House of Representatives and Senate Staff Levels in Member, Committee, Leadership, and Other Offices, 1977-2010

This report provides staffing levels in House and Senate Member, committee, leadership, and other offices since 1977. Data presented here are based on staff listed by chamber entity (offices of Members, committees, leaders, officers, officials, and other entities) in telephone directories published by the House and Senate.

House of Representatives and Senate Staff Levels in Member, Committee, Leadership, and Other Offices, 1977-2010 R. Eric Petersen Analyst in American National Government Parker H. Reynolds Analyst in American National Government Amber Hope Wilhelm Graphics Specialist August 10, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41366 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Summary The manner in which staff are deployed within an organization may reflect the mission and priorities of that organization. In Congress, employing authorities hire staff to carry out duties in Member-office, committee, leadership, and other settings. The extent to which staff in those settings change may lend insight into the work of the two chambers over time. Some of the insights that might be taken from staff levels include an understanding of the division of congressional work between Members working individually through their personal offices, or collectively, through committee activities; the relationship between committee leaders and chamber leaders, which could have implications for the development and consideration of legislation or the use of congressional oversight; and the extent to which specialized chamber administrative operations have grown over time. This report provides staffing levels in House and Senate Member, committee, leadership, and other offices since 1977. Data presented here are based on staff listed by chamber entity (offices of Members, committees, leaders, officers, officials, and other entities) in telephone directories published by the House and Senate. These directories were chosen because they are the only official, publicly available resource that provides a concise breakdown of House and Senate staff by internal organization. In the past three decades, staff working for the House and Senate has grown. Between 1977 and 2009, the number of House staff grew from 8,831 to 9,808, or 11.06%. In the Senate, the number of staff has grown steadily, from 3,380 in 1977 to 6,099 in 2010, or 80.44%. There are differences in the scale of growth between the chambers, but there are similarities in the patterns of change in the distribution of staff among congressional entities. In each chamber, for example, there have been increases in the number of staff working in chamber leadership offices, and larger increases in the staffing of chamber officers and officials. In the House and Senate, staff working for Members have shifted from committee settings to the personal offices of Members. Some of these changes may be indicative of the growth of the House and Senate as institutions, or the value the chambers place on their activities. This report will be updated annually. Congressional Research Service House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Contents Congressional Staffing Summary ................................................................................................4 House Staffing ............................................................................................................................4 House Data Collection .......................................................................................................... 5 House Member Offices ...................................................................................................6 Committees.....................................................................................................................7 Leadership Offices ..........................................................................................................8 Officers and Officials ......................................................................................................8 Commissions ..................................................................................................................8 Senate Staffing.......................................................................................................................... 10 Senate Data Collection ........................................................................................................ 10 Staff in Senators’ Offices............................................................................................... 11 Committees................................................................................................................... 12 Leadership Offices ........................................................................................................ 12 Officers and Officials .................................................................................................... 13 Discussion ................................................................................................................................ 15 Data Tables ............................................................................................................................... 16 House of Representatives Data Tables ................................................................................. 17 Senate Data Tables .............................................................................................................. 24 Joint Committee Staff Data ................................................................................................. 29 Figures Figure 1. House and Senate Staff Levels Since 1977....................................................................4 Figure 2. House Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2009 .................................................................6 Figure 3. Distribution of House Member Office Staff Since 1977 ................................................7 Figure 4. Change in Distribution of House Staff Since 1977 ........................................................9 Figure 5. Senate Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2010............................................................... 11 Figure 6. Distribution of Staff Working In Senators’ Offices, 1977-2010.................................... 12 Figure 7. Change in Distribution of Senate Staff Since 1977...................................................... 14 Tables Table 1. House and Senate Staff Levels Since 1977 ................................................................... 16 Table 2. House of Representatives Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2009.................................... 17 Table 3. Estimated Staff Working in House Member Offices Since 1977.................................... 18 Table 4. House Committee Staff, 1999-2009.............................................................................. 20 Table 5. House Committee Staff, 1988-1998.............................................................................. 21 Table 6. House Committee Staff, 1977-1987.............................................................................. 22 Table 7. Senate Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2010 ................................................................ 24 Congressional Research Service House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Table 8. Staff Working in Senators’ Offices, 1977-2010............................................................. 25 Table 9. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 2001-2010 ...................................................... 26 Table 10. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 1991-2000 .................................................... 27 Table 11. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 1977-1990..................................................... 28 Table 12. Staff of Active Joint Committees, 1977-2010 ............................................................. 