Monuments and Memorials Authorized and Completed Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia

Since the enactment of the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) in 1986, Congress has authorized 35 commemorative works to be placed in the District of Columbia or its environs. Nineteen of these works have been completed and dedicated.

This report contains a catalog of the 19 authorized works that have been completed and dedicated since 1986. For each memorial, the report provides a rationale for each authorized work, as expressed by a Member of Congress, as well as the statutory authority for its creation; and identifies the group or groups which sponsored the commemoration, the memorial’s location, and the dedication date. A picture of each work is also included. The Appendix includes a map showing each completed memorial’s location.

For more information on the Commemorative Works Act, see CRS Report R41658, Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia: Background and Practice, by Jacob R. Straus; CRS Report R43241, Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act, by Jacob R. Straus; and CRS Report R43744, Monuments and Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia: Current Development of In-Progress and Lapsed Works, by Jacob R. Straus.

Monuments and Memorials Authorized and Completed Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia

November 17, 2017 (R43743)
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Contents

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Summary

Since the enactment of the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) in 1986, Congress has authorized 35 commemorative works to be placed in the District of Columbia or its environs. Nineteen of these works have been completed and dedicated.

This report contains a catalog of the 19 authorized works that have been completed and dedicated since 1986. For each memorial, the report provides a rationale for each authorized work, as expressed by a Member of Congress, as well as the statutory authority for its creation; and identifies the group or groups which sponsored the commemoration, the memorial's location, and the dedication date. A picture of each work is also included. The Appendix includes a map showing each completed memorial's location.

For more information on the Commemorative Works Act, see CRS Report R41658, Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia: Background and Practice, by [author name scrubbed]; CRS Report R43241, Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act, by [author name scrubbed]; and CRS Report R43744, Monuments and Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia: Current Development of In-Progress and Lapsed Works, by [author name scrubbed].


Monuments and Memorials Authorized and Completed Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia

Introduction

Since November 1986, the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) has provided the legal framework for the placement of commemorative works in the District of Columbia. The CWA was enacted to establish a statutory process for ensuring "that future commemorative works in areas administered by the National Park Service (NPS) and the General Services Administration (GSA) in the District of Columbia and its environs (1) are appropriately designed, constructed, and located and (2) reflect a consensus of the lasting significance of the subjects involved."1 Since the CWA's enactment, 35 memorials have been authorized for placement in the District of Columbia.

This report provides a catalog of the 19 memorials in the District of Columbia that have been authorized, completed, and dedicated since the passage of the CWA. A summary of the work is provided. The report also provides information—located within text boxes for easy reference—on the statute(s) authorizing the work; the authorized organization; legislative extensions, if any; the memorial's location; and the dedication date. A picture of each work is also included. The Appendix includes a map showing each memorial's location.

For a further discussion of the placement of memorials in the District of Columbia see CRS Report R41658, Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia: Background and Practice, by [author name scrubbed] and CRS Report R43744, Monuments and Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia: Current Development of In-Progress and Lapsed Works, by [author name scrubbed].

Commemorative Works Areas of the District of Columbia

The CWA divides land under the jurisdiction of the NPS and GSA in the District of Columbia and its environs into three sections for the placement of memorials: the Reserve, Area I, and Area II. For each area, the standards for memorial placement are specified in law, and congressional approval of monument location is required. Property not under the jurisdiction of the NPS or GSA is not subject to the CWA. See Figure A-1 for a map of the commemorative works areas of the District of Columbia.

Reserve

The Reserve was created in November 2003, by P.L. 108-126, to prohibit the addition of future memorials in an area defined as "the great cross-axis of the Mall, which generally extends from the United States Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial, and from the White House to the Jefferson Memorial."2 This area is legally considered "a substantially completed work of civic art."3 Within this area, "to preserve the integrity of the Mall … the siting of new commemorative works is prohibited."4

Area I

Created as part of the original CWA statute in 1986, Area I is reserved for commemorative works of "preeminent historical and lasting significance to the United States."5 Area I is roughly bounded by the West Front of the Capitol; Pennsylvania Avenue NW (between 1st and 15th Streets NW); Lafayette Square; 17th Street NW (between H Street and Constitution Avenue); Constitution Avenue NW (between 17th and 23rd Streets); the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts waterfront area; Theodore Roosevelt Island; National Park Service land in Virginia surrounding the George Washington Memorial Parkway; the 14th Street Bridge area; and Maryland Avenue SW, from Maine Avenue SW, to Independence Avenue SW, at the United States Botanic Garden.

Area II

Also created as part of the original CWA statute, Area II is reserved for "subjects of lasting historical significance to the American people."6 Area II encompasses all sections of the District of Columbia and its environs not part of the Reserve or Area I.

Authorized Commemorative Works

Since the passage of the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) in 1986, Congress has authorized 35 commemorative works to be placed in the District of Columbia or its environs, 19 of which have been completed and dedicated—16 under the auspices of the CWA and three outside of the CWA process. The other 16 authorized commemorative works are either in progress or have a lapsed authorization. Table 1 lists the commemorative works authorized and dedicated since 1986.

