Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008

This report is provides data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions.

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Richard F. Grimmett Specialist in International Security September 4, 2009 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R40796 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Summary This report is prepared annually to provide Congress with official, unclassified, quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions. Similar data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world. Developing nations continue to be the primary focus of foreign arms sales activity by weapons suppliers. During the years 2001-2008, the value of arms transfer agreements with developing nations comprised 64.8% of all such agreements worldwide. More recently, arms transfer agreements with developing nations constituted 69.2% of all such agreements globally from 2005-2008, and 76.4% of these agreements in 2008. The value of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations in 2008 was nearly $42.2 billion. This was a nominal increase from $41.1 billion in 2007. In 2008, the value of all arms deliveries to developing nations was nearly $18.3 billion, the lowest total in these deliveries values for the entire 2001-2008 period (in constant 2008 dollars), and only slightly below the 2007 total. Recently, from 2005-2008, the United States and Russia have dominated the arms market in the developing world, with both nations either ranking first or second for three out of four years in the value of arms transfer agreements. From 2005-2008, Russia made nearly $35.1 billion, 22.9% of all such agreements, expressed in constant 2008 dollars. During this same period, the United States made $56.3 billion in such agreements, 36.7% of all such agreements. Collectively, the United States and Russia made 59.6% of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations ($91.4 billion (in constant 2008 dollars) during this four-year period. In 2008, the United States ranked first in arms transfer agreements with developing nations with $29.6 billion or 70.1% of these agreements, an extraordinary market share for a single year. Far behind in second place was Russia with $3.3 billion or 7.8% of such agreements. France was ranked third with $2.5 billion or 5.9%. In global arms transfer agreements in 2008, the United States also dominated, ranking first with $37.8 billion in such agreements or 68.4% of all such agreements. In 2008, the United States ranked first in the value of arms deliveries to developing nations at $7.4 billion, or 40.9% of all such deliveries. Russia ranked second at $5.2 billion or 28.5% of such deliveries. In 2008, the United Arab Emirates ranked first in the value of arms transfer agreements among all developing nations weapons purchasers, concluding $9.7 billion in such agreements. Saudi Arabia ranked second with $8.7 billion in such agreements. Morocco ranked third with $5.4 billion. Congressional Research Service Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Contents Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 ................................................1 Introduction and Overview....................................................................................................1 Major Findings ...........................................................................................................................3 General Trends in Arms Transfers Worldwide........................................................................3 General Trends in Arms Transfers to Developing Nations......................................................6 United States...................................................................................................................7 Russia.............................................................................................................................8 China. ........................................................................................................................... 10 Major West European Suppliers. ................................................................................... 11 Regional Arms Transfer Agreements ................................................................................... 13 Near East. ..................................................................................................................... 13 Asia. ................................................................................................................................... 14 Leading Developing Nations Arms Purchasers .................................................................... 15 Weapons Types Recently Delivered to Near East Nations .................................................... 15 Arms Values Data Tables and Charts for 2001-2008 .................................................................. 18 Selected Weapons Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008............................................... 62 Worldwide Arms Transfer Agreements and Deliveries Values, 2001-2008 ................................. 68 Description of Items Counted in Weapons Categories, 2001-2008 ............................................ 81 Regions Identified in Arms Transfer Tables and Charts.............................................................. 82 Figures Figure 1. Arms Transfer Agreements Worldwide, 2001-2008 Developed and Developing Worlds Compared .................................................................................................................. 22 Figure 2. Arms Transfer Agreements Worldwide ....................................................................... 23 Figure 3. Arms Transfer Agreements With Developing Nations ................................................. 24 Figure 4. Arms Transfer Agreements With Developing Nations by Major Supplier, 20012008 ...................................................................................................................................... 25 Figure 5. Arms Transfer Agreements With Near East................................................................. 28 Figure 6. Arms Transfer Agreement With Developing Nations in Asia ....................................... 29 Figure 7. Arms Deliveries Worldwide 2001-2008 Developed and Developing Worlds Compared .............................................................................................................................. 30 Figure 8. Arms Deliveries to Developing Countries by Major Supplier, 2001-2008.................... 31 Tables Table 1. Worldwide Arms Transfer Agreements, 2001-2008 and Suppliers’ Share with Developing World .................................................................................................................. 26 Table 2. Worldwide Arms Deliveries, 2001-2008 and Suppliers’ Share with Developing World..................................................................................................................................... 32 Congressional Research Service Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 3. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008 ............. 34 Table 4. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008 ............. 35 Table 5. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008 ............. 36 Table 6. Regional Arms Transfer Agreements, by Supplier, 2001-2008 ...................................... 37 Table 7. Percentage of Each Supplier’s Agreements Value by Region, 2001-2008...................... 38 Table 8. Percentage of Total Agreements Value by Supplier to Regions, 2001-2008 ................... 39 Table 9. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared............................................................................................................... 40 Table 10. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared............................................................................................................... 42 Table 11. Arms Transfer Agreements with Near East, by Supplier.............................................. 43 Table 12. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, 2001-2008: Agreements by the Leading Recipients ...................................................................................................... 45 Table 13. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations in 2008: Agreements by Leading Recipients................................................................................................................. 47 Table 14. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008................................ 48 Table 15. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008................................ 49 Table 16. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008................................ 50 Table 17. Regional Arms Deliveries by Supplier, 2001-2008 ..................................................... 51 Table 18. Percentage of Supplier Deliveries Value by Region, 2001-2008.................................. 52 Table 19. Percentage of Total Deliveries Value by Supplier to Regions, 2001-2008.................... 53 Table 20. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Leading Suppliers Compared .............................................................................................................................. 54 Table 21. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared .......... 56 Table 22. Arms Deliveries to Near East, by Supplier.................................................................. 57 Table 23. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008: The Leading Recipients............. 59 Table 24. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations in 2008: The Leading Recipients................... 61 Table 25. Numbers of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Developing Nations ......................... 63 Table 26. Number of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Asia and the Pacific ........................... 64 Table 27. Numbers of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Near East ......................................... 65 Table 28. Numbers of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Latin America .................................. 66 Table 29. Number of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Africa ................................................ 67 Table 30. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 ........................... 69 Table 31. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 ........................... 70 Table 32. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 ........................... 71 Table 33. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared .............................................................................................................................. 72 Table 34. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared .............................................................................................................................. 74 Congressional Research Service Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 35. Arms Deliveries to the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 ............................................... 75 Table 36. Arms Deliveries to the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 ............................................... 76 Table 37. Arms Deliveries to the World, by Supplier 2001-2008 ................................................ 77 Table 38. Arms Deliveries to the World, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared .................... 78 Table 39. Arms Deliveries to the World in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared.......................... 80 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 84 Congressional Research Service Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Introduction and Overview This report provides Congress with official, unclassified, background data from U.S. government sources on transfers of conventional arms to developing nations by major suppliers for the period 2001 through 2008. It also includes some data on worldwide supplier transactions. It updates and revises CRS Report RL34723, Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2000-2007. Data in this report provide a means for Congress to identify existing supplier-purchaser relationships in conventional weapons acquisitions. Use of these data can assist Congress in its oversight role of assessing whether the current nature of the international weapons trade affects U.S. national interests. For most of recent American history, maintaining regional stability, and ensuring the security of U.S. allies and friendly nations throughout the world, have been important elements of U.S. foreign policy. Knowing the degree to which individual arms suppliers are making arms transfers to individual nations or regions provides Congress with a context for evaluating policy questions it may confront. Such policy questions may include, for example, whether or not to support specific U.S. arms sales to given countries or regions or to support or oppose such arms transfers by other nations. The data in this report may also assist Congress in evaluating whether multilateral arms control arrangements or other U.S. foreign policy initiatives are being supported or undermined by the actions of arms suppliers. The principal focus of this report is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world—where most of the potential for the outbreak of regional military conflicts currently exists. For decades, during the height of the Cold War, providing conventional weapons to friendly states was an instrument of foreign policy utilized by the United States and its allies. This was equally true for the Soviet Union and its allies. The underlying rationale for U.S. arms transfer policy then was to help ensure that friendly states were not placed at risk through a military disadvantage created by arms transfers by the Soviet Union or its allies. Following the Cold War’s end, U.S. arms transfer policy has been based on assisting friendly and allied nations in developing and maintaining their ability to deal with regional security threats and concerns. Data in this report illustrate how global patterns of conventional arms transfers have changed in the post-Cold War and post-Persian Gulf War years. Relationships between arms suppliers and recipients continue to evolve in the 21st Century in response to changing political, military, and economic circumstances. Where before the principal motivation for arms sales by foreign suppliers might have been to support a foreign policy objective, today that motivation may be based as much on economic considerations as those of foreign or national security policy. Nations in the developing world continue to be the primary focus of foreign arms sales activity by conventional weapons suppliers. During the period of this report, 2001-2008, conventional arms transfer agreements (which represent orders for future delivery) to developing nations comprised 64.8% of the value of all international arms transfer agreements. The portion of agreements with developing countries constituted 69.2% of all agreements globally from 2005-2008. In 2008 arms transfer agreements with developing countries accounted for 76.4% of the value of all such agreements globally. Deliveries of conventional arms to developing nations, from 2005-2008 Congressional Research Service 1 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 constituted 59.7% of all international arms deliveries. In 2008, arms deliveries to developing nations constituted 57.2% of the value of all such arms deliveries worldwide. The data in this new report supersede all data published in previous editions. Since these new data for 2001-2008 reflect potentially significant updates to and revisions in the underlying databases utilized for this report, only the data in this most recent edition should be used. The data are expressed in U.S. dollars for the calendar years indicated, and adjusted for inflation (see box note on page 3). U.S. commercially licensed arms export delivery values are excluded (see box note on page 18). Also excluded are arms transfers by any supplier to subnational groups. The definition of developing nations, as used in this report, and the specific classes of items included in its values totals are found in box notes below on page 2. The report’s table of contents provides a detailed listing and description of the various data tables to guide the reader to specific items of interest. CALENDAR YEAR DATA USED All arms transfer and arms delivery data in this report are for the calendar year or calendar year period given. This applies to U.S. and foreign data alike. United States government departments and agencies publish data on U.S. arms transfers and deliveries but generally use the United States fiscal year as the computational time period for these data. As a consequence, there are likely to be distinct differences noted in those published totals using a fiscal year basis and those provided in this