Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding

This report describes programs authorized under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) and related initiatives, and provides authorization and appropriation levels. The FVPSA was originally enacted in 1984, as Title III of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, to assist states in preventing incidents of family violence and to provide shelter and related assistance to victims of family violence and their dependents, with the expectation of preventing future acts of violence in families.

Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding Garrine P. Laney Analyst in Social Policy March 31, 2009 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R40473 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding Summary The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA), enacted originally in 1984 as Title II of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, assists states in preventing incidents of domestic violence and provides shelter and related assistance to victims of such violence and their dependents. It also provides technical assistance and training on domestic violence to state and local government agencies, nonprofit private organizations, and other persons who seek it. The act was amended in 1992 and, with passage of the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act, again in 2003. Key components of the FVPSA include state and tribal formula grants, state domestic violence coalitions, the national domestic violence hotline, and the domestic violence resource network. Although the authorization of appropriations for FVPSA programs expired at the end of FY2008, Congress continues to fund the programs. On March 11, 2009, the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 111-8; H.R. 1105) was enacted into law. The act provides FY2009 funding for the following FVPSA programs: $5.50 million for demonstration grants for community initiatives, $127.78 million for battered women’s shelters, and $3.21 million for the national domestic violence hotline. The Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003 provides that whenever appropriations for the hotline in a fiscal year exceed $3 million, the Secretary of Health and Human Services may use a portion of that funding for establishing and operating an Internet website that provides information and assistance to victims of domestic violence. The 111th Congress may consider legislation that would address the expired authorization. This report will be updated to reflect legislative activity. Congressional Research Service Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding Contents Recent Developments..................................................................................................................1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................1 Description of FVPSA Programs .................................................................................................1 Family Violence/Battered Women’s Shelters .........................................................................1 Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations ..................................................................................2 Children Who Witness Domestic Violence ............................................................................3 State Domestic Violence Coalitions .......................................................................................3 National Domestic Violence Hotline and Internet Grant.........................................................4 Public Information Campaign................................................................................................4 Demonstration Grants for Community Initiatives ..................................................................5 Transitional Housing Assistance............................................................................................5 Information and Technical Assistance Centers .............................................................................6 The National Resource Center on Domestic Violence ............................................................7 The Resource Center on Domestic Violence–Child Protection and Custody...........................7 The Battered Women’s Justice Project ...................................................................................7 National Health Resource Center on Domestic Violence........................................................7 Sacred Circle, National Resource Center to End Violence Against Native Women .................7 FVPSA-Related Initiatives ..........................................................................................................7 Institutes ...............................................................................................................................8 The Greenbook .....................................................................................................................8 Enhanced Services for Children Who Have Been Exposed to Domestic Violence ..................9 Domestic Violence – Indian Health Care Pilot Project ...........................................................9 Runaway and Homeless Youth and Relationship Violence .....................................................9 National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma and Mental Health ..................................... 10 National Domestic Violence Shelter Study .......................................................................... 10 Authorization and Appropriations for FVPSA Programs ............................................................ 10 General Authorization ......................................................................................................... 11 National Domestic Violence Hotline and Internet Grant....................................................... 12 Demonstration Grants for Community Initiatives ................................................................ 12 Transitional Housing Assistance.......................................................................................... 