Use of National Statuary Hall: Assignment and Historic Events

Statuary Hall has been used as the setting for a variety of events, including memorial ceremonies and receptions for new Members of Congress, award presentations, and as media space after presidential addresses. This report identifies and categorizes uses of Statuary Hall since 2005.

Use of Statuary Hall is at the discretion of the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Under House Rule I, clause 3, the Speaker has the authority to assign unappropriated rooms on the House of Representatives side of the Capitol, including Statuary Hall. Use of Statuary Hall could also be authorized by House resolution, but no events since 2005 have been held in Statuary Hall on such authority.

Since 2005, 159 events have been held in Statuary Hall. Events held in Statuary Hall can be divided into four categories: (1) receptions and dinners, (2) ceremonies, (3) media events, and (4) memorial services. The report provides a brief explanation of each category and examples of activities in each category.

Use of National Statuary Hall: Assignment and Historic Events

October 13, 2017 (R41857)
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Summary

Statuary Hall has been used as the setting for a variety of events, including memorial ceremonies and receptions for new Members of Congress, award presentations, and as media space after presidential addresses. This report identifies and categorizes uses of Statuary Hall since 2005.

Use of Statuary Hall is at the discretion of the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Under House Rule I, clause 3, the Speaker has the authority to assign unappropriated rooms on the House of Representatives side of the Capitol, including Statuary Hall. Use of Statuary Hall could also be authorized by House resolution, but no events since 2005 have been held in Statuary Hall on such authority.

Since 2005, 159 events have been held in Statuary Hall. Events held in Statuary Hall can be divided into four categories: (1) receptions and dinners, (2) ceremonies, (3) media events, and (4) memorial services. The report provides a brief explanation of each category and examples of activities in each category.


Use of National Statuary Hall: Assignment and Historic Events

Introduction

Between 1819 and 1857, the room currently called Statuary Hall served as the Hall of the House of Representatives.1 Upon the completion of the current House chamber in 1857, the fate of the old "Hall of the House" was debated for many years.

Perhaps the simplest was that it be converted into additional space for the Library of Congress, which was still housed in the Capitol. More drastic was the suggestion that the entire Hall be dismantled and replaced by two floors of committee rooms. Eventually, the idea of using the chamber as an art gallery was approved, and works intended for the Capitol extensions were put on exhibit; among these was the plaster model for the Statue of Freedom, which was later cast in bronze for the Capitol dome. The lack of wall space effectively prevented the hanging of large paintings, but the room seemed well suited to the display of statuary.2

Beginning in November 1879, Statuary Hall was first used for events. The first two events were a reception and dinner for the Society of the Army of the Cumberland on November 20, 1879,3 and a ceremony to close the Centennial Safe on November 22, 1879.4

Today, Statuary Hall is the home to many of the statues in the National Statuary Hall collection, which consists of two statues from each state.5

Scheduling Statuary Hall Events

A room in the House Wing of the Capitol may be reserved in one of two ways: through a chamber resolution or pursuant to the Speaker's authority. House Rule I, clause 3 provides the Speaker with the authority to assign unappropriated rooms (i.e., not already assigned to a committee, House leadership, or an officer of the House). House Rule I, clause 3 states

Except as otherwise provided by rule or law, the Speaker shall have general control of the Hall of the House, the corridors and passages in the part of the Capitol assigned to the use of the House, and the disposal of unappropriated rooms in that part of the Capitol.6

For rooms jointly controlled by the House and Senate (e.g., the Rotunda and Emancipation Hall), a concurrent resolution is generally required to authorize use.7

Initially adopted in 1811 to provide the Speaker with approval authority over events in the House chamber,8 clause 3 was last amended in 1911, to provide the Speaker with control over unappropriated rooms elsewhere in the House Wing of the Capitol.9 Since 1911, the Speaker has generally authorized use of rooms in the House Wing of the Capitol not otherwise appropriated.10

Events in Statuary Hall, 2005-2017

Since 2005, 159 events have been held in Statuary Hall. The House Sergeant at Arms, whose office provided data for this report, defines an event as activity that prevents public access to Statuary Hall for a period of time. As a result, activities such as a brief wreath laying at a particular statue are not included. Table 1 reports the total number of events held in Statuary Hall since 2005. The Appendix provides the date of each event and a brief description.