report which use a calendar year basis. Details on data used are outlined in notes at the bottom of Tables 3, 14, 30 and 35. ARMS TRANSFER VALUES The values of arms transfer agreements (or deliveries) in this report refer to the total values of conventional arms orders (or deliveries as the case may be) which include all categories of weapons and ammunition, military spare parts, military construction, military assistance and training programs, and all associated services. DEFINITION OF DEVELOPING NATIONS AND REGIONS As used in this report, the developing nations category includes all countries except the United States, Russia, European nations, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. A listing of countries located in the regions defined for the purpose of this analysis—Asia, Near East, Latin America, and Africa—is provided at the end of the report. Congressional Research Service 2 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 CONSTANT 2008 DOLLARS Throughout this report values of arms transfer agreements and values of arms deliveries for all suppliers are expressed in U.S. dollars. Values for any given year generally reflect the exchange rates that prevailed during that specific year. The report converts these dollar amounts (current dollars) into constant 2008 dollars. Although this helps to eliminate the distorting effects of U.S. inflation to permit a more accurate comparison of various dollar levels over time, the effects of fluctuating exchange rates are not neutralized. The deflators used for the constant dollar calculations in this report are those provided by the U.S. Department of Defense and are set out at the bottom of Tables 4, 15, 31, and 36. Unless otherwise noted in the report, all dollar values are stated in constant terms. The exceptions to this rule are all regional data tables that are composed of four-year aggregate dollar totals (2001-2004 and 2005-2008). These tables are expressed in current dollar terms. And where tables rank leading arms suppliers to developing nations or leading developing nation recipients using four-year aggregate dollar totals, these values are expressed in current dollars. Major Findings General Trends in Arms Transfers Worldwide The value of all arms transfer agreements worldwide (to both developed and developing nations) in 2008 was $55.2 billion. This was a decrease in arms agreements values over 2007 of 7.6%, and the lowest worldwide arms agreements total since 2005 (Figure 1) (Table 31). In 2008, the United States overwhelmingly led in arms transfer agreements worldwide, making agreements valued at $37.8 billion (68.4% of all such agreements), up dramatically from $25.4 billion in 2007. Italy ranked a very distant second with $3.7 billion in agreements (6.7% of these agreements globally), up significantly from $1.2 billion in 2007. Russia ranked third, its arms transfer agreements worldwide were $3.5 billion in 2008, down substantially from $10.8 billion in 2007. The United States, Italy and Russia collectively made agreements in 2008 valued at $45 billion, 81.5% of all international arms transfer agreements made by all suppliers (Figure 1).(Table 31, Table 32, and Table 34). For the period 2005-2008, the total value of all international arms transfer agreements ($221.4 billion) was substantially higher than the worldwide value during 2001-2004 ($156.1 billion), an increase of 29.4%. During the period 2001-2004, developing world nations accounted for 58.4% of the value of all arms transfer agreements made worldwide. During 2005-2008, developing world nations accounted for 69.2% of all arms transfer agreements made globally. In 2008, developing nations accounted for 76.4% of all arms transfer agreements made worldwide (Figure 1).(Table 31). In 2008, the United States ranked first in the value of all arms deliveries worldwide, making $12.2 billion in such deliveries or 38.4%. This is the eighth year in a row that the United States has led in global arms deliveries. Russia ranked second in worldwide arms deliveries in 2008, making $5.4 billion in such deliveries. Germany ranked third in 2008, making $2.9 billion in such deliveries. These top three suppliers of arms in 2008 collectively delivered $20.5 billion, 64.5% Congressional Research Service 3 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 of all arms delivered worldwide by all suppliers in that year (Table 2) (Table 36,Table 37, and Table 39). The value of all international arms deliveries in 2008 was $31.8 billion. This is a decrease in the total value of arms deliveries from the previous year (a decline from $34.5 billion). The total value of such arms deliveries worldwide in 2005-2008 ($137.2 billion) was lower than the deliveries worldwide from 2001-2004 ($148.2 billion, a decline of over $10 billion) (Table 2).(Table 36 and Table 37).(Figure 7 and Figure 8). Developing nations from 2005-2008 accounted for 59.8% of the value of all international arms deliveries. In the earlier period, 2001-2004, developing nations accounted for 66.9% of the value of all arms deliveries worldwide. In 2008, developing nations collectively accounted for 57.2% of the value of all international arms deliveries (Table 2) (Table 15, Table 36, and Table 37). Worldwide weapons orders fell in 2008. The total of nearly $55.2 billion, was a decrease from $59.7 billion in 2007, or 7.5%. At first glance, the decline of overall weapons orders worldwide does not appear to be especially large. However, the extraordinary magnitude and increase in the value and share of worldwide United States weapons agreements total in 2008 ($37.8 billion or 68.4%) masked what otherwise would likely have been a much greater decline in the global arms agreements total of all weapons suppliers in that year. The total value of U.S. arms transfer agreements worldwide in 2008 marked the second year in a row that these values outstripped its more traditional levels in the period from 2001-2008. Of the major arms orders secured in 2008 by the other major suppliers, most reflected one or two significant new acquisitions by the purchasing country. For the others they reflected the continuation or support for an on-going weapons-acquisition program. The overall decline in new weapons sales world-wide in 2008 can be explained, in part, by the decision of some purchasing nations to forego the purchase of major systems due to budgetary considerations in the face of the severe international recession that struck hard from the summer of 2008 onward. Some nations deferred individual purchases aimed at filling out gaps in their military force structures. Others focused on completing the integration of major weapons systems they had already purchased into their militaries. Others also limited contracts to training and support services, as well as to selective upgrades of existing weapons systems. Individual orders such as these can be expensive, and in given instances prove to be nearly as costly as orders for new units of military equipment. Thus not every major supplier had to sell new weapons systems in 2008 to post arms agreement values in excess of a billion dollars, but the clear decline in overall arms orders secured by traditional major suppliers, such as Russia, and the United Kingdom, reflects, in part, the effect of the international recession on those overall orders. Despite the impact of the international economic climate, the international arms market still is intensely competitive. Although new sales have become more difficult to secure most recently, several weapons producing countries continue to focus sales efforts on prospective clients in nations and regions where individual suppliers have had historically held competitive advantages resulting from well-established military-support relationships. The possibility of making arms sales to new NATO member nations in Europe to support their military modernization programs have created additional opportunities for arms suppliers, while permitting these newer NATO states to sell some of their older generation military equipment, in refurbished form, to other nations in the developing world. Congressional Research Service 4 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Inherent limitations exist to sales to developing nations with smaller defense budgets. Consequently, creative seller financing options, as well as the use of co-assembly, co-production, and counter-trade agreements to offset costs to the buyers, are instruments being utilized to facilitate new arms agreements. Given the limitations on significant growth of arms sales to less affluent developing nations, competition between the United States and European countries or consortia for prospective arms contracts within the European region is likely to be particularly intense in the foreseeable future. Such sales seem especially important to European suppliers, as they may partially compensate, in part, for lost weapons deals elsewhere in the developing world resulting from reduced demand for new weapons. Nations in the developed world continue their efforts to protect important elements of their national military industrial bases by limiting arms purchases from other developed nations. Several major arms suppliers have been placing emphasis on the joint production of various weapons systems with other developed nations as an effective way to preserve a domestic weapons production capability, while sharing the costs of development of new weapons. Some supplying nations, meanwhile, have chosen to manufacture items for niche weapons categories where their specialized production capabilities give them important advantages in the international arms marketplace. The strong competition for weapons contracts has also led to consolidation of certain sectors of the domestic defense industries of key weapons-producing nations. While sometimes less-affluent nations in the developing world find themselves compelled by financial considerations to limit their weapons purchases, other prospective purchasers in the developing world with significant financial assets can continue to launch new and costly weapons-procurement programs, due to their wealth. Increases in the price of oil has proven an advantage for major oil producing states in funding their arms purchases even though such oil price increases have caused economic difficulties for many oil consuming states, and contributed to their decisions to curtail or defer new weapons acquisitions. Thus less affluent developing nations have sometimes chosen to upgrade existing weapons systems in their inventories, instead of purchasing new ones. These considerations may curtail sales of some new weapons systems. But the weapons upgrade market can be very lucrative for some arms producers, and in some instances help offset the effect of fewer opportunities for sales of major defense equipment items. Despite a volatile international economy, some nations in the Near East and Asia regions have resumed or continued large weapons purchases. These major orders have been made by a select few developing nations in these regions. They have been made principally by India and China in Asia, and Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Near East. While some weapons purchases have been made by some of these nations seemingly independent of the state of the world economy, for the larger group of developing nations in these regions, the strength of their individual economies appears to be the most significant factor in the timing of many of their arms acquisitions. In the case of Latin America, and, to a much lesser extent, Africa, these regions have developing nations that desire to modernize key sectors of their military forces. Within the last decade, some nations in these regions have placed large arms orders, by regional standards, to advance those ends. However, within Latin America and Africa, many countries have been significantly constrained by their financial resources to the weapons they can purchase. As long as nations in these regions face a limited availability of seller-supplied credit and financing for weapons purchases, and their national budgets for military purchases remain relatively low in view of the Congressional Research Service 5 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 troubled state of the world economy, it seems likely that they will conclude few, if any, major weapons contracts. General Trends in Arms Transfers to Developing Nations The value of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations in 2008 was $42.2 billion, an increase from the $41.1 billion total in 2007 (Figure 1) (Table 1) (Table 3). In 2008, the value of all arms deliveries to developing nations (nearly $18.3 billion) was lower than the value of 2007 deliveries (nearly $18.4 billion), and the lowest total for the 2001-2008 period (Figure 7 and Figure 8) (Table 2) (Table 15). Recently, from 2005-2008, the United States and Russia have dominated the arms market in the developing world, with both nations either ranking first or second for three out of these four years in the value of arms transfer agreements. From 2005-2008, the United States made $56.3 billion of these agreements, or 36.7% of them. During this same period, Russia made nearly $35.5 billion, 22.9% of all such agreements, expressed in constant 2008 dollars. Collectively, the United States and Russia made 59.6% of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations during this four year period. The United Kingdom, the third leading supplier, from 2005-2008 made $17.5 billion or 11.4% of all such agreements with developing nations during these years. In the earlier period (2001-2004) the United States ranked first with $32.5 billion in arms transfer agreements with developing nations or 35.7%; Russia made nearly $26.3 billion in arms transfer agreements during this period or 28.8%. The United Kingdom made nearly $8 billion in agreements or 8.7% (Table 4). During the period from 2001-2008, most arms transfers to developing nations were made by two or three major suppliers in any given year. The United States ranked first among these suppliers for five of the last eight years during this period, falling to third place in 2005. Russia has been a strong competitor for the lead in arms transfer agreements with developing nations, ranking second every year from 2001 through 2004, and first in 2004 and 2006. Russia has lacked the larger traditional client base for armaments held by the United States and the major West European suppliers. However, it has been a major source of weaponry for a few key purchasers in the developing world. Russia’s most significant high value arms transfer agreements continue to be with India and China. Russia has also had some success in concluding arms agreements with clients beyond these two nations, in North Africa, the Near East, and in Southeast Asia. Russia has also increased its sales efforts in Latin America, despite having essentially abandoned major arms sales efforts there after the end of the Cold War. Venezuela has become a significant new arms client for Russia in this region. The Russian government has adopted more flexible payment arrangements for its prospective customers in the developing world generally, including a willingness in specific cases to forgive outstanding debts owed to it by a prospective client in order to secure new arms purchases. Russia has continued its efforts to enhance the quality of its follow-on support services to make Russian products more attractive and competitive, attempting to assure potential clients that it will effectively provide timely service and spare parts for the weapons systems it exports. Among the major West European arms suppliers, France and the United Kingdom, have been successful in concluding significant orders with developing countries from 2001-2008 based on either long-term supply relationships or their having specialized weapons systems readily available. Germany has been especially successful in selling naval systems for developing nations. While the United States faces on-going competition from other major arms suppliers, the Congressional Research Service 6 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 U.S. appears likely to hold its position as the principal supplier to key developing world nations, especially with those able to afford major new weapons. For decades, the United States has developed an especially wide base of arms equipment clients globally with whom it is able to conclude a continuing series of arms agreements annually, if only to provide upgrades, spare parts, ordnance and support services for the large variety of weapons systems it has previously sold to these clients. This large customer base provides distinct advantages to the United States. It provides for a steady stream of orders from year to year, even when the U.S. does not conclude major new arms agreements for major weapons systems. The major arms-supplying nations continue to focus their sales efforts on the wealthier developing countries, while arms transfers to the less affluent developing nations are still constrained by the scarcity of funds in their defense budgets and the unsettled state of the international economy. Between the years 2001 and 2003, the level of arms agreements with