12 Tables Table 1. Family Violence Prevention and Services Act Program Authorizations and Appropriations ....................................................................................................................... 11 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 12 Congressional Research Service Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding Recent Developments On March 11, 2009, President Obama signed the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 111-8; H.R. 1105) into law. The act provides FY2009 funding of $5.50 million for demonstration grants for community initiatives, $127.78 million for battered women’s shelters, and $3.21 million for the national domestic violence hotline. Introduction The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) was originally enacted in 1984, as Title III of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 1 to assist states in preventing incidents of family violence and to provide shelter and related assistance to victims of family violence and their dependents, with the expectation of preventing future acts of violence in families. In addition, the act authorizes technical assistance and training on family violence programs to states, local public agencies, nonprofit private organizations and others. Congress amended and extended the act in 1988,2 in 1992,3 in 2000,4 and most recently in 2003 with passage of the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act.5 Authorization of appropriations for FVPSA programs expired at the end of FY2008; however, Congress, through passage of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, provides FY2009 funding for FVPSA programs. FVPSA is administered by the Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB) of the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). It serves as the primary means by which federal funding is used to support emergency shelter and related assistance for victims of domestic violence and their children. The act authorizes state and tribal formula grants, state domestic violence coalitions, the national domestic violence hotline and domestic violence resource network, transitional housing grants for victims of domestic violence, and demonstration grants for community initiatives. Not all activities authorized under the act have received appropriations. This report describes programs authorized under FVPSA and related initiatives, and provides authorization and appropriation levels. Description of FVPSA Programs Family Violence/Battered Women’s Shelters The largest FVPSA program provides formula grants to states and territories that are used by domestic violence shelter and victim advocacy programs for emergency shelter and other services 1 P.L. 98-457; 42 U.S.C. 10401. P.L. 100-294, Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption, and Family Services Act of 1988. 3 P.L. 102-295, Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption, and Family Services Act of 1992. 4 P.L. 106-386, Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. 5 P.L. 108-36, Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003. 2 Congressional Research Service 1 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding such as counseling, transportation, and legal assistance for victims of family violence.6 The act defines “shelter” as the temporary refuge and related assistance to victims of family violence and their dependents according to state law and regulations.7 “Related assistance” is defined as the provision of direct assistance to victims of family violence and their dependents to prevent further violence, help victims gain access to civil and criminal courts and other community services, facilitate victims in their efforts to make sound decisions concerning their safety, and assist victims in recovering from the effects of the violence.8 Related assistance includes: • outreach and prevention services for victims and their children, employment training, preventive health services within domestic violence programs, domestic violence prevention programs for school-age children, family violence public awareness campaigns and counseling services to abusers; • counseling provided by peers individually or in groups and referrals to community social services; • transportation, technical assistance on obtaining financial assistance under federal and state programs, and referrals, not reimbursement, for health care services; • legal advocacy that provides victims with information and assistance through the civil and criminal courts, and legal assistance; or • counseling, support services, and child care services for children or dependents of family violence and children who witness it. FVPSA funds for family violence shelters are allocated to states and territories based on the relative population of the state except that (1) each state is allocated not less than 1% of the total grant or $600,000, whichever is less; and (2) Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands are allotted not less than one-eighth of 1% of the amounts available for grants. The Secretary of HHS determines the population of each state and the total population of all states based on the most recent census data and, if available, the annual population estimates that are produced by the Secretary of Commerce. Formula grants to states and territories are allocated as follows: 70% to immediate shelter and related assistance; 25% to related assistance; and 5% to administrative costs. Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations Grants are also provided to Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and nonprofit private organizations that have been approved by an Indian tribe to operate a family violence shelter on an Indian reservation. 9 The purpose of these shelters is to prevent family violence and provide immediate, safe shelter and related assistance for Indians and their dependents who are victims of family violence. Funds can also be used for demonstration programs that offer multisystem interventions and services for children who witness domestic violence and for training for agencies and other entities that work with these children. 6 42 U.S.C. 10402. 