29 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 31 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................... 31 Congressional Research Service House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 T he manner in which staff are deployed within an organization may reflect the mission and priorities of that organization. In Congress, employing authorities hire staff to carry out duties in Member-office, committee, leadership, and other settings. The extent to which staff in those settings change may lend insight into the work of the two chambers over time. Some of the insights that might be taken from staff levels include • an understanding of the division of congressional work between Members working individually through their personal offices, or collectively, through committee activities; • the relationship between committee leaders and chamber leaders, which could have implications for the development and consideration of legislation or the use of congressional oversight; and • the extent to which specialized chamber administrative operations have grown over time. This report provides staffing levels in House- and Senate-Member 1, committee, leadership, and other offices since 1977. No House or Senate publication appears to track the actual number of staff working in the chambers by office or entity. Data presented here are based on staff listed by chamber entity (offices of Members, committees, leaders, officers, officials, and other entities) in telephone directories published by the House and Senate. Figure 1 displays overall staffing levels in the House and Senate. Table 1 in the “Data Tables” section below, provides data for all staff listed in chamber directories in the House through 2009 (the latest data available) and in the Senate through 2010. House and Senate staffing data are provided in the “House of Representatives Data Tables” and “Senate Data Tables” sections, respectively, below. Joint committee staff data from both chambers for panels that met in the 111th Congress (2009-2010) are provided in Table 12.2 Congressional staff may be counted in two ways. These include a full-time equivalent (FTE) count that focuses on job positions, and a “head count,” that provides the number of people carrying out the work. FTE counts focus on the work to be done, and how much staffing is required to accomplish that work. They are typically used to determine staffing and budgetary need for an organization, but do not reflect the actual number of people who carry out that work. 3 1 Throughout this report, the terms “Member office,” “personal office,” and “House Member’s office or Senator’s office” refer to the office held by a Member of the House or a Senator as a consequence of their election or appointment to Congress. They do not refer to the number of facilities in which that work is carried out. Discussions of how many staff are based in Washington, DC, and district or state facilities distinguishes only between locations in Washington, DC, or in the state or district. It does not provide an office-by-office accounting of staff working in multiple district or state facilities. 2 Joint committees that met in the 111th Congress include the Joint Committees on Taxation, Printing, Library of Congress, and the Joint Economic Committee. The table excludes staff listed at various times since 1977 for the Joint committees on Inaugural Ceremonies, Atomic Energy, Defense Production, Internal Revenue Service, and Organization of Congress. Staff data for those panels are available from the authors upon request. 3 According to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), FTEs are determined by a formula that adds the total number of hours worked by all employees of agencies during a year and then divides that total by 2,080, which is the number of scheduled work hours in a work year. The 2,080 hours can be worked by one employee who works a full time schedule of 40 hours each week for 52 weeks, or two or more part-time employees who work a total of 2,080 hours between or among them. This method provides the means for an agency to determine its long term staffing (continued...) Congressional Research Service 1 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Congress uses FTE figures in conjunction with developing appropriations for the legislative branch. The head count approach tabulates the actual number of people working, based on a number of potential data sources. These sources may include payroll records, organizational directories, or other records that capture most of the people working for an organization at any one time. 4 Payroll data are supplied by the House and Senate to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) on a monthly basis and made available as a public document,5 but they are not broken down by congressional office or entity. 6 This report provides data based on a count of staff listed in chamber telephone directories published since 1977.7 Like most sources of data, telephone directory listings have potential benefits and potential drawbacks. Telephone directories were chosen for a number of reasons, including the following: • telephone directories published by the House and Senate are an official source of information about those institutions that are widely available; • presumably, the number of directory listings closely approximates the number of staff working for the House and Senate;8 • while arguably not their intended purpose, the directories provide a consistent breakdown of House and Senate staff by internal organization at a particular moment in time; and • the directories afford the opportunity to compare staff levels at similar moments across a period of decades.9 At the same time, however, data presented below should be interpreted with care for a number of reasons, including the following: (...continued) expectations and the impact of those expectations on the agency=s future budgets. See Office of Personnel Management, Employment and Trends of Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, July 2008, available at http://www.opm.gov/feddata/ html/2008/july/intro.asp. While OPM requires federal executive branch agencies to estimate their staffing needs in FTEs, no standard has been explicitly mandated by Congress for legislative entities to use for staff planning. Nevertheless, FTE estimates appear to be widely employed. Regular references to legislative branch staff in terms of FTEs were made by the House Committee on Appropriations beginning in the early 1990s, according to a survey of its hearings and reports. 4 Payroll data might not identify individuals who work for the House or Senate in an uncompensated position, such as interns or staff who are paid by entities other than Congress. 5 Office of Personnel Management, Employment and Trends of Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, available at http://www.opm.gov/feddata/html/empt.asp. 6 Legislative branch staffing levels, principally based on OPM payroll data, are available in CRS Report R40056, Legislative Branch Staffing, 1954-2007, by R. Eric Petersen. 7 Senate directories listed some Washington, DC-based staff assigned to specific entities (e.g., Member, committee, and other offices) in 1958. The House first published a directory with detailed staff listings by entity in 1977. 