developing nations was relatively stable. However, from 2004 through 2008 arms transfer agreements with developing nations have increased every year. These agreements reached a peak in 2008 at $42.2 billion. The increase in agreements with developing nations from 2003 forward have been driven to an important degree by sales to the more affluent countries in this group. Those developing nations that have benefitted from increases in the price of oil have been especially active in seeking new weaponry in the period since 2004. Less traditional European and non-European suppliers, including China, seem to have been successful in securing some agreements with developing nations in recent years, although at lower levels, and with more uneven results, when compared with the major weapons suppliers. However, these non-major arms suppliers have occasionally made arms deals of consequence. Although their agreement values appear larger when they are aggregated as a group, most of their annual arms transfer agreement values during 2001-2008 have been comparatively low when they are examined as individual suppliers. In various individual cases these suppliers have been successful in selling older generation equipment. This tier of arms suppliers is more likely to be sources of small arms and light weapons and associated ordnance, rather than routine sellers of major military equipment. Most of these arms suppliers do not consistently rank high in comparison with the traditional major suppliers of advanced weaponry in the value of their arms agreements and deliveries (Table 4, Table 9, Table 10, Table 15, Table 20, and Table 21). United States. The total value—in real terms—of United States arms transfer agreements with developing nations rose from $12.4 billion in 2007 to $29.6 billion in 2008. The U.S. share of the value of all such agreements was 70.1% in 2008, an extraordinary increase from a 30.2% share in 2007 (Figure 1, Figure 7, and Figure 8) (Table 1) (Table 4 and Table 5). In 2008, the extraordinary total value of U.S. arms transfer agreements with developing nations was attributable not only to major new orders from clients in the Near East and in Asia, but also to the continuation of significant equipment and support services contracts with a broad-based number of U.S. clients globally. The $29.6 billion arms agreement total for the United States in 2008 illustrates dramatically the continuing U.S. advantage of having well-established defensesupport arrangements with many weapons purchasers worldwide, based upon the existing variety of U.S. weapons systems their militaries utilize. U.S. agreements with all of its clients in 2008 include not only sales of very costly major weapons systems, but also the upgrading of systems previously provided. It is important to note that arms agreements involving a wide variety of Congressional Research Service 7 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 items such as spare parts, ammunition, ordnance, training, and support services have significant value. Among the larger valued arms transfer agreements the United States concluded in 2008 with developing nations were: with the United Arab Emirates for a comprehensive Patriot air defense missile system for over $6.5 billion; with Morocco for 24 F-16 C/D fighter aircraft for $2.1 billion; with Taiwan for 30 AH-64D Apache helicopters for $2 billion; with India for 6 C130J cargo aircraft for $962 million; with Iraq for 140 M1A1 Abrams tanks for $683 million, and for 6 C130J cargo aircraft for $534 million. Other U.S. arms agreements in 2008 were with Saudi Arabia for GE/Pratt & Whitney jet engines for $479 million, for 24 UH-60L Black Hawk helicopters for $342 million, and for support of M1A2 and M1A2S tanks for $290 million; with Egypt for TOW2A missiles and support, and Stinger Block 1 missiles for $261, with South Korea for an Aegis weapons system, and various weapons, components and services for $228; with Brazil for 6 UH-60L Black Hawk helicopters for $159 million. Russia. The total value of Russia’s arms transfer agreements with developing nations in 2008 was $3.3 billion, a substantial decrease from $10.4 billion in 2007, placing Russia a distant second in such agreements with the developing world. Russia’s share of all developing world arms transfer agreements also decreased dramatically, falling from 25.2% in 2007 to 7.8% in 2008 (Figure 1, Figure 7, and Figure 8) (Table 1) (Table 4, Table 5, and Table 10). Russian arms transfer agreement totals with developing nations have been notable during the last four years. During the 2005-2008 period, Russia ranked first among all suppliers to developing countries, making $35.1 billion in agreements (in current 2008 dollars) (Table 9). Russia’s status as a leading supplier of arms to developing nations stems from a successful effort to overcome the significant economic and political problems associated with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union. Traditional arms clients of the former Soviet Union were generally less wealthy developing countries; valued as much for their political support during the Cold War as for their desire for Soviet weaponry. Several of these Soviet-era client states received substantial military aid grants and significant discounts on their arms purchases. After 1991 Russia consistently placed a premium on obtaining hard currency for the weapons it sold. Faced with stiff competition from Western arms suppliers in the post-Cold War period, Russia modified and adapted its selling practices in an effort to regain and sustain an important share of the developing-world arms market. Most recently, Russian leaders have made significant efforts to provide more creative financing and payment options for prospective arms clients. They have agreed to engage in counter-trade, offsets, debt-swapping, and, in key cases, to make significant licensed production agreements in order to sell Russia’s weapons. The willingness to license production has been a central element in several cases involving Russia’s major arms clients, India and China. Russia’s efforts to expand its arms customer base elsewhere have met with mixed results. Russia’s arms sales efforts, apart from those with China and India, have been focused on Southeast Asia. Here Russia has secured arms agreements with Malaysia, Vietnam and Indonesia. Russia has also concluded major arms deals with Venezuela and with Algeria. Elsewhere in the developing world Russian military equipment can be competitive because it ranges from the most basic to the highly advanced. For less affluent developing nations Russia’s less expensive armaments are especially attractive. Congressional Research Service 8 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Military aircraft and missiles continue to provide a significant portion of Russia’s arms exports. Yet the absence of major new research and development efforts in this and other military equipment areas may jeopardize long-term Russian foreign arms sales prospects. Military weapons research and development (R&D) programs exist in Russia, but other major arms suppliers have more advanced much more rapidly in developing and producing weaponry than have current Russian military R&D programs, a factor that may deter expansion of the Russian arms client base. Nevertheless, Russia continues to have important arms development and sales programs involving India and China, which should provide it with sustained business throughout this decade. Through agreements concluded in the mid-1990s, Russia has sold major combat fighter aircraft, and main battle tanks to India, and has provided other major weapons systems though lease or licensed production. It continues to provide support services and items for these various weapons systems. Sales of advanced weaponry in South Asia by Russia have been a matter of ongoing concern to the United States because of long-standing tensions between India and Pakistan. A key U.S. policy objective is keeping a potentially destabilizing arms race in this region within check. In support of that end, the United States has recently expanded its military cooperation with India.1 Russia’s other key arms client in Asia has been China, especially for advanced aircraft and naval systems. Since 1996, Russia has sold China Su-27 fighter aircraft and agreed to licensed production of them. It has sold the Chinese quantities of Su-30 multi-role fighter aircraft, Sovremenny-class destroyers equipped with Sunburn anti-ship missiles, and Kilo-class Project 636 submarines. Russia has also sold the Chinese a variety of other weapons systems and missiles. In 2005, Russia agreed to sell China 30 IL-76TD military transport aircraft and 8 IL78M aerial refueling tanker aircraft for more than $1 billion. Russia also signed new arms transfer agreements with China for a number of AL-31F military aircraft engines for $1 billion, and agreed to sell jet engines for China’s FC-1 fighter aircraft at a cost in excess of $250 million. Chinese arms acquisitions are apparently aimed at enhancing its military projection capabilities in Asia, and its ability to influence events throughout the region. These acquisitions continue to be monitored by U.S. policymakers. The U.S. policy interest is, among other things, ensuring that it provides appropriate military equipment to U.S. allies and friendly states in Asia to help offset any prospective threat China may pose to such nations, while keeping the U.S. military aware of any threat it may face in any confrontation with China.2 Most recently there have been no especially large Russian arms agreements with China, possibly because the Chinese military is focused on absorbing and integrating into its force structure the significant weapons systems previously purchased from Russia. The most significant arms transfer agreements Russia made in 2008 were with India for 80 Mi-17 helicopters for $1.3 billion, and a separate agreement for $500 million for upgrades to a 1 For detailed background see CRS Report RL33515, Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications, by Christopher Bolkcom, Richard F. Grimmett, and K. Alan Kronstadt; CRS Report RS22757, U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan, by Richard F. Grimmett; CRS Report RL32115, Missile Proliferation and the Strategic Balance in South Asia, by Andrew Feickert and K. Alan Kronstadt; and CRS Report RL30427, Missile Survey: Ballistic and Cruise Missiles of Selected Foreign Countries, by Andrew Feickert. 2 For detailed background see CRS Report RL30700, China's Foreign Conventional Arms Acquisitions: Background and Analysis, by Shirley A. Kan, Christopher Bolkcom, and Ronald O'Rourke; and CRS Report RL33153, China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke. Congressional Research Service 9 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 previously purchased aircraft carrier, the Admiral Gorskhov. Russia also concluded an agreement with India to upgrade MiG-29 fighter aircraft for approximately $1 billion. China. During the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s China became an important supplier of less expensive weapons to some developing nations. Throughout that conflict China demonstrated that it was willing to provide arms to both combatants in the war, in quantity and without conditions. Subsequently, China’s arms sales have been more regional and targeted. From 2005-2008, the value of China’s arms transfer agreements with developing nations averaged about $1.6 billion annually. During the period of this report, the value of China’s arms transfer agreements with developing nations were highest in 2005 at $2.8 billion. A significant portion of that total can be attributed to a significant contract with Pakistan associated with the production of the J-17 fighter aircraft. Generally, China’s sales figures reflect several smaller valued weapons deals in Asia, Africa, and the Near East, rather than one or two especially large agreements for major weapons systems. The most notable Chinese arms contract in 2008 was the sale of an Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) to Pakistan for $278 million (Table 4, Table 10, and Table 11) (Figure 7) Few developing nations with significant financial resources have sought to purchase Chinese military equipment during the eight-year period of this report, because most Chinese weapons for export are less advanced and sophisticated than weaponry available from Western suppliers or Russia. China, consequently, does not appear likely to be a key supplier of major conventional weapons in the international arms market for the foreseeable future. China’s likely client base could be states in Asia and Africa seeking quantities of small arms and light weapons, rather than major combat systems. At the same time, China has been an important source of missiles in the developing world arms market. China supplied Silkworm anti-ship missiles to Iran. Credible reports persist in various publications that China has sold surface-to-surface missiles to Pakistan, a long-standing and important client. Iran and North Korea have also reportedly received Chinese missile technology, which may have increased their capabilities to threaten other countries in their respective neighborhoods. The continued reporting of such activities by credible sources raise important questions about China’s stated commitment to the restrictions on missile transfers set out in the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), including its pledge not to assist others in building missiles that could deliver nuclear weapons. Since China has some military products—particularly missiles—that some developing countries would like to acquire, it can present an obstacle to efforts to stem proliferation of advanced missile systems to some areas of the developing world where political and military tensions are significant, and where some nations are seeking to develop asymmetric military capabilities. 3 China, among others, has been a key source of a variety of small arms and light weapons transferred to African states. However, since the prospects for significant revenue earnings from these arms sales are limited, China may view such sales as one means of enhancing its status as an international political power, and increasing its ability to obtain access to significant natural resources, especially oil. Controlling the sales of small arms and light weapons to regions of 3 For detailed background on the MTCR and proliferation control regimes and related policy issues see CRS Report RL31559, Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status, coordinated by Mary Beth Nikitin; and CRS Report RL31848, Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and International Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (ICOC): Background and Issues for Congress, by Andrew Feickert. Congressional Research Service 10 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 conflict, in particular to some African nations, has been a matter of concern to the United States. The United Nations also has undertaken an examination of this issue in an effort to achieve consensus on a path to address it.4 Major West European Suppliers. The four major West European arms suppliers—France, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy—are nations that can supply a wide variety of more highly sophisticated weapons to wouldbe purchasers. They provide alternative sources of armaments that the United States chooses not to supply for policy reasons. The United Kingdom sold major combat fighter aircraft to Saudi Arabia in the mid-1980s, when the U.S. chose not to sell a comparable aircraft for policy reasons. These four NATO nations have been allies of the United States and generally have supported the U.S. position in restricting arms sales to certain nations during the Cold War era. In the post-Cold War era, their national defense export policies have not been fully coordinated with the United States as likely would have been the case at the Cold War’s height. The leading European arms supplying states, particularly France, view arms sales foremost as a matter for national decision. France has also frequently used foreign military sales as an important means for underwriting development and procurement of weapons systems for its own military forces. The potential exists, therefore, for policy differences between the United States and major West European supplying states over conventional weapons transfers to specific countries. In recent years, such a conflict resulted from an effort led by France and Germany to lift the arms embargo on arms sales to China currently adhered to by members of the European Union. The United States viewed this as a misguided effort, and vigorously opposed it. The proposal to lift the embargo was ultimately not adopted, but it proved to be a source of significant tension between the U.S. and the European Union. Arms sales activities of major European suppliers, in this context, will continue to be of interest to U.S. policymakers, given their capability to make sales of advanced military equipment to countries of concern to U.S. national security policy. 