42 U.S.C. 10421(4). 8 42 U.S.C. 10421(5). 9 42 U.S.C. 10401(b). 7 Congressional Research Service 2 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding Children Who Witness Domestic Violence The Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 200310 amended FVPSA to require the Secretary to award grants for demonstration programs that provide (1) multisystem interventions and services for children who witness domestic violence and (2) training for agencies, providers, and other entities that work with these children. 11 The purpose of the programs is to minimize the trauma of witnessing domestic violence and, thereby, increase the chances for these children to become healthy, nonviolent adults. The act provides that when appropriations for a fiscal year for FVPSA state grants exceed $130 million, the Secretary must use some of the excess for these projects to assist children who witness domestic violence. To date, funding levels for these grants have not exceeded $130 million; thus, under this section, FVPSA funding has been unavailable for these purposes. The Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 (VAWA 2005),12 however, provides for a Safe Havens for Children Pilot program, authorizing $20 million for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011 for grants to assist children and youth exposed to violence. This act authorizes the Attorney General, acting through the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, and in collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Services, to administer this grant program. 13 In addition, HHS has used proceeds from a “semipostal” stamp to fund related demonstrations. State Domestic Violence Coalitions The FVPSA authorizes grants to state domestic violence coalitions that collaborate with public agencies and other service providers, provide training and technical assistance, as well as help with needs assessments, social service and legal advocacy training, and Domestic Violence Specialist Certification programs.14 A state domestic violence coalition may include representatives of Indian tribes and tribal organizations. These coalitions work with (1) local domestic violence programs and providers that provide direct services to victims to encourage appropriate responses to domestic violence within the state; (2) judicial and law enforcement agencies to ensure appropriate responses to domestic violence cases and related issues; and (3) family law judges, criminal court judges, Child Protective Services agencies, and children’s advocates to develop appropriate responses to child custody and visitation issues in domestic violence cases and cases of child abuse. In addition, the coalitions conduct public education campaigns on domestic violence and participate in planning and monitoring the distribution of grant funds to their states. To be eligible for a grant, an entity must be a statewide, nonprofit domestic violence coalition. The state domestic violence coalition must be organized to provide services, community education, and technical assistance to programs that establish and maintain shelter and other services for victims of domestic violence and their children. Moreover, the coalition must be composed of members from a majority of programs for victims of domestic violence in the state. Also, the coalition’s application must indicate that law enforcement agencies and legal or judicial 10 P.L. 108-36, Sec. 406(c). 42 U.S.C. 10402 (c). 12 P.L. 109-162, Sec. 401; 42 U.S.C. 14043(d)(2). 11 13 For more information on this program, as well as others that are designed to address violence against women and children, see CRS Report RL30871, Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding, by Garrine P. Laney. 14 42 U.S.C. 10410. Congressional Research Service 3 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding entities actively participated in its preparation and that they will also participate in activities under the grant. The law allots funds to each state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the combined U.S. Territories in an amount equal to 1/53 of the amount appropriated for each fiscal year. The combined U.S. Territories are Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; they are to receive not less than 1.5% of the appropriated funds each fiscal year.15 National Domestic Violence Hotline and Internet Grant FVPSA provides for the Secretary to award one or more grants to private, nonprofit entities to establish and operate a national, toll-free telephone hotline to assist victims of domestic violence. 16 A grant may be extended for a maximum period of five years. In establishing the hotline, the grantee must contract with a carrier to use the telephone line; employ, train, and supervise personnel on answering calls and providing counseling and referral services to callers; assemble and maintain a current database of information on services available for referral to victims of domestic violence; and publicize the hotline nationally to potential users. On a 24-hour a day basis, seven days a week, the National Domestic Violence Hotline makes safe and confidential telephone service available for callers who are victims of domestic violence.17 With materials in various formats and telephone service offered in 139 languages, the hotline provides information to callers on domestic violence shelters and programs, social service agencies, and legal and other advocacy groups throughout the country. Moreover, friends, family members, and employers of victims of domestic violence who are seeking information about domestic violence use the hotline. Batterers also use the hotline to learn of intervention programs in their areas.18 The Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 200319 provides that whenever appropriations for the hotline in a fiscal year exceed $3 million, the Secretary may use a portion of that funding for establishment and operation of a secure Internet website that provides information and assistance to victims of domestic violence. The Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, provides FY2009 appropriations of $3.21 million for the hotline. Public Information Campaign FVPSA authorizes the Secretary to make grants to public or private nonprofit entities, including Indian tribes or tribal organizations, for developing a public information campaign concerning domestic violence that uses a number of approaches such as public service announcements, paid educational messages for print media, public transit advertising, and electronic broadcast media.20 15 42 U.S.C. 10410. 