Table 1. Number of Events Held in Statuary Hall, 2005-2017

Year

Number

2005

16

2006

15

2007

16

2008

18

2009

10

2010

15

2011

12

2012

9

2013

14

2014

9

2015

4

2016

13

2017

8

Total

159

Source: CRS Analysis of Sergeant at Arms data.

Note: 2017 data include events through October 5, 2017.

Following receipt of the data from the House Sergeant at Arms, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) examined the events and divided them into four categories: (1) receptions and dinners, (2) ceremonies, (3) media events, and (4) memorial services. The following sections provide a brief explanation of each category and examples of activities. Table 2 reports the number of events since 2005, by category.

Receptions/Dinners

The largest percentage of events held in Statuary Hall (58.5%) were receptions or dinners, hosted by both official congressional entities and private groups. For example, the Joint Congressional Committee on the Inaugural Ceremonies held the Inaugural Luncheon in Statuary Hall in 2005, 2009, and 2013; and the Capitol Historical Society held a reception for new Members of Congress in the Hall in 2005 and 2013.

Ceremonies

Ceremonies account for 28.9% of the events held in Statuary Hall since 2005. These ceremonies include presentations of awards, unveiling of official portraits, commemorations of event anniversaries, formal wreath layings, and prayer services. For example, the annual National Moment of Remembrance is held in Statuary Hall. In addition, prior to moving the statue to Emancipation Hall in the Capitol Visitor Center, an annual lei draping ceremony at King Kamehameha statue was held in Statuary Hall.

Media Events

Statuary Hall has also been occasionally used as the location for media availability, primarily after a presidential address to a joint session of Congress in the House chamber. Media events represent 6.3% of the events held in Statuary Hall.

Memorial Services

Since 2005, 10 memorial services (6.3%) for current or former Members of Congress have been held in Statuary Hall: for Representatives Robert Matsui (January 5, 2005); Juanita Millender-McDonald (May 17, 2007); Tom Lantos (February 14, 2008); Stephanie Tubbs Jones (September 10, 2008); John P. Murtha (March 30, 2010); Donald M. Payne (April 25, 2012); Speaker Thomas Foley (October 29, 2013); a June 2016 U.S. Association of Former Members of Congress memorial service to honor former Members who died in the past year; Mark Takai (September 14, 2016); and Robert Michel (March 9, 2017).

Table 2. Events Held in Statuary Hall, by Category

2005-2017

Category

Number

Percentage of Total

Receptions / Dinners

93

58.5

Ceremonies

46

28.9

Media Events

10

6.3

Memorial Services

10

6.3

Total

159

100.0

Source: CRS Analysis of Sergeant at Arms data.

Notes: 2017 data include events through October 5, 2017.

Appendix. Events Held in Statuary Hall, 2005-2017

Since January 1, 2005, 159 events have been held in Statuary Hall. Table A-1 contains a chronological list of these events, the date of the event, and the event type.

Table A-1. Events Held in Statuary Hall

January 5, 2005, to October 5, 2017

Date

Event

Type

1/5/2005

Memorial Service for the Late Honorable Robert Matsui

Memorial Service

1/20/2005

Inaugural Luncheona

Reception/Dinner

2/2/2005

Media Availability for Members of Congress following a Presidential Address before a Joint Session of Congress

Media Event

2/17/2005

Ceremony Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of the Placement in Statuary Hall of the Frances E. Willard Statue

Ceremony

3/2/2005

Reception following the Presentation of the Congressional Gold Medal to Jackie Robinson

Reception/Dinner

3/7/2005

Reception for New Members hosted by the Capitol Historical Society

Reception/Dinner

4/16/2005

Kennedy Center Gala Reception

Reception/Dinner

4/27/2005

Association of Former Members of Congress Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/19/2005

Association of Former Members of Congress Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/29/2005

Memorial Day Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/31/2005

National Moment of Remembrance

Ceremony

6/5/2005

Ford's Theatre Gala Rehearsal Reception

Reception/Dinner

6/6/2005

King Kamehameha Lei Draping Ceremony

Ceremony

6/7/2005

International Club Reception and Dinner

Reception/Dinner

7/4/2005

July 4th Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

9/22/2005

Reception following the Dedication of the Statue of Po'pay from New Mexico

Reception/Dinner

1/21/2006

Wreath Laying Ceremony Honoring General Robert E. Lee

Ceremony

1/31/2006

Media Availability for Members of Congress following a Presidential Address before a Joint Session of Congress