5 The four major West European suppliers (France, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy), as a group, registered a significant decline in their collective share of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations between 2007 and 2008. This group’s share fell from 33.2% in 2007 to 10.9% in 2008. The collective value of this group’s arms transfer agreements with developing nations in 2008 was $4.6 billion compared with a total of $13.7 billion in 2007. Of these four nations, France was the leading supplier with $2.5 billion in agreements in 2008, registering a doubling of its agreements total from $1.2 billion in 2007. Italy, meanwhile registered $1.5 billion in arms agreements in 2008, up from $800 million in 2007 (Figure 7 and Figure 8) (Table 4 and Table 5). 4 For background on China’s actions and motivations for increased activities in Africa see CRS Report RL33055, China and Sub-Saharan Africa, by Raymond W. Copson, Kerry Dumbaugh, and Michelle Weijing Lau. For background on U.S. Policy concerns regarding small arms and light weapons transfers see CRS Report RS20958, International Small Arms and Light Weapons Transfers: U.S. Policy, by Richard F. Grimmett. 5 For detailed background see CRS Report RL32870, European Union's Arms Embargo on China: Implications and Options for U.S. Policy, by Kristin Archick, Richard F. Grimmett, and Shirley A. Kan. It should be noted that members of the European Union, and others, have agreed to a common effort to attempt some degree of control on the transfer of certain weapons systems, but the principal vehicle for this cooperation—the Wassenaar Arrangement—lacks a mechanism to enforce its rules. For detailed background see CRS Report RS20517, Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement, by Richard F. Grimmett. Congressional Research Service 11 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Collectively, the four major West European suppliers held a 10.9% share of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations during 2008. In the period from 2005-2008 they have generally been important participants in the developing world arms market. Individual suppliers within the major West European group have had notable years for arms agreements, especially France in 2005 ($7 billion). The United Kingdom also had large agreement years in 2007 ($10.1 billion), in 2004 ($4.7 billion), and ($4.2 billion) in 2006. Germany concluded arms agreements totaling over $1 billion in 2006, and $1.5 billion in 2007. In the case of each of these three European nations, large agreement totals in one year have usually reflected the conclusion of very large arms contracts with one or more major purchasers in that particular year (Table 4 and Table 5). The Major West European suppliers have had their competitive position in weapons exports strengthened over the years through strong government marketing support for their foreign arms sales. As they all can produce both advanced and basic air, ground, and naval weapons systems, the four major West European suppliers have competed successfully for arms sales contracts with developing nations against both the United States, which has tended to sell to several of the same clients, and with Russia, which has sold to nations not traditional customers of either the West Europeans or the United States. The continuing demand for U.S. weapons in the global arms marketplace, from a large established client base, has created a more difficult environment for individual West European suppliers to secure, on a sustained basis, large new contracts with developing nations. The strong demand for U.S. defense equipment as well as concern for maintaining their market share of the arms trade has led European Union (EU) member states to adopt a new code of conduct for defense procurement practices. This code was agreed to on November 21, 2005 at the European Defense Agency’s (EDA) steering board meeting. Currently voluntary, the EU hopes it will become mandatory, and through its mechanisms foster greater competition within the European defense equipment sector in the awarding of contracts for defense items. The larger hope is that by fostering greater intra-European cooperation and collaboration in defense contracting, and the resulting programs, that the defense industrial bases of individual EU states will be preserved, and the ability of European defense firms to compete for arms sales in the international arms marketplace will be substantially enhanced. Some European arms suppliers have begun to phase out production of certain types of weapons systems. Such suppliers have increasingly sought to engage in joint production ventures with other key European weapons suppliers or even client countries in an effort to sustain major sectors of their individual defense industrial bases—even if a substantial portion of the weapons produced are for their own armed forces. The Eurofighter and Eurocopter projects are examples. Other European suppliers have also adopted the strategy of cooperating in defense production ventures with the United States such as the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), rather than attempting to compete directly, thereby meeting their own requirements for advanced combat aircraft, while positioning themselves to share in profits resulting from future sales of this new fighter aircraft.6 6 For detailed background on issues relating to the Joint Strike Fighter program see CRS Report RL30563, F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke. Congressional Research Service 12 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Regional Arms Transfer Agreements Markets for arms in regions of the developing world historically have been predominately in the Near East and Asia. Nations in the Latin America and Africa regions, by contrast, have not been major purchasers of weapons, except on rare occasions. The regional arms agreement data tables in this report demonstrate this. United States policymakers have placed emphasis on helping to maintain stability throughout the regions of the developing world. Thus, the U.S. has made and supported arms sales and transfers it has believed would advance that goal, while discouraging significant sales by other suppliers to states and regions where military threats to nations in the area are minimal. Other arms suppliers do not necessarily share the U.S. perspective on what constitutes an appropriate arms sale, and in some instances the financial benefit of the sale to the supplier trumps other considerations. The regional and country specific arms-transfer data in this report provide an indication of where various arms suppliers are focusing their attention and who their principal clients are. By reviewing these data, policymakers can identify potential developments which may be of concern, and use this information to assist their review of options they may choose to consider given the circumstances. What follows below is a review of data on arms-transfer agreement activities in the two regions that lead in arms acquisitions, the Near East and Asia. This is followed, in turn, by a review of data regarding the leading arms purchasers in the developing world. Near East.7 The principal catalyst for major new weapons procurements in the Near East region in the last decade was the Persian Gulf crisis of August 1990-February 1991. This crisis, culminating in a U.S.-led war to expel Iraq from Kuwait, created new demands by key purchasers such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and other members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for a variety of advanced weapons systems. Subsequently, concerns over the growing strategic threat from Iran has become the principal driver of GCC states’ arms purchases. Because GCC states do not share a land border with Iran, their weapons purchases have focused primarily on air, naval, and missile defense systems. Egypt and Israel, meanwhile, have continued their military modernization programs, increasing their arms purchases from the United States. Most recently, Saudi Arabia has been the principal arms purchaser in the Persian Gulf region. In the period from 2005-2008, Saudi Arabia’s total arms agreements were valued at $28.3 billion (in current dollars). Also placing substantial orders during this same period was the U.A.E., making $12.8 billion in agreements (in current dollars). The Near East has generally been the largest arms market in the developing world. However, in 2001-2004, it accounted for 42.4% of the total value of all developing nations arms transfer agreements ($33.9 billion in current dollars), ranking it second behind Asia which was first with 49.6% of these agreements ($39.7 billion in current dollars). But, during 2005-2008, the Near East region accounted for 54.6% of all such agreements ($83.3 billion in current dollars), again placing it first in arms agreements within the developing world. The Asia region ranked second in 2005-2008 with $53.5 billion in agreements or 42.4% (Table 6 and Table 7). 7 In this report the Near East region includes the following nations: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The countries included in the other geographic regions are listed at the end of the report. Congressional Research Service 13 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 The United States dominated arms transfer agreements with the Near East during the 2001-2004 period with 56.1% of their total value ($19 billion in current dollars). The United Kingdom was second during these years with 13.3% ($4.5 billion in current dollars). Recently, from 2005-2008, the United States accounted for 48.9% of arms agreements with this region ($40.7 billion in current dollars), while the United Kingdom accounted for 18.7% of the region’s agreements ($15.6 billion in current dollars). Russia accounted for 15.4% of the region’s agreements in the most recent period ($15.4 billion in current dollars) (Figure 5) (Table 6 and Table 8). Asia. Several developing nations in Asia have been focused on upgrading and modernizing defense forces, and this has led to new conventional weapons sales in that region. Since the mid-1990s, Russia has been the principal supplier of advanced conventional weaponry to China—selling it fighters, submarines, destroyers, and missiles—while establishing itself as the principal arms supplier to India. Russian arms sales to these two countries have been primarily responsible for the increase in Asia’s overall share of the arms market in the developing world during the period of this report. Russia has also expanded its client base in Asia, securing aircraft orders from Malaysia, Vietnam, and Indonesia. It is notable that India, while still a key Russian arms customer, has begun to expand its weapons supplier base, purchasing the Phalcon early warning defense system aircraft in 2004 from Israel for $1.1 billion, and numerous items from France in 2005, in particular 6 Scorpene diesel attack submarines for $3.5 billion. In 2008 India purchased 6 C130J cargo aircraft from the United States for $962 million. In coming years, Russian may face strong new competition from other major weapons suppliers for the India arms market. In other major arms agreements with Asia more recently, the United States concluded a multi-billion dollar sale to Pakistan in 2006 of new F-16 fighter aircraft, weapons, and aircraft upgrades, while Sweden sold it a SAAB-2000 based AWACS airborne radar system for over a billion dollars. In 2007, Pakistan contracted with China for production of J-17 fighter aircraft, and in 2008 Pakistan purchased an AWACS aircraft from China for $278 million. The data on regional arms-transfer agreements from 2001-2008 continue to reflect that Asia and the Near East are the regions of the developing world that are the primary sources of orders for conventional weaponry. Asia has traditionally been the second largest developing-world arms market. In 2005-2008, Asia ranked second, accounting for 42.4% of the total value of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations ($33.9 billion in current dollars). Yet in the earlier period, 2001-2004, the Asia region ranked first, accounting for 49.6% of all such agreements ($39.7 billion in current dollars) (Table 6 and Table 7). In the earlier period (2001-2004), Russia ranked first in the value of arms transfer agreements with Asia with 44.5% ($17.7 billion in current dollars). The United States ranked second with nearly 18% ($7.1 billion in current dollars). The major West European suppliers, as a group, made 15.8% of this region’s agreements in 2001-2004. In the later period (2005-2008), Russia ranked first in Asian agreements with 29.9% ($16 billion in current dollars), primarily due to major combat aircraft and naval system sales to India and China. The United States ranked second with 22.4% ($12 billion in current dollars). The major West European suppliers, as a group, made 21.3% of this region’s agreements in 2005-2008. (Figure 6) (Table 8). Congressional Research Service 14 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Leading Developing Nations Arms Purchasers Saudi Arabia was the leading developing world arms purchaser from 2001-2008, making arms transfer agreements totaling $36.7 billion during these years (in current dollars). In the 2001-2004 period, India ranked first in arms transfer agreements at $10.6 billion (in current dollars). In 20052008 Saudi Arabia ranked first in arms transfer agreements, with a large increase to $28.3 billion from $8.4 billion in the earlier 2001-2004 period (in current dollars). These increases reflect the military modernization efforts by both Saudi Arabia and India, underway since the 1990s. The total value of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations from 2001-2008 was $225 billion (in current dollars). Thus Saudi Arabia alone accounted for 16.3% of all developing-world arms-transfer agreements during these eight years. In the most recent period, 2005-2008, Saudi Arabia made $28.3 billion in arms transfer agreements (in current dollars). This total constituted 19.2% of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations during these four years ($147.4 billion in current dollars). India ranked second in arms transfer agreements during 2005-2008 with $20.2 billion (in current dollars), or 13.7% of the value of all developing-world armstransfer agreements (Table 3, Table 12, and Table 13). During 2001-2004, the top ten recipients collectively accounted for 66.4% of all developing world arms transfer agreements. During 2005-2008, the top ten recipients collectively accounted for 66.1% of all such agreements. Arms transfer agreements with the top ten developing world recipients, as a group, totaled $34.8 billion in 2008 or 82.6% of all arms transfer agreements with developing nations in that year. These percentages reflect the continued concentration of major arms purchases by developing nations among a few countries (Table 3, Table 12, and Table 13). The United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) ranked first among all developing world recipients in the value of arms transfer agreements in 2008, concluding $9.7 billion in such agreements. Saudi Arabia ranked second in agreements with $8.7 billion. Morocco ranked third with $5.4 billion in agreements. Six of the top ten recipients were in the Near East region; four were in the Asian region (Table 13). Saudi Arabia was the leading recipient of arms deliveries among developing world recipients in 2008, receiving $1.8 billion in such deliveries. India ranked second in arms deliveries in 2008 with $1.8 billion (both totals are rounded, with Saudi Arabia’s unrounded total being higher). Venezuela ranked third with $1.5 billion (Table 24). Arms deliveries to the top ten developing nation recipients, as a group, were valued at $12.2 billion, or 66.8% of all arms deliveries to developing nations in 2008. Five of these top ten recipients were in Asia; four were in the Near East; one was in Latin America.