Table 1. Completed Commemorative Works

Congress

Memorial

Authorizing Legislation

Located on Property Under CWA Jurisdiction

99

Women in Military Service for America

P.L. 99-610, 100 Stat. 3477, November 6, 1986

99

Francis Scott Key

P.L. 99-531, 100 Stat. 3022, October 27, 1986

99

Korean War Veterans

P.L. 99-572, 100 Stat. 3226, October 28, 1986

99

American Armored Force

P.L. 99-620, 100 Stat. 3493, November 6, 1986

100

Vietnam Women's Memorial

P.L. 100-660, 102 Stat. 3922, November 15, 1988

101

George Mason

P.L. 101-358, 104 Stat. 419, August 10, 1990

102

African-American Civil War-Union Soldiers/Sailors

P.L. 102-412, 106 Stat. 2104, October 14, 1992

102

Japanese American Patriotism in World War II

P.L. 102-502, 106 Stat. 3273, October 24, 1992

103

World War II

P.L. 103-32, 107 Stat. 90, May 25, 1993

103

Victims of Communism

P.L. 103-199, Title IX, §905, 107 Stat. 2331, December 17, 1993

104

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

P.L. 104-333, Div. I, Title V, §508, 110 Stat. 4157, November 12, 1996

105

Mahatma Gandhi

P.L. 105-284, 112 Stat. 2701, October 26, 1998

106

American Veterans Disabled for Life

P.L. 106-348, 114 Stat. 1358, October 24, 2000

106

Lincoln Memorial "I Have a Dream" Speech

P.L. 106-365, 114 Stat. 1409, October 27, 2000

107

Tomas G. Masaryk

P.L. 107-61, 115 Stat. 410, November 5, 2001

109

Victims of Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933

P.L. 109-340, 120 Stat. 1864, October 13, 2006

Located on Property Not Subject to the CWA

103

United States Air Forcea

P.L. 103-163, 107 Stat. 1973, December 2, 1993

106

Veterans Who Died as a Result of Service in the Vietnam Warb

P.L. 106-214, 114 Stat. 335, June 15, 2000

111

Senator Robert J. Dole Plaque

P.L. 111-88, §128, 123 Stat. 2933, October 30, 2009

Source: 40 U.S.C. §8903 note and CRS analysis of memorial legislation.

Notes:

a. The United States Air Force Memorial was constructed on land not governed by the Commemorative Works Act. For more information, see the section below on the "United States Air Force" Memorial and the Air Force Memorial Foundation, http://www.airforcememorial.org.

b. In authorizing the plaque to honor other Vietnam veterans who died as a result of service in the Vietnam War, Congress specifically exempted the American Battle Monuments Commission from 40 U.S.C. §8903(c), which prohibits the creation of a commemorative work to an event, individuals, or groups "until the 25th anniversary of the event, death of the individual, or death of the last surviving member of the group."

Completed Commemorative Works

Since 1986, 19 commemorative works have been completed within the District of Columbia and its environs. These memorials honored groups of individuals, such as women who have served in the U.S. military; veterans from World War II as well as the Korean War; and individuals including George Mason, Francis Scott Key, and Mahatma Gandhi. For each memorial, a short background and a picture is included. Additionally, a text box is provided that includes information on the authorizing statute; the sponsor organization; statutory extensions of the sponsor's authorization, if necessary;7 the memorial's location; and the date of dedication.

Women in Military Service for America

In October 1986, Congress authorized the Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation to construct a commemorative work, on federal land, to honor women who had served in the U.S. Armed Forces.8 Located at the ceremonial entrance to Arlington National Cemetery, the Women in Military Service for America Memorial is a "30-foot high curved neoclassical retaining wall"9 and a fountain. While the foundation has raised nonfederal funds to construct the memorial, because the memorial was built to complement the existing main gate and plaza of Arlington National Cemetery, Congress authorized the Secretary of the Army to provide "engineering, design, construction management, and related services on a reimbursable basis."10 Figure 1 shows the Women in Military Service for America Memorial.

Figure 1. Women in Military Service for America Memorial

Source: Women in Military Service for America Foundation.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 99-610, 100 Stat. 3477, November 6, 1986

Sponsor Organization: Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation(http://www.womensmemorial.org)

Statutory Extension: Extended to 10 years from date of enactment
(P.L. 103-321, 108 Stat. 1793, August 26, 1994)

Location: Area I

Dedication: October 18, 1997

Francis Scott Key

In October 1986, the Francis Scott Key Park Foundation was authorized by Congress to construct a commemorative work on public grounds in the District of Columbia to "honor and in commemoration of Francis Scott Key, the author of the words to 'The Star Spangled Banner,' our National Anthem, who lived and practiced law in Washington, District of Columbia at the time he penned those immortal words."11 The memorial is located in a park close to the site of Francis Scott Key's home, which was demolished in 1947,12 and is adjacent to the Georgetown entrance to Key Bridge, which is also named for Francis Scott Key. The memorial consists of a round stone base and a bust of Francis Scott Key and is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Francis Scott Key Memorial

Source: Author's photo of the Francis Scott Key Memorial. Taken July 12, 2011.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 99-531, 100 Stat. 3022, October 27, 1986

Sponsor Organization: Francis Scott Key Park Foundation, Inc.