8 The actual moment is the deadline that was set for the final collection of listings prior to publication. The exact date for each year is not known , but publication dates for the House and Senate directories were generally in the spring of each year. 9 Other congressional documents list staff by organizational unit, most notably the quarterly Statement of Disbursements issued by the House, and the semiannual Report of the Secretary of the Senate, issued by the Senate. At the same time, because they capture all paid staff activity for a three-month (House Statements) or six-month (Senate Reports) period, those documents do not provide as clear a picture of staffing at one point in time as the telephone directories do. Congressional Research Service 2 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 • There is no way to determine whether all staff working for the House or Senate are listed in the chambers’ telephone directories.10 If some staff are not listed, relying on telephone directories is likely to lead to an undercount of staff. • It is not possible to determine if those staff who are listed were actually employed by the House or Senate at the time the directories were published. If the directories list individuals who are no longer employed by the House or Senate, then relying on them is likely to lead to an overcount of staff. • The extent to which the criteria for inclusion in the directories for the House or Senate has changed over time cannot be fully determined. For example, staff working in Senators’ state offices were not listed until 1987. Some editions of both chambers’ directories do not always list staff in various entities the same way. 11 This may raise questions regarding the reliability of telephone directory data as a means for identifying congressional staff levels within each chamber over time. • It cannot be determined whether the House and Senate used the same criteria for including staff in their respective directories. This may raise questions regarding the reliability of telephone directory data as a means for comparing staff levels and organizational structures between the chambers. • Some House or Senate staff may have more than one telephone number, or be listed in the directory under more than one entity.12 As a consequence, they might be counted more than once. This could lead to a more accurate count of staff in specific entities within the House or Senate, but multiple listings may also lead to an overcount of staff working in the chamber. • Chamber directories may reflect different organizational arrangements over time for some entities. This could lead to counting staff doing similar work in both years in different categories, 13 or in different offices. 14 • A random sample of House Member offices used to develop an estimate of Member office staff working in Washington, DC, and discussed in greater detail below, may or may not be representative of the entire population of House Member offices. The extent to which the sample is representative of the population from which it is drawn will determine the accuracy of the estimated data for House Member offices. 10 In the Senate telephone directories, for example, state-based staff in Senators’ offices were not listed until 1987. This omission is likely to lead to an undercount of Senate staff prior to 1987. 11 In some instances, a listing for a House or Senate entity would not list staff. In other instances, there were significant changes in the number of staff from year-to-year, and it could not be determined whether that was a consequence of changing organizational practices, or differences in the manner in which staff were included in the directory. 12 For example, some staffers may work on a part-time basis for more than one Member, or for a Member and a committee. In limited instances (some commissions and joint committees), it is possible that some staff are listed in both House and Senate directories. 13 For example, in 1977, House Information Systems (HIS) staff were listed with staff from the Committee on House Administration (CHA). In 2009, House Information Resources, the successor entity to HIS, was listed as a component of Office of the Chief Administrative Officer. In this instance, HIS staff listed under CHA are counted as Officer and Officials staff regardless of their initial listing. 14 For example, a number of administrative activities now carried out by staff of the Chief Administrative Officer were previously overseen by the Committee on House Administration, House Clerk, or Sergeant at Arms. Congressional Research Service 3 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Congressional Staffing Summary Figure 1. House and Senate Staff Levels Since 1977 Between 1977 and 2009, the number of House staff grew from 8,831 to 9,808, or 11.06%. Change in House staff has been characterized by slight but steady growth in two periods (1977-1994, 12.03%; and 19972009, 12.53%), separated by a brief period of sharp decline (1995-1996, -12.17%). In the Senate, the number of staff has grown steadily, from 3,380 in 1977 to 6,099 in 2010, or 80.44%. Source: House and Senate telephone directories, various years, CRS calculations. In each chamber, there has been significant change in the distribution of staff among Notes: House data through 2009. Senate data through 2010. offices. In the House, the number of staff working in Member offices has grown by more than 12%, a slightly greater rate of growth than all House staff combined. Committee staff has declined nearly 28%. House staff working for leadership and chamber officers and officials15 more than doubled. In the Senate, the number of staff working in Senators’ offices has more than doubled. The number of staff working for Senate officers and officials has grown more than 75%. Senate committee staff levels have increased by nearly 15%. Staff levels in leadership offices have more than quadrupled, while the staff of Senate officers and officials has grown by more than 76%. A more detailed discussion and analysis of the changes in each chamber is provided in the “House Staffing” and “Senate Staffing” sections below. House Staffing Between 1977 and 2009, the number of House staff grew from 8,831 to 9,808, or 11.06%. Staffing levels have ranged from a low of 8,831 in 1977 to a peak of 10,004 in 2008. Each year, the number of House staff has grown by an average of 31 individuals,16 or 0.39%. Change in House staff has been characterized by slight, but steady growth in two periods (1977-1994, 12.03%; and 1997-2009, 12.53%), separated by a brief period of sharp decline (1995-1996, 12.17%). Figure 2 displays staff levels in five categories (House-Member offices, committees, leadership, officers and officials, and commissions) since 1977. Figure 4 displays change in the distribution of staff among the categories at various intervals. Table 2, in the “Data Tables” section below, provides detailed staff levels in those categories. 15 In 2009, House officers included the Clerk, Sergeant at Arms, Chief Administrative Officer, and Chaplain. Officials included staff in the offices of Parliamentarian, Interparliamentary Affairs, Law Revision Counsel, Legislative Counsel, General Counsel, Inspector General, Emergency Preparedness and Planning Operations, and House Historian. The Senate elects two officers, the Secretary of the Senate and the Sergeant at Arms. Officials include the Chaplain, Legislative Counsel, and Legal Counsel. 16 Rounded to reflect a whole number. Congressional Research Service 4 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 House Data Collection House staff data were developed based on an estimate of staff working in Member offices, and a full count of staff listed in all non-Member congressional offices listed in each House telephone directory. 17 In some years, the House published two directories. When that happened, data were taken from the earlier publication. A full count of House Member office staff was beyond the capacity of available resources, and unlikely to yield a significantly different result than that which would result from a full count of staff working in all Members’ offices. Since 1975, the House has limited the number of full-time staff working in a Member’s office to 18 permanent employees; in 1979 up to four FTEs who may work part time were authorized. 