013 34

Table 9. National Park Service Revenue by State, FY2013 37

Table 10. National Forest System Units and Acreage in 12 Western States, 2013 40

Table 11. Forest Service Appropriations for 12 Western States, FY2013 43

Table 12. Percent of Forest Service Spending on Federal Lands and Nonfederal Lands in 12 Western States 44

Table 13. Forest Service Discretionary Appropriations for 12 Western States, FY2013 46

Table 14. Forest Service Mandatory Appropriations for 12 Western States, FY2013 47

Table 15. Forest Service Revenue by State, FY2013 49

Table 16. Federal Highway Administration Distributions for Federal Lands, by Agency and State, FY2013 54

Table 17. Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) by State, FY2013 57

Table 18. FS Revenue-Sharing and SRS Title I and Title II Payments by State, FY2013 59

Table 19. Office of Natural Resources Reported Revenues by State, FY2013 64

Appendixes

Appendix. Federal Acreage in Each State Administered by the Four Major Federal Land Management Agencies, 2013 67

Contacts

Author Contact Information 71

Key Policy Staff 71

Introduction

Two perennial issues for Congress are appropriations for management of federal lands and resources, and the revenues derived from these lands and resources. The focus of legislative action has been on the four major federal land management agencies: the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and National Park Service (NPS) in the Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Forest Service (FS) in the Department of Agriculture. In determining discretionary appropriations for these agencies, Congress establishes the level of funds for diverse programs, projects, and activities. Congress also has enacted legislation to provide mandatory appropriations for varied programs and purposes. Further, these agencies receive distributions of funding from other agencies for specific purposes.

How appropriations for federal land management are used throughout the states is of continuing interest to Congress. Questions relate to the amount of each agency’s appropriations used within a particular state, factors influencing the distribution of appropriations among states, the purposes for which appropriations are used, and the extent to which appropriations are used on federal versus nonfederal land in each state.

Other questions pertain to the revenues generated from federally managed lands. They include the amount of revenue generated on federal lands, the sources of revenue, and factors influencing the variation among states in the amount and type of revenue generated on federal lands.

In this context, this report provides information on appropriations and revenues related to federal lands in each state. It focuses on lands managed by the BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS, as these agencies administer approximately 95% of the roughly 640 million acres of federal land. In particular, this report provides state-by-state information in four areas:

appropriations for, and revenues collected by, the four agencies,

distributions of funds from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to the four agencies for their lands,

payments under the Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) program and the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self Determination Act of 2000 (SRS), and

mineral leasing revenues for onshore federal lands, as reported by the DOI Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR).

Comprehensive data covering these areas do not exist in a single source. State-by-state data for some types of information are readily available in public sources, as identified in the pertinent sections below. Where this was not the case, CRS sought to obtain the information directly from the pertinent agencies.

Organization of Report

The first four sections of this report pertain to appropriations for the four major land management agencies and revenues collected by those agencies. The appropriations figures represent budget authority, both discretionary and mandatory. For all four agencies, discretionary appropriations are provided primarily through the annual Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations law. The agencies have varied sources of mandatory funding under legislation originated by authorizing committees. Laws authorizing mandatory appropriations allow the agencies to spend money without further action by Congress.

Appropriations figures in this report generally represent new budget authority for FY2013 and thus generally do not include appropriations carried over from prior fiscal years. Figures representing total budget authority could present a different picture of agency funding for some states. Figures showing obligations or expenditures of funds also could differ considerably in some cases from the appropriations figures used in this report. Appropriations figures in this report also reflect any supplemental funds for FY2013 and reductions under the sequester order of the President of March 1, 2013.

By contrast, revenue figures throughout this report represent the actual amounts collected, because revenues are not subject to sequestration. The revenue data in the BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS sections reflect revenues collected by each agency, whether these revenues were retained by the agencies for use in the state where collected, used by the agency for other purposes, or allocated to another source (e.g., to the general fund of the Treasury). Depending on the agency, sources of revenue might include land sales, grazing, timber, recreation entrance/use, hardrock minerals, and rights of way, among others. The revenue data in these sections do not reflect the share of each agency’s revenues, if any, from onshore mineral leasing. This is because these revenues are collected by the DOI Office of Natural Resources Revenue for all federal lands, as discussed below.

Distributions to the BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS from the Federal Highway Administration are shown in the fifth section of this report. The funds are from several federal lands highway programs. They are the largest allocations to the four agencies outside of the departments in which they are located (DOI and Department of Agriculture).

The sixth section of this report provides information on payments under the PILT and FS Payments to States programs. These programs compensate local governments for the presence of most federally owned land. PILT applies to many types of federal land, while the FS payments apply to counties with national forest lands and certain BLM forested lands.

The ONRR section of this report, presented next, reflects the mineral leasing revenues from all federal onshore areas. The revenues are derived from a variety of energy and mineral activities on federal lands, involving a wide array of commodities. Finally, the Appendix lists the federal acreage managed by each of the four agencies, by state.

Caveats

Several caveats about interpreting the information in this report deserve note. First, this report provides statistics for only one year. While some funding amounts might be largely consistent from year to year, others might vary by different degrees. For example, congressional and presidential priorities might change, influencing funding for particular programs, projects, and activities and the location of agency spending. Also, the appropriations to agencies for wildland fire management, and their distribution among states, vary from year to year in part depending on the severity of fires. Similarly, land acquisition may occur in some states and not others in any given year. Another factor is unplanned events, such as natural or man-made disasters, as shown by the appropriation of supplemental funds for FY2013 to address the consequences of Superstorm Sandy. Still other factors relate to the budgetary framework, with one example being the reduction of FY2013 appropriations under the President’s sequester order of March 1, 2013.

Second, figures in this report should be regarded as estimates and are not aggregated across agencies or across states, for a variety of reasons. For one, the agencies receive and allocate appropriations differently. The allocation might be by state or by other geographic area, such as by national forest (which may cross state lines) or regional office. Agencies also differ as to how they define, organize, and report data. For instance, revenue data might reflect total revenue collected by an agency or only revenues collected from activities and resources on lands the agency owns. For example, BLM data include payments from federal, state, and local governments for fire work performed on non-BLM land, but the FS data reflect revenue generated exclusively on FS lands. Another difference is how agencies reflect appropriations for operations of their headquarters or regional offices. For instance, FWS and NPS reflect headquarters appropriations with the state in which the headquarters are located, while BLM does not reflect them with any state.

An additional complication in making comparisons across agencies is whether to consider total appropriations or only those used on agency-owned lands. This is because agencies differ considerably in the extent to which they use appropriations in a state on lands other than those they own. As an illustration of this point, FWS uses about two-thirds of its appropriations on lands not managed by the agency, while virtually all of BLM appropriations are used on agency-managed lands.

There is also overlap in some of the information provided by the agencies and reported here, such as for some mandatory appropriations included in both an agency’s appropriations and its revenue totals (e.g., for recreation). Further, some amounts are reflected in multiple sections of this report, as is the case for SRS monies reflected in the BLM, FS, and SRS sections. As a result of these overlaps, aggregation could lead to double counting of some monies. Additional challenges and issues associated with particular data in this report are discussed in the pertinent sections.

Third, this report does not provide information on the broader economic dimensions related to federal lands managed by the four agencies. An analysis of economic costs and benefits and other impacts is beyond the scope of this report.

Fourth, this report is not intended to make implications about these lands if they were under nonfederal ownership, such as the level of funds that might be provided for their management; the revenues that might be generated through their use; or the broader economic costs, benefits, and impacts that might occur. For example, the legal and political frameworks pertinent to management under state law may vary considerably from those that apply to the BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS.

Finally, for all categories of data, figures are provided for FY2013 as the most recent fiscal year for which data were available across categories. Throughout the report, figures generally are rounded to the closest million. Due to rounding, figures of less than $50,000 are shown as <$0.1 million. Territories are not shown in a table if they did not receive the appropriations or payments, or collect the revenues, shown in the table. Also, figures may not sum to the totals provided due to rounding.

Overview

BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS received widely varying amounts of FY2013 appropriations for federal land management, as shown in Figure 1. Each agency dispersed its appropriations differently among the states. The lands of these agencies across states also generated widely differing amounts of revenue. Influencing the allocation of appropriations among states, and the amount of revenue collected in each state, were the acreage of federal land; land resources, conditions, availability, uses, and impacts; demographics; fire activity; and other factors. Many of these factors are common among the agencies, while others apply more particularly to one or a subset of agencies. For instance, FWS appropriations used in a state are particularly affected by the number of species listed under the Endangered Species Act, entry ports for regulated wildlife, and two major state grant programs for conservation of game and sport fish (Wildlife Restoration and Sportfish Restoration).

Figure 1. Comparison of Appropriations by Agency, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from various sources. Figures for BLM, FWS, and NPS were derived primarily from the respective agencies. FS discretionary appropriations data are derived from detailed funding tables prepared by the House Committee on Appropriations. FS mandatory appropriations data are derived from Forest Service, Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Justification, at http://www.fs.fed.us/sites/default/files/media/2014/25/2015-BudgetJustification-030614.pdf.

Notes: Figures reflect total appropriations for all agencies. For details related to a particular agency, see the pertinent appropriations sections in this report.

The FY2013 appropriation to the FS ($5,709.8 million) was more than twice the appropriation to BLM ($2,048.1 million) and FWS ($2,591.6 million) and more than 40% bigger than the appropriation for NPS ($3,305.8 million). Of these totals, FS received the most in discretionary appropriations ($4,934.7 million), while FWS had the highest mandatory appropriation ($1,053.1 million). Wildland Fire Management constituted the largest portion of FS appropriations for the 12 states covered in this report (and overall). For the other three agencies, the biggest appropriation was for the main operations and management account.

The agencies have many sources of mandatory appropriations, some of which are common among them and across states (e.g., recreation). Others are unique to one agency, with the contribution for annuity benefits for U.S. Park Police being one example. Still other mandatory accounts are specific to not only one agency but one state; this is the case for BLM’s appropriations for Secure Rural Schools payments, which are made to Oregon. The largest mandatory appropriations differed among the agencies: for BLM, the Helium Production Fund; for FWS, state grants for conservation of game and sport fish (Wildlife Restoration and Sportfish Restoration); for NPS, recreation fees; and for FS, payments to states generally.

Another distinction is in the extent to which the four agencies use appropriations on lands other than those they manage. Very little if any of BLM appropriations for most states are used on non-BLM lands. A relatively small amount of NPS and FS appropriations are used off agency lands. By contrast, roughly two-thirds of FWS appropriations are used on lands under non-FWS ownership.

Revenue collections during FY2013 were small for the FWS ($18.9 million) as compared with the other agencies. BLM’s revenue collections were the largest ($525.0 million). They were more than double the FS amount ($223.6 million) and more than one-third bigger than NPS collections ($333.4 million). Depending on the agency and state, sources of revenue might include land sales, grazing, timber, hardrock minerals, recreation, and rights of way. Sales of helium were the biggest revenue source for BLM. FWS had four revenue sources of roughly the same size (from $4.0 million to $5.0 million). On NPS lands, recreation generated the most revenue ($179.5 million). While recreation also was the single largest source of revenue on FS lands ($61.4 million), revenue/collections associated with timber or salvage timber sales collectively were a larger portion of FS revenues ($129.5 million). Figure 2 shows revenues collected by agency.

Figure 2. Comparison of Revenues Collected by Agency, FY2013

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from various sources. BLM and NPS figures were derived primarily from data from the respective agencies. FWS information was derived from U.S. Department of the Interior, Budget Justifications and Performance Information, Fiscal Year 2015, Fish and Wildlife Service, at http://www.fws.gov/budget/2014/FY2015_FWS_Greenbook-DOI31014.pdf. FS information was derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, All Service Receipts (ASR), Final Forest Statement of Receipts (ASR-13-2), http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprd3795423.pdf.

Notes: For details related to a particular agency, see the pertinent revenue sections in this report.

Supplementing the appropriations to BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS are allocations of funding from outside the agencies. A major allocation is from the Federal Highway Administration for federal lands highway programs. Of the total distributed in FY2013 ($573.8 million), the NPS received almost half ($280.6 million), and another two-fifths ($227.2 million) went to state Programming Decisions Committees. Smaller amounts were allocated to the FWS ($36.5 million), FS ($19.8 million), and BLM ($9.6 million). With a distribution of $86.5 million, California received significantly more funds than any other state; the next largest distribution was $36.1 million for Montana, and only nine states received more than $20.0 million. Two eastern states—Connecticut and Delaware—received the lowest distributions (less than $0.1 million). Factors affecting the distribution among states include the amount of federal lands, public road miles, recreational visitation, and federal public bridges as well as agency priorities.

The Payments in Lieu of Taxes program and FS Payments to States program compensate local governments for the presence of federally owned land. PILT applies to many types of federal lands, with payments based on county population and several other factors. Of the total PILT payment in FY2013 ($401.8 million), 17 states (and other areas) received less than $1.0 million, while 10 states received more than $20.0 million. The FS Payments to States program provided $312.5 million in FY2013 payments to counties with national forest lands and certain BLM forested lands. Payments are based on either historic or current revenue generated on the lands and other considerations. Of the 41 states that received FY2013 payments, 21 received less than $2.0 million. Oregon received the highest payment—$97.1 million—about three times more than the next highest state.

From federal onshore areas, ONRR reported collecting $4,296.9 million in mineral leasing revenues during FY2013. The revenue was from different types of payments: bonuses, rents, and royalties. It derived from many energy and mineral commodities, including coal, gas, hardrock minerals, oil, phosphate, sodium, and sulfur. The FY2013 total was from federal lands in 37 states. Wyoming and New Mexico together accounted for more than two-thirds of the total, while about half the states had revenue of less than $1.0 million (including 13 states with no onshore receipts). Revenue levels not only vary widely among states but can vary considerably from year to year. Factors affecting revenues derived in each state include the amount of federal acreage, the extent of that acreage containing recoverable energy and mineral resources, weather conditions, and other circumstances.

The total funding for federal land management in a state, and total revenues derived from federal lands in a state, are difficult to ascertain with certainty for varied reasons. They include differences among agencies in how they receive and allocate appropriations and define, organize, and report data. For these and other reasons, figures in this report are not aggregated across states. Moreover, there are variations from year to year in appropriations among states and revenues derived on federal lands across states. This report provides a snapshot of one fiscal year.

Bureau of Land Management

Appropriations

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) estimates that appropriations for FY2013 were $2,048.1 million. The majority of this funding was discretionary. Specifically, the total includes $1,714.9 million (83.7%) in discretionary appropriations and $333.1 million (16.3%) in mandatory appropriations. According to the BLM, virtually all appropriations to the agency are used for managing agency-owned lands. Table 1 and Figure 3 provide the discretionary, mandatory, and total BLM appropriations by state.

Discretionary Appropriations

For FY2013, BLM received $1,714.9 million in discretionary appropriations through six accounts, as shown in Table 2. The largest account was for Management of Lands and Resources, which in FY2013 received $1,020.9 million (59.5%) of BLM’s discretionary appropriation. This account funds an array of BLM programs and activities, including land resources, wildlife and fisheries, threatened and endangered species, recreation, energy and minerals, and resource planning for agency lands. The second-largest discretionary appropriation was for Wildland Fire Management. This account funds fire preparedness and suppression, hazardous fuels reduction, and other programs. BLM’s allocation from this department-wide account comprised $478.1 million (27.9%) of the agency’s discretionary appropriations for FY2013.

The FY2013 appropriations for BLM’s four other discretionary accounts were considerably smaller. Oregon and California Grant Lands received $106.0 million (6.2%) of the discretionary appropriation for managing certain timberlands in western Oregon. Another $62.4 million (3.6%) was for the Working Capital Fund, a revolving fund used for purchasing supplies, equipment, facilities, and services in support of BLM programs. Service Charges, Deposits, and Forfeitures provided $26.3 million (1.5%) of discretionary appropriations. The account funds administrative expenses and other costs of certain BLM actions for which the public has paid fees, such as for processing applications and authorizations for use of public lands and resources. The remaining $21.2 million (1.2%) of the discretionary appropriation was for Land Acquisition, for BLM to acquire lands or interests in land.