Media Event

3/15/2006

50th Anniversary of Hungarian Democracy with an Address by President George W. Bush

Ceremony

4/27/2006

Association of Former Members of Congress Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/6/2006

Kennedy Center Gala Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/10/2006

U.S. House of Representatives Distinguished Service Award Presentation Ceremony to Vice President Cheney, Lindy Boggs, and Father Drinan

Ceremony

5/25/2006

Memorial Day Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/31/2006

National Moment of Remembrance

Ceremony

6/11/2006

King Kamehameha Lei Draping Ceremony

Ceremony

6/24/2006

Ford's Theatre Gala Rehearsal Reception

Reception/Dinner

7/4/2006

July 4th Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

7/19/2006

Tribute to Retiring Members of Congress sponsored by the Capitol Historical Society

Reception/Dinner

11/13/2006

Speaker's Reception and Dinner Honoring New Members of the House

Reception/Dinner

11/14/2006

Democratic Leader's New Member Dinner

Reception/Dinner

12/6/2006

Speaker's Holiday Reception following the Lighting of the Capitol Christmas Tree on the West Front

Reception/Dinner

1/23/2007

Media Availability for Members of Congress following a Presidential Address before a Joint Session of Congress

Media Event

3/29/2007

Photo Op with the Tuskegee Airmen, President Bush, and the Speaker prior to the presentation of the Congressional Gold Medal in the Rotundab

Ceremony

4/7/2007

Wreath Laying Ceremony Honoring General Robert E. Lee

Ceremony

5/10/2007

Association of Former Members of Congress Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/17/2007

Memorial Service for the Late Honorable Juanita Millender-McDonald

Memorial Service

5/27/2007

Memorial Day Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/31/2007

National Moment of Remembrance

Ceremony

6/2/2007

Speaker hosted Reception and Dinner

Reception/Dinner

6/10/2007

King Kamehameha Lei Draping Ceremony

Ceremony

6/21/2007

2007 Achievement Summit—Academy of Achievement Dinner and Reception

Reception/Dinner

6/23/2007

Ford's Theatre Gala Rehearsal Reception

Reception/Dinner

7/4/2007

July 4th Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

7/17/2007

Reception honoring Dr. Norman Borlaug following the presentation of the Congressional Gold Medal in the Rotunda

Reception/Dinner

8/25/2007

Wreath Laying Ceremony Honoring Father Junipero Serra

Ceremony

11/30/2007

Kennedy Center Gala Reception

Reception/Dinner

12/4/2007

Presentation of the Freedom Award to former Speaker Thomas Foley by the U.S. Capitol Historical Society

Reception/Dinner

1/19/2008

Wreath Laying Ceremony Honoring General Robert E. Leec

Ceremony

1/28/2008

Media Availability for Members of Congress following a Presidential Address before a Joint Session of Congress

Media Event

2/14/2008

Memorial Service for the Late Honorable Tom Lantos

Memorial Service

3/5/2008

Reception for the Washington Premiere of the HBO series of "John Adams" hosted by the Speaker

Reception/Dinner

4/3/2008

Congressional Tribute to the Legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King "Renewing the Dream"

Ceremony

4/17/2008

Association of Former Members of Congress Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/21/2008

Congressional Tribute to the Centennial of the Birth of President Lyndon Johnson

Ceremony

5/25/2008

Memorial Day Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/31/2008

National Moment of Remembrance

Ceremony

5/31/2008

Ford's Theatre Gala Rehearsal Reception

Reception/Dinner

6/8/2008

King Kamehameha Lei Draping Ceremonyd

Ceremony

7/4/2008

July 4th Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

9/10/2008

Memorial Service for the Late Honorable Stephanie Tubbs Jones

Memorial Service

9/24/2008

Reception Honoring Retiring Members of the 110th Congress and the Presentation of the Freedom Award by the Capitol Historical Society

Reception/Dinner

9/24/2008

Reception honoring the Congressional Black Caucus hosted by Speaker Pelosi and Leader Reid

Reception/Dinner

11/18/2008

Reception for New Members of Congress hosted by the Speaker

Reception/Dinner

12/7/2008

Kennedy Center Honors Reception

Reception/Dinner

12/15/2008

Reception Honoring Representative John Tanner and NATO Parliamentarians hosted by the Speaker