18 As a consequence, among all congressional entities, House Member office staffing is least likely to show a high degree of variability. For each year, a random sample of 45 Member offices was drawn in proportion to the distribution of Member offices in the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn House office buildings in 2009. Staff telephone data from those offices were counted and assumed to be in Washington, DC, if they were listed as working in the Cannon, Longworth, or Rayburn buildings, and outside of Washington, DC, if they were not. 19 The average number of staff working in Washington, DC, and in district offices was computed. Those data were multiplied by the number of Member offices20 to derive an estimate of the number of staff employed in personal offices who work in House Member offices. Table 3 in the “Data Tables” section below provides the computed averages from the sample data and the estimated House Member staff working in Washington, DC, and district offices. Committee data are based on a full count of all telephone directory listings for House standing, special, and select committees as described in individual directory listings. The data also include associate staff of the Committees on the Budget, Rules, and Ways and Means, and joint committee staff housed in House facilities. In the “Data Tables” section below, three tables provide staff levels in various House committees. Table 4 provides House committee data for 1999-2009; data for 1988-1998 are available in Table 5; and Table 6 provides data for 19771987. Joint committee data are available in Table 12. Data for leadership offices include a full count of staff working for Members in leadership positions. In 2009, these listings included the following: Speaker, Majority Leader, Majority Whip, Senior Chief Deputy Majority Whip, Minority Leader, Minority Whip, Chief Deputy Minority Whip, and Democratic and Republican Cloakrooms. Data for chamber officers and other House officials include a full count of staff working for House officers and officials. In 2009, House officers included the Clerk, Sergeant at Arms, Chief Administrative Officer, and Chaplain. Officials included staff in the offices of Parliamentarian, Interparliamentary Affairs, Law Revision Counsel, Legislative Counsel, General Counsel, Inspector General, Emergency Preparedness and Planning Operations, and House Historian. 17 Entities and staff that are not a part of the House, but were listed in the directory (including the Senate, other legislative branch entities, executive branch agencies, and vendors) are excluded from these data. 18 See CRS Report RL30064, Congressional Salaries and Allowances, by Ida A. Brudnick for details. 19 The House telephone directory provides consistent five-digit listings for all House staff who work in Washington, DC. 20 House Member offices includes Representatives, Delegates, and the Resident Commissioner. The number of House Member offices was 439 in 1977-1978, 440, 1979-2008, and 441 in 2009. Congressional Research Service 5 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Commissions data comprise the smallest category of House data, and are based on a full count of those entities. In 2009, commissions data included staff working for the Commission on Congressional Mailing Standards (commonly known as the Franking Commission); the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (typically referred to as the Helsinki Commission); and the Congressional-Executive Commission on the People’s Republic of China. Figure 2. House Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2009 Source: House telephone directories, CRS estimates and calculations. Notes: House Member office data is an estimate developed from a sample of 45 Member offices for each year, multiplied by the number of Member offices. All other categories are based on a full count of directory listings. House Member Offices Staff levels in House Member offices have grown from 6,556 in 1977 to 7,360 in 2009, or 12.27%. The level of staffing grew steadily from 1977 until peaking at 7,284 in 1994, and falling 10.74%, to 6,502, in 1995. Member staff increased between 1997 and 2009 in an uneven, but generally upward pattern before reaching its current high of 7,360. House Member staff comprise approximately three-quarters of all House staff. This proportion of overall staffing has been relatively steady since 1977. Figure 4 provides staff levels and distributions among categories of offices for four years between 1977 and 2009. Congressional Research Service 6 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Figure 3. Distribution of House Member Office Staff Since 1977 Source: House telephone directories, various years, CRS calculations. Notes: Line graph charts change in estimated levels of staff working in House Member offices since 1997. Table provides the average number of staff in a Member’s office, and their distribution between Washington, DC, and district facilities for the years noted. All estimates are based on a random sample of 45 House Member offices. Figure 3 displays the distribution of House Member staff between Washington, DC, and district offices since 1977, and the average number of staff working in a Member office at various times. From 1977 until 1994, more staff worked in Washington, DC, than in field offices. Throughout that period, however, the number of staff assigned to district offices steadily grew while Washington, DC-based staff declined in an uneven, but generally downward pattern. Since 1994, staff have been relatively evenly distributed between Washington, DC, facilities and district offices. The average number of staff working in an individual Member’s office reflects both the relatively modest growth of Member staff since 1977, and the changing distribution of staff from Washington, DC, to district office settings. Table 3 in the “Data Tables” section below provides the estimated House Member staff working in Washington, DC, and district offices since 1997. Committees Committee staff levels have shown the greatest decline among House staff categories, decreasing 27.97% since 1977. Change among House committee staff was characterized by a moderate decline in 1977-1980 (-9.04%), steady growth from 1981 until 1992 (20.64%), a period of sharp decline in 1993-1996 (-43.66%), and a period of slow growth from 1997 to the present (6.67%). The 2009 level of 1,362 is 529 (-27.97%) fewer than 1977 levels, and 871 fewer than the 1992 peak of 2,233 (-39.01%) staff. Since 1977, committee staff have comprised a decreasing proportion of House staff, falling from 20.58% of House staff in 1979 to 13.89% in 2009. In the “Data Tables” section below, three tables provide staff levels in various House committees. Table 4 provides data for 1999-2009; data for 1988-1998 are available in Table 5; and Table 6 provides data for 1977-1987. Congressional Research Service 7 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Leadership Offices Staff in House leadership offices showed the greatest percentage increase, rising 253.23% since 1977. While the relative increase is substantial, the actual number of staff is relatively small, and grew from 69 in 1977 to 219 in 2009. As a proportion of House staff, leadership employees comprised 0.72% in 1979, and 2.23% in 2009. Officers and Officials Staff working in the offices of House officers and officials has grown 205.54% since 1977. Staff levels grew steadily from 1977 to 1991, when they showed a one-year drop of 33.15%, from 537 in 1992 to 359 in 1993. In 1994, staff levels returned to a level similar to 1992, and increased again in 1995 to 818, or 57.01%. After dropping to 704 in 1996, levels began a steady increase to 1,056 in 2008, an increase of 50.00%, before falling 21.59% to 828 in 2009. As a proportion of House staff, officers and officials staff grew from 3.95% in 1979 to 8.44% in 2009. Commissions Congressional commission staff levels are essentially flat, and have ranged from a high of 51 in 1977 to a low of 19 in 2001. In 2009, 29 staff worked for congressional commissions.21 Congressional commissions have consistently comprised less than one-half of one percent of all House staff. 