Mandatory Appropriations

A variety of laws provide for mandatory appropriations for BLM. Of the $333.1 million provided under these laws in FY2013, the largest amount was from the Helium Production Fund—about three-fifths ($202.2 million, 60.7%) of the FY2013 mandatory appropriation. In FY2013, receipts from BLM sales of federal crude helium were deposited in the Helium Production Fund. The second-largest mandatory appropriation, with $38.0 million (11.4%) of the total, was for Secure Rural Schools payments to western Oregon counties. The Land and Resources Management Trust Fund, with $21.8 million (6.5%) of the mandatory appropriations, reflects donations to BLM from individuals, companies, state agencies, and others for certain activities and services. Another $17.5 million (5.3%) was from receipts from recreation fees, with $16.7 million (5.0%) from onshore mineral leasing receipts deposited in the Permit Processing Improvement Fund. Land disposals in Nevada under the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and livestock grazing on BLM lands (Range Improvements) generated another $10.5 million (3.2%) and $9.5 million (2.9%), respectively. The remaining $16.9 million (5.1%) of mandatory appropriations derived from several other sources. Table 3 contains the mandatory appropriations by account.

Discussion

BLM manages its lands through 12 state offices, which in some cases administer BLM lands and onshore federal minerals in more than one state. Each of these state offices received a portion of BLM’s FY2013 appropriations, as did the Office of Fire and Aviation, a national-level office. Other FY2013 appropriations were not allocated to any state office. Most of these funds, shown as “no state” in the tables, were provided to BLM headquarters in Washington, DC, for expenses that support all BLM land management and national programs.

As shown in Table 1 and Figure 3, BLM state offices received widely varying amounts of FY2013 appropriations, ranging from $17.0 million for all eastern states to $299.6 million for New Mexico. The level of appropriations allocated by BLM to state offices is influenced by a number of factors. One is the amount of lands and onshore federal minerals managed by BLM, of which acreages vary widely among states. Different land resources, conditions, uses, and impacts can affect the cost of land management, as can demographics. Another variable is the extent of wildfire suppression and other fire activity, which affects the allocation of funds among states for wildland fire management.

Another factor is that some programs may have no or very little activity within a state, resulting in none or a small portion of these program funds being allocated to the state. In particular, some programs are specific to one state, and some of these state-specific programs received relatively large appropriations. For example, the New Mexico state office received the largest FY2013 appropriation because BLM’s sale of helium is shown as budget authority for that state. Excluding the Helium Production Fund, the appropriation for New Mexico would have been about two-thirds lower—$97.4 million. As a second example, the Oregon state office received the second-largest appropriation among states ($283.4 million), primarily because it received the overwhelming majority of the discretionary appropriations for Oregon and California Grant Lands and the mandatory appropriation for Secure Rural Schools.

Table 1. Bureau of Land Management Appropriations by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

Discretionary Appropriations

Mandatory Appropriations

Total Appropriations

Alaska

111.9

1.1

113.0

Arizona

75.4

2.5

77.9

California

142.5

10.2

152.7

Colorado

89.0

3.5

92.4

Eastern states

17.0

<0.1

17.0

Idaho

120.6

2.6

123.3

Montana

85.3

4.3

89.6

New Mexico

88.0

211.5

299.6

Nevada

170.1

17.1

187.2

Oregon

237.8

45.7

283.4

Utah

114.9

6.0

120.9

Wyoming

96.1

6.6

102.7

Subtotal

1,439.8

310.9

1,750.7

Office of Fire and Aviation

91.1

0

91.1

No state

275.1

22.2

297.3

Total

1,714.9

333.1

2,048.1

Source: Data provided by the Bureau of Land Management, Budget Division, July 22, 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes: This table shows appropriations to BLM state offices, which in some cases administer lands (and/or onshore federal minerals) in more than one state. Specifically, the eastern states office administers lands in states east of the Mississippi River; the Montana office administers lands in Montana, North Dakota, and Sout

Federal Land Management Agencies: Appropriations and Revenues

December 10, 2014 (R43822)
Jump to Main Text of Report

Introduction

Two perennial issues for Congress are appropriations for management of federal lands and resources, and the revenues derived from these lands and resources. The focus of legislative action has been on the four major federal land management agencies: the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and National Park Service (NPS) in the Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Forest Service (FS) in the Department of Agriculture.1 In determining discretionary appropriations for these agencies, Congress establishes the level of funds for diverse programs, projects, and activities. Congress also has enacted legislation to provide mandatory appropriations for varied programs and purposes. Further, these agencies receive distributions of funding from other agencies for specific purposes.

How appropriations for federal land management are used throughout the states is of continuing interest to Congress. Questions relate to the amount of each agency's appropriations used within a particular state, factors influencing the distribution of appropriations among states, the purposes for which appropriations are used, and the extent to which appropriations are used on federal versus nonfederal land in each state.

Other questions pertain to the revenues generated from federally managed lands. They include the amount of revenue generated on federal lands, the sources of revenue, and factors influencing the variation among states in the amount and type of revenue generated on federal lands.

In this context, this report provides information on appropriations and revenues related to federal lands in each state.2 It focuses on lands managed by the BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS, as these agencies administer approximately 95% of the roughly 640 million acres of federal land.3 In particular, this report provides state-by-state information in four areas:

  • appropriations for, and revenues collected by, the four agencies,
  • distributions of funds from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to the four agencies for their lands,
  • payments under the Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) program and the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self Determination Act of 2000 (SRS), and
  • mineral leasing revenues for onshore federal lands, as reported by the DOI Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR).

Comprehensive data covering these areas do not exist in a single source.4 State-by-state data for some types of information are readily available in public sources,5 as identified in the pertinent sections below. Where this was not the case, CRS sought to obtain the information directly from the pertinent agencies.6

Organization of Report

The first four sections of this report pertain to appropriations for the four major land management agencies and revenues collected by those agencies.7 The appropriations figures represent budget authority, both discretionary and mandatory. For all four agencies, discretionary appropriations are provided primarily through the annual Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations law. The agencies have varied sources of mandatory funding under legislation originated by authorizing committees. Laws authorizing mandatory appropriations allow the agencies to spend money without further action by Congress.8

Appropriations figures in this report generally represent new budget authority for FY20139 and thus generally do not include appropriations carried over from prior fiscal years.10 Figures representing total budget authority could present a different picture of agency funding for some states.11 Figures showing obligations or expenditures12 of funds also could differ considerably in some cases from the appropriations figures used in this report. 13 Appropriations figures in this report also reflect any supplemental funds for FY2013 and reductions under the sequester order of the President of March 1, 2013.14

By contrast, revenue figures throughout this report represent the actual amounts collected, because revenues are not subject to sequestration. The revenue data in the BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS sections reflect revenues collected by each agency, whether these revenues were retained by the agencies for use in the state where collected, used by the agency for other purposes, or allocated to another source (e.g., to the general fund of the Treasury). Depending on the agency, sources of revenue might include land sales, grazing, timber, recreation entrance/use, hardrock minerals, and rights of way, among others. The revenue data in these sections do not reflect the share of each agency's revenues, if any, from onshore mineral leasing. This is because these revenues are collected by the DOI Office of Natural Resources Revenue for all federal lands, as discussed below.

Distributions to the BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS from the Federal Highway Administration are shown in the fifth section of this report. The funds are from several federal lands highway programs. They are the largest allocations to the four agencies outside of the departments in which they are located (DOI and Department of Agriculture).15

The sixth section of this report provides information on payments under the PILT and FS Payments to States programs. These programs compensate local governments for the presence of most federally owned land. PILT applies to many types of federal land, while the FS payments apply to counties with national forest lands and certain BLM forested lands.16

The ONRR section of this report, presented next, reflects the mineral leasing revenues from all federal onshore areas. The revenues are derived from a variety of energy and mineral activities on federal lands, involving a wide array of commodities.17 Finally, the Appendix lists the federal acreage managed by each of the four agencies, by state.

Caveats

Several caveats about interpreting the information in this report deserve note. First, this report provides statistics for only one year. While some funding amounts might be largely consistent from year to year, others might vary by different degrees. For example, congressional and presidential priorities might change, influencing funding for particular programs, projects, and activities and the location of agency spending. Also, the appropriations to agencies for wildland fire management, and their distribution among states, vary from year to year in part depending on the severity of fires. Similarly, land acquisition may occur in some states and not others in any given year. Another factor is unplanned events, such as natural or man-made disasters, as shown by the appropriation of supplemental funds for FY2013 to address the consequences of Superstorm Sandy.18 Still other factors relate to the budgetary framework, with one example being the reduction of FY2013 appropriations under the President's sequester order of March 1, 2013.19

Second, figures in this report should be regarded as estimates and are not aggregated across agencies or across states, for a variety of reasons. For one, the agencies receive and allocate appropriations differently. The allocation might be by state or by other geographic area, such as by national forest (which may cross state lines) or regional office. Agencies also differ as to how they define, organize, and report data. For instance, revenue data might reflect total revenue collected by an agency or only revenues collected from activities and resources on lands the agency owns. For example, BLM data include payments from federal, state, and local governments for fire work performed on non-BLM land, but the FS data reflect revenue generated exclusively on FS lands. Another difference is how agencies reflect appropriations for operations of their headquarters or regional offices. For instance, FWS and NPS reflect headquarters appropriations with the state in which the headquarters are located, while BLM does not reflect them with any state.

An additional complication in making comparisons across agencies is whether to consider total appropriations or only those used on agency-owned lands. This is because agencies differ considerably in the extent to which they use appropriations in a state on lands other than those they own. As an illustration of this point, FWS uses about two-thirds of its appropriations on lands not managed by the agency, while virtually all of BLM appropriations are used on agency-managed lands.

There is also overlap in some of the information provided by the agencies and reported here, such as for some mandatory appropriations included in both an agency's appropriations and its revenue totals (e.g., for recreation). Further, some amounts are reflected in multiple sections of this report, as is the case for SRS monies reflected in the BLM, FS, and SRS sections. As a result of these overlaps, aggregation could lead to double counting of some monies. Additional challenges and issues associated with particular data in this report are discussed in the pertinent sections.

Third, this report does not provide information on the broader economic dimensions related to federal lands managed by the four agencies. An analysis of economic costs and benefits and other impacts is beyond the scope of this report.

Fourth, this report is not intended to make implications about these lands if they were under nonfederal ownership, such as the level of funds that might be provided for their management; the revenues that might be generated through their use; or the broader economic costs, benefits, and impacts that might occur. For example, the legal and political frameworks pertinent to management under state law may vary considerably from those that apply to the BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS.

Finally, for all categories of data, figures are provided for FY2013 as the most recent fiscal year for which data were available across categories. Throughout the report, figures generally are rounded to the closest million. Due to rounding, figures of less than $50,000 are shown as <$0.1 million. Territories are not shown in a table if they did not receive the appropriations or payments, or collect the revenues, shown in the table. Also, figures may not sum to the totals provided due to rounding.

Overview

BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS received widely varying amounts of FY2013 appropriations for federal land management, as shown in Figure 1. Each agency dispersed its appropriations differently among the states. The lands of these agencies across states also generated widely differing amounts of revenue. Influencing the allocation of appropriations among states, and the amount of revenue collected in each state, were the acreage of federal land; land resources, conditions, availability, uses, and impacts; demographics; fire activity; and other factors. Many of these factors are common among the agencies, while others apply more particularly to one or a subset of agencies. For instance, FWS appropriations used in a state are particularly affected by the number of species listed under the Endangered Species Act, entry ports for regulated wildlife, and two major state grant programs for conservation of game and sport fish (Wildlife Restoration and Sportfish Restoration).

Figure 1. Comparison of Appropriations by Agency, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from various sources. Figures for BLM, FWS, and NPS were derived primarily from the respective agencies. FS discretionary appropriations data are derived from detailed funding tables prepared by the House Committee on Appropriations. FS mandatory appropriations data are derived from Forest Service, Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Justification, at http://www.fs.fed.us/sites/default/files/media/2014/25/2015-BudgetJustification-030614.pdf.

Notes: Figures reflect total appropriations for all agencies. For details related to a particular agency, see the pertinent appropriations sections in this report.

The FY2013 appropriation to the FS ($5,709.8 million) was more than twice the appropriation to BLM ($2,048.1 million) and FWS ($2,591.6 million) and more than 40% bigger than the appropriation for NPS ($3,305.8 million). Of these totals, FS received the most in discretionary appropriations ($4,934.7 million), while FWS had the highest mandatory appropriation ($1,053.1 million). Wildland Fire Management constituted the largest portion of FS appropriations for the 12 states covered in this report (and overall). For the other three agencies, the biggest appropriation was for the main operations and management account.

The agencies have many sources of mandatory appropriations, some of which are common among them and across states (e.g., recreation). Others are unique to one agency, with the contribution for annuity benefits for U.S. Park Police being one example. Still other mandatory accounts are specific to not only one agency but one state; this is the case for BLM's appropriations for Secure Rural Schools payments, which are made to Oregon. The largest mandatory appropriations differed among the agencies: for BLM, the Helium Production Fund20; for FWS, state grants for conservation of game and sport fish (Wildlife Restoration and Sportfish Restoration); for NPS, recreation fees; and for FS, payments to states generally.

Another distinction is in the extent to which the four agencies use appropriations on lands other than those they manage. Very little if any of BLM appropriations for most states are used on non-BLM lands. A relatively small amount of NPS and FS appropriations are used off agency lands. By contrast, roughly two-thirds of FWS appropriations are used on lands under non-FWS ownership.

Revenue collections during FY2013 were small for the FWS ($18.9 million) as compared with the other agencies. BLM's revenue collections were the largest ($525.0 million). They were more than double the FS amount ($223.6 million) and more than one-third bigger than NPS collections ($333.4 million). Depending on the agency and state, sources of revenue might include land sales, grazing, timber, hardrock minerals, recreation, and rights of way. Sales of helium were the biggest revenue source for BLM. FWS had four revenue sources of roughly the same size (from $4.0 million to $5.0 million). On NPS lands, recreation generated the most revenue ($179.5 million). While recreation also was the single largest source of revenue on FS lands ($61.4 million), revenue/collections associated with timber or salvage timber sales collectively were a larger portion of FS revenues ($129.5 million). Figure 2 shows revenues collected by agency.

Figure 2. Comparison of Revenues Collected by Agency, FY2013

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from various sources. BLM and NPS figures were derived primarily from data from the respective agencies. FWS information was derived from U.S. Department of the Interior, Budget Justifications and Performance Information, Fiscal Year 2015, Fish and Wildlife Service, at http://www.fws.gov/budget/2014/FY2015_FWS_Greenbook-DOI31014.pdf. FS information was derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, All Service Receipts (ASR), Final Forest Statement of Receipts (ASR-13-2), http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprd3795423.pdf.

Notes: For details related to a particular agency, see the pertinent revenue sections in this report.

Supplementing the appropriations to BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS are allocations of funding from outside the agencies. A major allocation is from the Federal Highway Administration for federal lands highway programs. Of the total distributed in FY2013 ($573.8 million), the NPS received almost half ($280.6 million), and another two-fifths ($227.2 million) went to state Programming Decisions Committees. Smaller amounts were allocated to the FWS ($36.5 million), FS ($19.8 million), and BLM ($9.6 million). With a distribution of $86.5 million, California received significantly more funds than any other state; the next largest distribution was $36.1 million for Montana, and only nine states received more than $20.0 million.21 Two eastern states—Connecticut and Delaware—received the lowest distributions (less than $0.1 million). Factors affecting the distribution among states include the amount of federal lands, public road miles, recreational visitation, and federal public bridges as well as agency priorities.

The Payments in Lieu of Taxes program and FS Payments to States program compensate local governments for the presence of federally owned land. PILT applies to many types of federal lands, with payments based on county population and several other factors. Of the total PILT payment in FY2013 ($401.8 million), 17 states (and other areas) received less than $1.0 million, while 10 states received more than $20.0 million. The FS Payments to States program provided $312.5 million in FY2013 payments to counties with national forest lands and certain BLM forested lands. Payments are based on either historic or current revenue generated on the lands and other considerations. Of the 41 states that received FY2013 payments, 21 received less than $2.0 million.22 Oregon received the highest payment—$97.1 million—about three times more than the next highest state.