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Area II

Dedication: September 14, 1993

Korean War Veterans

In October 1986, the American Battle Monuments Commission13 was authorized by Congress to construct a memorial on federal land in Washington, DC, "to honor members of the Armed Forces of the United States who served in the Korean War, particularly those who were killed in action, are still listed as missing in action, or were held as prisoners of war."14 Located to the southeast of the Lincoln Memorial, the Korean War Veterans Memorial contains 19 stainless steel statues, a mural wall etched with bas-relief images of photographs of Korean War scenes from the National Archives, a pool of remembrance, an honor roll, a low stone wall listing the 22 nations that participated in the war, and a dedication stone.15 "The memorial commemorates the sacrifices of the 5.8 million Americans who served in the U.S. armed services during the three-year period of the Korean War.... During its relatively short duration from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, 54,246 Americans died in support of their country. Of these, 8,200 are listed as missing in action or lost or buried at sea. In addition 103,284 were wounded during the conflict."16 Figure 3 shows the Korean War Veterans Memorial.

Figure 3. Korean War Veterans Memorial

Source: American Battle Monuments Commission "Korean War Veterans Memorial," at http://www.abmc.gov/images/kr6w.jpg.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 99-572, 100 Stat. 3326, October 28, 198617

Sponsor Organization: American Battle Monuments Commission
(http://www.abmc.gov)

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Reserve18

Dedication: July 27, 1995

American Armored Force

In November 1986, Congress authorized 25 private armored force committees and associations to create a memorial on federal land to "honor members of the American Armored Force who have served in armored units."19 The memorial was authorized to "commemorate the exceptional professionalism of the members of the American Armored Force and their efforts to maintain peace worldwide."20 Located on Memorial Drive at the entrance to Arlington National Cemetery,21 the American Armored Force Memorial (Figure 4) depicts armored forces engaged in battle surrounded by the logos of the various armored divisions.

Figure 4. American Armored Force Memorial

Source: Author's photograph of the American Armored Force Memorial. Taken September 23, 2011.

Note: The text under the memorial relief reads: "A balanced team of combat arms and services of equal importance and equal prestige." – Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, Father of the American Armored Force.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 99-620, 100 Stat. 3493, November 6, 1986

Sponsor Organization: The Armored Force Monument Committee; the United States Armor Association; the United States Field Artillery Association; the World Wars Tank Corps Association; the Veterans of the Battle of the Bulge; the 11thArmored Calvary Regiment Association; the Tank Destroyer Association; the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, and 16th Armed Division Associations; the Council of Armored Division Associations; and the National Association of Uniformed Services

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Area II

Dedication: November 11, 1991

Vietnam Women

In November 1988, Congress authorized the Vietnam Women's Memorial Project to establish a memorial on federal land in the District of Columbia to "honor women who served in the Armed Forces of the United States in the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam era."22 Located next to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, the Vietnam Women's Memorial is designed to honor all women who served during the Vietnam War. The bronze statue of the Vietnam Women's Memorial statue (Figure 5) depicts "a nurse—in a moment of crisis—… supported by sandbags as she serves as the life support for a wounded soldier lying across her lap. The standing woman looks up, in search of a med-i-vac helicopter or, perhaps, in search of help from God."23

Figure 5. Vietnam Women's Memorial

Source: U.S. Department of Defense, "Memorials Honoring Women Scattered Across Nation," American Forces Press Service, at http://archive.defense.gov/DODCMSShare/NewsStoryPhoto/2000-04/scr_20004073b_300.jpg.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 100-660, 102 Stat. 3922, November 15, 1988
P.L. 101-187, 103 Stat. 1350, November 28, 1989

Sponsor Organization: Vietnam Women's Memorial Project, Inc.
(http://www.vietnamwomensmemorial.org)

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Area I24

Dedication: November 11, 1993

George Mason

In August 1990, the Board of Regents of Gunston Hall25 was authorized to build a memorial to George Mason on federal land in the District of Columbia.26 Located in West Potomac Park, near the Tidal Basin, Jefferson Memorial, and George Mason Memorial Bridge,27 the George Mason Memorial (Figure 6) was designed in the style of Mason's Gunston Hall plantation and features a statue of the American patriot and statesmen seated on a bench.28 Following congressional authorization of the site location,29 the memorial was placed as an addition to an existing commemorative work to George Mason—the south-bound span of the 14th Street Bridge—that had been authorized in 1959.30