42 U.S.C. 10416. 17 The telephone number for the hotline is 1-800-799 SAFE (7233). 18 For further information on the hotline operations, see its website at http://www.ndvh.org. 19 P.L. 108-36; 117 Stat. 829. 20 42 U.S.C. 10414. 16 Congressional Research Service 4 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding Applicants must meet three criteria to receive a grant. The first criterion is concerned with what the applicant will do with grant money to educate these communities and groups, while the second criterion asks what the applicant’s general record has been in conducting public information campaigns. Finally, the third criterion seeks information on the applicant’s strategy for conducting a campaign directed specifically at population groups that are most at risk. In the past, FVPSA funds have been used to award some small grants for public information campaigns, but none was awarded in either FY2008 or FY2007.21 Demonstration Grants for Community Initiatives The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention administers these community projects. 22 Funding is authorized for grants to nonprofit private organizations that coordinate community projects for intervening and preventing domestic violence. In coordinating these community projects, the organizations must include representatives of pertinent sectors of the local community such as health care providers, the education community, the religious community, the justice system, domestic violence program advocates, human service entities such as state child services divisions, business and civic leaders, and other pertinent sectors. In establishing and operating a project, a nonprofit private organization must (1) establish protocols to improve and expand domestic violence intervention and prevention strategies among affected sectors, (2) develop a coordinated plan of action, involving many sectors of the community, for establishing and operating the community project, and (3) provide periodic written analysis and evaluation of the project so that the approach used can be applied in other communities. The Secretary is to award these grants for a three-year term and ensure that grantees are geographically dispersed throughout the nation. Transitional Housing Assistance The act authorizes assistance to individuals and their dependents who are homeless or need shortterm housing assistance as a result of fleeing domestic violence, as well as those for whom emergency shelter services are unavailable or inadequate. 23 Originally established in the Violence Against Women Act, 2000, to be administered by HHS,24 this program has never been funded. The PROTECT Act of 2003,25 however, established a similar transitional housing assistance program within the Department of Justice (DOJ), which has been funded every year since FY2004. Prior to passage of the Violence Against Women Act, 2005 (VAWA 2005),26 DOJ had sole responsibility for administering this transitional housing program; however, VAWA 2005 provides that, in awarding grants for this program, the Attorney General must consult the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women and the Departments of Housing and Urban Development and Health and Human Services.27 Legislation was introduced in the 110th Congress 21 Information received during a telephone conversation with an ACF representative on October 31, 2008. 42 U.S.C. 10418. 23 42 U.S.C. 10419. 24 Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, Division B; P.L. 106-386; 114 Stat. 1491. 25 The Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today Act of 2003, P.L. 108-21; 117 Stat. 650. 26 Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, P.L. 109-162; 119 Stat. 2960. 27 119 Stat. 3038. 22 Congressional Research Service 5 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding that would have amended the FVPSA to authorize an additional transitional housing assistance program for youth who were victims of sex trafficking; no action was taken on this proposal. Information and Technical Assistance Centers Information and technical assistance centers are authorized to provide resource information, training, and technical assistance to governmental agencies at the federal, state, local, and tribal levels, domestic violence programs, faith-based groups, and others offering services to victims of domestic violence. 28 The Secretary of HHS must award grants to private nonprofit organizations to establish and maintain one national resource center and no more than seven special issue resource centers that focus on one or more of the following issues of concern to victims of domestic violence: • criminal justice response to domestic violence, including court-mandated abuser treatment; • improving Child Protective Service agencies’ response to battered mothers of abused children; • use of the self-defense plea by victims of domestic violence; • improving interdisciplinary health care responses and access to health care resources for victims of domestic violence; • improving access to and the quality of legal representation for victims of domestic violence in civil litigation, including the issuance and enforcement of protection orders; and • providing technical assistance and training to state domestic violence coalitions. To be eligible for a grant an entity must be a private nonprofit organization that (1) focuses primarily on domestic violence; (2) demonstrates experience working on domestic violence issues; (3) has representatives from domestic violence programs who reflect the geographic and cultural diversity in the region; and (4) demonstrates strong support from domestic violence advocates both nationally and regionally for them to be designated as the national or a special issue resource center. No later than six months after receipt