From federal onshore areas, ONRR reported collecting $4,296.9 million in mineral leasing revenues during FY2013. The revenue was from different types of payments: bonuses, rents, and royalties. It derived from many energy and mineral commodities, including coal, gas, hardrock minerals, oil, phosphate, sodium, and sulfur. The FY2013 total was from federal lands in 37 states. Wyoming and New Mexico together accounted for more than two-thirds of the total, while about half the states had revenue of less than $1.0 million (including 13 states with no onshore receipts). Revenue levels not only vary widely among states but can vary considerably from year to year. Factors affecting revenues derived in each state include the amount of federal acreage, the extent of that acreage containing recoverable energy and mineral resources, weather conditions, and other circumstances.

The total funding for federal land management in a state, and total revenues derived from federal lands in a state, are difficult to ascertain with certainty for varied reasons. They include differences among agencies in how they receive and allocate appropriations and define, organize, and report data. For these and other reasons, figures in this report are not aggregated across states. Moreover, there are variations from year to year in appropriations among states and revenues derived on federal lands across states. This report provides a snapshot of one fiscal year.

Bureau of Land Management

Appropriations

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) estimates that appropriations for FY2013 were $2,048.1 million.23 The majority of this funding was discretionary. Specifically, the total includes $1,714.9 million (83.7%) in discretionary appropriations and $333.1 million (16.3%) in mandatory appropriations. According to the BLM, virtually all appropriations to the agency are used for managing agency-owned lands.24 Table 1 and Figure 3 provide the discretionary, mandatory, and total BLM appropriations by state.

Discretionary Appropriations

For FY2013, BLM received $1,714.9 million in discretionary appropriations through six accounts, as shown in Table 2. The largest account was for Management of Lands and Resources, which in FY2013 received $1,020.9 million (59.5%) of BLM's discretionary appropriation. This account funds an array of BLM programs and activities, including land resources, wildlife and fisheries, threatened and endangered species, recreation, energy and minerals, and resource planning for agency lands. The second-largest discretionary appropriation was for Wildland Fire Management.25 This account funds fire preparedness and suppression, hazardous fuels reduction, and other programs. BLM's allocation from this department-wide account comprised $478.1 million (27.9%) of the agency's discretionary appropriations for FY2013.

The FY2013 appropriations for BLM's four other discretionary accounts were considerably smaller. Oregon and California Grant Lands received $106.0 million (6.2%) of the discretionary appropriation for managing certain timberlands in western Oregon.26 Another $62.4 million (3.6%) was for the Working Capital Fund, a revolving fund used for purchasing supplies, equipment, facilities, and services in support of BLM programs.27 Service Charges, Deposits, and Forfeitures provided $26.3 million (1.5%) of discretionary appropriations. The account funds administrative expenses and other costs of certain BLM actions for which the public has paid fees, such as for processing applications and authorizations for use of public lands and resources. The remaining $21.2 million (1.2%) of the discretionary appropriation was for Land Acquisition, for BLM to acquire lands or interests in land.28

Mandatory Appropriations

A variety of laws provide for mandatory appropriations for BLM. Of the $333.1 million provided under these laws in FY2013, the largest amount was from the Helium Production Fund—about three-fifths ($202.2 million, 60.7%) of the FY2013 mandatory appropriation. In FY2013, receipts from BLM sales of federal crude helium were deposited in the Helium Production Fund.29 The second-largest mandatory appropriation, with $38.0 million (11.4%) of the total, was for Secure Rural Schools payments to western Oregon counties.30 The Land and Resources Management Trust Fund, with $21.8 million (6.5%) of the mandatory appropriations, reflects donations to BLM from individuals, companies, state agencies, and others for certain activities and services. Another $17.5 million (5.3%) was from receipts from recreation fees, with $16.7 million (5.0%) from onshore mineral leasing receipts deposited in the Permit Processing Improvement Fund. Land disposals in Nevada under the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and livestock grazing on BLM lands (Range Improvements) generated another $10.5 million (3.2%) and $9.5 million (2.9%), respectively. The remaining $16.9 million (5.1%) of mandatory appropriations derived from several other sources. Table 3 contains the mandatory appropriations by account.

Discussion

BLM manages its lands through 12 state offices, which in some cases administer BLM lands and onshore federal minerals in more than one state. Each of these state offices received a portion of BLM's FY2013 appropriations, as did the Office of Fire and Aviation, a national-level office. Other FY2013 appropriations were not allocated to any state office. Most of these funds, shown as "no state" in the tables, were provided to BLM headquarters in Washington, DC, for expenses that support all BLM land management and national programs.

As shown in Table 1 and Figure 3, BLM state offices received widely varying amounts of FY2013 appropriations, ranging from $17.0 million for all eastern states to $299.6 million for New Mexico. The level of appropriations allocated by BLM to state offices is influenced by a number of factors. One is the amount of lands and onshore federal minerals managed by BLM, of which acreages vary widely among states.31 Different land resources, conditions, uses, and impacts can affect the cost of land management, as can demographics. Another variable is the extent of wildfire suppression and other fire activity, which affects the allocation of funds among states for wildland fire management.

Another factor is that some programs may have no or very little activity within a state, resulting in none or a small portion of these program funds being allocated to the state. In particular, some programs are specific to one state, and some of these state-specific programs received relatively large appropriations. For example, the New Mexico state office received the largest FY2013 appropriation because BLM's sale of helium is shown as budget authority for that state.32 Excluding the Helium Production Fund, the appropriation for New Mexico would have been about two-thirds lower—$97.4 million. As a second example, the Oregon state office received the second-largest appropriation among states ($283.4 million),33 primarily because it received the overwhelming majority of the discretionary appropriations for Oregon and California Grant Lands and the mandatory appropriation for Secure Rural Schools.34

Table 1. Bureau of Land Management Appropriations by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Discretionary Appropriations

Mandatory Appropriations

Total Appropriations

Alaska

111.9

1.1

113.0

Arizona

75.4

2.5

77.9

California

142.5

10.2

152.7

Colorado

89.0

3.5

92.4

Eastern states

17.0

<0.1

17.0

Idaho

120.6

2.6

123.3

Montana

85.3

4.3

89.6

New Mexico

88.0

211.5

299.6

Nevada

170.1

17.1

187.2

Oregon

237.8

45.7

283.4

Utah

114.9

6.0

120.9

Wyoming

96.1

6.6

102.7

Subtotal

1,439.8

310.9

1,750.7

Office of Fire and Aviation

91.1

0

91.1

No state

275.1

22.2

297.3

Total

1,714.9

333.1

2,048.1

Source: Data provided by the Bureau of Land Management, Budget Division, July 22, 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes: This table shows appropriations to BLM state offices, which in some cases administer lands (and/or onshore federal minerals) in more than one state. Specifically, the eastern states office administers lands in states east of the Mississippi River; the Montana office administers lands in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota; the New Mexico office administers lands in Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas; the Oregon office administers lands in Oregon and Washington; and the Wyoming office administers lands in Nebraska and Wyoming. The Office of Fire and Aviation is a national-level office. "No state" refers to appropriations for BLM operations that are not applied to a state office, such as appropriations for the BLM headquarters in Washington, DC.

Figure 3. Bureau of Land Management Appropriations by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from the Bureau of Land Management, Budget Division, July 22, 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes: See notes to Table 1.

Table 2. Bureau of Land Management Discretionary Appropriations by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Management of Lands and Resourcesa

Wildland Fire Management

Oregon and California Grant Lands

Working Capital Fund

Service Charges, Deposits, and Forfeitures

Land Acquisition

Total Discretionary Appropriations

Alaska

58.4

48.9

0

0.4

4.2

0

111.9

Arizona

55.9

14.8

0

3.2

0.7

0.9

75.4

California

82.2

45.1

0

6.6

3.2

5.5

142.5

Colorado

58.9

24.3

0

3.2

0.4

2.2

89.0

Eastern states

15.7

0.9

0

0.3

0.1

0

17.0

Idaho

54.4

53.3

0

12.3

0.4

0.2

120.6

Montana

56.4

20.0

0

2.9

0.6

5.3

85.3

New Mexico

66.7

12.3

0

5.7

3.2

0.1

88.0

Nevada

100.6

57.6

0

6.0

5.9

0

170.1

Oregon

62.0

70.1

94.6

9.0

1.7

0.3

237.8

Utah

72.7

32.3

0

4.8

1.2

3.9

114.9

Wyoming

77.7

10.9

0

4.3

3.2

0

96.1

Subtotal

764.5

478.1

94.7

59.3

24.8

18.3

1,439.8

Office of Fire and Aviation

2.9

87.5

0.1

0.6

<0.1

0

91.1

No state

256.4

0

11.3

3.0

1.5

2.8

275.1

Total

1,020.9

478.1

106.0

62.4

26.3

21.2

1,714.9

Source: Data provided by the Bureau of Land Management, Budget Division, July 22, 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes: See notes to Table 1.

a. Figures in this column reflect spending authority from offsetting collections, including mining claim holding fees and fees for applications for permits to drill for oil and gas.

Table 3. Bureau of Land Management Mandatory Appropriations by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Helium Production Fund

Secure Rural Schools

Land and Resources Management Trust Fund

Recreation Enhancement Fee Program

Permit Processing Improvement Fund

Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act

Range Improvements

Other

Total Mandatory Appropriations

Alaska

0

0

0.6

0.3

0

0

0

0.2

1.1

Arizona

0

0

0.8

1.4

0

0

0.3

<0.1

2.5

California

0

0

6.8

3.2

0

0

0.2

0.1

10.2

Colorado

0

0

0.9

0.7

1.5

0

0.4

<0.1

3.5

Eastern states

0

0

<0.1

<0.1

0

0

0

0

<0.1

Idaho

0

0

0.9

0.9

0

0

0.8

0.1

2.6

Montana

0

0

0.4

0.5

1.4

0

2.0

<0.1

4.3

New Mexico

202.2

0

3.4

0.5

4.3

0

1.2

<0.1

211.5

Nevada

0

0

2.4

4.0

0

8.3

1.1

1.3

17.1

Oregon

0

37.8

2.1

2.3

0

0

0.7

2.7

45.7

Utah

0

0

1.5

3.2

0.5

0

0.7

0.1

6.0

Wyoming

0

0

0.9

0.2

4.3

0

1.2

0.1

6.6

Subtotal

202.2

37.8

20.6

17.1

11.9

8.3

8.5

4.5

310.9

Office of Fire and Aviation

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

No state

0

0.2

1.2

0.4

4.8

2.3

1.0

12.4

22.2

Total

202.2

38.0

21.8

17.5

16.7

10.5

9.5

16.9

333.1

Source: Data provided by the Bureau of Land Management, Budget Division, July 22, 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes: See notes to Table 1. In addition, appropriated entitlements, such as some contributed funds (Land and Resources Management Trust Fund) and Range Improvement funds, are reflected in this table. For appropriated entitlements, the level of spending is controlled by authorizing statutes, but the funding is provided in the annual appropriations acts.

Revenue

Revenue collected by BLM in FY2013 totaled $525.0 million.35 These monies were derived from a variety of activities and resources on BLM lands, donations, and payments to BLM from other entities. Table 4 and Figure 4 show the amount of revenue from each source during FY2013, by state.

BLM sales of helium generated the largest source of revenue—$203.7 million (38.8%) of the total. Mining claim fees, primarily from locatable minerals,36 brought in the second largest amount, with $67.7 million (12.9%). Rents for varied uses of public lands, such as for communication, solar energy, and wind farm sites, generated $44.4 million (8.5%). Wildland fire reimbursements, which represent payments to BLM for fire work undertaken to assist other federal agencies, were $40.7 million (7.8%). BLM collected $30.9 million (5.9%) in fees from applicants for permits to drill (APD) for oil and gas on federal land. The agency also collected $27.7 million (5.3%) in fees to recover costs of certain activities, such as processing applications for rights of way. Timber receipts from Oregon and California Grant Lands and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands together totaled $25.1 million (4.8%). Other sources of revenue were donations ($22.6 million, 4.3%); fees for recreating on BLM lands ($17.9 million, 3.4%); and proceeds from sale of public domain lands and resources on those lands, for example, timber ($15.9 million, 3.0%). Ten other revenue categories generated the balance of the FY2013 revenue—$28.5 million (5.4%).

As shown in Table 4, BLM state offices collected widely varying amounts of revenue, ranging from $0.6 million for eastern states to $228.8 million for New Mexico. Many variables affect the level of revenue collected by each state office. They include the amount of lands and onshore federal minerals managed by BLM in the respective states. The types of resources on the lands, such as minerals, timber, and forage, and their availability, affect the level of revenues. Similarly, the kinds of land uses, such as recreation and rights of way, and the frequency and extent of these uses influence collections.

Further, while most state offices collected revenues from a variety of land uses and activities, some uses and activities are limited to one or a few states. Some of these uses and activities generated relatively large amounts of revenue in FY2013. For instance, the New Mexico state office collected the most revenue because revenue from the sales of helium—$203.7 million in FY2013—is attributed to that office.37 Excluding helium sales, the revenue for New Mexico would have been $25.1 million. Similarly, the Oregon state office received virtually all of the $25.1 million in timber revenue from the Oregon and California Grant Lands and Coos Bay Wagon Road lands. This revenue comprised about two-thirds (64.9%) of the revenue for the Oregon state office.

Table 4. Bureau of Land Management Revenue by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Helium Sales

Mining Claim Fees

Rents for Use of Public Lands

Wildland Fire Reimb.a

APD Feesb

Cost Recovery Fees

O&C Land Grant Revenuesc

Trust Fund Donations

Recreation Fees

Public Domain Sales

Other

Total Revenues

Alaska

0

1.2

0.4

15.9

0.1

4.5

0

0.6

0.4

0.1

0.2

23.3

Arizona

0

8.1

4.6

0.1

0

0.8

0

0.9

1.5

1.4

0.6

17.9

California

0

4.7

15.6

0.3

1.4

3.5

0

7.5

3.4

2.5

0.3

39.3

Colorado

0

1.8

1.2

1.1

2.5

0.6

0

1.0

0.7

0.6

0.5

9.9

Eastern states

0

<0.1

0

0

0.3

0.2

0

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0.6

Idaho

0

3.5

1.4

0.3

0

0.4

0

1.0

0.9

0.1

1.5

9.0

Montana

0

3.0

0.2

0.3

4.2

0.8

0

0.5

0.5

1.6

2.0

13.1

New Mexico

203.7

1.9

2.0

0.1

7.4

3.6

<0.1

3.4

0.5

4.2

2.1

228.8

Nevada

0

30.8

5.6

1.1

0.1

6.3

0

2.7

4.2

2.2

14.4

67.4

Oregon

0

1.2

0.6

0.1

0

1.9

25.1

2.4

2.4

1.2

3.8

38.7

Utah

0

3.7

8.8

0.1

7.9

1.6

0

1.7

3.3

0.9

1.0

28.9

Wyoming

0

7.9

4.0

<0.1

7.2

3.5

0

1.0

0.2

1.2

2.0

27.0

Office of Fire and Aviation

0

0

<0.1

21.3

0

<0.1

0

0

0

0

<0.1

21.3

Total

203.7

67.7

44.4

40.7

30.9

27.7

25.1

22.6

17.9

15.9

28.5

525.0

Source: Data provided by the Bureau of Land Management, Budget Division, July 22, 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes: See notes to Table 1.

a. "Reimb." refers to reimbursements.

b. "APD" refers to applications for permits to drill.

c. This column reflects Oregon and California (O&C) Land Grant revenues and Coos Bay Wagon Road revenues.

Figure 4. Bureau of Land Management Revenue by Type, FY2013

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from the Bureau of Land Management, Budget Division, July 22, 2014.

Notes: The abbreviation "reimb." refers to reimbursements, and the acronym "APD" refers to applications for permits to drill.