Figure 6. George Mason Memorial

Source: American Society of Landscape Architects. "George Mason Memorial," at http://www.asla.org/guide/site.aspx?id=35787.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 101-358, 104 Stat. 419, August 10, 1990

Sponsor Organization: Board of Regents of Gunston Hall

Statutory Extension: Authorization extended to August 10, 2000 (P.L. 105-182, 112 Stat. 516, June 19, 1998)

Location: Area I31

Dedication: April 9, 2000

African-American Civil War-Union Soldier/Sailors

In October 1992, Congress authorized the government of the District of Columbia to establish a memorial on federal land "to honor African-Americans who served with Union forces during the Civil War."32 Located at 12th and U Streets NW the African-American Civil War-Union Soldiers/Sailors Memorial (Figure 7) features a granite plaza surrounded by a wall of honor on three sides. In the center is a statue featuring "uniformed black soldiers and a sailor poised to leave home. Women, children, and elders on the cusp of the concave inner surface seek strength together."33

Figure 7. African-American Civil War-Union Soldiers/Sailors Memorial

Source: Author's photograph of the African-American Civil War-Union Soldiers/Sailors Memorial. Taken August 4, 2011.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 102-412, 106 Stat. 2104, October 14, 1992

Sponsor Organization: Government of the District of Columbia

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Area II

Dedication: July 18, 1998

Japanese American Patriotism in World War II

In October 1992, Congress authorized the Go for Broke National Veterans Association Foundation to create a memorial on federal land in the District of Columbia "to honor Japanese American patriotism in World War II."34 Located at the intersection of New Jersey Avenue NW, Louisiana Avenue NW, and D Street NW, the memorial contains a statue of a crane surrounded by the names of the 10 relocation camps used to house Japanese Americans during World War II.35 The Japanese American Patriotism in World War II Memorial (Figure 8) also contains the names of Japanese Americans killed in uniform during World War II, a bell, a reflecting pond with five granite boulders, and a quotation by Senator Daniel Inouye.36

Figure 8. Japanese American Patriotism in World War II Memorial

Source: National Japanese American Memorial Foundation, "Electronic Press Kit," p. 6, at http://www.njamf.com/FileRoom/njamf_epk_2012.pdf#page=6.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 102-502, 106 Stat. 3273, October 25, 1992

Sponsor Organization: Go for Broke National Veterans Association Foundation(http://www.njamf.com)

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Area I

Dedication: November 9, 2000

World War II

In May 1993, Congress authorized the American Battle Monuments Commission to establish a memorial "to honor members of the Armed Forces who served in World War II and to commemorate the participation of the United States in that war."37 Located on the National Mall between the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial between the eastern edge of the Reflecting Pool and 17th Street NW,38 the World War II Memorial (Figure 9) consists of 24 bronze bas-relief panels flanking the ceremonial entrance, 56 granite columns around the Rainbow Pool39 to "symbolize the unprecedented wartime unity among the forty-eight states, several federal territories, and the District of Columbia." Two 43-foot tall pavilions proclaiming "American victory on the Atlantic and Pacific fronts" are located to the North and South of the pool.40

Figure 9. World War II Memorial

Source: WWII Memorial, Washington, DC "The Memorial Plaza," at http://www.wwiimemorial.com.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 103-32, 107 Stat. 90, May 25, 1993

Sponsor Organization: American Battle Monuments Commission
(http://www.abmc.gov)

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Area I41

Dedication: May 29, 2004

Victims of Communism

In December 1993, Congress authorized the National Captive Nations Committee to "construct, maintain, and operate in the District of Columbia an appropriate international memorial to honor victims of communism."42 Located on Massachusetts Avenue NW between New Jersey Avenue NW and G Street NW, the Victims of Communism Memorial (Figure 10) features the statue "Goddess of Democracy," a "bronze replica of a statue erected by Chinese students in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China in the spring of 1989."43

Figure 10. Victims of Communism Memorial

Source: Author's photograph of Victims of Communism Memorial. Taken March 16, 2011.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 103-199, §905, 107 Stat. 2331, December 17, 1993

Sponsor Organization: National Captive Nations Committee, Inc.
(http://www.victimsofcommunism.org)

Statutory Extension: P.L. 105-277, §326, 112 Stat. 2681-291, October 21, 1998

Location: Area II

Dedication: June 12, 2007

Mahatma Gandhi

In October 1998, Congress authorized the government of India to establish and maintain a memorial "to honor Mahatma Gandhi on Federal land in the District of Columbia."44 Located outside the Embassy of India in a park surrounded by Q Street NW, Massachusetts Avenue NW and 21st Street NW, "[t]he sculpture of Mahatma Gandhi is cast in bronze as a statue to a height of 8 feet 8 inches. It shows Gandhi in stride, as a leader and man of action evoking memories of his 1930 protest march against salt-tax, and the many padyatras (long marches) he undertook throughout the length and breadth of the Indian sub-continent."45 The Mahatma Gandhi Memorial (Figure 11) is located in a memorial plaza, which includes "[t]hree inscription panels in ruby red granite, mounted on gray granite bases, [and] are located on the eastern side of the plaza facing the park."46