Reception/Dinner

1/20/2009

Inaugural Luncheon

Reception/Dinner

2/10/2009

Celebrating the Honorable John Dingell of Michigan on the Occasion of Becoming the Longest-Serving Member in the History of the U.S. House of Representatives

Ceremony

2/24/2009

Media Availability for Members of Congress following a Presidential Address before a Joint Session of Congress

Media Event

5/13/2009

Reception for New Members of Congress hosted by the Capitol Historical Society

Reception/Dinner

5/24/2009

Memorial Day Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/31/2009

National Moment of Remembrance

Ceremony

6/3/2009

Reception and Dinner honoring Mrs. Ronald Reagan and the Unveiling of the Statue of President Ronald Reagan

Reception/Dinner

6/16/2009

Association of Former Members of Congress Reception

Reception/Dinner

7/4/2009

July 4th Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

7/28/2009

Unveiling of the Official Portrait of Speaker J. Dennis Hastert

Ceremony

1/27/2010

Media Availability for Members of Congress following a Presidential Address before a Joint Session of Congress

Media Event

3/21/2010

Sunday Worship Service for Members of Congress and Congressional staff e

Ceremony

3/25/2010

Women's History Event Honoring Secretary Hillary Clinton hosted by the Speaker

Ceremony

3/30/2010

Memorial Service for the Late Honorable John P. Murtha

Memorial Service

5/30/2010

Memorial Day Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

5/31/2010

National Moment of Remembrance

Ceremony

6/5/2010

Ford's Theatre Gala Rehearsal Reception

Reception/Dinner

6/15/2010

Association of Former Members of Congress Reception

Reception/Dinner

6/24/2010

Ceremony to Commemorate the 60th Anniversary of the End of the Korean War

Ceremony

7/4/2010

July 4th Concert Reception

Reception/Dinner

7/24/2010

Reception and Dinner for the Spain/US Council Annual Forum

Reception/Dinner

7/26/2010

Reception honoring the 20th Anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act

Ceremony

11/8/2010

Kennedy Center Gala Reception

Reception/Dinner

11/8/2010

Kennedy Center Reception Honoring the 2010 Recipient of the Mark Twain Award

Reception/Dinner

11/14/2010

Reception hosted by Leader Boehner for Republican New Members

Reception/Dinner

1/25/2011

Media Availability for Members of Congress following a Presidential Address before a Joint Session of Congress

Media Event

3/9/2011

Reception to Welcome Members of the 112th Congress hosted by the Capitol Historical Society

Reception/Dinner

3/24/2011

150th Anniversary of the Congressional Medal of Honor

Reception/Dinner

3/30/2011

40th Anniversary of the Congressional Black Caucus

Reception/Dinner

5/3/2011

Dinner Honoring the Unveiling of the Statue of President Gerald R. Ford

Reception/Dinner

5/31/2011

Reception following the Memorial Day Concert

Reception/Dinner

6/4/2011

Ford's Theatre Gala Rehearsal Reception

Reception/Dinner

6/14/2011

Former Members Association Annual Dinner

Reception/Dinner

7/4/2011

Reception following "A Capitol Fourth" Concert

Reception/Dinner

11/17/2011

Presentation of the Capitol Historical Society Freedom Award to Senator Daniel Inouye and Representative John Dingell

Ceremony

12/7/2011

35th Anniversary of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus

Reception/Dinner

12/12/2011

Farwell Reception Honoring the Service of the Honorable Wilson Livingood, Sergeant at Arms

Ceremony

4/25/2012

Celebration of the Life of the Hon. Donald M. Payne

Memorial Service

5/8/2012

A Prayer of Rededication for America: Honoring George Washington's 223rd Anniversary of his Inauguration

Ceremony

5/27/2012

Reception following the Memorial Day Concert

Reception/Dinner

6/2/2012

Ford's Theatre Gala Reception

Reception/Dinner

7/4/2012

Reception following the Capitol Fourth Concert

Reception/Dinner

9/7/2012

Welcome Reception for the G-8 Presiding Officers

Reception/Dinner

10/26/2012

Academy of Achievement Dinner and Reception

Reception/Dinner

11/13/2012

Dinner for new Members of the 113th Congress hosted by the Speaker

Reception/Dinner

11/14/2012

Dinner for new Members of the 113th Congress hosted by the Democratic Leader

Reception/Dinner

1/21/2013

Inaugural Luncheon

Reception/Dinner

2/27/2013

Dedication and Unveiling of a Statue of Rosa Parks

Ceremony

3/6/2013

Welcome Reception for New Members of the 113th Congress hosted by the Capitol Historical Society