Fish and Wildlife Service

Appropriations

FWS currently estimates that total appropriations for FY2013 were $2,591.6 million.38 Of this total, $1,538.5 million (59.4%) was discretionary, and $1,053.1 million (40.6%) was mandatory. In contrast to other federal land-managing agencies, only about one-third of FWS appropriations is spent on lands owned by the agency itself.39 Various grant programs, conservation efforts for migratory birds, and protections of species listed under the Endangered Species Act represent substantial expenditures within a state, but frequently not on FWS lands. Thus, FWS appropriations by state only partly correlate with the amount of agency land in the state. Table 5 provides the discretionary, mandatory, and total FWS appropriations by state.

Discretionary Appropriations

For FY2013, FWS received $1,538.5 million in discretionary appropriations in 10 accounts, as shown in Table 6. The largest discretionary account by far was for Resource Management, which in FY2013 received $1,179.8 million (76.7%) of FWS discretionary appropriations. This account funds an array of FWS programs and activities, including endangered species, National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS), migratory bird management, and law enforcement. The second largest discretionary appropriation was for Construction ($82.7 million, 5.4%), which funds construction, improvement, and removal of buildings and other facilities. In addition, dam repair, replacement of facilities damaged by disasters, construction of solar arrays, and project design are funded through this account. Supplemental appropriations for Construction, beyond those provided in annual appropriations laws, are sometimes enacted in the wake of natural or man-made disasters.40 The next-largest accounts in FY2013 were State and Tribal Wildlife Grants ($58.1 million, 3.8%); Wildland Fire Management ($53.0 million, 3.4%); and Land Acquisition ($51.8 million, 3.4%). Other accounts shown in Table 6 include the Cooperative Endangered Species Conservation Fund ($45.2 million, 2.9%), and the North American Wetlands Conservation Account ($34.1 million, 2.2%).41

The three smallest accounts shown in the table merit further explanation. The National Wildlife Refuge Fund (NWRF), though largely dependent on discretionary appropriations, is supported to a limited extent by mandatory appropriations based on national receipt collection.42 Table 6 reflects the total appropriation for the NWRF program. In FY2012, the gross receipts were $7.2 million, and this amount was made available without further appropriation in FY2013. The discretionary appropriation was $14.0 million, making a total of $21.2 million (1.4% of discretionary spending) for the NWRF program in FY2013.43 A portion of the receipts ($3.2 million) was allocated to the expenses involved in managing the revenue-generating activities. The remaining net receipts ($4.0 million) were added to the discretionary appropriation, making $19.0 million (1.2% of discretionary spending) to be allocated to local governments pro rata, based on a statutory formula.

Appropriations for the other two small accounts, the Multinational Species Conservation Fund ($9.0 million, 0.6% of discretionary spending) and the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Fund ($3.6 million, 0.2%), are both spent primarily in other nations.44 They are included in the total for Virginia, where FWS national headquarters is located and through which such appropriations are allocated.

Mandatory Appropriations

A variety of laws provide for mandatory appropriations for FWS. Of the $1,053.1 million provided under these laws in FY2013, the largest amounts were from a pair of funds: the Wildlife Restoration Fund ($534.2 million, 50.7% of all FWS mandatory spending) and the Sportfish Restoration Fund ($439.1 million, 41.7%).45 See Table 7. Together, they were 92.4% of all FWS mandatory appropriations in FY2013. These two programs provide for formula-based grants to states and territories for the conservation of game and sportfish, respectively. The two programs are funded by excise taxes on guns, revolvers, ammunition, bows, and arrows in the case of the Wildlife Restoration Fund and on rods, reels, motorboat fuel, and other fishing equipment for the Sportfish Restoration Fund. A much smaller mandatory appropriation is the Migratory Bird Conservation Account (MBCA, $65.0 million, 6.2%), funded largely by the sale of duck stamps and by import duties on arms and ammunition.46 The MBCA funds the acquisition of lands and interests in lands to benefit habitat for migratory waterfowl and upland game birds.

The collections in these three funds during one year are available, without further appropriation, to FWS in the following year.47 FWS spends the funds without regard to the state in which they were collected.

In FY2013, there were three additional mandatory appropriations. One was the Recreation Fee Enhancement Program, which allows FWS sites to collect entrance and other fees and use them to enhance visitor experiences. The program affected 164 sites in FY2013, with total collections of $5.0 million (0.5% of mandatory appropriations). The second appropriation, Contributed Funds, derives from voluntary contributions from state governments and other entities to support specified conservation activities. Amounts may vary from year to year, and totaled $5.0 million (0.5% of mandatory appropriations) in FY2013. Third, Miscellaneous Permanent Appropriations includes several appropriations that totaled $4.9 million (0.5%) in FY2013. Most of the funding was derived from rental fees for FWS staff quarters, generally in isolated locations, and was used for operation and maintenance of those quarters. Other programs funded by Miscellaneous Permanent Appropriations were management activities on Army Corps of Engineers lands managed by FWS, certain lands in Nevada, and other areas.

Discussion

FWS owns or manages land in all 50 states, four territories, and in minor outlying islands that are not part of any territory. In addition, the agency spends funds in the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands even though there are no FWS lands in those jurisdictions. Among the states, the FY2013 appropriation for Virginia was the largest ($264.6 million), given the presence of the agency's headquarters. California, with a number of refuges, major state grants, and a variety of conflicts concerning endangered species and water management, received the second-largest appropriation ($169.7 million). Alaska, having by far the largest acreage in the NWRS, was next ($149.5 million). Other states with over $100 million in FY2013 appropriations were Georgia ($112.0 million), Minnesota ($105.4 million), and Oregon ($100.4 million). By contrast, jurisdictions with FY2013 appropriations under $5 million were Midway Islands ($4.1 million), Guam ($3.6 million), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands ($2.5 million), American Samoa ($2.2 million), and Virgin Islands ($2.2 million).

The level of appropriations allocated by FWS to various states is influenced by a number of factors. One is the amount of land managed by FWS, which varies widely among states.48 For instance, while some states have relatively large amounts of FWS land, the District of Columbia has none and Connecticut, Rhode Island, and the Virgin Islands have among the least. Different land resources, conditions, uses, and impacts can affect the cost of land management, as can demographics. Another variable is the cost of travel, with Alaska, Hawaii, and outlying islands, among others, having high operating costs due in part to the expense of staff travel to these locations.

Other factors influencing spending are the number of species listed under the Endangered Species Act, the presence of wetlands, entry ports for regulated wildlife, and other programs. Still other differences can arise from the two major grant programs with mandatory appropriations: the Wildlife Restoration Program and the Sportfish Restoration Program. The allocation of funds for both depends on a statutory formula based on the area of the state and the number of licensed hunters or fishers, respectively. Thus, large states with many hunters and fishers will receive larger amounts of funding, while small states with few hunters and few fishers will receive relatively little.

Table 5. Fish and Wildlife Service Appropriations by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Discretionary Appropriations

Mandatory Appropriations

Total Appropriations

Alabama

7.3

19.4

26.7

Alaska

108.2

41.3

149.5

Arizona

17.5

20.2

37.7

Arkansas

11.6

15.9

27.5

California

123.2

46.5

169.7

Colorado

73.1

26.5

99.7

Connecticut

3.6

7.4

11.1

Delaware

22.5

7.7

30.2

District of Columbia

17.1

1.2

18.3

Florida

48.1

22.0

70.1

Georgia

79.7

32.4

112.0

Hawaii

29.9

7.7

37.5

Idaho

15.3

16.0

31.3

Illinois

13.4

18.6

32.1

Indiana

5.4

13.8

19.2

Iowa

8.7

14.5

23.3

Kansas

6.9

14.7

21.6

Kentucky

4.4

14.4

18.8

Louisiana

18.7

20.6

39.3

Maine

10.6

9.5

20.1

Maryland

13.0

9.7

22.6

Massachusetts

58.1

22.3

80.4

Michigan

16.1

29.0

45.1

Minnesota

63.4

42.0

105.4

Mississippi

13.8

11.5

25.3

Missouri

8.5

23.2

31.8

Montana

26.8

23.5

50.2

Nebraska

9.0

12.8

21.8

Nevada

12.7

14.3

26.9

New Hampshire

4.1

7.6

11.7

New Jersey

30.9

8.9

39.8

New Mexico

59.0

19.1

78.0

New York

17.8

26.1

43.8

North Carolina

20.9

24.7

45.6

North Dakota

24.4

28.5

52.9

Ohio

4.3

18.5

22.7

Oklahoma

12.6

18.6

31.3

Oregon

70.2

30.2

100.4

Pennsylvania

7.2

27.1

34.2

Rhode Island

3.9

6.7

10.6

South Carolina

11.5

16.1

27.6

South Dakota

14.3

32.2

46.5

Tennessee

12.7

19.4

32.1

Texas

45.7

47.1

92.8

Utah

9.9

17.0

26.9

Vermont

4.3

6.8

11.1

Virginiaa

215.5

49.1

264.6

Washington

48.7

18.1

66.8

West Virginia

28.0

9.1

37.1

Wisconsin

18.9

28.2

47.0

Wyoming

8.0

15.1

23.1

American Samoa

0.1

2.0

2.2

Guam

1.6

2.0

3.6

Northern Mariana Islands

0.4

2.0

2.5

Puerto Rico

7.4

5.8

13.2

Virgin Islands

0.1

2.0

2.2

Midway Islandsb

3.8

0.3

4.1

Unallocated geographyc

5.5

6.2

11.7

Total

1,538.5

1,053.1

2,591.6

Source: Data provided by Chris Nolin, Budget Division, Fish and Wildlife Service, July 18, 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes:

a. Figures for Virginia reflect the presence of FWS national headquarters.

b. Midway Islands are shown separately because they are not considered part of any state or territory.

c. Unallocated geography reflects certain offshore expenditures in Minor Outlying Islands, primarily in the Pacific Ocean.

Table 6. Fish and Wildlife Service Discretionary Appropriations by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Resource Mgmt.

Construction

State and Tribal Wildlife Grants

Wildland Fire Mgmt.

Land Acquisition

Cooperative Endangered Species Conserv. Fund

North Amer. Wetlands Conserv. Account

Natl. Wildlife Refuge Fund

Multinatl. Species Conserv. Fund

Neotropical Migratory Bird Conserv. Fund

State Totals

Alabama

6.2

0

0.7

<0.1

0

0.4

0

<0.1

0

0

7.3

Alaska

100.1

0.7

2.8

2.3

2.1

0.1

0

0.1

0

0

108.2

Arizona

14.5

0

1.2

1.4

0

0.4

0

0

0

0

17.5

Arkansas

9.1

0

0.5

0.2

0

1.3

0.3

0.1

0

0

11.6

California

93.0

<0.1

3.1

4.2

3.4

15.3

3.0

1.1

0

0

123.2

Colorado

61.8

1.0

1.6

1.5

1.0

0.6

1.9

3.8

0

0

73.1

Connecticut

0.6

1.0

0.5

0

1.6

0

0

0

0

0

3.6

Delaware

2.3

19.7

0.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

22.5

District of Columbia

16.9

0

0.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

17.1

Florida

35.5

<0.1

2.1

3.5

4.0

2.8

0

0.1

0

0

48.1

Georgia

48.7

0.9

2.2

3.5

13.4

1.6

0

9.3

0

0

79.7

Hawaii

26.3

0

0.5

0

0

3.1

0

0

0

0

29.9

Idaho

11.8

0

0.6

2.7

0

0.2

0

<0.1

0

0

15.3

Illinois

10.9

0.3

1.5

0.6

0

0

0

0.1

0

0

13.4

Indiana

4.0

0

0.8

0.3

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

5.4

Iowa

5.8

0

0.6

0.4

1.0

0

1.0

0

0

0

8.7

Kansas

5.4

0

0.7

0.8

0

<0.1

0

<0.1

0

0

6.9

Kentucky

2.6

0

0.6

<0.1

1.0

0.2

0

0

0

0

4.4

Louisiana

16.8

0

0.7

0.7

0

0.1

0.3

0.1

0

0

18.7

Maine

9.3

0.6

0.5

0.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

10.6

Maryland

11.1

0.7

0.6

0.5

0

0

0

<0.1

0

0

13.0

Massachusetts

40.9

5.8

2.7

1.3

4.8

0.1

0

2.5

0

0

58.1

Michigan

10.0

4.4

1.3

0.2

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

16.1

Minnesota

48.6

2.1

3.5

3.5

2.7

0.1

1.0

1.9

0

0

63.4

Mississippi

10.4

0

0.5

1.3

0

0.1

1.3

<0.1

0

0

13.8

Missouri

7.2

0

0.9

0.1

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

8.5

Montana

23.5

0

0.8

0.8

1.5

0.1

0

0.1

0

0

26.8

Nebraska

6.8

0

0.6

0.4

0

0.2

1.0

<0.1

0

0

9.0

Nevada

11.1

0

0.8

0.3

0

0.5

0

0

0

0

12.7

New Hampshire

3.7

<0.1

0.5

0

0

0

0

<0.1

0

0

4.1

New Jersey

7.4

22.0

0.9

0.2

0

0.4

0

0

0

0

30.9

New Mexico

50.2

0.7

1.4

2.5

3.2

0.4

0

0.6

0

0

59.0

New York

10.8

4.7

2.2

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0

0

17.8

North Carolina

12.1

5.8

1.2

1.5

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

20.9

North Dakota

17.1

0

0.5

1.2

3.2

0.1

2.0

0.4

0

0

24.4

Ohio

2.9

0

1.3

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0

0

4.3

Oklahoma

10.7

0

0.7

1.0

0

0.1

0

0.1

0

0

12.6

Oregon

58.5

1.1

2.0

2.6

3.2

1.4

1.0

0.3

0

0

70.2

Pennsylvania

5.4

<0.1

1.5

<0.1

0

0.2

0

0

0

0

7.2

Rhode Island

1.8

1.4

0.5

0.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

3.9

South Carolina

9.4

0

0.6

1.4

0

0.1

0

<0.1

0

0

11.5

South Dakota

10.9

0

0.5

0.8

0.1

<0.1

2.0

<0.1

0

0

14.3

Tennessee

10.8

0

0.8

<0.1

0

1.0

0

<0.1

0

0

12.7

Texas

36.8

0

1.0

4.6

1.0

2.2

0

0.2

0

0

45.7

Utah

7.3

0

0.7

0.4

0

1.5

0

<0.1

0

0

9.9

Vermont

2.9

0.9

0.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4.3

Virginiaa

170.1

7.2

1.1

2.2

3.5

1.4

17.2

0.2

9.0

3.6

215.5

Washington

38.8

0.2

1.0

2.0

1.0

5.6

0

0.1

0

0

48.7

West Virginia

26.0

1.5

0.5

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0

0

28.0

Wisconsin

15.4

0

0.8

0.8

0

0.7

1.2

0

0

0

18.9

Wyoming

6.5

0

0.5

<0.1

0

0.1

0.8

0

0

0

8.0

American Samoa

0

0

0.1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.1

Guam

1.1

0

0.1

0

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

1.6

Northern Mariana Islands

0

0

0.1

0

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

0.4

Puerto Rico

6.7

0

0.2

0.2

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

7.4

Virgin Islands

<0.1

0

0.1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.1

Midway Islandsb

3.8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3.8

Unallocated geographyc

1.6

0

3.2

0.3

0

0.4

0

0

0

0

5.5

Total

1,179.8

82.7

58.1

53.0

51.8

45.2

34.1d

21.2e

9.0

3.6

1,538.5

Source: Data provided by the Fish and Wildlife Service, Budget Division, July 18, 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes:

a. Figures for Virginia reflect the presence of FWS headquarters.

b. Midway Islands are not considered part of any state or territory.

c. Unallocated geography reflects certain offshore expenditures in minor outlying islands, primarily in the Pacific Ocean.

d. This total includes $475,000 in fines under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Although this funding is mandatory, it is included here because the amount is very small.

e. This total includes $7.2 million in gross receipts collected on NWRS lands in FY2012 and made available for expenditure in FY2013. Although this funding is mandatory, it is reflected here because it is relatively small. However, it is discussed in the section on "Revenue."