Figure 11. Mahatma Gandhi Memorial

Source: Embassy of India, "About the Mahatma Gandhi Memorial – Detail," at https://www.indianembassy.org/memorial.php?id=17.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 105-284, 112 Stat. 2701, October 26, 1998

Sponsor Organization: Government of India
(https://www.indianembassy.org/memorial.php?id=14)

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Area II

Dedication: September 16, 2000

Lincoln Memorial "I Have a Dream" Speech

In October 2000, Congress authorized the placement at the Lincoln Memorial of a plaque commemorating Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s August 28, 1963, "I Have a Dream" speech.47 Located on the Lincoln Memorial steps at the spot where Dr. King spoke, the plaque (Figure 12) commemorates the speech and the August 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

Figure 12. Lincoln Memorial "I Have a Dream" Speech Plaque

Source: Rhonda Sheehan, "Fifty Years Ago: 'I Have a Dream,'" ProQuest Blog, August 27, 2013, at http://blogs.proquest.com/elibrary/fifty-years-ago-i-have-a-dream/.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 106-365, 114 Stat. 1409, October 27, 2000

Sponsor Organization: Secretary of the Interior

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Reserve

Dedication: August 22, 200348

Tomas G. Masaryk

In November 2001, Congress authorized the government of the Czech Republic to maintain and "establish a memorial to honor Tomas G. Masaryk [Czechoslovakia's first president] on Federal land in the District of Columbia."49 Located on Massachusetts Avenue NW, Florida Avenue NW, and Q Street NW, the memorial (Figure 13) "honors Tomas Garrigue Masaryk (1850-1937), the founder and first president of Czechoslovakia.… [and] was modeled from life in 1937 shortly before Masaryk died."50

Figure 13. Tomas G. Masaryk Memorial

Source: National Park Service, "Masaryk, Tomas Garrigue – Statue – Res. 57," at http://www.hscl.cr.nps.gov/insidenps/report.asp?STATE=DC&PARK=NAMA&STRUCTURE=&SORT=&RECORDNO=177.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 107-61, 115 Stat. 410, November 5, 2001

Sponsor Organization: Government of the Czech Republic
(http://www.mzv.cz/washington/en/index.html)

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Area II

Dedication: September 19, 2002

Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

In November 1996, Congress authorized the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity to establish a memorial "to honor Martin Luther King, Jr."51 Located on the National Mall in the northeast corner of the Tidal Basin, the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial (Figure 14) features a statue of Dr. King "emerging from a mountain ... " referencing "a line from King's 1963 'I Have a Dream' speech. 'With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope.'"52

Figure 14. Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial

Source: National Memorial Project Foundation, "MLK Construction Cam, August 29, 2011," at http://www.mlkmemorial.org/site/c.hkIUL9MVJxE/b.6053219/k.C7C4/EarthCam.htm.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 104-333, §508, 110 Stat. 4157, November 12, 1996
P.L. 106-176, §108, 114 Stat. 26, March 10, 2000

Sponsor Organization: The Memorial Foundation
(http://thememorialfoundation.org)

Statutory Extensions: Until November 12, 2006
(P.L. 108-125, 117 Stat. 1347, November 11, 2003)

Until November 12, 2008
(P.L. 109-54, §134, 119 Stat. 527, August 2, 2005)

Until November 30, 2010
(P.L. 111-88, §129, 123 Stat. 2933, October 30, 2009)

Location: Area I53

Dedication: October 16, 201154

American Veterans Disabled For Life Memorial

In October 2000, Congress authorized the Disabled Veterans' LIFE Memorial Foundation, Inc., to establish a commemorative work, on federal land, in the District of Columbia "to honor veterans who became disabled while serving in the Armed Forces of the United States."55 The American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial is located near the Rayburn House Office Building between Washington Avenue SW and 2nd Street SW across from the United States Botanic Garden's Bartholdi Park. The American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial features an eternal flame (Figure 15) and images of, and quotations about, disabled veterans.

Figure 15. American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial

Source: Author's photograph of American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial. Taken October 6, 2014.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 106-348, 114 Stat. 1358, October 24, 2000

Sponsor Organization: Disabled Veterans' LIFE Memorial Foundation
(http://www.avdlm.org)

Statutory Extension: Authorization extended through October 24, 2015
P.L. 110-106, 121 Stat. 1022, October 25, 2007

Location: Area II

Dedication: October 5, 201456

Victims of the Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933

In October 2006, Congress authorized the government of Ukraine "to establish a memorial on Federal land in the District of Columbia to honor the victims of the Ukrainian famine-genocide of 1932-1933."57 The memorial is located at a site bordered by Massachusetts Avenue, North Capitol Street, and F Street NW. The memorial is termed "Field of Wheat," and "contains a six foot tall bronze wall that transitions from a high bas relief of wheat on the east end to a deep negative relief on the west, symbolizing the loss of wheat and food." (Figure 16)58