21 For more information on congressional commissions, see CRS Report R40076, Congressional Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Legislative Considerations, by Matthew Eric Glassman, and CRS Report RL33313, Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups, by Matthew Eric Glassman. Congressional Research Service 8 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Figure 4. Change in Distribution of House Staff Since 1977 Source: House telephone directories, CRS estimates and calculations. Notes: Pie charts provide the distribution of staff by category in the years listed. In the “Change by Office Category” table, the middle columns represent change by category for each 10-year period. The final column represent change since 1977. House Member office data based on an estimate developed from a random sample of 45 Member offices for each year, multiplied by the number of Member offices. All other categories are based on a full count of directory listings. Congressional Research Service 9 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Senate Staffing In the Senate, the number of staff has grown steadily, from 3,380 in 1977 to 6,099 in 2010, or 80.44%. Each year, the number of Senate staff has grown by an average of 82 individuals,22 or 1.91%. Figure 5 displays staff levels in four categories (Senators’ offices, committees, leadership, and officers and officials) since 1977. Table 7 in the “Data Tables” section below, provides detailed staff levels in those categories. Figure 7 displays change in the distribution of staff among the categories at various intervals. Senate Data Collection All Senate staff data reported here are based on a full count of all telephone directory listings for Senators’ offices, committees, leadership, and officers and officials. Staff working in Senators’ offices were counted as working in Washington, DC, if they were listed in an office in the Russell, Dirksen, or Hart Senate Office Buildings, and as working in a state office if they were not. In 2010, leadership listings included the following: Majority Leader, Assistant Majority Leader, Republican Leader, Republican Whip, President of the Senate, President Pro Tempore, Democratic Policy Committee, Democratic Steering and Outreach Committee, Senate Democratic Communications Center, Republican Conference, Republican Policy Committee, Democratic Cloakroom, Republican Cloakroom, Secretary for the Majority, and Secretary for the Minority. Data for Senate officers and other chamber officials include a full count of staff in the following: Secretary of the Senate and Sergeant at Arms, the two officers elected by the Senate; Chaplain; Legislative Counsel; and Legal Counsel. 22 Rounded to reflect a whole number. Congressional Research Service 10 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Figure 5. Senate Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2010 Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations. Notes: All categories are based on a full count of directory listings. Staff in Senators’ Offices Staff in Senators’ offices have grown from 2,068 in 1977 to 4,346 in 2010, or 110.15%. The level of staffing appears to have grown steadily since 1977, but the full extent of change over time cannot be determined, because prior to 1987, Senate telephone directories did not include statebased staff working in Senators’ offices. Between 1987 and 2010, the number of staff working in Senators’ offices grew 32.26%, from 3,286 to 4,346. This may call into question the validity of identifying data for 1977-1987 as all Senators’ office staff, or ascribing significance to the apparently sharp rise in staff levels between 1986 and 1987. Given the consistent upward trend among all categories of Senate staff, it may be that the lack of state office data results in an undercount of staff working in Senators’ offices. This may be particularly acute in the Senators’ office category, since, as described below, staff working in the state facilities of Senator’s offices have grown at a faster rate than Washington, DC-based staff. Senators’ office staff have grown as a proportion of overall Senate staff over time. In 1980, Member office staff comprised 59.24% of Senate staff. The proportion grew to 68.49% in 1990, and 73.55% in 2000, before dropping slightly to 71.26% in 2010. Congressional Research Service 11 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Figure 6 displays the distribution of staff based in Senators’ Washington, DC, and state offices. It shows that after a period of growth between 1977 and 1987, Washington, DCbased staff growth was essentially flat. Most of the growth in Senators’ staffs since 1987 appear to have been among state-based staff, which nearly doubled in size from 935 in 1987 to 1,833 in 2010. More staff work in Washington, DC, offices than in state offices, but the proportion of Senators’ staff based in states has grown steadily since 1987, when listings for state-based staff were first available, while the staffing levels in Washington, DC, offices has remained flat. In 2010, approximately 58% of staff working in Senators’ offices did so in Washington, DC, down from a high of 71.55% in 1977. Table 8 in the “Data Tables” section below provides the number of staff working in Senators’ offices in Washington, DC, and state offices. Figure 6. Distribution of Staff Working In Senators’ Offices, 1977-2010 Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations. Notes: All categories are based on a full count of directory listings. Staff telephone data from Senators’ offices were counted and assumed to be in Washington, DC, if they were listed as working in the Russell, Dirksen, or Hart Senate Office Buildings, and outside of Washington, DC if they were not. Committees Senate committee staff levels have shown the smallest increase among Senate staff categories, rising 14.94% since 1977. Change among Senate committee staff may be characterized in four stages: an increase during 1977-1980 (20.57%); minimal growth from 1981 until 1992 (1.29%); a period of decline in 1993-1998 (-16.30%); and a period of steady growth from 1999 to the present (32.27%). The 2010 level of 1,246 is 162 (14.94%) more than 1977 levels, and 61 (-4.67%) fewer than the 1980 peak of 1,307 staff. Between 1977 and 2010, committee staff comprised a decreasing proportion of Senate staff, falling from 33.72% of Senate staff in 1980 to 18.83% in 2000. The proportion of Senate committee staff grew to 20.43% by 2010. In the “Data Tables” section below, three tables provide staff levels in various Senate committees. Table 9 provides data for 2001-2010; data for 1991-2000 are available in Table 10; and Table 11 provides data for 1977-1990. Leadership Offices Staff in Senate leadership offices showed the greatest percentage increase, rising 340% since 1977. While the relative increase is substantial, the actual number of staff is relatively small, and grew from 40 in 1977 to 176 in 2010. The number of leadership staff peaked in 2006 at 214. As a proportion of Senate staff, leadership employees were 1.19% in 1980 and 2.89% in 2010. Congressional Research Service 12 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Officers and Officials Staff working in the offices of Senate officers and officials has grown 76.06% since 1977. Staff levels have grown from 199 in 1977 to 331 in 2010, but were characterized by sharp decreases in 1986, 1993-1996, and 1998-2001. Despite the growth, Senate officers and officials staff decreased as a proportion of Senate staff, falling from 5.86% in 1980 to a low of 4.36% in 2004. In 2010, the proportion of officers and officials staff was 5.43%. Congressional Research Service 13 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Figure 7. Change in Distribution of Senate Staff Since 1977 Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations. Notes: Pie charts provide the distribution of staff by category in the years listed. In the Change by Office Category table, the middle columns represent change by category for each 10-year period. The final column represent change since 1977. All categories are based on a full count of directory listings. Congressional Research Service 14 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Discussion In the past three decades, the number of staff working for the House and Senate has grown. There are differences in the scale of growth between the chambers, but there are similarities in the patterns of change in the distribution of staff among congressional entities. In each chamber, for example, there have been increases in the number of staff