Table 7. Fish and Wildlife Service Mandatory Appropriations by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Wildlife Restoration

Sportfish Restoration

Migratory Bird Conservation Account

Contributed Funds

Recreation Fee Enhancement Program

Miscellaneous Permanent Appropriations

State Totals

Alabama

12.7

6.6

0

0

<0.1

0.1

19.4

Alaska

21.9

18.0

0

0.3

0.2

0.9

41.3

Arizona

13.0

7.0

0

0

<0.1

0.2

20.2

Arkansas

9.6

6.1

0

0

0.1

<0.1

15.9

California

19.3

22.1

4.4

0.1

0.1

0.5

46.5

Colorado

13.8

9.4

3.1

0.1

<0.1

0.1

26.5

Connecticut

3.9

3.5

0

0

<0.1

0

7.4

Delaware

3.1

4.5

0

0

<0.1

0

7.7

District of Columbia

0

1.2

0

0

0

0

1.2

Florida

9.3

11.8

0

0.1

0.7

0.1

22.0

Georgia

12.6

18.5

0.9

0.1

0.1

0.2

32.4

Hawaii

3.1

3.5

0

0.2

0.7

0.1

7.7

Idaho

9.7

6.2

0

<0.1

<0.1

0.1

16.0

Illinois

11.0

7.1

0

<0.1

0.4

0.1

18.6

Indiana

9.1

4.7

0

0

<0.1

<0.1

13.8

Iowa

8.7

4.6

1.1

0

<0.1

<0.1

14.5

Kansas

9.3

5.0

0

0

<0.1

0.3

14.7

Kentucky

9.1

5.3

0

0

<0.1

<0.1

14.4

Louisiana

9.9

8.4

2.1

<0.1

0.2

<0.1

20.6

Maine

5.7

3.7

0

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

9.5

Maryland

5.1

3.6

0.8

<0.1

<0.1

0.1

9.7

Massachusetts

6.1

14.8

1.0

0.1

0.2

0.1

22.3

Michigan

17.0

11.9

0

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

29.0

Minnesota

17.3

18.4

5.3

0.9

0

<0.1

42.0

Mississippi

7.0

4.2

<0.1

0.1

0.1

<0.1

11.5

Missouri

14.9

8.2

0

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

23.2

Montana

13.6

8.4

1.3

<0.1

<0.1

0.1

23.5

Nebraska

8.4

4.4

0

<0.1

0

<0.1

12.8

Nevada

9.0

5.2

0

0

0

0.1

14.3

New Hampshire

3.1

4.5

0

0

0

<0.1

7.6

New Jersey

5.2

3.5

0

0.1

<0.1

0.1

8.9

New Mexico

10.7

7.6

0.6

0

0.1

0.1

19.1

New York

14.0

9.5

2.3

0.2

<0.1

0.1

26.1

North Carolina

13.5

11.1

0

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

24.7

North Dakota

8.9

3.9

15.2

0.3

<0.1

0.1

28.5

Ohio

11.2

7.2

0

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

18.5

Oklahoma

11.4

7.2

0

0

<0.1

0.1

18.6

Oregon

12.1

17.4

0.4

0.1

0

0.2

30.2

Pennsylvania

18.9

8.2

0

0

<0.1

0

27.1

Rhode Island

3.1

3.5

0

0

<0.1

0

6.7

South Carolina

6.6

7.9

1.5

<0.1

0.1

<0.1

16.1

South Dakota

9.3

4.3

18.5

0

0

<0.1

32.2

Tennessee

12.9

6.4

0

<0.1

<0.1

0

19.4

Texas

23.6

20.5

2.6

0.1

0.2

0.1

47.1

Utah

9.3

6.4

1.2

<0.1

0

<0.1

17.0

Vermont

3.1

3.5

0

0.2

0

<0.1

6.8

Virginiaa

17.6

27.3

2.1

1.0

0.9

0.2

49.1

Washington

10.0

7.2

0.5

<0.1

0.2

0.2

18.1

West Virginia

5.6

3.5

0

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

9.1

Wisconsin

16.0

12.1

0

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

28.2

Wyoming

9.2

5.4

0

0.3

0.1

0.1

15.1

American Samoa

0.9

1.2

0

0

0

0

2.0

Guam

0.9

1.2

0

0

0

0

2.0

Northern Mariana Islands

0.9

1.2

0

0

0

0

2.0

Puerto Rico

2.2

3.5

0

0

0

0

5.8

Virgin Islands

0.9

1.2

0

0

<0.1

0

2.0

Midway Islandsb

0

0

0

0

0

0.3

0.3

Unallocated Geographyc

0

6.2

0

0

0

0

6.2

Total

534.2

439.1

65.0

5.0

5.0d

4.9

1,053.1

Source: Data provided by the Fish and Wildlife Service, Budget Division, July 18, 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes:

a. Figures for Virginia reflect the presence of FWS national headquarters.

b. Midway Islands are not considered part of any state or territory.

c. Unallocated geography reflects certain offshore expenditures in minor outlying islands, primarily in the Pacific Ocean.

d. As noted in the "Introduction" section of this report, figures throughout the report may not add to totals shown due to rounding. This is the case with the figures in this column, due in part to the large number of figures reflected as <0.1.

Revenue

Revenues associated with FWS can be divided into two categories. First are those that are collected by the Treasury Department, then transferred and made available without further appropriation to FWS for expenditure in the following year. In this category there are three programs: the large Wildlife Restoration and Sportfish Restoration programs, funded by excise taxes on hunting and fishing equipment, respectively, and the somewhat smaller Migratory Bird Conservation Account, funded by the sale of duck stamps and by import duties on arms and ammunition. In all three cases, revenues are devoted to program activities, with a small set-aside for program administration. In general, collection of these revenues cannot be attributed by FWS to a particular state. Moreover, their expenditure is unrelated to the state where they were collected. (See the section "Mandatory Appropriations" above regarding all three programs.)

In the second category are revenues collected by FWS itself. The agency collects relatively little revenue directly as compared with other land management agencies covered in this report. Nationally, for FY2013, FWS collected $18.9 million in revenues.49 Under law, activities in the NWRS must be compatible with the purposes for which the refuge was designated.50 As a result, few commercial activities are permitted on lands in the NWRS unless the activities benefit wildlife conservation. For a number of years, it has been the policy of FWS gradually to eliminate preexisting incompatible uses from refuges, except in cases of valid existing rights over which the agency has no control.51 With few permitted commercial activities, very little revenue is usually collected in the NWRS. Because the revenue generated from these four sources is relatively small, no state breakdowns are provided in this section.

The FY2013 revenue collected by FWS derives from four sources, as shown in Figure 5. They are:

  • Recreation fees ($5.0 million) are used largely or entirely at the refuges where they are collected.52 On refuges where collections are substantial, the effects on those refuges may also be substantial.
  • Funds contributed for special projects at specific sites ($5.0 million) may be used in the year of the donation or in subsequent years, depending on the nature of the project, planning time, permits, and similar variables.
  • Miscellaneous permanent receipts ($4.9 million) are authorized by multiple statutes with different rules about availability of funds in the year of deposit or in subsequent years.53
  • Funds were collected at refuges for certain commercial activities in FY2012, and the net amount was paid into the National Wildlife Refuge Fund in FY2013 ($4.0 million in net revenues). The receipts are derived from the sale of products, such as timber or gravel; rights of way; grazing permits; and leases for accommodations (such as those built for oil and gas exploration or development). Any given refuge may have all, few, or none of these activities.

Figure 5. Fish and Wildlife Service Revenue by Type, FY2013

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from U.S. Department of the Interior, Budget Justifications and Performance Information, Fiscal Year 2015, Fish and Wildlife Service, at http://www.fws.gov/budget/2014/FY2015_FWS_Greenbook-DOI31014.pdf.

National Park Service

Appropriations

The National Park Service (NPS) estimates that its discretionary appropriations for FY2013 were $2,885.2 million,54 and its mandatory appropriations were $420.6 million,55 for a total FY2013 appropriation of $3,305.8 million. Discretionary appropriations constituted 87.3% of the total, and mandatory appropriations constituted 12.7%. The FY2013 appropriations were distributed across all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and eight U.S. territories or associated states.

NPS appropriations were used both to manage agency-owned lands and to assist managers of nonfederal lands with preservation and recreation activities. Although the NPS administers many programs for nonfederal assistance, the great majority of agency appropriations go to federal units of the National Park System. One discretionary account used for agency lands—the Operation of the National Park System account—alone received over three-fifths of all NPS appropriations in FY2013.

Discretionary Appropriations

Table 8 shows the Park Service's FY2013 discretionary appropriations, by account, for each state or other area. The discretionary total of $2,885.2 million covered five accounts specific to the NPS, as well as funds allocated from a DOI department-wide account for Wildland Fire Management.56 Nearly three-quarters of the appropriations ($2,097.3 million, or 71.9%)57 went to the Operation of the National Park System (ONPS) account, which supports the day-to-day operations of the parks. Activities covered by this account include visitor services, natural and cultural resource stewardship, facility operations and maintenance, and park protection, among others. The majority of funds are provided directly to managers of individual park units.

The second-largest amount was $453.9 million (15.6%) for Construction. This account funds new construction projects as well as repairs and improvements to existing facilities. In FY2013, the appropriation included supplemental funding of $329.8 million58 in P.L. 113-2 for response to and recovery from Superstorm Sandy, which severely damaged park units on the East Coast. Another $110.2 million (3.8%) was allocated to the NPS from DOI's department-wide account for Wildland Fire Management.

A total of $100.5 million (3.4%) was appropriated for the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF) account, which assists states and localities with the conservation of cultural and historical sites and assets. This total included supplemental funding of $47.5 million59 in P.L. 113-2 for Superstorm Sandy disaster relief. Funding is distributed to states and territories on a formula basis. State and tribal historic preservation offices administer the HPF grants, which normally require a 60% federal/40% state match.

The Land Acquisition and State Assistance account, containing NPS's share of appropriations from the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF), received $96.6 million (3.3%).60 These appropriations fund both NPS land acquisition and assistance to states for outdoor recreation purposes. The National Recreation and Preservation account, which provides assistance to state, local, tribal, and private land managers, received $56.7 million (1.9%). The largest single program contained in this account is for NPS assistance to national heritage areas.61

Mandatory Appropriations

The NPS does not track mandatory appropriations by state, and thus no table of NPS mandatory appropriations is provided in this report. In FY2013, the agency received an overall total of $420.6 million from 16 mandatory appropriations, primarily composed of agency receipts.62 Most of the receipts were retained for use in the states in which they were collected; thus, the breakdown of NPS revenue collections by state in Table 9 may give some general sense of the geographic distribution of the agency's mandatory appropriations. However, there are significant differences between the revenues collected and the mandatory appropriations for each state. First, although park units in each state retain most of the revenues they collect, they do not retain them all; different amounts are deposited in a central fund depending on the type of revenue and other circumstances (see below). Second, in FY2013 the amount of collected revenues actually available to the states was reduced by budget sequestration, which is not reflected in the revenue table. Third, in addition to the revenue programs shown in Table 9, the NPS has some additional mandatory appropriations that do not come from revenues collected by the agency and thus are not shown in the table.63 Given these differences, it is not possible to closely estimate each state's mandatory appropriation from the revenue amounts.

The largest source of NPS mandatory appropriations in FY2013 was the Recreation Fee Program, authorized under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act (FLREA).64 The act allows the NPS to charge fees for entrance to park units and for certain recreational activities. Between 60% and 100% of the fees collected under the act are retained for use at the collecting park, while the remainder are placed in a central account and may be used elsewhere in the system (for example, at parks with no fee collections).65 In FY2013, NPS mandatory appropriations from recreation fees totaled $177.7 million, or 42.2% of all mandatory appropriations.66 Almost all the states collected recreation fees and retained funding from the program.

The next-largest source of NPS mandatory appropriations was the Concession Franchise Fee program, consisting of fees paid to the agency by concessioners.67 Mandatory appropriations from this program totaled $64.5 million in FY2013 (15.3%), and involved most of the states.

Other sources of mandatory appropriations included the Contribution for Annuity Benefits for U.S. Park Police, with $45.1 million (10.7%), consisting of funds warranted to the NPS from a permanent, indefinite appropriation at the Treasury Department for certain police retirement benefits; Donations, with $39.3 million (9.3%), consisting of direct cash donations to the Park Service; Operation and Maintenance of Quarters, $21.3 million (5.1%), comprising rents and charges for employee use of government housing and amenities; the Transportation Systems Fund, with $16.2 million (3.9%), covering fees for the use of public transportation services within the National Park System; Concessions Improvement Accounts of $14.2 million (3.4%), consisting of monies for facility improvements paid by some concessioners under a program that is being phased out; and the Park Buildings Lease and Maintenance Fund with $6.3 million (1.5%), composed of rents from leases on NPS buildings and other property under various provisions of law, among others.

Discussion

Units of the National Park System exist in all 50 states,68 the District of Columbia, and several territories.69 The agency also provides assistance to nonfederal land managers in all the states and other areas. Accordingly, funds from several NPS accounts—such as the ONPS account for park operations, the Historic Preservation Fund for state and local preservation activities, and the Land and Water Conservation Fund, which includes state assistance grants—have very broad geographic distribution.70

The appropriated amounts vary considerably by state and from year to year within a given state. The distribution of NPS funding across states is related to the amount of land administered by NPS in each state but also influenced by many other factors. Although Alaska contains far and away the greatest portion of NPS lands—nearly two-thirds of the acreage of the entire system—several states (California, Colorado, New York, and Pennsylvania) and the District of Columbia received higher appropriations than Alaska in FY2013. Other factors influencing appropriations to each state include the extent of visitor services at its national park units; park security needs, which may be especially great in urban areas;71 the presence of NPS regional offices in a state;72 the number of facilities to be maintained in each park unit; and the costs of mitigating threats to natural and cultural resources, among others.

In FY2013, appropriations by state also were affected by the impact of Superstorm Sandy on many East Coast parks. Congress appropriated supplemental funding of $377.3 million for the Construction account and the Historic Preservation Fund, to be used for response to and recovery from the storm. Eastern states such as New York, where the Statue of Liberty and other assets suffered serious damage, benefited from these funds. For example, New York's share of appropriations from NPS's Construction account in FY2013 was over 60% of the account total.