Figure 16. Victims of the Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933 Memorial

Source: Embassy of the Ukraine in the United States of America, "The Sculpture of the Holodomor Memorial Was Installed in Washington, DC," August 5, 2015, at http://usa.mfa.gov.ua/en/press-center/photos/1563-u-vashingtoni-bula-vstanovlena-skulyptura-pamjatnika-zhertvam-golodomoru-1932-1933-rokiv-v-ukrajini.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 109-340, 120 Stat. 1864, October 13, 2006

Sponsor Organization: Government of Ukraine

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Area II

Dedication: November 8, 2015

Other Memorials

Since 1986, three commemorative works have been authorized by Congress for placement within the District of Columbia, but were either exempted from a portion of the CWA or were ultimately placed outside of the area defined by the act. The Air Force Memorial was located near the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, a plaque to honor Vietnam veterans who died as a result of service in the Vietnam War was placed at the Vietnam Memorial, and a plaque to honor Senator Robert J. Dole's contribution to creating the World War II Memorial was placed at the memorial's site.

United States Air Force

In December 1993, Congress authorized the Air Force Memorial Foundation to establish a memorial to "honor the men and women who have served in the United States Air Force and its predecessors."59 Pursuant to P.L. 107-107, the Air Force Memorial is located at the Arlington Naval Annex near the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia.60 The United States Air Force Memorial (Figure 17) was constructed on land not covered by the Commemorative Works Act and is not managed by the National Park Service or the General Services Administration.

Figure 17. Air Force Memorial

Source: U.S. Air Force, "Veterans Day 2013," at http://www.af.mil/mobile/Photos.aspx?igphoto=2000719317.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 103-163, 107 Stat. 1973, December 2, 1993

Sponsor Organization: Air Force Memorial Foundation
(http://www.airforcememorial.org)

Statutory Extension: Extended to December 2, 2005
(P.L. 106-302, 114 Stat. 1062, October 13, 2000)

Location: Outside Commemorative Works Act
(Authorized by P.L. 107-107, §2863, 115 Stat. 1330, December 28, 2001)

Dedication: October 14, 200661

Veterans Who Died as a Result of Service in the Vietnam War

In June 2000, Congress authorized the American Battle Monuments Commission to place a plaque at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial "to honor those Vietnam veterans who died after their service in the Vietnam War, but as a direct result of that service, and whose names are not otherwise eligible for placement on the memorial wall."62 Located at the northeast corner of the plaza surrounding the Three Serviceman statue at the Vietnam War Memorial, the plaque (Figure 18) is in memory of the soldiers who died as a result of their service in the Vietnam War, after the war's conclusion.

Figure 18. Veterans Who Died as a Result of Service in the Vietnam War Plaque

Source: Texas Tech University, The Vietnam War In Memory Memorial Plaque Project, at http://www.vietnamproject.ttu.edu/inmemory/vietwarmem/plaque2.htm.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 106-214, 114 Stat. 335, June 15, 2000

Sponsor Organization: American Battle Monuments Commission

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Reserve

Dedication: November 10, 2004

Senator Robert J. Dole Plaque

In October 2009, in the Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010, Congress authorized the placement of a plaque to honor Senator Robert J. Dole at the World War II Memorial. The plaque was to "commemorate the extraordinary leadership of Senator Robert J. Dole in making the Memorial a reality on the National Mall."63 Located on the south side of the World War II Memorial, the Dole Plaque (Figure 19) honors the Senator for his contributions to the World War II Memorial on the National Mall.

Figure 19. Senator Robert J. Dole Plaque at the World War II Memorial

Source: Author's photo of Senator Robert J. Dole Plaque. Taken November 14, 2011.

Authorization Statute: P.L. 111-88, §128, 123 Stat. 2933, October 30, 2009.

Sponsor Organization: Secretary of the Interior

Statutory Extension: N/A

Location: Reserve (at World War II Memorial)

Dedication: April 12, 2011

Appendix. Location of Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia

Figure A-1 shows a map with the location of commemorative works authorized and dedicated since 1986.

Figure A-1. Location of Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia

Source: Congressional Research Service, Calvin C. DeSouza, Geospatial Information System Analyst, October 6, 2014.

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Specialist on the Congress ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

40 U.S.C. §8901(4).

2.

40 U.S.C. §8902.

3.

P.L. 108-126, §202(a), 117 Stat. 1348, November 17, 2003.

4.

40 U.S.C. §8901 note; and 40 U.S.C. §8908(c). The placement of museums and visitors centers is also prohibited under 40 U.S.C. §8905(b)(5) and 40 U.S.C. §8908(c).

5.

40 U.S.C. §8908(b)(1). The Secretary of the Interior or the Administrator of General Services, after seeking the advice of the National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission, can recommend that a memorial be placed in Area I. If either the Secretary or the Administrator recommends placement in Area I, he or she must notify the House Committee on Natural Resources and the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. The Secretary or the Administrator notifies Congress by sending a letter to the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate. If the recommendation is not enacted into law within 150 calendar days, the recommendation is not adopted and the memorial sponsor must consider sites in Area II.