Reception/Dinner

5/8/2013

Washington: A Man of Prayer Service

Ceremony

5/14/2013

Former Members Association Reception

Reception/Dinner

6/1/2013

Ford's Theatre Gala Reception

Reception/Dinner

6/5/2013

Centennial of the Inauguration of President Woodrow Wilson

Reception/Dinner

6/13/2013

Celebration Recognizing Representative John D. Dingell as the Longest-Serving Member in the History of the U.S. Congress

Ceremony

7/23/2013

Celebration of the 90th Birthday of Senator Robert J. Dole

Reception/Dinner

7/31/2013

50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

Ceremony

9/10/2013

Congressional Gold Medal Ceremony honoring Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, and Cynthia Wesley

Ceremony

10/29/2013

Memorial Service to Honor Former Speaker Thomas Foley

Memorial Service

10/30/2013

Dedication of a Bust of Sir Winston Churchill

Ceremony

11/20/2013

Freedom Award Presentation hosted by the Capitol Historical Society

Reception/Dinner

3/13/2014

New Members Reception hosted by the Capitol Historical Society

Reception/Dinner

3/25/2014

Congressional Ceremony Commemorating the Dedication of the Statue of Dr. Norman E. Borlaug (Iowa)

Ceremony

4/30/2014

Anne Frank Tree Dedication

Ceremony

5/7/2014

Washington: A Man of Prayer Service

Ceremony

7/20/2014

American-Australian Education Leadership Dialogue

Reception/Dinner

11/12/2014

Dinner for New Members of the 114th Congress hosted by the Democratic Leader

Reception/Dinner

11/13/2014

Dinner for New Members of the 114th Congress hosted by the Republican Leader

Reception/Dinner

11/19/2014

Presentation of the Capitol Historical Society Freedom Award to Representative John Lewis

Reception/Dinner

11/19/2014

Dedication of a bust of Vaclav Havel

Ceremony

2/11/2015

Congressional ceremony commemorating the dedication of the Statue of the Honorable Barry Goldwater of Arizona

Ceremony

3/4/2015

150th Commemoration of President Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address

Reception/Dinner

5/30/2015

Ford's Theater Gala Reception

Reception/Dinner

8/14/2015

110th Anniversary of the Dedication of the Statue of Francis Willard

Ceremony

1/12/2016

Media Availability for Members of Congress following a Presidential Address before a Joint Session of Congress

Media Event

2/24/2016

Reception honoring the 90th Anniversary of the Joint Committee on Taxation

Reception/Dinner

3/2/2016

Women's History Event honoring Veterans hosted by Rep. Nancy Pelosi with President and Mrs. Obama

Reception/Dinner

4/27/2016

Washington: A Man of Prayer

Prayer Service

5/11/2016

U.S. Capitol Historical Society Freedom Award Ceremony

Reception/Dinner

5/18/2016

Reception Commemorating the Centenary of the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland

Reception/Dinner

6/12/2016

Ford's Theatre Reception

Reception/Dinner

6/15/2016

U.S. Association of Former Members of Congress Memorial Service honoring former Members who died in the past year

Memorial Service

6/16/2016

Media Event hosted by the Speaker of the House about the U.S. Constitution

Media Event

9/14/2016

Celebration of the Life of Rep. Mark Takai

Memorial Service

9/21/2016

Congressional Statue Dedication Ceremony in honor of Thomas Alva Edison

Ceremony

11/14/2016

Dinner hosted by the Speaker of the House to Honor Newly Elected Republican Members of the 115th Congress

Reception/Dinner

11/15/2016

Dinner hosted by the Democratic Leader to Honor Newly Elected Democratic Members of the 115th Congress

Reception/Dinner

1/20/2017

Inaugural Luncheon hosted by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies

Reception/Dinner

2/28/2017

Media Availability for Members of Congress following a Presidential Address before a Joint Session of Congress