Table 8. National Park Service Discretionary Appropriations by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Operation of the NPS

Construction

Wildland Fire Management

Historic Preservation Fund

Land Acquisition and State Assistance

National Recreation and Preservation

Total Discretionary

Alabama

5.9

0

0.9

0.8

0.6

0.2

8.3

Alaska

61.6

14.9

5.0

1.0

0.4

1.0

83.8

Arizona

59.2

0.9

6.5

0.8

5.8

0

73.2

Arkansas

14.0

0

0.8

0.7

0.5

0

16.0

California

170.6

9.0

51.7

1.4

5.4

2.8

240.9

Colorado

55.1

28.5

14.9

0.8

0.7

6.9

107.0

Connecticut

1.3

0

0

8.7

0.6

0.7

11.3

Delaware

0a

0

0

0.5

0.4

0

0.9

Dist. of Columbia

793.1

18.2

0.3

1.0

27.8

16.8

857.2

Florida

50.4

12.8

4.3

1.0

1.8

0.2

70.4

Georgia

31.1

1.8

1.8

0.9

1.0

4.1

40.6

Hawaii

24.0

0.1

0.6

0.6

0.4

0

25.7

Idaho

7.9

0

3.0

0.7

0.4

0

11.9

Illinois

3.2

0

0

1.1

1.4

0.7

6.4

Indiana

10.3

0

1.1

0.9

0.8

0

13.1

Iowa

2.4

0

0

0.8

0.5

0

3.7

Kansas

5.2

0

0

0.8

0.5

0.3

6.8

Kentucky

10.4

0

0.4

0.8

0.6

0

12.2

Louisiana

7.4

0

0

0.8

0.7

2.2

11.0

Maine

9.1

0

0.4

0.7

0.4

0

10.6

Maryland

34.7

7.4

<0.1

0.8

0.8

0.2

43.8

Massachusetts

41.5

5.7

0.4

0.9

0.9

0.5

49.9

Michigan

13.1

0

0

1.0

1.1

0.4

15.7

Minnesota

9.0

0

0.4

0.9

0.7

0

11.0

Mississippi

16.3

0

0

0.7

0.5

0.3

17.8

Missouri

22.3

<0.1

0.7

0.9

0.7

0

24.8

Montana

21.2

0.4

0.7

0.7

1.6

0

24.7

Nebraska

16.6

1.9

1.5

0.7

0.4

3.8

24.9

Nevada

15.3

0

<0.1

0.7

0.5

0.2

16.7

New Hampshire

1.4

0

0

0.6

0.4

0

2.3

New Jersey

14.9

36.9

0.5

14.0

1.1

0.3

67.7

New Mexico

24.3

0.5

3.8

0.7

0.5

0.2

30.0

New York

96.1

275.1

0

14.9

1.9

0.6

388.6

North Carolina

30.0

7.0

1.1

0.9

0.9

0.6

40.5

North Dakota

4.2

0

0.3

0.7

0.4

0

5.6

Ohio

16.7

0.3

0

1.0

1.2

0

19.2

Oklahoma

5.0

0

0.1

0.8

0.6

0

6.5

Oregon

9.9

0

0.4

0.8

0.6

0

11.8

Pennsylvania

82.6

3.6

0.7

1.1

1.3

10.7

99.9

Rhode Island

0.7

0

0

3.8

0.4

0.3

5.2

South Carolina

6.7

0.2

0.1

0.7

0.6

0

8.4

South Dakota

12.3

3.0

1.1

0.7

0.4

0

17.4

Tennessee

23.8

0.1

<0.1

0.8

0.7

0

25.5

Texas

35.7

<0.1

3.0

1.2

2.2

0

42.1

Utah

30.9

0.1

1.3

0.7

0.5

0.3

33.8

Vermont

1.9

0

0

0.6

0.3

0

2.8

Virginia

61.5

4.0

0.9

0.8

0.9

0

68.1

Washington

40.2

2.2

1.6

0.9

1.8

0

46.7

West Virginia

16.6

9.8

0.2

0.7

0.4

0

27.6

Wisconsin

7.1

0

0

0.9

0.7

0

8.7

Wyoming

46.9

9.2

1.0

0.7

8.4

0

66.2

American Samoa

1.8

0

0

0.4

<0.1

0

2.3

FS of Micronesia

0

0

0

0.4

0

0

0.4

Guam

1.5

0

0

0.4

<0.1

0

1.9

Marshall Islands

0

0

0

0.2

0

0

0.2

N. Mariana Islands

1.5

0

0

0.4

<0.1

0

1.9

Palau

0

0

0

0.2

0

0

0.2

Puerto Rico

3.3

0.2

0

0.6

0.6

0

4.6

Virgin Islands

7.6

0

0

0.4

2.8

0

10.7

Unallocated Geography

0

0.3

-1.7

17.5

9.0

2.8

27.9

Rescission

0

0

0

0

0

0

-30.0b

Total

2,097.3

453.9

110.2

100.5

96.6

56.7

2,885.2b

Source: NPS Budget Office, personal communication, September-November 2014.

Notes: Figures reflect a supplemental appropriation in P.L. 113-2 for Superstorm Sandy response and recovery. The supplemental added $329.8 million to the NPS's Construction account and $47.5 million to the Historic Preservation Fund account.

The total includes allocations to the NPS from a central DOI fund for Wildland Fire Management but does not include other allocations to the NPS.

"Unallocated geography" refers to funding that was not allocated to individual states.

a. The state of Delaware did not contain a national park unit at the start of FY2013. The President proclaimed the First State National Monument in Delaware on March 25, 2013. Operating funds were first appropriated for this park unit in FY2014.

b. The total reflects a $30.0 million rescission of contract authority from the Land and Water Conservation Fund. Thus, the column totals for the individual appropriations accounts do not sum to the discretionary appropriations total.

Revenue

The NPS estimates its collected revenues at $333.4 million for FY2013.73 Table 9 shows revenues collected in each state,74 and Figure 6 shows revenues collected by type. The largest source of NPS revenues in FY2013 was the Recreation Fee Program, through which the agency collected $179.5 million (53.8% of the total). The second-largest source was Concession Franchise Fees, with $64.8 million (19.4%) collected. Revenues were $21.3 million (6.4%) from Operation and Maintenance of Quarters, $16.2 million (4.9%) from the Transportation Systems Fund, $6.3 million (1.9%) from the Park Buildings Lease and Maintenance Fund, and $45.3 million (13.6%) from a variety of other sources.75 These programs are discussed further in the "Mandatory Appropriations" section.

The revenues collected in each state varied, with the highest totals in California ($64.6 million), Arizona ($35.2 million), Colorado ($33.1 million), and Utah ($20.7 million). These states contain some of the National Park System's best-known units—such as Grand Canyon National Park (AZ), Yosemite National Park (CA), Zion National Park (UT), and Rocky Mountain National Park (CO)—which receive high numbers of visitors. However, park visitation levels do not necessarily correspond with revenue collections. For example, in 2013, several of the most visited park units (such as the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC; Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee, and the Natchez Trace Parkway in Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee) were in states with relatively low amounts of revenues. In addition to visitor traffic, revenues also depend on whether entrance and recreation use fees are charged at a state's park units; how high the fees are; how much concessioners pay to the NPS to offer visitor services; and whether other types of fees, such as those for the use of transportation within the parks or for operation and maintenance of quarters, are collected.

Revenues collected in some states in FY2013 were affected by damages to the parks from Superstorm Sandy. Some park units were closed for long periods of time after the storm. For example, the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island in New York were closed from the time the storm struck (on October 28, 2012) through July 4, 2013, depressing park visitation and revenues in New York during FY2013.

Table 9. National Park Service Revenue by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Recreation Feesa

Concession Franchise Fees

O&M of Quarters

Transportation Systems Fund

Park Buildings Lease and Maintenance Fund

Otherb

Total Revenues

Alabama

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0

<0.1

Alaska

1.7

4.4

1.1

0

0.3

4.3c

11.8

Arizona

26.9

8.3

0

0

0

0.1

35.2

Arkansas

0.5

0.2

0

0

0

<0.1

0.6

California

36.8

17.0

5.3

1.2

4.0

0.4

64.6

Colorado

8.7

1.7

9.4

13.3

<0.1

<0.1

33.1

Connecticut

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0

<0.1

Delaware

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

District of Columbia

0.5

1.1

0.5

0.2

<0.1

<0.1

2.3

Florida

5.1

1.3

0

0

0

<0.1

6.4

Georgia

1.4

0.1

1.4

0.5

0.2

0

3.7

Hawaii

7.3

0

0

0

0

<0.1

7.3

Idaho

3.0

0

0

0

0

0

3.0

Illinois

0.1

0

0

0

0

<0.1

0.1

Indiana

0.3

0

0

0

0

0

0.3

Iowa

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0

<0.1

Kansas

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Kentucky

3.1

0.2

0

0

0

<0.1

3.2

Louisiana

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Maine

2.8

0.6

0

0

0

0

3.3

Maryland

2.9

0.1

0

0

0

<0.1

3.0

Massachusetts

1.6

0.1

0

0

0

<0.1

1.7

Michigan

2.2

0.2

0

0

0

<0.1

2.3

Minnesota

0.1

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0.1

Mississippi

1.1

0.2

0

0

0

<0.1

1.3

Missouri

2.8

0.1

0

0

0

<0.1

2.9

Montana

9.6

0.3

0

0

0

0.9d

10.7

Nebraska

0.1

0

0.7

<0.1

0.4

0

1.2

Nevada

1.0

0.8

0

0

0

<0.1

1.8

New Hampshire

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0

<0.1

New Jersey

0.4

1.3

0

0

0

<0.1e

1.6

New Mexico

2.7

0.6

0

0

0

<0.1

3.3

New York

3.8

4.8

0

0

0

0.1

8.6

North Carolina

4.6

0.8

0

0

0

0

5.4

North Dakota

0.5

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0.5

Ohio

0.3

0

0

0

0

<0.1

0.3

Oklahoma

0.3

0

0

0

0

0

0.3

Oregon

1.6

0.4

0

0

0

0

2.0

Pennsylvania

0.3

<0.1

2.9

1.0

1.4

<0.1e

5.6

Rhode Island

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0

<0.1

South Carolina

0.1

0.7

0

0

0

0

0.8

South Dakota

2.4

1.9

0

0

0

<0.1

4.3

Tennessee

0.2

0

0

0

0

<0.1

0.2

Texas

1.7

0.2

0

0

0

<0.1

2.0

Utah

14.7

6.0

0

0

0

0.1

20.7

Vermont

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0

<0.1

Virginia

7.5

3.1

0

0

0

<0.1

10.6

Washington

6.2

1.5

0

0

0

<0.1

7.8

West Virginia

<0.1

0

0

0

0

<0.1

<0.1

Wisconsin

0.1

<0.1

0

0

0

0

0.1

Wyoming

5.8

6.9

0

0

0

0.1d

12.8

Puerto Rico

2.2

<0.1

0

0

0

<0.1

2.2

Virgin Islands

0.7

0.1

0

0

0

<0.1

0.8

Unallocated Geography

4.3a

0

0

0

0

39.3f

43.6

Total

179.5

64.8

21.3

16.2

6.3

45.3

333.4

Source: NPS Budget Office, personal communication, September-November 2014.

Notes: In general, figures in the table reflect revenues collected and thus do not reflect sequestration. However, in the case of Recreation Fees, the amounts shown for individual states do reflect sequestration (see note "a"), although the total does not.

a. The Recreation Fee collections shown for each individual state are reduced based on the President's March 1, 2013, sequester order. The amount of revenue that was sequestered is represented under unallocated geography, due to NPS tracking procedures. Revenues from certain sales of interagency recreation passes also are included in the unallocated geography category for Recreation Fees.

b. Figures in this column include revenues from the Filming and Photography Special Use Fee Program, as well as any other programs specifically noted.

c. This figure includes filming and photography fees and Glacier Bay National Park Resource Protection.

d. The figures for Montana and Wyoming include filming and photography fees and visitor fees used for educational expenses of the children of employees at Yellowstone and for payment for tax losses on land at Grand Teton.

e. The figures for New Jersey and Pennsylvania include fees from filming and photography and from Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Route 209 Operations.

f. This figure primarily represents donations. The Park Service does not track donations by state, although some funding may be for use at a specific site depending on the terms of the donation.

Figure 6. National Park Service Revenue by Type, FY2013

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from the NPS Budget Office, personal communication, September-November 2014.

Forest Service

Appropriations

Appropriations data for the Forest Service (FS) are provided in this report for 12 western states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Those 12 western states contain 163.7 million acres (84.8%) of the total 193.0 million acres of the National Forest System. See Table 10.76 These states also account for a large portion of the agency's overall appropriations.

Table 10. National Forest System Units and Acreage in 12 Western States, 2013

Western State

NFS Units

NFS Acreage

Alaska

2

22,207,400

Arizona

7

11,204,428

California

41

20,747,885

Colorado

14

14,482,727

Idaho

18

20,444,413

Montana

14

17,151,047

Nevada

4

5,759,160

New Mexico

17

9,311,527

Oregon

22

15,674,661

Utah

10

8,187,926

Washington

20

9,323,705

Wyoming

11

9,214,708

Total, 12 western states

180

163,709,587

Source: Forest Service, Land Areas Report (LAR)-as of September 30, 2013, Table 4, at http://www.fs.fed.us/land/staff/lar/LAR2013/lar2013index.html.

Notes: NFS Units includes national forests, national grasslands, purchase units, research areas, and other miscellaneous federal land designations managed by the Forest Service. The total of 180 units reflects double counting, because some units are in more than one state.

The FS estimates that appropriations for the 12 western states for FY2013 were $3,380.1 million. The majority of this funding was discretionary. Specifically, the total includes $2,863.2 million (84.7%) in discretionary appropriations and $516.9 million (15.3%) in mandatory appropriations. Table 11 and Figure 7 provide the discretionary, mandatory, and total FS appropriations for the 12 western states.

A large majority of the appropriations are used for managing the 163.7 million acres of agency-owned lands in the 12 western states. Specifically, of the total appropriations, $3,105.1 million (91.9%) was spent on agency lands, although the percentage varies by state. See Table 12 for the percentage of total funding spent in each of the western states on federal and nonfederal land.

Discretionary Appropriations

For FY2013, the 12 western states received $2,863.2 million in discretionary appropriations through several accounts, as shown in Table 13. The largest account was for Wildland Fire Management, which in FY2013 received $1,696.7 million (59.3%) of FS's discretionary appropriations for the 12 western states. This account funds activities related to the management of unplanned and unwanted fires, including planning for and suppression of wildfires. The second-largest discretionary account for the 12 western states was the National Forest System, which received $647.6 million (22.6%) of the total. The National Forest System account funds an array of Forest Service programs and activities related to the management of the agency-owned lands.

The remaining FS FY2013 discretionary appropriation in the 12 western states was considerably smaller. The "Other" category totaled $214.6 million (7.5%), primarily reflecting discretionary indirect costs allocations. The Capital Improvement and Maintenance account—which funds activities related to the agency's infrastructure needs—received $212.2 million (7.4%). State and Private Forestry received $60.4 million (2.1%) for programs to provide financial and technical assistance to nonfederal forest owners and managers, and to protect communities and the environment from insects, diseases, and invasive plants. The 12 western states received $31.1 million (1.1%) for Land Acquisition and $0.6 million (<0.1%) for Forest and Rangeland Research.

Mandatory Appropriations

The FS has over 20 permanent appropriations accounts and several trust funds that constitute mandatory spending. In this report, these accounts and trust funds have been combined into broad categories representing trust funds, permanent appropriations, payment to states, and other mandatory appropriations, as shown in Table 14. The budget authority for these accounts is provided for in various authorizing laws. For several of these accounts, the budget authority is dependent on the level of receipts received for specific National Forest System activities, and some have geographic or programmatic expenditure restrictions. Of the $516.9 million provided in mandatory appropriations, the largest amount was from the Payment to States fund, $231.9 million (44.9%), which includes the payments authorized under SRS and the various revenue-sharing payments. The second-largest category of mandatory appropriations, with $146.6 million (28.4%), was for various permanent funds, such as the Brush Disposal Fund, and the collection of cost recovery fees for administering right-of-way authorizations, among others. FS trust funds, such as those used for cooperative work agreements, timber sale deposits, and reforestation projects, accounted for $97.6 million, 18.9% of the total. Indirect costs associated with the mandatory accounts were $40.8 million, 7.9% of the total appropriation.

Discussion

A precise total of FS appropriations for each state is difficult to ascertain; therefore the figures provided are considered estimates. In fact, the FS tracks and reports very little data by state. This is due in part to the agency's regional organization, which does not follow state boundaries. Rather, an FS region may contain portions of several states. Region 4, for example, contains the national forests located in Nevada, Utah, and portions of Idaho and Wyoming.77 In addition, national forests may cross state boundaries. For example, 22 western national forests are located in more than one state.78 Further, the agency's appropriations accounts are allocated at both the regional and national levels. For instance, FS appropriations for the National Forest System (NFS) account, among others, are allocated to nine FS regions.79 Other appropriations—such as for suppression operations within the Wildland Fire Management subaccount—are appropriated to the national office to be allocated on an as-needed basis. While it may seem feasible to apportion funding based on national forest acreage, there is not always a one-to-one distribution between dollars and forest acreage.80

The 12 western states received widely varying amounts of FY2013 appropriations, ranging from $64.3 million for Nevada to $984.1 million for California. The level of appropriations in each state is influenced by a number of factors. One is the amount of lands managed by the FS in each state, which varies from 5.8 million acres in Nevada to 22.2 million acres in Alaska. Different land resources, conditions, uses, and impacts can affect the cost of land management, as can demographics. In addition, wildfire activity varies from state to state, contributing to differences in appropriations for wildland fire management among states.