(Table 14 and Table 24). Weapons Types Recently Delivered to Near East Nations Regional weapons delivery data reflect the diverse sources of supply and type of conventional weaponry actually transferred to developing nations. Even though the United States, Russia, and the four major West European suppliers dominate in the delivery of the fourteen classes of weapons examined, it is also evident that the other European suppliers and some non-European suppliers, including China, are capable of being leading suppliers of selected types of conventional armaments to developing nations (Tables 25-29) (pages 63-67). Congressional Research Service 15 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Weapons deliveries to the Near East, historically the largest purchasing region in the developing world, reflect the quantities and types delivered by both major and lesser suppliers. The following is an illustrative summary of weapons deliveries to this region for the period 2005-2008 from Table 27: United States. • 396 tanks and self-propelled guns • 542 APCs and armored cars • 6 minor surface combatants • 90 supersonic combat aircraft • 42 helicopters • 413 surface-to-air missiles • 10 anti-ship missiles Russia. • 290 tanks and self-propelled guns • 2,300 APCs and armored cars • 30 supersonic combat aircraft • 20 helicopters • 2,540 surface-to-air missiles • 10 anti-ship missiles China. • 150 APCs and armored cars • 40 anti-ship missiles Major West European Suppliers. • 1 major surface combatants • 22 minor surface combatants • 6 guided missile boats • 120 anti-ship missiles Congressional Research Service 16 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 All Other European Suppliers. • 130 tanks and self-propelled guns • 1,310 APCs and armored cars • 4 minor surface combatants • 9 guided missile boats • 20 supersonic combat aircraft • 520 surface-to-air missiles • 70 anti-ship missiles All Other Suppliers. • 240 APCs and armored cars • 55 minor surface combatants • 20 helicopters • 30 surface-to-surface missiles • 50 anti-ship missiles Significant quantities of major combat systems were delivered to the Near East region from 20052008, specifically, tanks and self-propelled guns, armored vehicles, minor surface combatants, supersonic combat aircraft, helicopters, air defense and anti-ship missiles. The United States and Russia made deliveries of supersonic combat aircraft to the region. The United States, China, and the European suppliers delivered many anti-ship missiles. The United States, Russia, and European suppliers in general were the principal suppliers of tanks and self-propelled guns, APCs and armored cars, surface-to-air missiles, as well as helicopters. Three of these weapons categories—supersonic combat aircraft, helicopters, and tanks and self-propelled guns—are especially costly and are a large portion of the dollar values of arms deliveries by the United States, Russia, and European suppliers to the Near East region during the 2005-2008 period. Naval combatant vessels are generally very costly, and the suppliers of such systems during this period had their delivery value totals notably increased due to these transfers. Some of the less expensive weapons systems delivered to the Near East are nonetheless deadly and can create important security threats within the region. For example, from 2005-2008, the four major West European suppliers collectively delivered 120 anti-ship missiles to the Near East region, China delivered 40, and the other European suppliers delivered 70. The United States delivered six minor surface combatants to the Near East, while the four major West European suppliers collectively delivered one major surface combatant, 22 minor surface combatants and six guided missile boats. The other European suppliers collectively delivered 130 tanks and armored cars, 12,310 APCs and armored cars, and 520 surface-to-air missiles. Other non-European suppliers collectively delivered 240 APCs and armored cars, 55 minor surface combatants, 50 anti-ship missiles, as well as 30 surface-to-surface missiles—a weapons category not delivered by any of the other major weapons suppliers during this period to any region. Congressional Research Service 17 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 UNITED STATES COMMERCIAL ARMS EXPORTS United States commercially licensed arms deliveries data are not included in this report. The United States is the only major arms supplier that has two distinct systems for the export of weapons: the government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) system, and the licensed commercial export system. It should be noted that data maintained on U.S. commercial sales agreements and deliveries are incomplete, and are not collected or revised on an on-going basis, making them significantly less precise than those for the U.S. FMS program—which accounts for the overwhelming portion of U.S. conventional arms transfer agreements and deliveries involving weapons systems. There are no official compilations of commercial agreement data comparable to that for the FMS program maintained on an annual basis. Once an exporter receives from the State Department a commercial license authorization to sell—valid for four years—there is no current requirement that the exporter provide to the State Department, on a systematic and ongoing basis, comprehensive details regarding any sales contract that results from the license authorization, including if any such contract is reduced in scope or cancelled. Nor is the exporter required to report that no contract with the prospective buyer resulted. Annual commercially licensed arms deliveries data are obtained from shipper’s export documents and completed licenses from ports of exit by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency which are then provided to the U.S. Census Bureau. The Census Bureau takes these arms export data, and, following a minimal review of them, submits them to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls in the Political-Military Bureau (PM/DDTC) of the State Department, which makes the final compilation of such data—details of which are not publicly available. Once compiled by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls at the State Department, these commercially licensed arms deliveries data are not revised. By contrast, the U.S. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program data, for both agreements and deliveries, maintained by the Defense Department, are systematically collected, reviewed for accuracy on an on-going basis, and are revised from year-to-year as needed to reflect any changes or to correct any errors in the information. This report includes all FMS deliveries data. By excluding U.S. commercial licensed arms deliveries data, the U.S. arms delivery totals will be understated. Some have suggested that a systematic data collection and reporting system for commercial licensed exports, comparable to the one which exists now in the Department of Defense, should be established by the Department of State. Having current and comprehensive agreement and delivery data on commercially licensed exports would provide a more complete picture of the U.S. arms export trade, in this view, and thus facilitate Congressional oversight of this sector of U.S. exports. Arms Values Data Tables and Charts for 2001-2008 Tables 3 through 13 (pages 34-47) present data on arms transfer agreements with developing nations by major suppliers from 2001-2008. These data show the most recent trends in arms contract activity by major suppliers. Delivery data, which reflect implementation of sales decisions taken earlier, are shown in Tables 14 through 24 (pages 48-61). Table 30, Table 31, Congressional Research Service 18 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 32, Table 33, and Table 34 (pages 69-74) provide data on worldwide arms transfer agreements from 2001-2008, while Table 35, Table 36, Table 37, Table 38, and Table 39 (pages 75-80) provide data on worldwide arms deliveries during this period. To use these data regarding agreements for purposes other than assessing general trends in seller/buyer activity is to risk drawing conclusions that can be readily invalidated by future events—precise values and comparisons, for example, may change due to cancellations or modifications of major arms transfer agreements. These data sets reflect the comparative magnitude of arms transactions by arms suppliers with recipient nations expressed in constant dollar terms, unless otherwise noted. Illustrative pie and bar charts are provided in this section to give the relative market share of individual arms suppliers globally, to the developing world and to specific regions. Table 1 (pages 26-27) provides the value of worldwide arms transfer agreements for 2001-2004. 2005-2008 and 2008, and the suppliers’ share of such agreements with the developing world. Table 2 (pages 32-33) provides the value of worldwide arms deliveries for 2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2008, and the suppliers’ share of such deliveries with the developing world. Specific content of other individual data tables is described below. Table 3 shows the annual current dollar values of arms transfer agreements to developing nations by major suppliers from 2001-2008. This table provides the data from which Table 4 (constant dollars) and Table 5 (supplier percentages) are derived. • Regional Arms Transfer Agreements, 2001-2008 Table 6 gives the values of arms transfer agreements between suppliers and individual regions of the developing world for the periods 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. These values are expressed in current U.S. dollars. Table 7, derived from Table 6, gives the percentage distribution of each supplier’s agreement values within the regions for the two time periods. Table 8, also derived from Table 6, illustrates what percentage share of each developing world region’s total arms transfer agreements was held by specific suppliers during the years 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. • Arms Transfer Agreements With Developing Nations, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared Table 9 gives the values of arms transfer agreements with the developing nations from 2001-2008 by the top eleven suppliers. The table ranks these suppliers on the basis of the total current dollar values of their respective agreements with the developing world for each of three periods—20012004, 2005-2008 and 2001-2008. • Arms Transfer Agreements With Developing Nations in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared Table 10 ranks and gives for 2008 the values of arms transfer agreements with developing nations of the top eleven suppliers in current U.S. dollars. • Arms Transfer Agreements With Near East 2001-2008: Suppliers and Recipients Table 11 gives the values of arms transfer agreements with the Near East nations by suppliers or categories of suppliers for the periods 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. These values are expressed in current U.S. dollars. They are a subset of the data contained in Table 3 and Table 6. Congressional Research Service 19 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 • Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008: Agreements With Leading Recipients Table 12 gives the values of arms transfer agreements made by the top ten recipients of arms in the developing world from 2001-2008 with all suppliers collectively. The table ranks recipients on the basis of the total current dollar values of their respective agreements with all suppliers for each of three periods—2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2001-2008. • Arms Transfers to Developing Nations in 2008: Agreements With Leading Recipients Table 13 names the top ten developing world recipients of arms transfer agreements in 2007. The table ranks these recipients on the basis of the total current dollar values of their respective agreements with all suppliers in 2008. • Developing Nations Arms Delivery Values Table 14 shows the annual current dollar values of arms deliveries (items actually transferred) to developing nations by major suppliers from 2001-2008. The utility of these particular data is that they reflect transfers that have occurred. They provide the data from which Table 15 (constant dollars) and Table 16 (supplier percentages) are derived. • Regional Arms Delivery Values, 2001-2008 Table 17 gives the values of arms deliveries by suppliers to individual regions of the developing world for the periods 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. These values are expressed in current U.S. dollars. Table 18, derived from Table 17, gives the percentage distribution of each supplier’s deliveries values within the regions for the two time periods. Table 19, also derived from Table 17, illustrates what percentage share of each developing world region’s total arms delivery values was held by specific suppliers during the years 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. • Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared Table 20 gives the values of arms deliveries to developing nations from 2001-2008 by the top eleven suppliers. The table ranks these suppliers on the basis of the total current dollar values of their respective deliveries to the developing world for each of three periods—2001-2004, 20052008 and 2001-2008. • Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared Table 21 ranks and gives for 2008 the values of arms deliveries to developing nations of the top ten suppliers in current U.S. dollars. • Arms Deliveries to Near East, 2001-2008: Suppliers and Recipients Table 22 gives the values of arms delivered to Near East nations by suppliers or categories of suppliers for the periods 2001-2004 and 2005-2008. These values are expressed in current U.S. dollars. They are a subset of the data contained in Table 14 and Table 17. • Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008: The Leading Recipients Table 23 gives the values of arms deliveries made to the top ten recipients of arms in the developing world from 2001-2008 by all suppliers collectively. The table ranks recipients on the Congressional Research Service 20 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 basis of the total current dollar values of their respective deliveries from all suppliers for each of three periods—2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2001-2008. • Arms Transfers to Developing Nations in 2008: Agreements With Leading Recipients Table 24 names the top ten developing world recipients of arms transfer agreements in 2008. The table ranks these recipients on the basis of the total current dollar values of their respective agreements with all suppliers in 2008. Congressional Research Service 21 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Figure 1. Arms Transfer Agreements Worldwide, 2001-2008 Developed and Developing Worlds Compared In billions of constant 2008 dollars 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Developing Developed Source: U.S. Government Congressional Research Service 22 Figure 2. Arms Transfer Agreements Worldwide (supplier percentage of value) Source: U.S. Government CRS-23 Figure 3. Arms Transfer Agreements With Developing Nations (supplier percentage of value) Source: U.S. Government CRS-24 Figure 4. Arms Transfer Agreements With Developing Nations by Major Supplier, 2001-2008 (billions of constant 2008 dollars) Source: U.S. Government CRS-25 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 1. Worldwide Arms Transfer Agreements, 2001-2008 and Suppliers’ Share with Developing World (in millions of constant 2008 U.S. dollars) Worldwide Agreements Value 2001-2004 Percentage of Total with Developing World United States 60,780 53.50% Russia 27,467 95.70% France 12,684 32.60% United Kingdom 9,263 85.90% China 3,644 100.00% Germany 9,943 4.8% Italy 3,211 39.80% All Other European 17,516 42.20% All Others 11,554 65.00% TOTAL 156,062 58.40% Supplier Worldwide Agreements Value 2005-2008 Percentage of Total with Developing World United States 94,102 59.90% Russia 36,356 96.50% France 18,563 60.20% United Kingdom 17,651 99.40% China 6,461 100.00% Germany 6,318 63.00% Italy 7,842 38.50% All Other European 22,775 49.80% All Others 11,295 68.50% TOTAL 221,362 69.20% Supplier Source: U.S. Government Congressional Research Service 26 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Worldwide Arms Transfer Agreements, 2001-2008 and Suppliers’ Share with Developing World (Continued) (in millions of constant 2008 U.S. dollars) Worldwide Agreements Value 2008 Percentage of Total with Developing World United States 37,796 70.15% Russia 3,500 94.30% France 2,600 96.20% United Kingdom 200 100.00% China 800 100.00% Germany 1,000 40.00% Italy 3,700 40.50% All Other European 3,200 75.00% All Others 2,400 62.50% TOTAL 55,196 76.40% Supplier Source: U.S. Government Congressional Research Service 27 Figure 5. Arms Transfer Agreements With Near East (supplier percentage of value) Source: U.S. Government CRS-28 Figure 6. Arms Transfer Agreement With Developing Nations in Asia (supplier percentage of value) (excludes Japan, Australia, and New Zealand) Source: U.S. Government CRS-29 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Figure 7. Arms Deliveries Worldwide 2001-2008 Developed and Developing Worlds Compared (in billions of constant 2008 dollars) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Developing Developed Source: U.S. Government Congressional Research Service 30 Figure 8. Arms Deliveries to Developing Countries by Major Supplier, 2001-2008 (in billions of constant 2008 dollars) United States Russia 10 7 9 6 8 5 7 6 4 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2001 2002 2003 Major West European 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2006 2007 2008 All Others 6 12 10 5 8 4 6 3 4 2 2 1 0 0 2001 2002 2003 Source: U.S. Government CRS-31 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 2. Worldwide Arms Deliveries, 2001-2008 and Suppliers’ Share with Developing World (in millions of constant 2008 U.S. dollars) Worldwide Deliveries Value 2001-2004 Percentage of Total to Developing World United States 49,324 60.20% Russia 21,458 94.50% France 13,297 78.40% United Kingdom 23,075 76.90% China 4,021 91.10% Germany 7,028 33.10% Italy 2,027 35.20% All Other European 14,790 51.40% All Others 13,212 50.90% TOTAL 148,232 66.90% Supplier Worldwide Deliveries Value 2005-2008 Percentage of Total to Developing World United States 51,279 63.40% Russia 21,006 95.00% France 7,591 50.50% United Kingdom 12,855 69.30% China 4,977 97.90% Germany 10,700 26.10% Italy 2,637 23.70% All Other European 15,297 34.80% All Others 10,861 29.40% TOTAL 137,203 59.80% Supplier Source: U.S. Government Congressional Research Service 32 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Worldwide Arms Deliveries, 2001-2008 and Suppliers’ Share with Developing World (Continued) (in millions of constant 2008 U.S. dollars) Worldwide Deliveries Value 2008 Percentage of Total to Developing World United States 12,232 61.00% Russia 5,400 96.30% France 900 55.60% United Kingdom 2,000 45.00% China 1,500 93.30% Germany 2,900 37.90% 400 25.00% All Other European 4,000 32.50% All Others 2,600 11.50% TOTAL 31,932 57.20% Supplier Italy Source: U.S. Government Congressional Research Service 33 Table 3. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of current U.S. dollars) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2001-2008 United States 6,291 8,357 5,902 6,969 4,618 8,765 12,090 29,612 82,604 Russia 5,400 5,400 4,400 7,100 5,600 14,500 10,100 3,300 55,800 France 1,100 400 900 1,100 6,400 400 1,200 2,500 14,000 200 700 1,900 4,100 2,800 4,000 9,800 200 23,700 1,100 400 600 1,000 2,600 1,400 1,300 800 9,200 Germany 100 100 100 100 900 1,000 1,500 400 4,200 Italy 200 0 300 600 600 600 800 1,500 4,600 All Other European 1,100 1,400 1,400 2,400 3,500 2,900 2,000 2,400 17,100 All Others 1,600 1,000 1,200 2,600 1,300 3,300 1,300 1,500 13,800 TOTAL 17,091 17,757 16,702 25,969 28,318 36,865 40,090 42,212 225,004 United Kingdom China Source: U.S. Government Notes: Developing nations category excludes the U.S., Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. All data are for the calendar year given except for U.S. MAP (Military Assistance Program), IMET (International Military Education, and Training), and Excess Defense Article data, which are included for the particular fiscal year. All amounts given include the values of all categories of weapons, spare parts, construction, all associated services, military assistance, excess defense articles, and training programs. Statistics for foreign countries are based upon estimated selling prices. All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. CRS-34 Table 4. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of constant 2008 U.S. dollars) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 TOTAL 2001-2008 United States 7,721 9,995 6,907 7,905 5,064 9,242 12,409 29,612 88,855 Russia 6,627 6,459 5,149 8,054 6,141 15,289 10,366 3,300 61,385 France 1,350 478 1,053 1,248 7,018 422 1,232 2,500 15,301 245 837 2,224 4,651 3,071 4,218 10,059 200 25,503 1,350 478 702 1,134 2,851 1,476 1,334 800 10,127 Germany 123 120 117 113 987 1,054 1,540 400 4,454 Italy 245 0 351 681 658 633 821 1,500 4,889 All Other European 1,350 1,674 1,638 2,722 3,838 3,058 2,053 2,400 18,734 All Others 1,964 1,196 1,404 2,949 1,426 3,480 1,334 1,500 15,253 TOTAL 20,976 21,238 19,546 29,457 31,054 38,871 41,147 42,212 244,501 Dollar inflation Index::(2008= 1)* 0.8148 0.8361 0.8545 0.8816 0.9119 0.9484 0.9743 1 United Kingdom China Source: U.S. Government * Based on Department of Defense Price Deflator CRS-35 Table 5. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (expressed as a percent of total, by year) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 United States 36.81% 47.06% 35.34% 26.84% 16.31% 23.78% 30.16% 70.15% Russia 31.60% 30.41% 26.34% 27.34% 19.78% 39.33% 25.19% 7.82% France 6.44% 2.25% 5.39% 4.24% 22.60% 1.09% 2.99% 5.92% United Kingdom 1.17% 3.94% 11.38% 15.79% 9.89% 10.85% 24.44% 0.47% China 6.44% 2.25% 3.59% 3.85% 9.18% 3.80% 3.24% 1.90% Germany 0.59% 0.56% 0.60% 0.39% 3.18% 2.71% 3.74% 0.95% Italy 1.17% 0.00% 1.80% 2.31% 2.12% 1.63% 2.00% 3.55% All Other European 6.44% 7.88% 8.38% 9.24% 12.36% 7.87% 4.99% 5.69% All Others 9.36% 5.63% 7.18% 10.01% 4.59% 8.95% 3.24% 3.55% [Major West European* 9.36% 6.76% 19.16% 22.72% 37.79% 16.28% 33.18% 10.90%] 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% TOTAL Source: U.S. Government * Major West European category includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy. CRS-36 Table 6. Regional Arms Transfer Agreements, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Asia Near East Latin America Africa 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 United States 7,144 12,008 19,039 40,729 1,181 2,190 156 158 Russia 17,700 16,000 3,400 12,900 300 4,300 900 400 France 3,100 7,300 2,100 4,700 100 200 100 800 United Kingdom 2,800 500 4,500 15,600 0 700 0 0 China 1,600 3,200 800 1,500 0 500 600 900 Germany 200 2,200 200 1,400 0 200 0 0 Italy 200 1,400 500 1,700 200 100 200 300 All Other European 2,900 6,200 2,100 3,700 600 2,500 800 600 All Others 4,100 4,700 1,300 1,100 800 1,200 500 600 [Major West European* 6,300 11,400 7,300 23,400 300 1,200 300 1,100] 39,744 53,508 33,939 83,329 3,181 11,890 3,256 3,758 TOTAL Source: U.S. Government Notes: All foreign data rounded to the nearest $100 million. * Major West European category included France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. CRS-37 Table 7. Percentage of Each Supplier’s Agreements Value by Region, 2001-2008 Asia Near East Latin America Africa TOTAL 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 United States 25.96% 21.80% 69.18% 73.94% 4.29% 3.98% 0..57% 0.29% 100 % 100% Russia 79.37% 47.60% 15.25% 38.39% 1.35 12.80 4.04% 1.19% 100% 100% France 57.41% 56.15% 38.89% 36.15% 1.85 1.54 1.85% 6.15% 100% 100% United Kingdom 38.36% 2.98% 61.64% 92.86% 0.00 4.17 0.00% 0.00% 100% 100% China 53.33% 52.46% 26.67% 24.59% 0.00 8.20 20.00% 14.75% 100% 100% Germany 50.00% 57.89% 50.00% 36.84% 0.00 5.26 0.00% 0.00% 100% 100% Italy 18.18% 40.00% 45.45% 48.57% 18.18 2.86 18.18% 8.57% 100% 100% All Other European 45.31% 47.69% 32.81% 28.46% 9.38 19.23 12.50% 4.62% 100% 100% All Others 61.19% 61.84% 19.40% 14.47% 11.94 15.79 7.46% 7.89% 100% 100% [Major West European* 44.37% 30.73% 51.41% 63.07% 2.11 3.23 2.11% 2.96% 100% 100%] TOTAL 49.61% 35.09% 42.36% 54.65% 3.97 7.80 4.06% 2.46% 100% 100% Source: U.S. Government * Major West European category included France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. CRS-38 Table 8. Percentage of Total Agreements Value by Supplier to Regions, 2001-2008 Asia Near East Latin America Africa 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 United States 17.98% 22.44% 56.10% 48.88% 37.13% 18.42% 4.79% 4.20% Russia 44.54% 29.90% 10.02% 15.48% 9.43% 36.16% 27.64% 10.64% France 7.80% 13.64% 6.19% 5.64% 3.14% 1.68% 3.07% 21.29% United Kingdom 7.05% 0.93% 13.26% 18.72% 0.00% 5.89% 0.00% 0.00% China 4.03% 5.98% 2.36% 1.80% 0.00% 4.21% 18.43% 23.95% Germany 0.50% 4.11% 0.59% 1.68% 0.00% 1.68% 0.00% 0.00% Italy 0.50% 2.62% 1.47% 2.04% 6.29% 0.84% 6.14% 7.98% All Other European 7.30% 11.59% 6.19% 4.44% 18.86% 21.03% 24.57% 15.97% All Others 10.32% 8.78% 3.83% 1.32% 25.15% 10.09% 15.36% 15.97% [Major West European* 15.85% 21.31% 21.51% 28.08% 9.43% 10.09% 9.21% 29.27% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% TOTAL Source: U.S. Government * Major West European category included France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. CRS-39 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 9. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Agreement Value 2001-2004 1 United States 27,519 2 Russia 22,300 3 United Kingdom 6.900 4 France 3.500 5 China 3,100 6 Israel 2,700 7 Ukraine 1,700 8 Netherlands 1,200 9 Italy 1,100 10 Poland 900 11 Brazil 500 Rank Supplier Agreement Value 2005-2008 1 United States 55,085 2 Russia 33,500 3 United Kingdom 16,800 4 France 10,500 5 China 6,100 6 Germany 3,800 7 Israel 3,500 8 Italy 3,500 9 Spain 2,100 10 Sweden 1,600 11 Ukraine 1,300 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 40 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (Continued) (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Agreement Value 2001-2008 1 United States 82,604 2 Russia 55,800 3 United Kingdom 23,700 4 France 14,000 5 China 9,200 6 Israel 6,200 7 Italy 4,600 8 Germany 4,200 9 Ukraine 3,000 10 Spain 2,500 11 Netherlands 2,400 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 41 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 10. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Agreements Value 2008 1 United States 29, 612 2 Russia 3,300 3 France 2,500 4 Italy 1,500 5 Netherlands 900 6 China 800 7 Sweden 600 8 Brazil 500 9 Germany 400 10 Israel 400 11 United Kingdom 200 Source: U.S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 42 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 11. Arms Transfer Agreements with Near East, by Supplier (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Recipient Country U.S. Russia China Major West European* All Other European All Others Algeria 0 200 100 0 0 0 300 Bahrain 300 0 0 100 0 0 400 Egypt 5,200 300 100 100 400 0 6,100 Iran 0 300 300 0 100 100 800 Iraq 0 100 0 300 300 200 900 Israel 3,200 300 0 0 100 0 3,600 Jordan 700 0 0 0 100 100 900 Kuwait 1,700 100 200 0 0 200 2,200 Lebanon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Libya 0 300 0 0 200 200 700 Morocco 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 Oman 900 0 0 1,200 0 0 2,100 Qatar 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,100 0 0 4,300 0 0 8,400 Syria 0 1,100 0 0 0 200 1,300 Tunisia 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 U.A.E. 800 100 0 1,000 500 100 2,500 Yemen 0 700 100 0 200 100 1,100 Total 2001-2004 Saudi Arabia Source: U.S. Government Notes: 0=data less than $50 million or nil. All data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. * Major West European category included France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. Congressional Research Service 43 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Arms Transfer Agreements with Near East, by Supplier (Continued) (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Recipient Country U.S. Russia China Major West European* All Other European All Others Algeria 0 4,300 100 200 0 0 4,600 Bahrain 400 0 0 0 0 0 400 Egypt 5,200 500 400 0 100 0 6,200 Iran 0 1,900 300 0 300 100 2,600 Iraq 3,500 100 100 200 600 100 4,600 Israel 2,700 0 0 800 0 0 3,500 Jordan 1,000 200 100 0 300 0 1,600 Kuwait 1,500 0 0 0 0 0 1,500 Lebanon 100 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 300 0 1,000 300 0 1,600 2,500 200 0 1,300 900 100 5,000 Oman 200 0 0 1,500 0 0 1,700 Qatar 0 0 0 500 0 100 600 11,200 200 400 15,600 800 100 28,300 Syria 0 4,700 100 0 0 400 5,200 Tunisia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 U.A.E. 10,000 300 0 2,200 100 200 12,800 Yemen 0 200 0 0 200 0 400 Total 2005-2008 Libya Morocco Saudi Arabia Source: U.S. Government Notes: 0=data less than $50 million or nil. All data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. * Major West European category included France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. Congressional Research Service 44 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 12. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, 2001-2008: Agreements by the Leading Recipients (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Recipient Agreements Value 2001-2004 1 India 10,600 2 China 10,000 3 Saudi Arabia 8,400 4 Egypt 6,100 5 Israel 3,600 6 South Korea 3,200 7 Malaysia 2,600 8 U.A.E. 2,500 9 Pakistan 2,300 10 Kuwait 2,200 Rank Recipient Agreements Value 2005-2008 1 Saudi Arabia 28,300 2 India 20,200 3 U.A.E. 12,800 4 Pakistan 9,500 5 Egypt 6,200 6 Venezuela 5,600 7 Syria 5,200 8 Morocco 5,000 9 Algeria 4,600 10 South Korea 4,400 Source: U.S. Government Notes: All data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 45 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations, 2001-2008: Agreements by the Leading Recipients (Continued) (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Recipient Agreements Value 2001-2008 1 Saudi Arabia 36,700 2 India 30,800 3 U.A.E. 15,300 4 China 12,900 5 Egypt 12,300 6 Pakistan 11,800 7 Israel 7,100 8 Syria 6,500 9 Venezuela 5,800 10 Algeria 4,900 Source: U.S. Government Notes: Alldata are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 46 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 13. Arms Transfer Agreements with Developing Nations in 2008: Agreements by Leading Recipients (in millions of current U.S. dollars Rank Recipient Agreement Value 2008 1 U.A.E 9,700 2 Saudi Arabia 8,700 3 Morocco 5,400 4 India 4,000 5 Iraq 2,000 6 Egypt 1,400 7 South Korea 1,300 8 Taiwan 1,300 9 Israel 1,000 10 Pakistan 800 Source: U.S. Government Notes: All data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 47 Table 14. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of current U.S. dollars) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2001-2008 United States 5,362 6,288 6,092 7,463 8,309 8,039 7,290 7,466 56,309 Russia 4,300 3,500 4,100 5,300 3,100 5,900 5,000 5,200 36,400 France 1,000 900 1,900 5,200 2,000 400 700 500 12,600 United Kingdom 3,400 3,400 5,800 2,400 3,000 3,600 900 900 23,400 China 800 800 700 800 800 1,100 1,400 1,400 7,800 Germany 100 300 800 800 300 900 400 1,100 4,700 Italy 200 200 100 100 100 200 200 100 1,200 All Other European 1,800 1,900 1,600 1,100 1,200 1,200 1,400 1,300 11,500 All Others 1,400 1,500 1,000 1,800 1,500 600 600 300 8,700 TOTAL 18,362 18,788 22,092 24,963 20,309 21,939 17,890 18,266 162,609 Source: U.S. Government Note: Developing nations category excludes the U.S., Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. All data are for the calendar year given except for U.S. MAP (Military Assistance Program), IMET (International Military Education, and Training), and Excess Defense Article data, which are included for the particular fiscal year. All amounts given include the values of all categories of weapons, spare parts, construction, all associated services, military assistance, excess defense articles, and training programs. Statistics for foreign countries are based upon estimated selling prices. All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. CRS-48 Table 15. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of constant 2008 U.S. dollars) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2001-2008 United States 6,581 7,521 7,129 8,465 9,112 8,476 7,482 7,466 62,232 Russia 5,277 4,186 4,798 6,012 3,399 6,221 5,131 5,200 40,225 France 1,227 1,076 2,224 5,898 2,193 422 718 500 14,259 United Kingdom 4,173 4,066 6,788 2,722 3,290 3,796 924 900 26,659 China 982 957 819 907 877 1,160 1,437 1,400 8,539 Germany 123 359 936 907 329 949 411 1,100 5,114 Italy 245 239 117 113 110 211 205 100 1,341 All Other European 2,209 2,272 1,872 1,248 1,316 1,265 1,437 1,300 12,920 All Others 1,718 1,794 1,170 2,042 1,645 633 616 300 9,918 TOTAL 22,536 22,471 25,854 28,316 22,271 23,133 18,360 18,266 181,206 Dollar Inflation index: (2008=1)* 0.8148 0.8361 0.8545 0.8816 0.9119 0.9484 0.9744 1 Source: U.S. Government *Based on Department of Defense Price Deflator CRS-49 Table 16. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, by Supplier, 2001-2008 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 United States 29.20% 33.47% 27.58% 29.90% 40.91% 36.64% 40.75% 40.87% Russia 23.42% 18.63% 18.56% 21.23% 15.26% 26.89% 27.95% 28.47% France 5.45% 4.79% 8.60% 20.83% 9.85% 1.82% 3.91% 2.74% United Kingdom 18.52% 18.10% 26.25% 9.61% 14.77% 16.41% 5.03% 4.93% China 4.36% 4.26% 3.17% 3.20% 3.94% 5.01% 7.83% 7.66% Germany 0.54% 1.60% 3.62% 3.20% 1.48% 4.10% 2.24% 6.02% Italy 1.09% 1.06% 0.45% 0.40% 0.49% 0.91% 1.12% 0.55% All Other European 9.80% 10.11% 7.24% 4.41% 5.91% 5.47% 7.83% 7.12% All Others 7.62% 7.98% 4.53% 7.21% 7.39% 2.73% 3.35% 1.64% [Major West European* 25.60% 25.55% 38.93% 34.05% 26.59% 23.25% 12.30% 14.23% TOTAL 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% Source: U.S. Government * Major West European category includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. CRS-50 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% Table 17. Regional Arms Deliveries by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Asia Near East Latin America Africa 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 United States 8,531 9,908 15,898 19,699 666 1,342 110 154 Russia 14,700 11,800 1,800 4,000 100 3,200 700 200 France 1,200 1,700 7,700 1,700 200 400 100 0 United Kingdom 1,500 1,400 14,500 5,900 0 400 0 700 China 1,900 2,200 800 1,300 0 400 400 700 Germany 2,300 1,500 100 300 0 0 600 900 100 200 100 0 300 100 100 300 All Other European 2,600 1,900 3,500 1,400 600 1,100 600 700 All Others 3,300 1,700 1,200 900 800 300 500 200 [Major West European* 5,100 4,800 22,400 7,900 500 900 800 1,900] 36,131 32,308 45,598 35,199 2,666 7,242 3,110 3,854 Italy TOTAL Source: U.S. Government Note: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. * Major West European category includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. CRS-51 Table 18. Percentage of Supplier Deliveries Value by Region, 2001-2008 Asia Near East Latin America Africa TOTAL 20052008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 TOTAL 2001-2004 United States 33.85% 31.86% 63.07% 63.33% 2.64% 4.31% 0.44% 0.50% 100.00% 100.00% Russia 84.97% 61.46% 10.40% 20.83% 0.58% 16.67% 4.05% 1.04% 100.00% 100.00% France 13.04% 44.74% 83.70% 44.74% 2.17% 10.53% 1.09% 0.00% 100.00% 100.00% United Kingdom 9.38% 16.67% 90.63% 70.24% 0.00% 4.76% 0.00% 8.33% 100.00% 100.00% China 61.29% 47.83% 25.81% 28.26% 0.00% 8.70% 12.90% 15.22% 100.00% 100.00% Germany 76.67% 55.56% 3.33% 11.11% 0.00% 0.00% 20.00% 33.33% 100.00% 100.00% Italy 16.67% 33.33% 16.67% 0.00% 50.00% 16.67% 16.67% 50.00% 100.00% 100.00% All Other European 35.62% 37.25% 47.95% 27.45% 8.22% 21.57% 8.22% 13.73% 100.00% 100.00% All Others 56.90% 54.84% 20.69% 29.03% 13.79% 9.68% 8.62% 6.45% 100.00% 100.00% [Major West European* 17.71% 30.97% 77.78% 50.97% 1.74% 5.81% 2.78% 12.26% 100.00% 100.00%] TOTAL 41.29% 41.10% 52.11% 44.78% 3.05% 9.21% 3.55% 4.90% 100.00% 100.00% Source: U.S. Government * Major West European category includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. CRS-52 Table 19. Percentage of Total Deliveries Value by Supplier to Regions, 2001-2008 Asia Near East Latin America Africa 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 2001-2004 2005-2008 United States 23.61% 30.67% 34.87% 55.96% 24.98% 18.53% 3.54% 4.00% Russia 40.69% 36.52% 3.95% 11.36% 3.75% 44.19% 22.51% 5.19% France 3.32% 5.26% 16.89% 4.83% 7.50% 5.52% 3.22% 0.00% United Kingdom 4.15% 4.33% 31.80% 16.76% 0.00% 5.52% 0.00% 18.16% China 5.26% 6.81% 1.75% 3.69% 0.00% 5.52% 12.86% 18.16% Germany 6.37% 4.64% 0.22% 0.85% 0.00% 0.00% 19.29% 23.35% Italy 0.28% 0.62% 0.22% 0.00% 11.25% 1.38% 3.22% 7.78% All Other European 7.20% 5.88% 7.68% 3.98% 22.51% 15.19% 19.29% 18.16% All Others 9.13% 5.26% 2.63% 2.56% 30.01% 4.14% 16.08% 5.19% [Major West European* 14.12% 14.86% 49.12% 22.44% 18.75% 12.43% 25.72% 49.30%] 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% TOTAL Source: U.S. Government * Major West European category includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. CRS-53 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 20. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Leading Suppliers Compared (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Deliveries Value 2001-2004 1 United States 25,205 2 Russia 17,200 3 United Kingdom 15,000 4 France 9,000 5 China 3,100 6 Sweden 2,100 7 Germany 2,000 8 Israel 1,900 9 Ukraine 1,200 10 North Korea 600 11 Italy 600 Rank Supplier Deliveries Value 2005-2008 1 United States 31,104 2 Russia 19,200 3 United Kingdom 8,400 4 China 4,700 5 France 3,600 6 Germany 2,700 7 Netherlands 1,100 8 Israel 1,000 9 Ukraine 700 10 Italy 600 11 Poland 500 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 54 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Leading Suppliers Compared (Continued) (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Deliveries Value 2001-2008 1 United States 56,309 2 Russia 36,400 3 United Kingdom 23,400 4 France 12,600 5 China 7,800 6 Germany 4,700 7 Israel 2,900 8 Sweden 2,400 9 Ukraine 1,900 10 Netherlands 1,400 11 Italy 1,200 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 55 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 21. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Recipient Deliveries Value 2008 1 United States 7,466 2 Russia 5,200 3 China 1,400 4 Germany 1,100 5 United Kingdom 900 6 France 500 7 Netherlands 400 8 Sweden 200 9 Switzerland 200 10 Ukraine 100 11 Turkey 100 Source: U.S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 56 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 22. Arms Deliveries to Near East, by Supplier (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Recipient Country U.S. Russia China Major West European* All Other European All Others Total Algeria 0 300 100 0 100 100 600 Bahrain 300 0 0 0 0 0 300 Egypt 5,000 200 400 100 100 0 5,800 Iran 0 100 100 0 100 300 600 Iraq 0 0 0 0 100 0 100 Israel 3,500 0 0 0 100 0 3,600 Jordan 300 0 0 100 100 100 600 Kuwait 800 100 200 0 0 200 1,300 Lebanon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Libya 0 100 0 0 100 200 400 Morocco 0 0 0 200 0 0 200 Oman 0 0 0 200 0 0 200 Qatar 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,300 0 0 15,900 2,400 0 22,600 Syria 0 200 0 0 100 100 400 Tunisia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 U.A.E. 300 300 0 5,700 300 100 6,700 Yemen 0 400 100 100 200 100 900 2001-2004 Saudi Arabia Source: U.S. Government Notes: 0=data less than $50 million or nil. All data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. * Major West European category included France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. Congressional Research Service 57 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Arms Deliveries to Near East, by Supplier (Continued) (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Recipient Country U.S. Russia China Major West European* All Other European All Others Total Algeria 0 1,400 100 0 0 0 1,500 Bahrain 300 0 0 100 0 0 400 Egypt 4,800 100 500 0 400 0 5,800 Iran 0 500 100 0 0 100 700 Iraq 900 100 0 0 200 100 1,300 Israel 5,600 100 0 0 0 0 5,700 Jordan 800 100 100 0 200 0 1,200 Kuwait 1,600 0 0 0 0 0 1,600 Lebanon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Libya 2005-2008 0 200 0 0 100 0 300 Morocco 100 100 0 0 0 100 300 Oman 700 0 0 100 0 0 800 Qatar 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Saudi Arabia 4,400 0 400 6,500 0 0 11,300 Syria 0 1,000 0 0 0 400 1,400 Tunisia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 U.A.E. 600 200 0 1,100 300 0 2,200 Yemen 0 200 100 0 100 100 500 Source: U.S. Government Notes: 0=data less than $50 million or nil. All data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. * Major West European category included France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. Congressional Research Service 58 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 23. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008:The Leading Recipients (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Recipient Deliveries Value 2001-2004 1 Saudi Arabia 22,600 2 China 9,200 3 India 6,900 4 U.A.E. 6,700 5 Egypt 5,800 6 Taiwan 3,800 7 Israel 3,500 8 South Korea 3,100 9 Pakistan 2,500 10 Malaysia 1,500 Rank Recipient Deliveries Value 2005-2008 1 Saudi Arabia 11,300 2 China 7,000 3 India 6,600 4 Egypt 5,800 5 Israel 5,700 6 Taiwan 3,900 7 Venezuela 3,400 8 South Korea 3,300 9 Pakistan 2,800 10 U.A.E. 2,200 Syria Source: U.S. Government Notes: All data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 59 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008:The Leading Recipients (Continued) (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Recipient Deliveries Value 2001-2008 1 Saudi Arabia 34,900 2 China 16,200 3 India 13,500 4 Egypt 11,600 5 Israel 9,200 6 U.A.E. 8,900 7 Taiwan 7,700 8 South Korea 6,400 9 Pakistan 5,300 10 Malaysia 3,200 Source: U.S. Government Notes: All data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 60 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 24. Arms Deliveries to Developing Nations in 2008:The Leading Recipients (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Recipient Deliveries Value 2008 1 Saudi Arabia 1,800 2 India 1,800 3 Venezuela 1,500 4 South Korea 1,400 5 Israel 1,200 6 Egypt 1,100 7 China 1,100 8 Singapore 800 9 Iraq 800 10 Pakistan 700 Source: U.S. Government Note: All data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 61 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Selected Weapons Deliveries to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Other useful data for assessing arms transfers are those that indicate who has actually delivered specific numbers of specific classes of military items to a region. These data are relatively “hard” in that they reflect actual transfers of military equipment. They have the limitation of not giving detailed information regarding either the sophistication or the specific name of the equipment delivered. However, these data show relative trends in the delivery of important classes of military equipment and indicate who the leading suppliers are from region to region over time. Data in the following tables set out actual deliveries of fourteen categories of weaponry to developing nations from 2001-2008 by the United States, Russia, China, the four major West European suppliers as a group, all other European suppliers as a group, and all other suppliers as a group. The tables show these deliveries data for all of the developing nations collectively, for Asia, for the Near East, for Latin America, and for Africa. Care should be taken in using the quantitative data within these specific tables. Aggregate data on weapons categories delivered by suppliers do not provide precise indices of the quality and/or quantity of the weaponry delivered. The history of recent conventional conflicts suggests that quality and/or sophistication of weapons can offset quantitative advantage. Further, these data do not provide an indication of the relative capabilities of the recipient nations to use effectively the weapons delivered to them. Superior training—coupled with good equipment, tactical and operational proficiency, and sound logistics—may, in the last analysis, be a more important factor in a nation’s ability to engage successfully in conventional warfare than the size of its weapons inventory. Congressional Research Service 62 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 25. Numbers of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Developing Nations Weapons Category U.S. Russia China Major West European* All Other European All Others Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns 506 390 240 320 530 70 Artillery 177 40 670 100 1,680 300 APCs and Armored Cars 54 490 390 150 850 740 Major Surface Combatants 10 4 0 11 3 3 Minor Surface Combatants 15 5 54 60 72 114 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 5 0 0 Submarines 0 0 0 2 3 0 Supersonic Combat Aircraft 59 300 50 50 30 70 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 15 0 0 20 10 0 Other Aircraft 58 10 110 130 120 160 Helicopters 92 390 0 80 60 60 2,500 1,920 600 20 670 580 0 0 0 0 0 30 342 70 100 80 0 50 Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns 511 360 110 50 370 10 Artillery 240 30 330 10 140 1,090 APCs and Armored Cars 596 2,550 650 130 2,230 390 Major Surface Combatants 0 2 0 14 6 2 Minor Surface Combatants 10 5 36 35 35 72 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 7 9 1 Submarines 0 8 0 5 2 0 100 100 40 30 60 30 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 2 0 10 50 10 30 Other Aircraft 34 40 170 0 70 40 Helicopters 80 180 0 60 30 30 Surface-to-Air Missiles 909 3,720 1,010 340 790 100 0 0 0 0 0 30 209 370 70 120 80 50 2001-2004 Surface-to-Air Missiles Surface-to-Surface Missiles Anti-Ship Missiles 2005-2008 Supersonic Combat Aircraft Surface-to-Surface Missiles Anti-Ship Missiles Source: U.S. Government Note: Developing nations category excludes the U.S., Russia, Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. All data are for calendar years given. * Major West European includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. Data relating to surface-to-surface and anti-ship missiles by foreign suppliers are estimates based on a variety of sources having a wide range of accuracy. As such, individual data entries in these two weapons delivery categories are not necessarily definitive. Congressional Research Service 63 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 26. Number of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Asia and the Pacific Weapons Category U.S. Russia China Major West European* All Other European All Others Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns 32 370 240 0 110 0 Artillery 90 10 320 10 310 90 APCs and Armored Cars 18 310 310 20 260 120 Major Surface Combatants 6 4 0 0 1 2 Minor Surface Combatants 2 3 10 7 29 14 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 0 0 0 Submarines 0 0 0 2 3 0 Supersonic Combat Aircraft 8 240 50 20 0 50 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 15 0 0 20 0 0 Other Aircraft 8 10 30 10 40 50 Helicopters 65 230 0 20 10 10 2153 850 600 0 70 540 0 0 0 0 0 0 202 70 10 60 0 0 Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns 115 70 90 30 20 0 Artillery 103 30 110 10 80 30 APCs and Armored Cars 54 250 60 110 810 20 Major Surface Combatants 0 2 0 6 3 1 Minor Surface Combatants 4 5 14 8 6 12 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 0 0 0 Submarines 0 8 0 0 0 0 Supersonic Combat Aircraft 0 50 20 20 10 30 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 2 0 10 20 0 20 Other Aircraft 12 30 50 0 30 10 Helicopters 22 70 0 20 10 0 Surface-to-Air Missiles 496 1180 1010 340 60 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 189 360 30 0 0 0 2001-2004 Surface-to-Air Missiles Surface-to-Surface Missiles Anti-Ship Missiles 2005-2008 Surface-to-Surface Missiles Anti-Ship Missiles Source: U.S. Government Note: Developing nations category excludes the U.S., Russia, Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. All data are for calendar years given. * Major West European includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. Data relating to surface-to-surface and anti-ship missiles by foreign suppliers are estimates based on a variety of sources having a wide range of accuracy. As such, individual data entries in these two weapons delivery categories are not necessarily definitive. Congressional Research Service 64 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 27. Numbers of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Near East Weapons Category U.S. Russia China Major West European* All Other European All Others Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns 474 10 0 300 270 0 Artillery 72 0 70 70 30 0 APCs and Armored Cars 35 60 50 60 170 450 Major Surface Combatants 2 0 0 4 1 0 Minor Surface Combatants 4 0 0 33 37 74 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 5 0 0 Submarines 0 0 0 0 0 0 Supersonic Combat Aircraft 47 30 0 30 10 0 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other Aircraft 38 0 60 90 50 70 Helicopters 13 80 0 30 20 20 Surface-to-Air Missiles 347 1000 0 0 540 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 140 0 90 10 0 20 Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns 396 290 0 0 130 0 Artillery 36 0 100 0 20 40 APCs and Armored Cars 542 2300 150 0 1310 240 Major Surface Combatants 0 0 0 1 0 0 Minor Surface Combatants 6 0 0 22 4 55 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 6 9 0 Submarines 0 0 0 0 0 0 Supersonic Combat Aircraft 90 30 0 0 20 0 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 0 0 0 10 0 0 Other Aircraft 9 0 70 0 20 10 Helicopters 42 20 0 0 0 20 Surface-to-Air Missiles 413 2540 0 0 520 0 Surface-to-Surface Missiles 0 0 0 0 0 30 Anti-Ship Missiles 10 10 40 120 70 50 2001-2004 Surface-to-Surface Missiles Anti-Ship Missiles 2005-2008 Source: U.S. Government Note: Developing nations category excludes the U.S., Russia, Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. All data are for calendar years given. * Major West European includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. Data relating to surface-to-surface and anti-ship missiles by foreign suppliers are estimates based on a variety of sources having a wide range of accuracy. As such, individual data entries in these two weapons delivery categories are not necessarily definitive. Congressional Research Service 65 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 28. Numbers of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Latin America Weapons Category U.S. Russia China Major West European* All Other European All Others Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns 0 0 0 20 40 20 Artillery 15 0 0 0 0 20 APCs and Armored Cars 1 0 0 0 0 0 Major Surface Combatants 2 0 0 3 1 0 Minor Surface Combatants 9 0 20 1 0 2 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 0 0 0 Submarines 0 0 0 0 0 0 Supersonic Combat Aircraft 4 0 0 0 0 10 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other Aircraft 12 0 0 20 10 30 Helicopters 14 10 0 10 10 10 Surface-to-Air Missiles 0 30 0 10 40 40 Surface-to-Surface Missiles 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anti-Ship Missiles 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 20 0 0 101 0 10 0 10 0 APCs and Armored Cars 0 0 30 0 20 0 Major Surface Combatants 0 0 0 7 3 1 Minor Surface Combatants 0 0 0 5 4 0 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 0 0 0 Submarines 0 0 0 2 2 0 Supersonic Combat Aircraft 10 20 0 10 20 0 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 0 0 0 0 0 10 Other Aircraft 13 10 0 0 10 10 Helicopters 16 60 0 10 0 10 Surface-to-Air Missiles 0 0 0 0 0 0 Surface-to-Surface Missiles 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anti-Ship Missiles 10 0 0 0 10 0 2001-2004 2005-2008 Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns Artillery Source: U.S. Government Note: Developing nations category excludes the U.S., Russia, Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. All data are for calendar years given. * Major West European includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. Data relating to surface-to-surface and anti-ship missiles by foreign suppliers are estimates based on a variety of sources having a wide range of accuracy. As such, individual data entries in these two weapons delivery categories are not necessarily definitive. Congressional Research Service 66 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 29. Number of Weapons