6.

40 U.S.C. §8908(b)(2).

7.

Pursuant to the Commemorative Works Act (40 U.S.C. §8903(e)(1)), all sponsor groups are provided with a seven-year period to complete (i.e., dedicate) the memorial. This time period can be extended administratively if the Secretary of the Interior or the Administrator of General Services issues a construction permit, or if Congress amends the initial statute to provide for additional time to complete the memorial's design and construction. For more information, see CRS Report R41658, Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia: Background and Practice, by [author name scrubbed].

8.

P.L. 99-590, 100 Stat. 3330, October 30, 1986; and P.L. 99-610, 100 Stat. 3477, November 6, 1986. For more information on the authorization of the Women in Military Service for America Memorial, see U.S. Congress, House Committee on House Administration, Memorial to Honor Women Who Have Served in or with the Armed Forces, report to accompany H.J.Res. 36, 99th Cong., 1st sess., October 29, 1985, H.Rept. 99-342 (Washington: GPO, 1985); and U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Authorizing a Memorial to Women Who Have Served in the Armed Forces of the United States, report to accompany H.J.Res. 36, 99th Cong., 2nd sess., September 19, 1986, S.Rept. 99-461 (Washington: GPO, 1986).

9.

Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation, "History," About, at http://www.womensmemorial.org/About/history.html.

10.

P.L. 103-337, §2855, 108 Stat. 2663, October 5, 1994.

11.

P.L. 99-531, §1, 100 Stat. 3022, October 27, 1986. For more information on the authorization of the Francis Scott Key Memorial, see "Francis Scott Key Memorial," Senate debate, Congressional Record, vol. 132, part 21 (October 9, 1986), pp. 29898-29899; and U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Authorizing a Memorial to Francis Scott Key, report to accompany S. 2370, 99th Cong., 2nd sess., September 19, 1986, S.Rept. 99-457 (Washington: GPO, 1986).

12.

James M. Goode, Washington Sculpture: A Cultural History of Outdoor Sculpture in the Nation's Capital (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), p. 584.

13.

For more information on the American Battle Monuments Commission, see http://www.abmc.gov, or CRS Report R41658, Commemorative Works in the District of Columbia: Background and Practice, by [author name scrubbed].

14.

P.L. 99-572, §1, 100 Stat. 3326, October 28, 1986.

15.

American Battle Monuments Commission, "Korean War Veterans Memorial," at https://www.abmc.gov/about-us/history/korean-war-memorial.

16.

Ibid.

17.

The Korean War Veterans Memorial authorization was amended by P.L. 100-202 (101 Stat. 1329, December 22, 1987) to establish a Treasury Fund for memorial expenses and for the deposit of private contributions to the memorial.

18.

Because the Korean War Veterans Memorial was initially authorized in 1986, prior to the creation of the Reserve, Congress authorized the memorial's placement in Area I pursuant to P.L. 100-267, 102 Stat. 41, March 29, 1988.

19.

P.L. 99-620, 100 Stat. 3493, November 6, 1986.

20.

Ibid.

21.

This section of Memorial Drive has long been designated for "unit" and "branch" Armed Forces Memorials. Other memorials, all authorized prior to the Commemorative Works Act, on this section of Memorial Drive include the 101st Army Airborne Division Monument, the Fourth Infantry Division Memorial, the Seabees Monument, and the Spanish War Veterans Memorial (known as "The Hiker").

22.

P.L. 100-660, 102 Stat. 3922, November 15, 1988.

23.

Vietnam Women's Memorial Foundation, "Vietnam Women's Memorial: Sculptor's Notes," at http://www.vietnamwomensmemorial.org/memorial.php.

24.

The Vietnam Women's Memorial was originally authorized for placement in Area I. Pursuant to 40 U.S.C. §8908(c), the memorial is now located in the Reserve.

25.

Gunston Hall was the home of George Mason and is a National Historic Landmark now owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia. For more information on George Mason and Gunston Hall, see "Gunston Hall: Home of George Mason," http://www.gunstonhall.org.

26.

P.L. 101-358, 104 Stat. 419, August 10, 1990.

27.

James M. Goode, Washington Sculpture: A Cultural History of Outdoor Sculpture in the Nation's Capital (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), p. 491.

28.

National Park Service, "George Mason Memorial," http://www.nps.gov/gemm/planyourvisit/upload/Mason%20web.pdf.

29.

P.L. 102-277, 106 Stat. 127, April 28, 1992. See also, U.S. Congress, House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Approval of Location of Memorial to Honor George Mason, report to accompany H.J.Res. 402, 102nd Cong., 2nd sess., March 30, 1992, H.Rept. 102-472 (Washington: GPO, 1992).

30.