Table 11. Forest Service Appropriations for 12 Western States, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Discretionary Appropriations

Mandatory Appropriationsa

Total Appropriations

Alaska

95.0

27.3

122.3

Arizona

147.8

27.7

175.5

California

851.5

132.6

984.1

Colorado

190.0

29.7

219.7

Idaho

319.0

51.8

370.8

Montana

277.0

35.6

312.5

Nevada

58.9

5.4

64.3

New Mexico

197.0

24.6

221.6

Oregon

362.8

127.1

489.9

Utah

130.2

20.3

150.5

Washington

171.3

26.6

197.9

Wyoming

62.7

8.2

70.9

Total, 12 western states

2,863.2

516.9

3,380.1

Total, Forest Service

4,934.7

775.1

5,709.8

Source: Data on the 12 western states provided by Forest Service, Budget Office, September 2014. Total Forest Service discretionary appropriations data are derived from detailed funding tables prepared by the House Committee on Appropriations. Total mandatory appropriations data are derived from Forest Service, Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Justification, at http://www.fs.fed.us/sites/default/files/media/2014/25/2015-BudgetJustification-030614.pdf. Adapted by CRS.

Notes:

a. Forest Service data on mandatory appropriations in the 12 western states reflect new budget authority for FY2013 but may also reflect program level data for FY2013, meaning that some carry-over funds may have been included. The $775.1 million figure shown for the total mandatory appropriation reflects new FY2013 budget authority. The total program level for FY2013 mandatory appropriations was $812.6 million.

Figure 7. Forest Service Appropriations for 12 Western States, FY2013

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from the Forest Service, Budget Office, September 2014.

Notes: Forest Service data on mandatory appropriations in the 12 western states reflect new budget authority for FY2013 but may also reflect program level data for FY2013, meaning that some carry-over funds may have been included.

Table 12. Percent of Forest Service Spending on Federal Lands and
Nonfederal Lands in 12 Western States

 

Federal Land Spending

Nonfederal Land Spending

Alaska

86.0%

14.0%

Arizona

92.6%

7.4%

California

96.4%

3.6%

Colorado

90.1%

9.9%

Idaho

93.2%

6.8%

Montana

89.3%

10.7%

Nevada

92.3%

7.7%

New Mexico

93.5%

6.5%

Oregon

85.2%

14.8%

Utah

87.6%

12.4%

Washington

94.5%

5.5%

Wyoming

90.0%

10.0%

Overall, 12 western states

91.9%

8.1%

Source: Data provided by the Forest Service, Budget Office, September 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes: Nonfederal land spending refers to appropriations for the Forest Service's various technical and financial assistance programs for nonfederal forest landowners, as well as certain Payments to States monies.

Table 13. Forest Service Discretionary Appropriations for 12 Western States, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Wildland Fire Managementa

National Forest System

Capital Improvement and Maintenance

State and Private Forestry

Land Acquisitionb

Forest and Rangeland Research

Otherc

Total Discretionary Appropriations

Alaska

21.6

39.2

14.2

3.8

0.7

0.3

15.4

95.0

Arizona

74.1

44.4

13.6

<0.1

0.3

<0.1

15.6

147.8

California

660.2

121.3

50.8

3.3

1.0

<0.1

14.8

851.5

Colorado

101.6

45.9

17.5

7.9

<0.1

<0.1

16.9

190.0

Idaho

201.4

69.0

20.4

0.9

6.0

0

21.3

319.0

Montana

128.1

72.8

19.4

12.7

16.9

0

27.1

277.0

Nevada

43.2

8.2

2.2

1.5

0

0

3.7

58.9

New Mexico

109.2

51.9

10.9

5.0

0.5

0

19.6

197.0

Oregon

196.3

90.2

27.1

10.4

2.5

0.2

36.0

362.8

Utah

56.4

41.6

10.3

5.9

1.3

<0.1

14.6

130.2

Washington

81.7

43.5

18.1

5.3

1.1

0.1

21.4

171.3

Wyoming

22.9

19.5

7.4

3.9

1.0

0

8.0

62.7

Total, 12 western states

1,696.7

647.6

212.2

60.4

31.1

0.6

214.6

2,863.2

Source: Data provided by the Forest Service, Budget Office, September 2014. Adapted by CRS.

Notes:

a. Transfers from the FLAME Wildfire Suppression Reserve Fund are included in the Wildland Fire Management figures in this column. The FLAME account, funded through discretionary appropriations, functions as a reserve where funds may be transferred to the Wildland Fire Management account in certain situations to support wildfire suppression operations.

b. Figures in this column reflect appropriations for the Forest Service Land Acquisition account as well as several smaller accounts related to land acquisition, such as for special acts acquisitions and land exchanges.

c. Figures in this column primarily reflect indirect costs for various administrative expenses that are not directly chargeable to one specific program, project, or activity. These funds are appropriated through various discretionary accounts. The figures also include discretionary appropriations for the relatively smaller Forest Service accounts not reported in other columns in this table.

Table 14. Forest Service Mandatory Appropriations
for 12 Western States, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Payment to States

Permanent Accounts

Trust Funds

Indirect Costsa

Total Mandatory Appropriation

Alaska

13.6

7.3

2.4

4.0

27.3

Arizona

16.3

7.3

1.3

2.9

27.7

California

38.7

43.0

48.7

2.3

132.6

Colorado

14.0

9.7

3.4

2.6

29.7

Idaho

28.6

15.5

4.3

3.5

51.8

Montana

21.1

6.6

4.4

3.5

35.6

Nevada

4.3

0.7

0

0.3

5.4

New Mexico

11.7

6.8

3.6

2.4

24.6

Oregon

66.6

27.0

20.9

12.6

127.1

Utah

10.8

5.4

1.9

2.3

20.3

Washington

4.1

13.9

5.2

3.3

26.6

Wyoming

2.2

3.4

1.6

1.0

8.2

Total, 12 western states

231.9

146.6

97.6

40.8

516.9

Source: Data provided by the Forest Service, Budget Office, September 2014. Adapted by CRS. The figures reflect new FY2013 budget authority but may also reflect program level data for FY2013, meaning that some carry-over funds may have been included.

Notes:

a. Indirect costs reflect various administrative expenses that are not directly chargeable to one specific program, project, or activity but are appropriated through various mandatory accounts.

Revenue

Revenue collected by the Forest Service in FY2013 totaled $223.6 million. These monies were derived from a variety of activities and resources from National Forest System land. Table 15 shows the amount of revenue by state from each source during FY2013, and Figure 8 shows revenue by type.

Recreation generated the most revenue from the national forest lands—$61.4 million (27.5%) of the total. KV revenue—collections authorized under the Knutson-Vandenberg Act of June 9, 193081—was the second-largest source of revenue, generating $49.4 million (22.1%). Timber sales accounted for the third-largest source, generating $32.0 million (14.3%), while salvage timber sales produced an additional $28.6 million (12.8%). In addition, miscellaneous other deposits or credits associated with timber sales, such as road credits or deposits into the Timber Sale Pipeline Restoration Fund, brought in $19.6 million (8.7%).82 Land-use activities accounted for $18.0 million (8.0%), and power-generating activities or projects on National Forest System land generated $8.0 million (3.6%). Other sources of revenue were grazing permit fees ($4.8 million, 2.2%) and certain mineral sales ($1.9 million, 0.8%).

As shown in Table 15, the national forest revenue generated varies widely by state, ranging from just over $200 in North Dakota to $37.5 million in California. Among the 12 western states, Alaska generated the least amount of revenue, at $1.6 million. The variability is due to several factors, including the amount of National Forest System land in each state and the types of resources contained on those lands. For example, forest type and age, as well as topography, influence the potential amount and value of timber sales. Similarly, the kinds of land uses, such as recreation and power right-of-ways; the frequency and extent of these uses; as well as the value of the land in general influence collections. Other factors, such as proximity to population centers, also contribute to certain revenue sources. For example, recreation generated the most revenue in both California and Colorado national forests, due in part to the close location of several national forests within both of those states to large metropolitan areas.

Table 15. Forest Service Revenue by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Recreation

KV

Timber

Salvage

Land Use

Power

Grazing

Minerals

Other

Total

Alabama

<0.1

1.5

0.6

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0

0

0

2.1

Alaska

0.1

<0.1

0.4

0.2

0.4

0.1

0

0.4

0

1.6

Arizona

1.5

0.1

0.1

0.4

1.1

0.4

0.8

0.3

0

4.7

Arkansas

0.1

5.4

2.6

0.2

0.4

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

2.9

11.6

California

16.1

2.7

2.3

3.5

7.1

4.8

0.3

-0.3

0.9

37.5

Colorado

17.6

0.8

0.9

0.8

1.6

0.1

0.6

<0.1

<0.1

22.5

Connecticut

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Delaware

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Florida

0.4

1.3

0.2

0.4

0.5

0.1

0

0

<0.1

2.9

Georgia

<0.1

0.2

0.1

<0.1

0.1

<0.1

0

0

0.1

0.6

Hawaii

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Idaho

2.1

1.4

0.3

2.5

0.6

0.2

0.6

<0.1

0.9

8.6

Illinois

0

0

<0.1

0

0.8

<0.1

0

<0.1

0

0.8

Indiana

<0.1

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0

0

0

0.1

Iowa

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Kansas

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Kentucky

<0.1

0.2

0.1

<0.1

0.1

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0.6

Louisiana

<0.1

3.4

2.5

<0.1

0.1

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0.4

6.5

Maine

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0

<0.1

<0.1

0.1

Maryland

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Massachusetts

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Michigan

0.4

2.9

3.2

2.2

0.3

0.1

0

<0.1

2.4

11.5

Minnesota

1.5

1.6

0.2

1.1

0.1

<0.1

0

0.3

0.2

5.0

Mississippi

0

2.3

0.7

0.2

0.1

0.1

<0.1

0

0.8

4.1

Missouri

0

1.0

0.2

1.6

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0

0.5

3.4

Montana

2.7

1.4

0.2

2.6

0.4

0.2

0.4

<0.1

0.1

8.1

Nebraska

0

<0.1

<0.1

0

<0.1

0

<0.1

0

0

0.1

Nevada

1.0

0

<0.1

<0.1

0.5

<0.1

0.2

0

0

1.8

New Hampshire

0.6

0.2

0.2

0.5

<0.1

<0.1

0

<0.1

0.2

1.7

New Jersey

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

New Mexico

0.7

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.7

<0.1

0.5

<0.1

0.1

2.7

New York

0

0

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0

0

0

<0.1

North Carolina

0.1

0.8

0.3

0.1

0.3

0.2

0

<0.1

0.2

1.8

North Dakota

<0.1

0

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0

0

<0.1

Ohio

<0.1

0.1

0.1

0

0.1

<0.1

0

0

0.1

0.3

Oklahoma

0

0.8

0.5

<0.1

<0.1

0

<0.1

<0.1

0.5

1.8

Oregon

5.5

10.1

10.3

5.8

0.8

0.3

0.4

<0.1

3.0

36.2

Pennsylvania

0.1

2.0

1.8

0.7

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0

2.2

6.9

Rhode Island

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

South Carolina

<0.1

2.1

1.5

0.1

0.1

0

<0.1

0

0.7

4.5

South Dakota

0.2

2.0

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

<0.1

0.5

3.3

Tennessee

0.3

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0.2

<0.1

0

<0.1

0.1

0.7

Texas

<0.1

0.2

0.5

0.2

0.2

<0.1

0

0

0.3

1.3

Utah

1.9

0.1

0.1

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.5

<0.1

0.1

3.9

Vermont

0.5

<0.1

<0.1

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0

0

<0.1

0.8

Virginia

0

0.6

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0.2

1.1

Washington

3.6

1.1

0.4

2.4

0.4

0.1

0.1

<0.1

0.5

8.7

West Virginia

0

0.5

0.4

<0.1

0.1

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

0.4

1.4

Wisconsin

0.1

1.6

1.1

1.1

<0.1

0.1

0

0

1.0

5.1

Wyoming

4.2

0.6

0.1

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.3

1.0

0.1

7.0

Puerto Rico

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

61.4

49.4

32.0

28.6

18.0

8.0

4.8

1.9

19.6

223.6

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, All Service Receipts (ASR), Final Forest Statement of Receipts (ASR-13-2), http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprd3795423.pdf.

Notes: Nine states do not contain any national forest land: Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Rhode Island. Recreation revenue is amounts collected for all types of recreation, including user fees collected under the Land and Water Conservation Fund. KV revenue is collections authorized under the Knutson-Vandenberg Act of June 9, 1930, from timber sale purchasers for sale area improvement work and reforestation. Timber revenue is amounts collected for the sale of timber and certain other forest products. Salvage sale revenue is derived from payments for salvageable material used to facilitate the timely removal of damaged timber. Land use revenue is amounts collected for land uses except power, minerals, or recreational uses. Power revenue is amounts collected for uses authorized by FS permits or easements for all types of power-generating projects and power transmission line rights-of-way. Grazing revenue is amounts collected for grazing fees in the national forests, with both the eastern and western grazing fees combined. Minerals revenue is amounts collected from the sale of minerals (including quartz crystals) and permit fees. Includes mineral lease and permit fees collected by DOI on acquired lands having National Forest status but does not include any mineral revenue derived from National Forest System land which was established from the public domain. Other revenue includes road credits and deposits made by timber sale contract purchasers, and deposits to the Timber Sale Pipeline Restoration Fund, which is derived from certain timber sale revenues.

Figure 8. Forest Service Revenue by Type, FY2013

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, All Service Receipts (ASR), Final Forest Statement of Receipts (ASR-13-2), http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprd3795423.pdf.

Distributions from Federal Highway Administration

The BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS receive distributions of funds from other agencies for several purposes. A major program is the distribution of Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funds to states for federal lands projects. FHWA and its predecessor offices and agencies have been involved in the development of roads to and through federal lands since 1905.83 The distribution of federal lands highway funds for FY2013 and FY2014 was authorized by the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21)84 and extended through May 31, 2015, by the Highway and Transportation Funding Act of 2014.85 MAP-21 made major changes to federal lands and tribal transportation programs.86

The Federal Lands Highway Program is administered by FHWA's Office of Federal Lands Highway. As restructured by MAP-21, it has three components: the Federal Lands Transportation Program (FLTP), the Federal Lands Access Program (FLAP), and the Federal Lands Planning Program (FLPP).87 FLTP primarily funds transportation facilities on federal lands, whereas FLAP primarily funds transportation facilities that provide access to federal lands. FLPP provides funds to carry out transportation planning for federal lands and tribal transportation facilities.

MAP-21 authorized $300 million for FLTP and $250 million for FLAP for FY2013. FLPP receives a maximum 5% set-aside from these two programs. According to MAP-21, $240 million of FLTP funds goes to NPS, $30 million to FWS, and the remaining $30 million is allocated competitively among BLM, FS, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In addition to the planning set-aside, these amounts are subject to other reductions, such as an obligation limitation.88 FLTP funds are distributed among the states according to agency priorities. Authorized FLAP funds are also subject to an obligation limitation. Available FLAP funds are distributed by formula. Eighty percent of FLAP funds go to states that contain at least 1.5% of the national total of federal lands, and the remaining 20% go to states with less than 1.5% of the national total.89 Funds within these two groups are then distributed to individual states based on four factors: (1) 55% according to a state's share of federal public road miles; (2) 30% according to a state's share of recreational visitation; (3) 10% according to a state's share of federal public bridges; and (4) 5% according to a state's share of federal land area.

In addition to funds for FLTP, FLAP, and FLPP, the Office of Federal Lands Highway also distributed funding from two other federal lands highway programs in FY2013. One involved the remaining FY2012 funding from the Public Lands Highway Discretionary Program, a program authorized under the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users.90 The other was funding approved for FY2013 disasters under the Emergency Relief for Federally Owned Roads Program (ERFO).91

In FY2013, $573.8 million was distributed by Federal Lands Highway92 from these five programs to BLM, FWS, NPS, or FS, or to a state Programming Decisions Committee (PDC).93 Almost half of the funds available ($280.6 million, 48.9%) went to NPS, and another two-fifths ($227.2 million, 39.6%) went to state PDCs. The remaining funds were allocated to FWS (6.4%), FS (3.5%), and BLM (1.7%). Of the $573.8 million, $82.9 million cannot be identified by state because it was attributed only to a federal land management agency ($65.0 million) or it was unallocated in FY2013 ($18.0 million). The distribution by state and agency of the remaining $490.8 million can be seen in Table 16. Figure 9 shows the distribution by agency.