Delivered by Suppliers to Africa Weapons Category U.S. Russia China Major West European* All Other European All Others Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns 0 10 0 0 110 50 Artillery 0 30 280 20 1,340 190 APCs and Armored Cars 0 120 30 70 420 170 Major Surface Combatants 0 0 0 4 0 1 Minor Surface Combatants 0 2 24 19 6 24 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 0 0 0 Submarines 0 0 0 0 0 0 Supersonic Combat Aircraft 0 30 0 0 20 10 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 0 0 0 0 10 0 Other Aircraft 0 0 20 10 20 10 Helicopters 0 70 0 20 20 20 Surface-to-Air Missiles 0 40 0 10 20 2 Surface-to-Surface Missiles 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anti-Ship Missiles 0 0 0 10 0 0 Tanks and Self-Propelled Guns 0 0 20 0 220 10 Artillery 0 0 110 0 30 1,020 APCs and Armored Cars 0 0 410 20 90 130 Major Surface Combatants 0 0 0 0 0 0 Minor Surface Combatants 0 0 22 0 21 5 Guided Missile Boats 0 0 0 1 0 1 Submarines 0 0 0 3 0 0 Supersonic Combat Aircraft 0 0 20 0 10 0 Subsonic Combat Aircraft 0 0 0 20 10 0 Other Aircraft 0 0 50 0 10 10 Helicopters 0 30 0 30 20 0 Surface-to-Air Missiles 0 0 0 0 210 0 Surface-to-Surface Missiles 0 0 0 0 0 0 Anti-Ship Missiles 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001-2004 2005-2008 Source: U.S. Government Note: Developing nations category excludes the U.S., Russia, Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. All data are for calendar years given. * Major West European includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy totals as an aggregate figure. Data relating to surface-to-surface and anti-ship missiles by foreign suppliers are estimates based on a variety of sources having a wide range of accuracy. As such, individual data entries in these two weapons delivery categories are not necessarily definitive. Congressional Research Service 67 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Worldwide Arms Transfer Agreements and Deliveries Values, 2001-2008 • Ten tables follow. Table 30, Table 31, Table 32, Table 35, Table 36 and Table 37 provide the total dollar values for arms transfer agreements and arms deliveries worldwide for the years 2001-2008 in the same format and detail as Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 14, Table 15, and Table 16 provide the total dollar values for arms transfer agreements with and arms deliveries to developing nations. Table 33, Table 34, Table 38, and Table 39 provide a list of the top eleven arms suppliers to the world based on the total values (in current dollars) of their arms transfer agreements and arms deliveries worldwide during calendar years 2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2008. These tables are set out in the same format and detail as Table 9 and Table 10 for arms transfer agreements with, and Table 20 and Table 21 for arms deliveries to developing nations, respectively. • Total Worldwide Arms Transfer Agreements Values, 2001-2008 Table 30 shows the annual current dollar values of arms transfer agreements worldwide. Since these figures do not allow for the effects of inflation, they are, by themselves, of limited use. They provide, however, the data from which Table 31 (constant dollars) and Table 32 (supplier percentages) are derived. • Total Worldwide Delivery Values 2001-2008 Table 35 shows the annual current dollar values of arms deliveries (items actually transferred) worldwide by major suppliers from 2001-2008. The utility of these data is that they reflect transfers that have occurred. They provide the data from which Table 36 (constant dollars) and Table 37 (supplier percentages) are derived. Congressional Research Service 68 Table 30. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of current U.S. dollars) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 TOTAL 2001-2008 United States 11,340 12,990 14,477 12,681 12,803 16,026 24,719 37,796 142,832 Russia 5,600 5,700 4,600 7,400 6,000 14,700 10,500 3,500 58,000 France 4,400 600 2,800 2,900 7,300 5,600 2,000 2,600 28,200 600 700 2,500 4,200 2,800 4,100 9,800 200 24,900 China 1,100 400 600 1,000 2,600 1,400 1,300 800 9,200 Germany 2,000 1,000 1,500 4,000 2,100 1,400 1,500 1,000 14,500 Italy 1,100 400 600 600 1,500 1,200 1,200 3,700 10,300 All Other European 2,700 4,600 2,200 5,400 7,500 5,800 5,100 3,200 36,500 All Others 2,600 2,200 1,700 3,300 2,300 4,000 2,100 2,400 20,600 TOTAL 31,440 28,590 30,977 41,481 44,903 54,226 58,219 55,196 345,032 United Kingdom Source: U.S. Government Note: All data are for the calendar year given, except for U.S. MAP (Military Assistance Program) and IMET (International Military Education and Training), excess defense articles, which are included for the particular fiscal year. All amounts given include the values of all categories of weapons and ammunition, military spare parts, military construction, excess defense articles, military assistance and training programs, and all associated services. Statistics for foreign countries are based upon estimated selling prices. All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. CRS-69 Table 31. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of constant 2008 U.S. dollars) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 TOTAL 2001-2008 United States 13,918 15,536 16,942 14,384 14,040 16,898 25,368 37,796 154,882 Russia 6,873 6,817 5,383 8,394 6,580 15,500 10,776 3,500 63,823 France 5,400 718 3,277 3,289 8,005 5,905 2,053 2,600 31,247 736 837 2,926 4,764 3,071 4,323 10,057 200 26,914 China 1,350 478 702 1,134 2,851 1,476 1,334 800 10,125 Germany 2,455 1,196 1,755 4,537 2,303 1,476 1,539 1,000 16,261 Italy 1,350 478 702 681 1,645 1,265 1,232 3,700 11,053 All Other European 3,314 5,502 2,575 6,125 8,225 6,116 5,234 3,200 40,291 All Others 3,191 2,631 1,989 3,743 2,522 4,218 2,155 2,400 22,849 TOTAL 38,586 34,194 36,252 47,052 49,241 57,176 59,749 55,196 377,445 Dollar inflation index:(2008=1 )* 0.8148 0.8361 0.8545 0.8816 0.9119 0.9484 0.9744 1 United Kingdom Source: U.S. Government * Based on Department of Defense Price Deflator. CRS-70 Table 32. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (expressed as a percent of total, by year) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 United States 36.07% 45.44% 46.73% 30.57% 28.51% 29.55% 42.46% 68.48% Russia 17.81% 19.94% 14.85% 17.84% 13.36% 27.11% 18.04% 6.34% France 13.99% 2.10% 9.04% 6.99% 16.26% 10.33% 3.44% 4.71% United Kingdom 1.91% 2.45% 8.07% 10.13% 6.24% 7.56% 16.83% 0.36% China 3.50% 1.40% 1.94% 2.41% 5.79% 2.58% 2.23% 1.45% Germany 6.36% 3.50% 4.84% 9.64% 4.68% 2.58% 2.58% 1.81% Italy 3.50% 1.40% 1.94% 1.45% 3.34% 2.21% 2.06% 6.70% All Other European 8.59% 16.09% 7.10% 13.02% 16.70% 10.70% 8.76% 5.80% All Others 8.27% 7.69% 5.49% 7.96% 5.12% 7.38% 3.61% 4.35% [Major West European* 25.76% 9.44% 23.89% 28.21% 30.51% 22.68% 24.91% 13.59% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% TOTAL Source: U.S. Government Note: Columns may not total due to rounding. * Major West European category includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. CRS-71 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 33. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Agreements Value 2001-2004 1 United States 51,488 2 Russia 23,300 3 France 10,700 4 Germany 8,500 5 United Kingdom 8,000 6 Israel 4,600 7 Ukraine 3,500 8 Sweden 3,400 9 China 3,100 10 Italy 2,700 11 Netherlands 2,100 Rank Supplier Agreements Value 2005-2008 1 United States 91,344 2 Russia 34,300 3 France 17,500 4 United Kingdom 16,900 5 Italy 7,600 6 China 6,100 7 Germany 6,000 8 Israel 5,300 9 Spain 4,400 10 Austria 3,100 11 Sweden 2,400 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 72 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Arms Transfer Agreements with the World, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (Continued) (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Agreements Value 2001-2008 1 United States 142,832 2 Russia 57,600 3 France 28,200 4 United Kingdom 24,900 5 Germany 14,500 6 Italy 10,300 7 Israel 9,900 8 China 9,200 9 Sweden 5,800 10 Ukraine 5,100 11 Spain 5,000 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 73 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 34. Arms Transfer Agreements with the World in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Agreement Value 2008 1 United States 37,796 2 Italy 3,700 3 Russia 3,500 4 France 2,600 5 Germany 1,000 6 Netherlands 900 7 China 800 8 Sweden 600 9 Israel 500 10 Brazil 500 11 South Korea 400 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 74 Table 35. Arms Deliveries to the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of current U.S. dollars) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 TOTAL 2001-2008 United States 9,138 9,846 11,106 11,757 11,970 12,452 12,463 12,232 90,964 Russia 4,700 3,600 4,300 5,600 3,400 6,300 5,100 5,400 38,400 France 2,000 1,500 2,400 5,500 2,600 1,500 2,200 900 18,600 United Kingdom 4,300 5,000 6,900 3,300 3,700 4,500 2,000 2,000 31,700 China 900 900 700 900 800 1,100 1,500 1,400 8,200 Germany 700 1,200 2,300 1,800 1,800 2,800 2,800 2,900 16,300 Italy 500 600 400 200 1,000 400 700 400 4,200 All Other European 3,000 3,000 4,100 2,400 3,000 3,700 4,000 4,000 27,200 All Others 2,500 3,000 2,500 3,200 2,800 2,100 2,900 2,600 21,600 TOTAL 27,738 28,646 34,706 34,657 31,070 34,852 33,663 31,832 257,164 Source: U.S. Government Note: All data are for the calendar year given, except for U.S. MAP (Military Assistance Program) and IMET (International Military Education and Training), excess defense articles, which are included for the particular fiscal year. All amounts given include the values of all categories of weapons and ammunition, military spare parts, military construction, excess defense articles, military assistance and training programs, and all associated services. Statistics for foreign countries are based upon estimated selling prices. All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. CRS-75 Table 36. Arms Deliveries to the World, by Supplier, 2001-2008 (in millions of constant U.S. dollars) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 TOTAL 2001-2008 United States 11,215 11,776 12,997 13,336 13,126 13,129 12,792 12,232 100,604 Russia 5,768 4,306 5,032 6,352 3,728 6,643 5,235 5,400 42,464 France 2,455 1,794 2,809 6,239 2,851 1,582 2,258 900 20,887 United Kingdom 5,277 5,980 8,075 3,743 4,057 4,745 2,053 2,000 35,931 China 1,105 1,076 819 1,021 877 1,160 1,540 1,400 8,998 Germany 859 1,435 2,692 2,042 1,974 2,952 2,874 2,900 17,728 Italy 614 718 468 227 1,097 422 718 400 4,663 All Other European 3,682 3,588 4,798 2,722 3,290 3,901 4,106 4,000 30,087 All Others 3,068 3,588 2,926 3,630 3,071 2,214 2,976 2,600 24,073 TOTAL 34,043 34,261 40,616 39,311 34,072 36,748 34,551 31,832 285,435 Dollar inflation index:(2008=1)* 0.8148 0.8361 0.8545 0.8816 0.9119 0.9484 0.9744 1 Source: U.S. Government * Based on Department of Defense Price Deflator. CRS-76 Table 37. Arms Deliveries to the World, by Supplier 2001-2008 (expressed as a percent of total, by year) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 United States 32.94% 34.37% 32.00% 33.92% 38.53% 35.73% 37.02% 38.43% Russia 16.94% 12.57% 12.39% 16.16% 10.94% 18.08% 15.15% 16.96% France 7.21% 5.24% 6.92% 15.87% 8.37% 4.30% 6.54% 2.83% United Kingdom 15.50% 17.45% 19.88% 9.52% 11.91% 12.91% 5.94% 6.28% China 3.24% 3.14% 2.02% 2.60% 2.57% 3.16% 4.46% 4.4% Germany 2.52% 4.19% 6.63% 5.19% 5.79% 8.03% 8.32% 9.11% Italy 1.80% 2.09% 1.15% 0.58% 3.22% 1.15% 2.08% 1.26% All Other European 10.82% 10.47% 11.81% 6.93% 9.66% 10.62% 11.88% 12.57% All Others 9.01% 10.47% 7.20% 9.23% 9.01% 6.03% 8.61% 8.17% [Major West European* 27.04% 28.97% 34.58% 31.16% 29.29% 26.40% 22.87% 19.48% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% TOTAL Source: U.S. Government * Major West European category includes France, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. CRS-77 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 38. Arms Deliveries to the World, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Deliveries Value 2001-2004 1 United States 41,847 2 United Kingdom 19,500 3 Russia 18,200 4 France 11,400 5 Germany 6,000 6 Israel 3,800 7 China 3,400 8 Sweden 3,200 9 Ukraine 2,900 10 Canada 2,900 11 Italy 1,700 Rank Supplier Deliveries Value 2005-2008 1 United States 49,117 2 Russia 20,200 3 United Kingdom 12,200 4 Germany 10,300 5 France 7,200 6 China 4,800 7 Sweden 3,200 8 Canada 3,000 9 Israel 3,000 10 Netherlands 2,600 11 Italy 2,500 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained Congressional Research Service 78 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Arms Deliveries to the World, 2001-2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (Continued) (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Deliveries Value 2001-2008 1 United States 90,964 2 Russia 38,400 3 United Kingdom 31,700 4 France 18,600 5 Germany 16,300 6 China 8,200 7 Israel 6,800 8 Sweden 6,400 9 Canada 5.900 10 Italy 4,200 11 Ukraine 4,000 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 79 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Table 39. Arms Deliveries to the World in 2008: Leading Suppliers Compared (in millions of current U.S. dollars) Rank Supplier Deliveries Value 2008 1 United States 12,232 2 Russia 5,400 3 Germany 2,900 4 United Kingdom 2.000 5 China 1,400 6 France 900 7 Israel 900 8 Sweden 800 9 Netherlands 700 10 Austria 500 11 Spain 400 Source: U. S. Government Notes: All foreign data are rounded to the nearest $100 million. Where rounded data totals are the same, the rank order is maintained. Congressional Research Service 80 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Description of Items Counted in Weapons Categories, 2001-2008 Tanks and Self-propelled Guns: This category includes light, medium, and heavy tanks; selfpropelled artillery; self-propelled assault guns. Artillery: This category includes field and air defense artillery, mortars, rocket launchers and recoilless rifles—100 mm and over; FROG launchers—100mm and over. Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs) and Armored Cars: This category includes personnel carriers, armored and amphibious; armored infantry fighting vehicles; armored reconnaissance and command vehicles. Major Surface Combatants: This category includes aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates. Minor Surface Combatants: This category includes minesweepers, subchasers, motor torpedo boats, patrol craft, motor gunboats. Submarines: This category includes all submarines, including midget submarines. Guided Missile Patrol Boats: This category includes all boats in this class. Supersonic Combat Aircraft: This category includes all fighter and bomber aircraft designed to function operationally at speeds above Mach 1. Subsonic Combat Aircraft: This category includes all fighter and bomber aircraft designed to function operationally at speeds below Mach 1. Other Aircraft: This category includes all other fixed-wing aircraft, including trainers, transports, reconnaissance aircraft, and communications/utility aircraft. Helicopters: This category includes all helicopters, including combat and transport. Surface-to-air Missiles: This category includes all ground-based air defense missiles. Surface-to-surface Missiles: This category includes all surface-surface missiles without regard to range, such as Scuds and CSS-2s. It excludes all anti-tank missiles. It also excludes all antiship missiles, which are counted in a separate listing. Anti-ship Missiles: This category includes all missiles in this class such as the Harpoon, Silkworm, Styx and Exocet. Congressional Research Service 81 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Regions Identified in Arms Transfer Tables and Charts ASIA NEAR EAST EUROPE Afghanistan Australia Bangladesh Brunei Burma (Myanmar) China Fiji India Indonesia Japan Cambodia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Laos Malaysia Nepal New Zealand North Korea Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Pitcairn Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Vietnam Algeria Bahrain Egypt Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen Albania Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia/Herzegovina Bulgaria Belgium Croatia Czechoslovakia/ Czech Republic Cyprus Denmark Estonia Finland France FYR/Macedonia Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Yugoslavia/Serbia/Montenegro Congressional Research Service 82 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 AFRICA LATIN AMERICA Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Congo Côte d’Ivoire Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Réunion Rwanda Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe Antigua Argentina Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador French Guiana Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico Montserrat Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Kitts & Nevis St. Lucia St. Pierre & Miquelon St. Vincent Suriname Trinidad Turks & Caicos Venezuela Congressional Research Service 83 Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008 Author Contact Information Richard F. Grimmett Specialist in International Security rgrimmett@crs.loc.gov, 7-7675 Congressional Research Service 84