Media Event

3/9/2017

A Celebration of the Life of former Rep. Robert Michel

Memorial Service

4/26/2017

"Washington: A Man of Prayer" Prayer Event

Ceremony

5/4/2017

National Day of Prayer Celebration

Ceremony

5/25/2017

Wreath Laying Ceremony to Honor the Armed Services

Ceremony

6/3/2017

Ford's Theater Gala Reception

Reception/Dinner

10/5/2017

Reception hosted by Whip Scalise Honoring First Responders

Reception/Dinner

Source: The list of events held in National Statuary Hall was provided to CRS by the Office of the House Sergeant at Arms. The House Sergeant at Arms maintains the list of events.

a. Inaugural lunches are hosted by the Joint Congressional Committee on the Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC). The first luncheon in Statuary Hall was held in 1953 for President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

b. The Gold Medal Ceremony for the Tuskegee Airmen was held in the Rotunda (see S.Con.Res. 15, 110th Congress). In addition to being used for photo opportunities, Statuary Hall was used as an overflow room for the Gold Medal Ceremony.

c. The Robert E. Lee statue was moved to the Capitol Crypt in 2008.

d. The King Kamehameha statue was moved to the Capitol Visitor Center's (CVC's) Emancipation Hall in 2009. The Lei Draping ceremony was moved to the CVC beginning in June 2009.

e. The worship service held in Statuary Hall was in conjunction with a Sunday session of the House [Congressional Record, daily edition, vol. 156 (March 21, 2010), pp. H-1819-H1890.]

Author Contact Information

[author name scrubbed], Specialist on the Congress ([email address scrubbed], [phone number scrubbed])

Footnotes

1.

U.S. Congress, Architect of the Capitol, "National Statuary Hall," http://www.aoc.gov/cc/capitol/nat_stat_hall.cfm.

2.

Ibid.

3.

Anson G. McCook, Address Before the Society of the Army of the Cumberland at their Eleventh Reunion, Washington, November 19, 1879 (Cincinnati: Press of Robert Clarke & Co, 1879).

4.

U.S. Congress, Clerk of the House of Representatives, "The Mysterious Centennial Safe of Mrs. Charles F. Deihm," Historical Highlights, http://artandhistory.house.gov/highlights.aspx?action=view&intID=505.

5.

U.S. Congress, Architect of the Capitol, "About the National Statuary Hall Collection," http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/nsh_coll_origin.cfm. For a list of statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection, see U.S. Congress, Architect of the Capitol, "Statues in the National Statuary Hall Collection," http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/index.cfm. Not all statues are currently housed in Statuary Hall. Some statues are stored in various halls of the Capitol, including the Crypt, the Hall of Columns, the Rotunda, the first and second floor of the Senate Wing of the Capitol, and the second floor House connecting corridor; and in the Capitol Visitor Center. See also, CRS Report R42812, National Statuary Hall Collection: Background and Legislative Options, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

6.

House Rule I, clause 3. U.S. Congress, Constitution, Jefferson's Manual, and Rules of the House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, prepared by John V. Sullivan, Parliamentarian, 110th Cong., 2nd sess., H.Doc. 110-162 (Washington: GPO, 2009), §623, p. 336.

7.

Since the 101st Congress (1989-1990), one event was held in the Rotunda without a concurrent resolution: the lying in state of President Gerald Ford. President Ford died in December 2006, during the recess between the 109th and 110th Congress. The Speaker of the House and the Senate Majority Leader jointly authorized the use of the Rotunda without a concurrent resolution. For more information on use of the Rotunda, Emancipation Hall, and the Capitol Grounds, see CRS Report RL34619, Use of the Capitol Rotunda, Capitol Grounds, and Emancipation Hall: Concurrent Resolutions, 101st to 114th Congress, by [author name scrubbed] and [author name scrubbed].

8.

U.S. Congress, Hinds' Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States, prepared by Asher C. Hinds, vol. 2 (Washington: GPO, 1907), §1354, pp. 892-893. The Speaker's authority to assign rooms in the House Wing of the Capitol stems from his or her general authority to control the use of the House chamber. For more information, see "Committee Rooms, &c.," Annals of the Congress of the United States, vol. 42 (May 26, 1824), p. 2764.

9.

U.S. Congress, Cannon's Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States, prepared by Clarence Cannon, vol. 6 (Washington: GPO, 1935), §261, pp. 424-425. See also, "Recognition Still Remains with the Speaker," Congressional Record, vol. 47, part 1 (April 5, 1911), p. 80.

10.

U.S. Congress, Hinds' Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States, prepared by Asher C. Hinds, vol. 5 (Washington: GPO, 1907), §7273, p. 1104.