Table 16. Federal Highway Administration Distributions for Federal Lands, by Agency and State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

State

NPS

State PDC

FWS

FS

BLM

Total

Alabama

2.6

1.0

0

0

0

3.6

Alaska

6.1

7.1

1.5

0.7

0

15.4

Arizona

10.7

13.5

0

0

0

24.3

Arkansas

<0.1

3.1

0

0

0

3.2

California

48.9

35.7

1.5

<0.1

0.3

86.5

Colorado

7.8

16.7

2.1

0.4

0.2

27.1

Connecticut

0

<0.1

0

0

0

<0.1

Delaware

0

<0.1

<0.1

0

0

<0.1

District of Columbia

5.6

1.3

0

0

0

6.9

Florida

0.2

2.0

0.8

0

0

3.0

Georgia

0.4

2.3

0.1

0

0

2.8

Hawaii

0.2

0.3

0

0

0

0.4

Idaho

1.1

17.1

0

0

<0.1

18.2

Illinois

0

0.9

0

0

0

0.9

Indiana

<0.1

0.5

0

0

0

0.5

Iowa

0

0.3

2.8

0

0

3.1

Kansas

0.6

0.8

2.2

0

0

3.6

Kentucky

<0.1

1.6

0

0

0

1.7

Louisiana

0

1.3

2.2

0

0

3.5

Maine

0

0.3

0

0

0

0.3

Maryland

3.8

0.5

0.2

0

0

4.5

Massachusetts

<0.1

0.4

0.1

0

0

0.5

Michigan

0.1

1.6

0.8

0

0

2.5

Minnesota

0.5

1.3

0.3

0

0

2.1

Mississippi

10.1

2.9

<0.1

0

0

13.0

Missouri

<0.1

1.5

0.2

0

0

1.7

Montana

13.3

22.8

<0.1

<0.1

<0.1

36.1

Nebraska

0

0.3

<0.1

0

0

0.3

Nevada

2.8

7.1

0

0

0

9.8

New Hampshire

0

0.3

0.1

0

0

0.4

New Jersey

6.2

0.2

0.9

0

0

7.3

New Mexico

3.9

5.8

1.7

0

0

11.4

New York

24.9

0.4

<0.1

0

0

25.4

North Carolina

30.3

2.6

0

0

0

32.8

North Dakota

5.5

0.9

1.2

0

0

7.6

Ohio

1.2

0.8

0.1

0

0

2.1

Oklahoma

0.1

1.3

0

0

0

1.4

Oregon

0.6

22.1

<0.1

0.5

<0.1

23.2

Pennsylvania

0.3

1.1

0

0

0

1.4

Rhode Island

0

<0.1

0.8

0

0

0.8

South Carolina

<0.1

1.2

0.1

0

0

1.3

South Dakota

3.1

1.2

<0.1

0

0

4.2

Tennessee

4.9

2.4

0.3

0

0

7.6

Texas

0.2

2.7

4.1

0

0

6.9

Utah

0.2

10.8

0

0

1.5

12.4

Vermont

0

0.2

0.1

0

0

0.3

Virginia

18.3

3.0

2.2

0.2

<0.1

23.8

Washington

12.4

14.0

0.8

1.1

<0.1

28.2

West Virginia

0.1

1.1

<0.1

0

0

1.2

Wisconsin

0

1.8

<0.1

0

0

1.8

Wyoming

4.3

9.3

0.1

0

0

13.7

Agency

46.9

0

9.2

4.6

4.3

65.0

Unallocated

2.5

0

<0.1

12.2

3.3

18.0

Total

280.6

227.2

36.5

19.8

9.6

573.8

Source: Data prepared for CRS by the Federal Highway Administration, March 28, 2014.

Notes: PDC refers to a state Programming Decisions Committee. "Agency" represents federal lands highway funds transferred to an agency that FHWA cannot identify by place of expenditure. "Unallocated" is funding available to a land management agency in FY2013 but not allocated. These funds are likely to be allocated in FY2014.

Figure 9. Federal Highway Administration Distributions for
Federal Lands by Agency, FY2013

Source: Prepared by CRS with data from the Federal Highway Administration, March 28, 2014.

Payment Programs

Federally owned lands cannot be taxed but may create demand for services, such as fire protection, police cooperation, or longer roads to skirt the federal property. Under federal law, local governments are compensated through various programs due to the presence of most federally owned land. Some of these programs are run by specific agencies and apply only to one agency's land, while others are broader and apply to lands of multiple agencies.94

Payments in Lieu of Taxes

The Payments in Lieu of Taxes program, or PILT, 95 is the most widely applicable program and applies to many types of federally owned land. The program is administered by DOI. Under the statute, eligible lands are those in the National Park System; National Forest System; Bureau of Land Management; the National Wildlife Refuge System for land withdrawn from the public domain; lands dedicated to the use of federal water resources development projects; dredge disposal areas under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; lands located in the vicinity of Purgatory River Canyon and Piñon Canyon, CO, that were acquired after December 31, 1981, to expand the Fort Carson military reservation; lands on which are located semi-active or inactive Army installations used for mobilization and for reserve component training; and certain lands acquired by DOI or the Department of Agriculture under the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act.

No precise dollar figure can be given in advance for each year's authorized level of PILT payments. Rather, the authorized level of PILT payments is calculated under a complex formula. Five factors affect the calculation of a payment to a given county: the number of acres eligible for PILT payments, the county's population, payments in prior years from other specified federal land payment programs, state laws directing payments to a particular government purpose, and the Consumer Price Index as calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. According to the FY2013 National Summary, there were 2,130 counties eligible for PILT payments in that fiscal year.96 Many of these counties are rural counties, which are sparsely populated. The average payment per county was $187,900. Some counties received no payment because they have very few federal lands, and PILT makes no payments under $100. By contrast, many received over $1 million, and 16 counties received over $3 million.97 The total PILT payment in FY2013 was $401.8 million. Table 17 shows the FY2013 payments by state. PILT payments were mandatory spending in FY2013.98 Figure 10 shows the combined payments to states under PILT and FS payments to states.

Table 17. Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

State

Payment

Alabama

0.9

Alaska

26.4

Arizona

32.2

Arkansas

5.8

California

41.4

Colorado

32.0

Connecticut

<0.1

Delaware

<0.1

District of Columbia

<0.1

Florida

5.0

Georgia

2.3

Hawaii

0.3

Idaho

26.3

Illinois

1.1

Indiana

0.5

Iowa

0.5

Kansas

1.1

Kentucky

1.9

Louisiana

0.6

Maine

0.3

Maryland

0.1

Massachusetts

0.1

Michigan

4.2

Minnesota

2.0

Mississippi

1.6

Missouri

3.1

Montana

26.5

Nebraska

1.1

Nevada

23.3

New Hampshire

1.8

New Jersey

0.1

New Mexico

34.7

New York

0.1

North Carolina

4.0

North Dakota

1.4

Ohio

0.6

Oklahoma

2.8

Oregon

15.6

Pennsylvania

0.7

Rhode Island

0

South Carolina

0.5

South Dakota

5.7

Tennessee

1.9

Texas

4.8

Utah

35.4

Vermont

0.9

Virginia

3.3

Washington

17.2

West Virginia

2.9

Wisconsin

1.3

Wyoming

25.3

Guam

<0.1

Puerto Rico

<0.1

Virgin Islands

<0.1

Total

401.8

Source: DOI online summary at http://www.doi.gov/pilt/state-payments.cfm?fiscal_yr=2013&as_sfid=AAAAAAW3ubwRNC4HsGKBi0xPKX5Ji5ofcV4aIr7TN10MoovV8rZF2iKr4lqiLMWk5Hks2GpxQ%2FFU%2FFtDEw%2FopcR3X%2FblQdAJJQm0KDbG3msW0cAZ6Q%3D%3D&as_fid=rPL7JSighXU1%2FW5asmAJ.

Note: Online summary tables show a discrepancy with the FY2013 National Summary for Colorado and North Carolina, resulting in a difference in the national total shown in these sources. According to DOI officials, there were reporting errors from the two states in FY2013, leading to adjustments in the payments. The amounts shown here, from the online summary tables, are current. (Personal communication between CRS and DOI, September 12, 2014.)

Forest Service Payments to States

Counties with national forest lands and with certain BLM lands have historically received a percentage of agency revenues, primarily from timber sales. However, starting in the 1990s, timber sales declined substantially—by more than 90% in some areas from peak harvest levels in the 1980s. Thus, Congress enacted the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (SRS)99 as a temporary, optional program of payments based in part on historic rather than current revenues.100 For the FY2013 payment, counties had the option of receiving either a revenue-sharing payment or an SRS payment. The payments are made to states and then passed on to the counties or eligible local government units.101

The total FY2013 payment was $312.5 million. The vast majority of the counties opted to receive an SRS payment, which was $295.3 million or 94.5% of the total payment. However, some counties elected to receive their portion of the $17.2 million revenue-sharing payment. Oregon received the highest payment in FY2013—$97.1 million—including a $36.3 million SRS payment for the O&C lands managed by the BLM. California ($32.7 million) and Idaho ($25.2 million) received the next highest payments. Several factors influence the amount of the SRS payment, including amount of land, historical revenue level, and per capita income, while the revenue-sharing payment is set at 25% of the revenue generated on the national forest lands within the specified county. Table 18 shows each state's total payment and the portions that were from revenue sharing and SRS. Figure 10 shows the combined payments to states under PILT and FS Payments to States.

Table 18. FS Revenue-Sharing and SRS Title I and Title II Payments by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

 

Revenue Sharing

SRS

Total Payment

Alabama

0

1.7

1.7

Alaska

0

12.2

12.2

Arizona

0

13.0

13.0

Arkansas

0.3

6.1

6.4

California

3.9

28.8

32.7

Colorado

2.9

9.6

12.5

Connecticut

0

0

0

Delaware

0

0

0

Florida

<0.1

2.3

2.3

Georgia

<0.1

1.5

1.5

Hawaii

0

0

0

Idaho

0

25.2

25.2

Illinois

0.2

<0.1

0.3

Indiana

0

0.3

0.3

Iowa

0

0

0

Kansas

0

0

0

Kentucky

0

1.7

1.7

Louisiana

0

1.6

1.6

Maine

0

0.1

0.1

Maryland

0

0

0

Massachusetts

0

0

0

Michigan

0.7

2.9

3.6

Minnesotaa

6.2

2.2

8.4

Mississippi

0

5.3

5.3

Missouri

0

3.3

3.3

Montana

0.1

18.6

18.7

Nebraska

0

0.2

0.2

Nevada

<0.1

3.5

3.5

New Hampshire

0.3

0.2

0.5

New Jersey

0

0

0

New Mexico

0

9.5

9.5

New York

0

<0.1

<0.1

North Carolina

<0.1

1.8

1.8

North Dakota

0

<0.1

<0.1

Ohio

<0.1

0.2

0.3

Oklahoma

0

0.9

0.9

Oregonb

0.1

97.0

97.1

Pennsylvania

1.9

1.0

2.9

Rhode Island

0

0

0

South Carolina

0

1.7

1.7

South Dakota

0

1.7

1.7

Tennessee

0

1.1

1.1

Texas

0

2.3

2.3

Utah

0.1

9.9

10.0

Vermont

0

0.3

0.3

Virginia

0.1

1.5

1.5

Washington

<0.1

19.0

19.0

West Virginia

0

1.7

1.7

Wisconsin

<0.1

1.7

1.7

Wyoming

0.4

3.8

4.2

Puerto Rico

0

0.1

0.1

Total

17.2

295.3

312.5

Source: Data compiled from personal communication between CRS and the Forest Service Legislative Affairs staff, reports available on the Forest Service Payments and Receipts at http://www.fs.usda.gov/main/pts/securepayments/projectedpayments; and U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Official 2013 Payments, at http://www.blm.gov/or/rac/ctypaypayments.php.

Notes: The SRS payment only includes the SRS Title I and Title III payments, and does not include amounts paid in Title II, which are to be used by the agency for projects within that county.

Nine states do not contain any national forest land and therefore do not receive any payments. This is the case for Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Rhode Island.

a. As authorized by the Thye-Blatnick Act of June 22, 1948 (16 U.S.C. §577g), certain counties in Minnesota receive an annual payment of $6.15 million.

b. The Oregon SRS payment includes $36.3 million paid to the O&C counties under SRS Title I and Title III.

Figure 10. PILT and Forest Service Payments to States, FY2013

Source: Prepared by CRS from data reported in Table 17 and Table 18. See sources listed for those tables.

Notes: The Forest Service Payments to States include the revenue-sharing payment, FS SRS Title I and Title III payments, and BLM SRS Title I and Title III payments.

Office of Natural Resources Revenue

The DOI Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) is responsible for public revenue derived from a variety of energy and mineral projects on federal lands. On a nationwide basis, ONRR reports collecting the following payments:

  • bonuses to secure a lease;102
  • rents to maintain access to leased tracts;103 and
  • royalties based on extraction volumes, among other values.104

The ONRR mission differs significantly from those of the federal land management agencies featured in this report. With a workforce comprised of approximately 600 accountants, auditors, computer specialists, and others, this agency is engaged in revenue management with no involvement in leasing, permitting, development, conservation, or other land management decisions.105

This section focuses on ONRR reported revenue for FY2013 for federal onshore areas in all states. For FY2013, ONRR reported a total of $4,296.9 million. These revenues were derived from federal lands located in 37 of the 50 states, as shown in Table 19. Revenues were derived from many energy and mineral commodities, including coal, gas, hardrock minerals, oil, phosphate, sodium, and sulfur.

Neither ONNR nor BLM—which issues and administers the leases on federal lands—breaks out the total reported revenue based on the agency administering the lands. Instead, agency records are organized by type of revenue, commodity, product, and other categories. Thus, statistics are not readily available on the portion of the revenues, if any, derived on lands managed by BLM, FWS, NPS, and FS, as well as other federal agencies.106

Federal energy and mineral revenue tend to vary widely from state to state (as well as from year to year). While there can be several reasons, a chief factor in state-to-state variations is the extent of federal acreage within a state and, of that acreage, the extent containing recoverable energy and mineral resources. For instance, as shown in Table 19 and Figure 11, two states with relatively large federal acreage available for mineral exploration made up more than two-thirds (70.7%) of the total revenue reported for the nation. Each of these states—Wyoming and New Mexico—reported over a billion dollars in energy and mineral revenue from federal lands ($1,998.9 million and $1,040.8 million, respectively).

On the low end of the range of statistics considered, ONRR data show less than $1.0 million in onshore revenue for about half the states. These states had little or no mineral leasing activity during FY2013. In general, these states are among those with less extensive federal acreage and limited potential for energy and mineral development. Of the states in this category, there were no onshore receipts from 13 states: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and Wisconsin.107 Further, several states had revenues less than $50,000,108 with the lowest being North Carolina ($474), South Carolina ($4,440), and New York ($5,149).

In addition to the extent of federal acreage and related resource potential, other variables that could affect energy and mineral revenues are weather conditions (e.g., flooding, drought, or hurricane) and other special circumstances (e.g., forest fire or oil spill). Unplanned events, perhaps occurring over a prolonged period, could be a determinant of public revenue.109 In the period considered, some states reported a variety of conditions contributing to changes in natural resource development.

Table 19. Office of Natural Resources Reported Revenues by State, FY2013

(in millions of dollars)

State

Revenue

Alabama

4.5

Alaska

22.0

Arizona

0.1

Arkansas

5.1

California

206.6

Colorado

294.7

Connecticut

0

Delaware

0

Florida

0.7

Georgia

0

Hawaii

0

Idaho

10.0

Illinois

0.3

Indiana

<0.1

Iowa

0

Kansas

5.4

Kentucky

1.9

Louisiana

12.5

Maine

0

Maryland

<0.1

Massachusetts

0

Michigan

1.5

Minnesota

0.1