working in chamber leadership offices, and larger increases in the staffing of chamber officers and officials. In the House and Senate, staff working for Members have shifted from committee settings to leadership settings or the personal offices of Members. Some of these changes may be indicative of the growth of the House and Senate as institutions, or the value the chambers place on their activities. One example that may be an indication of institutional development may be found in the growth in both chambers of the number of staff working in leadership and officers and officials’ offices. A potential explanation for these changes may be found in what some might characterize as an ongoing professionalization and institutionalization of congressional management and administration. Some note that as organizations such as governing institutions develop, they identify needs for expertise and develop specialized practices and processes.23 In Congress, some of those areas of specialization arguably include supporting the legislative process through the drafting of measures, oversight and support of floor activities, and the management of legislation in a bicameral, partisan environment. Another potential explanation related to a more institutionalized, professionalized Congress could be the demands for professional management and support. This could arise as a result of congressional use of communications technologies, and the deployment of systematic, professionalized human resources, business operations, and financial management. Consequently, increased specialized support of congressional legislative and administrative activities may explain increases among staff working for chamber leaders, and officers and officials.24 In another example, the distribution of staff working directly for Members has shifted from committee settings to personal office settings. Staff in Member offices of both chambers has grown; House committee staff has decreased; and the level of increase in Senate committee staff is substantially less than all other entities in that chamber. This may represent a shift from collective congressional activities typically carried out in committees (including legislative, oversight, and investigative work) to individualized activities typically carried out in Members’ personal offices (including direct representational activities, constituent service and education, and political activity).25 23 See, for example, Nelson W. Polsby, “The Institutionalization of the U.S. House of Representatives,” The American Political Science Review, vol. 62, no. 1 (March 1968), pp. 144-168. 24 For background on leadership offices, see CRS Report RS20881, Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities, by Valerie Heitshusen, and CRS Report 97-780, The Speaker of the House: House Officer, Party Leader, and Representative, by Valerie Heitshusen; for background on support offices, see CRS Report RL33220, Support Offices in the House of Representatives: Roles and Authorities, by Ida A. Brudnick. 25 See CRS Report RL33686, Roles and Duties of a Member of Congress, by R. Eric Petersen. Congressional Research Service 15 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Data Tables Table 1. House and Senate Staff Levels Since 1977 Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 House 8,831 9,102 9,045 9,341 Senate 3,380 3,750 3,640 3,876 Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 House 9,075 9,265 9,176 9,556 9,267 9,428 9,083 9,500 9,447 9,436 Senate 3,832 3,991 4,044 4,021 3,933 4,072 4,815 4,927 4,907 5,030 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 House 9,560 9,836 9,484 9,891 8,724 8,692 9,056 9,251 9,050 8,994 Senate 5,208 5,359 5,200 5,366 5,114 5,019 5,047 5,240 5,138 5,198 Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 House 9,349 9,389 9,112 9,556 9,521 9,568 9,718 10,004 9,808 - Senate 4,926 5,324 5,373 5,624 5,562 5,879 5,691 5,901 5,687 6,099 Source: House and Senate telephone directories, various years, CRS calculations. Notes: House data through 2009. Senate data through 2010. Congressional Research Service 16 House of Representatives Data Tables Table 2. House of Representatives Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2009 Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 House Member Office 6,556 6,614 6,737 6,913 Committee 1,891 2,067 1,861 1,991 Leadership 62 69 65 79 Officers and Officials 271 329 357 337 Commissions 51 23 25 21 8,831 9,102 9,045 9,341 Totals Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 House Member Office 6,844 6,884 6,786 7,050 6,737 6,942 6,512 6,864 6,786 6,717 Committee 1,720 1,851 1,867 1,974 1,997 1,980 2,025 2,062 2,062 2,088 Leadership 58 71 64 65 66 63 93 95 88 101 Officers and Officials 434 437 436 444 445 424 434 457 475 495 Commissions 19 22 23 23 22 19 19 22 36 35 Totals 9,075 9,265 9,176 9,556 9,267 9,428 9,083 9,500 9,447 9,436 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 House Member Office 6,825 6,932 7,040 7,284 6,502 6,532 6,893 6,972 6,835 6,737 Committee 2,098 2,233 1,950 1,947 1,258 1,306 1,277 1,361 1,311 1,334 Leadership 107 106 107 112 125 128 132 160 159 165 Officers and Officials 501 537 359 521 818 704 733 737 723 738 Commissions 29 28 28 27 21 22 21 21 22 20 9,560 9,836 9,484 9,891 8,724 8,692 9,056 9,251 9,050 8,994 Totals CRS-17 Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 House Member Office 7,108 7,079 6,737 7,060 7,020 7,089 7,011 7,226 7,360 Committee 1,295 1,321 1,328 1,399 1,379 1,370 1,426 1,472 1,362 Leadership 177 173 179 203 192 190 207 214 219 Officers and Officials 750 787 832 861 896 884 1,040 1,056 828 Commissions 19 29 36 33 34 35 34 36 39 9,349 9,389 9,112 9,556 9,521 9,568 9,718 10,004 9,808 Totals Source: House telephone directories, CRS estimates and calculations. Notes: House Member office data based on an estimate developed from a sample of 45 Member offices for each year, multiplied by the number of Member offices. All other categories are based on a full count of directory listings. Table 3. Estimated Staff Working in House Member Offices Since 1977 Sample Averages Member Staff Estimates Year Washington, DC Staff District Staff Member Staff Member Offices DC Staff District Staff Member Staff 1977 9.49 5.44 14.93 439 4,166 2,390 6,556 1978 9.80 5.27 15.07 439 4,302 2,312 6,614 1979 9.18 6.13 15.31 440 4,038 2,699 6,737 1980 9.42 6.29 15.71 440 4,146 2,767 6,913 1981 8.76 6.80 15.56 440 3,852 2,992 6,844 1982 9.02 6.62 15.64 440 3,970 2,914 6,884 1983 9.09 6.33 15.42 440 3,999 2,787 6,786 1984 9.36 6.67 16.02 440 4,116 2,933 7,050 1985 8.40 6.91 15.31 440 3,696 3,041 6,737 1986 8.87 6.91 15.78 440 3,901 3,041 6,942 1987 7.98 6.82 14.80 440 3,510 3,002 6,512 1988 8.73 6.87 15.60 440 3,843 3,021 6,864 1989 8.40 7.02 15.42 440 3,696 3,090 6,786 CRS-18 Sample Averages Member Staff Estimates Year Washington, DC Staff District Staff Member Staff Member Offices DC Staff District Staff Member Staff 1990 7.96 7.31 15.27 440 3,500 3,217 6,717 1991 8.16 7.36 15.51 440 3,588 3,236 6,825 1992 8.51 7.24 15.76 440 3,745 3,188 6,932 1993 8.40 7.60 16.00 440 3,696 3,344 7,040 1994 8.24 8.31 16.56 440 3,628 3,657 7,284 1995 7.60 7.18 14.78 440 3,344 3,158 6,502 1996 7.82 7.02 14.84 440 3,442 3,090 6,532 1997 8.51 7.16 15.67 440 3,745 3,148 6,893 1998 7.84 8.00 15.84 440 3,452 3,520 6,972 1999 7.82 7.71 15.53 440 3,442 3,393 6,835 2000 7.93 7.38 15.31 440 3,491 3,246 6,737 2001 7.98 8.18 16.16 440 3,510 3,598 7,108 2002 8.11 7.98 16.09 440 3,569 3,510 7,079 2003 7.98 7.33 15.31 440 3,510 3,227 6,737 2004 7.93 8.11 16.04 440 3,491 3,569 7,060 2005 8.09 7.87 15.96 440 3,559 3,461 7,020 2006 8.42 7.69 16.11 440 3,706 3,383 7,089 2007 8.33 7.60 15.93 440 3,667 3,344 7,011 2008 8.20 8.22 16.42 440 3,608 3,618 7,226 2009 8.44 8.24 16.69 441 3,724 3,636 7,360 Source: House telephone directories, various years, CRS calculations. Notes: Based on a random sample of 45 Member offices drawn in proportion to the distribution of Member offices in the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn House Office Buildings. Staff telephone data from those offices were counted and assumed to be