of a grant, FVPSA requires a grantee to submit a report to the Secretary of HHS that evaluates the grantee’s effectiveness in using grant funds. HHS reports that it has funded the: (1) National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, (2) Resource Center on Domestic Violence–Child Protection and Custody, (3) Battered Women’s Justice Project, (4) National Health Resource Center on Domestic Violence, and (5) Sacred Circle, National Resource Center to End Violence Against Native Women. These centers are described more fully below.29 28 29 42 U.S.C. 10407. Information in this section was received from ACF via e-mail dated May 2, 2008. Congressional Research Service 6 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding The National Resource Center on Domestic Violence This center serves as a source of extensive information, training resources, and technical assistance concerning domestic violence policy and practice. Federal, state, and local government agencies, Indian tribal organizations, business and community leaders, the media, and other professionals and volunteers use the center as a resource in addressing domestic violence. The center maintains a central resource library for collecting, preparing, analyzing and disseminating information and statistics on the incidence and prevention of family violence (especially repeated incidences of violence) and the provision of immediate shelter and related assistance. The Resource Center on Domestic Violence–Child Protection and Custody This center addresses child custody issues that are presented during domestic violence cases, focuses on improving the response of Child Protective Service agencies, and identifies and develops policies and programs that are appropriate to the legal, cultural and psychological dynamics of child protection and custody cases that involve family violence. The Battered Women’s Justice Project This project provides services that assist legal advocates, law enforcement personnel, corrections officers, judges, attorneys, domestic violence organizations, government agencies, and private citizens with legal technical assistance and training in criminal, civil, and self-defense issues. National Health Resource Center on Domestic Violence This center is concerned with improving interdisciplinary health care responses and access to health care resources for victims of domestic violence. It provides support to health care professionals, domestic violence service providers, government agencies, researchers and policy makers who are interested in developing a comprehensive health care response to domestic violence, e.g., routine screening, protocols, regular staff training, and resource material. Sacred Circle, National Resource Center to End Violence Against Native Women The Sacred Circle addresses violence against Native women in the context of their unique historical, jurisdictional, and cultural experiences. Tribes, tribal organizations, and other individuals and entities can receive resource information and materials, and technical assistance on domestic violence. The Sacred Circle also offers consultation services. FVPSA-Related Initiatives Following is a description of some FVPSA-related program initiatives that, in some cases, receive FVPSA discretionary funds. Congressional Research Service 7 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding Institutes A number of culturally-specific Institutes receive funding to improve services and try new approaches for addressing and preventing domestic violence within specific communities. • The Institute on Domestic Violence in the African-American Community provides an interdisciplinary vehicle and forum for scholars, practitioners, and observers of family violence in the African-American community to offer their perspectives based on research findings, examination of service delivery and intervention mechanisms, and identification of appropriate and effective responses to family violence in the African-American community. The Institute sponsors conferences, symposia, and community-based initiatives. • The National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence (Alianza) is a network, composed of Latina and Latino advocates, community activists, practitioners, researchers, and victims of domestic violence, that is committed to devising culturally effective strategies and programs to eliminate domestic violence in Latino communities. To promote understanding, initiate and sustain dialogue, and provide solutions to domestic violence in these communities, Alianza relies on public policy, community education and development, and training and technical assistance. • Asian and Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence (AAPI) is a national coalition of domestic violence experts, shelter workers, public policy activists, and social justice organizations. The coalition works to raise awareness in Asian and Pacific Islander communities about the damaging effects of domestic violence on the individual and family; address the root causes of domestic violence; organize cultural transformation by emphasizing community accountability and creating new social norms; and expand leadership and expertise within the communities. The AAPI builds supportive networks, increases awareness and prevention of domestic violence, identifies resources, and informs and promotes research and policy. The Greenbook This collaborative demonstration project of HHS and the Department of Justice provides grants to implement recommendations contained in “Effective Interventions in Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment: Guidelines for Policy and Practice,” known as the Greenbook.30 The suggested guidelines concerning the co-occurrence of domestic violence and child maltreatment were developed by the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and were implemented at six demonstration grant sites. The guidelines focus on how dependency courts, child protective services, and domestic violence service providers, working collaboratively with their communities, address domestic violence and child maltreatment in families. FVPSA provides funding for technical assistance to expand the dissemination and replication of promising practices that resulted from this collaboration. 