P.L. 86-86, 73 Stat. 196, July 13, 1959. See also, U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, Authorizing the Colonial Dames at Gunston Hall to Establish a Memorial to George Mason in the District of Columbia, report to accompany S. 1543, 101st Cong., 2nd sess., February 28, 1990, S.Rept. 101-245 (Washington: GPO, 1990), p. 1.

31.

The George Mason Memorial was originally authorized for placement in Area I. Pursuant to 40 U.S.C. §8908(c), the memorial is now located in the Reserve.

32.

P.L. 102-412, 106 Stat. 2104, October 14, 1992.

33.

Ibid.

34.

P.L. 102-502, 106 Stat. 3273, October 24, 1992.

35.

National Japanese American Memorial Foundation.

36.

National Japanese American Memorial Foundation.

37.

P.L. 103-32, 107 Stat. 90, May 25, 1993.

38.

P.L. 107-11, 115 Stat. 19, May 28, 2001.

39.

The Rainbow Pool is an historic reflecting pool that was located at the east end of the main reflecting pool between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument. Upon construction of the World War II Memorial, the Rainbow Pool was restored and made part of the memorial. For more information, see National World War II Memorial, "Memorial Design," at http://www.wwiimemorial.com/archives/factsheets/memorialdesign.htm.

40.

National Park Service, "History and Culture," World War II Memorial, at http://www.nps.gov/nwwm/historyculture/index.htm.

41.

The World War II Memorial was originally authorized for placement in Area I. Pursuant to 40 U.S.C. §8908(c), the memorial is now located in the Reserve.

42.

P.L. 103-199, §905, 107 Stat. 2331, December 17, 1993.

43.

Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, "The Memorial," at http://victimsofcommunism.org/initiative/the-memorial.

44.

P.L. 105-284, 112 Stat. 2701, October 26, 1998.

45.

Embassy of India, "The Statue and Pedestal," at https://www.indianembassy.org/memorial.php?id=21.

46.

Embassy of India, "Site of the Memorial & the Memorial Plaza," at https://www.indianembassy.org/memorial.php?id=20.

47.

P.L. 106-365, 114 Stat. 1409, October 27, 2000. For more information on the authorizing legislation, see U.S. Congress, House Committee on Resources, Commemorating the "I Have a Dream" Speech at the Lincoln Memorial, report to accompany H.R. 2879, 106th Cong., 1st sess., November 4, 1999, H.Rept. 106-448 (Washington: GPO, 1999); and U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Martin Luther King, Jr. Commemorative Plaque, report to accompany H.R. 2879, 106th Cong., 2nd sess., July 10, 2000, S.Rept. 106-334 (Washington: GPO, 2000).

48.

U.S. Department of the Interior, "MLK 'I Have a Dream' Commemorative Inscription Unveiling Ceremony Scheduled for Aug. 22," press release, August 20, 2003, at https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/archive/news/archive/03_News_Releases/030820a.htm.

49.

P.L. 107-61, 115 Stat. 410, November 5, 2001.

50.

James M. Goode, Washington Sculpture: A Cultural History of Outdoor Sculpture in the Nation's Capital (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), p. 367.

51.

P.L. 104-333, §508, 110 Stat. 4157, November 12, 1986.

52.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, "Building the Memorial," Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial, at https://www.nps.gov/mlkm/learn/building-the-memorial.htm.

53.

The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial was originally authorized for placement in Area I. Pursuant to 40 U.S.C. §8908(c), the memorial is now located in the Reserve.

54.

The White House, "Remarks by the President at the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Dedication," press release, October 16, 2011, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/10/16/remarks-president-martin-luther-king-jr-memorial-dedication.

55.

P.L. 106-348, 114 Stat. 1358, October 24, 2000.

56.

The White House, "President Obama Speaks at the American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial Dedication," press release, October 5, 2014, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2014/10/05/president-obama-speaks-american-veterans-disabled-life-memorial-dedication.

57.

P.L. 109-340, 120 Stat. 1864, October 13, 2006.

58.

National Capital Planning Commission, "The Memorial to Victims of Ukrainian Manmade Famine of 1932-1933," Executive Director's Recommendations, File No. 6863, at http://www.ncpc.gov/DocumentDepot/Actions_Recommendations/2012September/Ukrainian_Mandmade_Famine_1932_1933_Memorial_Recommendation_6863_Sept2012_.pdf.

59.

P.L. 103-163, 107 Stat. 1973, December 2, 1993.

60.

P.L. 107-107, §2863, 115 Stat. 1330, December 28, 2001.

61.

U.S. President (George W. Bush), "Remarks at the United States Air Force Memorial Dedication in Arlington, Virginia, October 14, 2006," Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, vol. 42 (October 23, 2006), pp. 1828-1830. Also see Air Force Memorial Foundation, "Chronology," http://www.afa.org/airforcememorial/about/chronology.

62.

P.L. 106-214, 114 Stat. 335, June 15, 2000.

63.

P.L. 111-88, §128, 123 Stat. 2933, October 30, 2009.