in Washington, DC if they were listed as working in the Cannon, Longworth, or Rayburn Buildings, and outside of Washington, DC if they were not. Averages data were multiplied by the number of Member offices to derive an estimate of the number of staff employed in personal offices. CRS-19 Table 4. House Committee Staff, 1999-2009 Committee 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Agriculture 53 51 56 56 53 55 50 53 45 45 45 Appropriations 138 150 152 161 122 133 133 134 158 154 130 Armed Services 55 52 48 49 55 52 56 60 67 65 67 Budget 87 86 79 84 91 87 87 80 72 73 73 Education and Labor 76 70 67 66 69 72 75 64 72 78 76 Energy and Commerce 83 84 86 93 92 90 89 82 79 104 96 Financial Services 51 49 58 60 63 63 62 59 62 63 62 Foreign Affairs 64 63 67 67 69 73 76 80 81 78 80 - - - - 17 44 38 51 63 62 62 House Administration 28 32 37 35 38 41 38 38 38 43 41 Judiciary 61 70 68 70 77 73 73 73 70 75 70 Natural Resources 56 62 60 64 64 64 63 62 67 71 61 Oversight and Government Reform 116 105 107 101 94 110 100 96 106 100 71 Rules 34 36 31 33 36 36 36 37 34 35 37 Science and Technology 52 52 50 53 47 53 53 47 50 50 54 Small Business 27 28 23 23 29 30 33 30 28 25 26 Standards 12 11 13 13 11 11 9 13 16 16 14 Transportation and Infrastructure 119 124 73 73 73 75 76 78 76 77 82 Veterans’ Affairs 20 28 28 26 30 29 27 28 33 32 32 Ways and Means 66 64 69 70 69 71 74 72 64 71 69 Intelligence 24 22 28 31 26 32 29 36 39 36 32 Select Energy Independence & Global Warming - - - - - - - - 13 20 23 Military and Commercial Concerns with China 2 - - - - - - - - - - Homeland Security Source: House telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. “-” indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff. CRS-20 Table 5. House Committee Staff, 1988-1998 Committee 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Agriculture 59 54 63 59 61 55 55 57 58 55 54 Appropriations 207 206 205 217 223 219 215 148 149 151 151 Armed Services 62 64 70 73 87 66 75 46 50 53 53 Budget 103 106 97 92 97 90 93 72 72 68 78 Education and Labor 113 111 110 100 112 97 100 67 70 72 92 Energy and Commerce 147 142 135 139 162 143 140 69 67 82 86 Financial Services 85 93 98 101 107 88 94 51 55 51 54 Foreign Affairs 97 99 98 102 102 104 100 60 64 63 65 House Administration 44 49 54 59 58 49 53 25 27 29 27 Judiciary 81 80 73 67 73 74 70 50 56 54 62 Natural Resources 100 100 100 107 121 101 89 75 84 57 62 Oversight and Government Reform 75 71 85 88 99 83 83 77 94 94 132 Rules 38 40 39 41 42 41 41 36 36 36 41 Science and Technology 79 77 92 93 102 93 92 51 54 55 53 Small Business 52 47 49 41 45 32 36 27 27 27 25 Standards 10 9 8 11 8 8 8 7 9 8 11 Transportation and Infrastructure 126 139 132 142 150 144 137 119 119 116 121 Veterans’ Affairs 39 33 34 37 39 44 40 25 28 28 15 Ways and Means 86 85 87 94 96 92 92 61 65 64 60 Intelligence 31 34 36 21 25 24 25 20 24 23 24 Aging 35 36 34 36 38 - - - - - - Children, Youth and Families 17 15 18 16 15 - - - - - - District of Columbia 38 38 39 38 34 23 34 - - - - Hunger 15 15 14 15 16 - - - - - - Merchant Marine and Fisheries 81 84 83 86 81 75 73 - - - - Narcotics 17 18 16 17 15 - - - - - - CRS-21 Committee Organization of Congress Post Office and Civil Service 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 - - - - - 13 - 13 - - - 97 92 92 85 92 68 80 - - - - Source: House telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. “-”indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff. Table 6. House Committee Staff, 1977-1987 Committee 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 Agriculture 50 55 58 69 62 56 60 55 58 56 55 Appropriations 76 134 129 133 122 142 143 166 183 204 205 Armed Services 48 49 48 46 49 48 51 54 58 59 62 Budget 111 78 82 96 80 97 95 94 100 100 104 Education and Labor 103 106 102 119 105 112 109 113 102 106 110 Energy and Commerce 136 143 135 156 122 147 147 152 144 138 135 Financial Services 102 106 102 94 77 81 92 88 89 84 85 Foreign Affairs 85 99 84 81 81 85 84 85 91 93 93 House Administration 41 47 50 60 44 46 48 50 47 49 46 Judiciary 86 83 83 80 76 72 78 84 85 81 76 Natural Resources 103 107 103 105 91 103 110 107 95 98 103 Oversight and Government Reform 125 80 73 82 78 80 79 85 87 84 75 Rules 24 25 34 47 48 43 44 44 41 37 39 Science and Technology 77 85 86 87 58 73 77 73 84 76 76 Small Business 40 43 40 54 46 56 53 49 51 49 56 Standards 35 35 11 17 9 9 7 10 9 9 10 Transportation and Infrastructure 85 86 80 78 82 98 99 102 100 100 109 Veterans’ Affairs 33 37 33 33 32 34 30 32 31 32 36 Ways and Means 87 90 90 89 82 84 84 85 91 85 79 CRS-22 Committee 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 Intelligence 3 38 35 40 36 32 30 27 32 27 29 Aging 35 36 36 38 35 38 33 37 35 37 33 Assassinations 96 118 - - - - - - - - - Children, Youth and Families - - - - - - 4 17 18 16 17 Committees - - 3 - - - - - - - - Congressional Operations 34 33 - - - - - - - - - Covert Arms Sales to Iran - - - - - - - - - - 38 District of Columbia 44 45 33 50 38 38 39 42 39 39 40 Ethics 9 6 - - - - - - - - - Hunger - - - - - - - - 14 15 14 Merchant Marine and Fisheries 64 69 86 91 80 84 78 89 84 75 78 Narcotics 26 27 25 22 - 15 17 21 14 17 16 Outer Continental Shelf 20 - 17 17 - - - - - - - Post Office and Civil Service 55 70 66 65 67 57 55 89 89 92 92 Source: House telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. “-”indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff. CRS-23 Senate Data Tables Table 7. Senate Staff Levels by Category, 1977-2010 Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 Senators’ Offices 2,068 2,215 2,173 2,296 Committee 1,084 1,244 1,209 1,307 Leadership 40 91 44 46 Officers and Officials 188 200 214 227 3,380 3,750 3,640 3,876 Totals Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Senators’ Offices 2,308 2,385 2,454 2,430 2,409 2,474 3,286 3,393 3,354 3,445 Committee 1,161 1,228 1,200 1,191 1,137 1,177 1,150 1,147 1,167 1,174 Leadership 118 128 134 136 118 128 131 129 126 137 Officers and Officials Totals Year 245 250 256 264 269 293 248 258 260 274 3,832 3,991 4,044 4,021 3,933 4,072 4,815 4,927 4,907 5,030 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Senators’ Offices 3,612 3,707 3,593 3,826 3,771 3,773 3,678 3,876 3,801 3,823 Committee 1,176 1,216 1,141 1094 915 929 899 955 942 979 Leadership 138 150 143 158 151 151 163 135 135 137 Officers and Officials 282 286 323 288 277 166 307 274 260 259 5,208 5,359 5,200 5,366 5,114 5,019 5,047 5,240 5,138 5,198 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 3,639 3,855 3,915 4,091 4,047 4,232 4,044 4,221 4,029 4,346 Committee 915 1,071 1,047 1,126 1,078 1,146 1,147 1,182 1,153 1,246 Leadership 146 158 164 162 182 214 203 179 178 176 Totals Year Senators’ Offices Officers and Officials Totals 226 240 247 245 255 287 297 319 327 331 4,926 5,324 5,373 5,624 5,562 5,879 5,691 5,901 5,687 6,099 Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations. Notes: All categories are based on a full count of directory listings. Senate telephone directories published in 1981, 1996, and 2009 provided listings for 99 Senators’ offices. CRS-24 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Table 8. Staff Working in Senators’ Offices, 1977-2010 Year DC-Based Staff State-Based Staff Total Member Staff DC % State % 1977 2,068 1978 2,215 1979 2,173 1980 2,296 1981 2,308 1982 2,385 1983 2,454 1984 2,430 1985 2,409 1986 2,474 1987 2,351 935 3,286 71.55% 28.45% 1988 2,449 944 3,393 72.18% 27.82% 1989 2,381 973 3,354 70.99% 29.01% 1990 2,430 1,015 3,445 70.54% 29.46% 1991 2,439 1,173 3,612 67.52% 32.48% 1992 2,473 1,234 3,707 66.71% 33.29% 1993 2,332 1,261 3,593 64.90% 35.10% 1994 2,474 1,352 3,826 64.66% 35.34% 1995 2,422 1,349 3,771 64.23% 35.77% 1996 2,397 1,376 3,773 63.53% 36.47% 1997 2,318 1,360 3,678 63.02% 36.98% 1998 2,407 1,469 3,876 62.10% 37.90% 1999 2,375 1,426 3,801 62.48% 37.52% 2000 2,329 1,494 3,823 60.92% 39.08% 2001 2,258 1,381 3,639 62.05% 37.95% 2002 2,334 1,521 3,855 60.54% 39.46% 2003 2,378 1,537 3,915 60.74% 39.26% 2004 2,474 1,617 4,091 60.47% 39.53% 2005 2,436 1,611 4,047 60.19% 39.81% 2006 2,521 1,711 4,232 59.57% 40.43% 2007 2,394 1,650 4,044 59.20% 40.80% 2008 2,496 1,725 4,221 59.13% 40.87% 2009 2,370 1,659 4,029 58.82% 41.18% 2010 2,513 1,833 4,346 57.82% 42.18% Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations. Notes: The Senate telephone directory did not provide listings for state-based staff prior to 1987. Senate telephone directories published in 1981, 1996, and 2009 provided listings for 99 Senators’ offices. Congressional Research Service 25 Table 9. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 2001-2010 Committee 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry 22 32 27 33 22 29 30 35 32 43 Appropriations 102 90 101 118 120 118 124 121 116 114 Armed Services 44 51 47 48 46 48 51 53 49 50 Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 38 60 41 46 47 46 41 46 48 60 Budget 46 52 50 49 47 49 50 49 45 54 Commerce, Science, and Transportation 48 59 72 69 64 68 69 69 69 65 Energy and Natural Resources 38 43 42 42 46 43 42 44 47 52 Environment and Public Works 33 49 53 56 51 50 41 40 45 44 Finance 52 56 60 62 53 63 82 83 84 84 Foreign Relations 55 54 49 56 57 53 52 46 47 66 Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions 76 72 74 90 95 92 77 90 89 91 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 74 92 82 86 71 109 89 100 112 127 Judiciary 82 112 115 129 127 137 143 121 106 120 Rules and Administration 16 18 16 16 19 18 22 22 20 23 Small Business and Entrepreneurship 22 29 21 22 24 28 25 32 31 29 Veterans Affairs 18 19 20 17 22 23 24 25 26 27 Select Ethics 11 11 9 9 10 10 11 11 15 15 Indian Affairs 18 21 19 18 16 11 16 20 20 21 Select Intelligence 31 32 30 34 28 42 37 43 39 42 Select Aging 10 25 20 19 12 15 23 23 13 20 Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. “-”indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff. CRS-26 Table 10. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 1991-2000 Committee 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry 40 36 36 35 31 31 26 27 23 27 Appropriations 79 81 78 72 71 61 63 61 87 89 Armed Services 50 48 47 49 43 43 45 45 43 47 Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 50 51 49 48 40 42 41 41 44 42 Budget 58 55 56 52 46 39 44 45 44 48 Commerce, Science, and Transportation 70 72 73 67 59 61 54 58 51 56 Energy and Natural Resources 50 51 49 48 42 44 40 38 37 40 Environment and Public Works 47 47 37 39 37 37 34 36 36 43 Finance 58 57 49 49 47 53 45 52 52 46 Foreign Relations 69 67 66 58 47 51 48 51 49 54 Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions 106 102 93 108 81 79 76 85 98 86 Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 93 96 96 86 61 63 78 76 65 85 Judiciary 105 119 106 106 86 93 85 93 84 98 Rules and Administration 27 28 27 25 18 18 21 19 15 16 Small Business and Entrepreneurship 21 21 19 22 19 20 19 17 18 20 Veterans Affairs 24 26 21 21 18 17 21 38 19 16 Select Ethics 11 10 11 12 11 9 8 11 10 11 Indian Affairs 22 28 20 20 14 16 18 15 16 20 Select Intelligence 40 41 32 36 24 30 27 34 33 29 Select Aging 33 32 26 23 16 20 18 20 18 17 Select POW/MIA Affairs - 15 - - - - - - - - Select Year 2000 Technology Problem - - - - - - - - 15 - Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. “-”indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff. CRS-27 Table 11. Senate Committee Staff by Committee, 1977-1990 Committee Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 28 37 30 35 33 34 35 32 33 32 30 35 38 45 Appropriations 69 67 74 89 63 76 81 81 80 82 78 78 84 80 Armed Services 28 29 27 27 36 34 37 39 42 42 46 49 49 49 Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 39 49 43 46 38 39 33 29 29 31 34 31 44 49 Budget 47 79 67 77 63 70 73 74 68 63 61 61 54 58 Commerce, Science, and Transportation 89 91 83 92 77 88 78 78 80 78 76 75 72 70 Energy and Natural Resources 40 51 52 55 49 52 49 51 48 48 44 46 48 50 Environment and Public Works 30 33 38 38 52 51 54 51 49 50 46 47 48 50 Finance 28 34 36 40 45 50 45 53 54 55 54 54 54 54 Foreign Relations 63 57 55 68 62 62 61 62 60 61 54 57 57 51 Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions 93 122 118 121 118 123 123 112 101 105 95 107 104 102 Homeland Security Governmental Affairs 108 153 140 156 113 121 120 117 94 99 88 92 97 92 Judiciary 119 144 139 153 120 135 116 119 121 126 101 100 98 111 Rules and Administration 27 30 30 31 30 32 29 28 29 28 29 27 27 28 Small Business and Entrepreneurship 22 21 23 23 22 23 24 21 22 21 22 20 21 22 Veterans Affairs 18 19 20 23 20 22 22 20 21 25 25 26 25 26 Select Ethics 2 9 15 12 17 13 12 10 8 8 9 7 9 11 Indian Affairs 0 25 26 15 13 14 19 20 19 23 23 41 26 23 Select Intelligence 40 46 43 46 41 41 41 36 32 47 38 40 41 40 Select Aging 19 19 19 21 28 28 25 34 25 27 24 26 30 32 - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - Select Investigations - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 - Select Iran-Contra - - - - - - - - - - 53 - - - 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - Select Impeachment Trials Select Nutrition and Human Needs Select Senate Committee Systems 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - Select Transition Staff for Former Postal Workers 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - Source: Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Committees are listed by names used in the 111th Congress, or most recent year in which the committee existed. “-”indicates that no staff were listed for that year. In some instances this was because the committee did not exist. In other instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff. CRS-28 Joint Committee Staff Data Table 12. Staff of Active Joint Committees, 1977-2010 Joint Committee Economic Library of Congress Printing Taxation Joint Committee Economic Library of Congress Printing Taxation Joint Committee Economic Library of Congress Printing Taxation CRS-29 Chamber 1977 1978 1979 1980 House 4 50 55 62 Senate 46 51 53 58 House 1 2 2 2 Senate - - 2 2 House 3 16 17 16 Senate 15 15 16 16 House 28 65 63 62 Senate - 63 60 63 Chamber 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 House 44 44 42 44 40 36 34 44 46 42 Senate 46 43 44 44 40 39 35 45 44 43 House 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 Senate 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 House 14 15 16 17 17 17 18 18 14 16 Senate 15 16 16 17 17 16 17 17 14 16 House 60 60 60 60 66 66 60 64 63 67 Senate Chamber 58 59 60 60 62 68 66 64 59 70 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 House 38 40 32 33 33 30 24 25 22 31 Senate 41 44 45 29 35 32 23 25 23 31 House 2 2 2 2 1 2 59 3 2 2 Senate 2 2 2 2 2 1 - - - - House 15 18 18 16 7 7 8 8 2 2 Senate 14 14 17 16 7 8 9 8 - - House 66 73 72 71 61 59 - 59 61 60 Senate 66 73 73 71 60 61 56 60 62 58 Joint Committee Economic Library of Congress Printing Taxation Chamber 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 House 34 29 34 36 31 33 29 32 7 - Senate 21 34 35 36 31 31 35 35 34 34 House 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 2 - - Senate - - 2 2 2 2 4 4 - - House 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 - - Senate 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 - - House 59 62 61 63 65 58 58 61 52 - Senate 57 58 60 65 64 57 55 66 66 65 Source: House and Senate telephone directories, CRS calculations Notes: Excludes staff listed at various times since 1977 for the Joint committees on Taxation, Inaugural Ceremonies, Atomic Energy, Defense Production, Internal Revenue Service, and Organization of Congress. Staff data for those panels is available from the authors upon request. -”indicates that no staff were listed in the relevant chamber for that year. In some instances, a directory listing for a panel was identified, but did not list any staff. CRS-30 House and Senate Staff Levels, 1977-2010 Author Contact Information R. Eric Petersen Analyst in American National Government epetersen@crs.loc.gov, 7-0643 Amber Hope Wilhelm Graphics Specialist awilhelm@crs.loc.gov, 7-2392 Parker H. Reynolds Analyst in American National Government preynolds@crs.loc.gov, 7-5821 Acknowledgments Ida Brudnick, Analyst on the Congress, and Jennifer Manning, Information Research Specialist, provided technical assistance with this report. Congressional Research Service 31