30 National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, Effective Interventions in Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment Cases: Guidelines for Policy and Practice,” 1999. http://www.thegreenbook.info/ Congressional Research Service 8 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding Enhanced Services for Children Who Have Been Exposed to Domestic Violence Through demonstration grants, the Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB) has supported the need for effective practice models and enhanced services that respond to children who are exposed to domestic violence. The demonstrations operated as a collaborative effort among state governments, federally recognized tribal governments, nonprofits having tax-exempt status, faithbased and community-based groups and other private nonprofit groups or public agencies (but not higher education institutions) with demonstrated experience concerning the effect of domestic violence on children. These eligible entities collaborated with state domestic violence coalitions and state organizations managing the family violence program. From FY2005 through FY2007, FYSB funded grantees from nine states and local communities to identify, design, and test various approaches for providing enhanced direct services to children exposed to domestic violence. The grantees reported significant progress in achieving their project goals in three areas: (1) expanding the capacity of domestic violence programs to assist children and adolescents coming into emergency shelters; (2) expanding the capacity of domestic violence programs to address the needs of non-sheltered families and their children; and (3) developing and enhancing community-based interventions for those children whose parents have not sought services or support from a domestic violence program. FYSB plans to develop a collection of promising practices that emerged through the initiative. The Stamp Out Family Violence Act of 2001, in creating a “semipostal” stamp, enabled the public to directly and tangibly contribute to funding for domestic violence programs, including this demonstration project. Issued for sale on October 8, 2003, the Family Violence Stamp has generated sales of over $3 million to support domestic violence programs administered by HHS. Domestic Violence – Indian Health Care Pilot Project This project is a collaborative effort of two FVPSA-funded domestic violence resource centers – the National Health Resource Center on Domestic Violence and Sacred Circle: The National Resource Center to End Violence Against Native Women. The objective of the project is to improve the health care offered by tribal health care programs for Native American women who are victims of domestic violence. This is a multi-year project that supports pilot sites in developing culturally appropriate prevention strategies and resources for health care providers and victims of domestic violence. Currently, there are 19 pilot sites where multidisciplinary teams implement model policies and procedures, conduct training on domestic violence and its relationship to health, screening procedures, responses to domestic violence victimization, and prevention strategies. Improvement in the rates of screening for domestic violence at project sites is being traced by the Indian Health Service. Runaway and Homeless Youth and Relationship Violence The FYSB supports efforts in 16 states and community-based organizations to design and develop collaborative services that address the intersection of youth services by the domestic violence and runaway and homeless youth service provider communities. These efforts are seen as an opportunity to improve services for a population of youth at high risk for experiencing domestic violence, both as perpetrators and victims. Since these youth may not be reached by traditional, Congressional Research Service 9 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding school-based domestic violence prevention and intervention services, innovative approaches are encouraged. Grantees must design and provide more responsive services and improved outreach; develop training materials and curricula; and develop protocols for effective prevention and intervention strategies to improve service for this population. National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma and Mental Health This Center aims to increase understanding about the range of trauma-related issues facing domestic violence survivors and their children and to promote survivors’ access to services that are essential to their safety and well-being. The Center promotes cross-system dialogue among domestic violence and mental health organizations and increases the capacity of local and state agencies to effectively assist victims of domestic violence who are experiencing trauma associated with abuse and/or are living with mental illness. In addition, it develops and disseminates information about program models and educational tools, conducts conferences and symposia, and consults on service improvement strategies. National Domestic Violence Shelter Study Through the National Institute of Justice, the FYSB sponsored an independent study of the experiences of domestic violence shelter residents–Domestic Violence Shelters: Survivors Experiences.31 The University of Connecticut, the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, and state domestic violence coalitions and programs in eight participating states collaborated on this study. The study sought information about the experiences of survivors of domestic violence who seek shelter, whether their expectations were met, their assessment of immediate outcomes associated with their stay at the shelter, any variation in outcomes across demographic and shelter program characteristics, and recommendations to improve shelter program services. Authorization and Appropriations for FVPSA Programs Table 1 shows authorized amounts for FVPSA programs for fiscal years 2004 through 2008, and enacted appropriations for these programs for fiscal years 2006 through 2009. 31 Eleanor Lyon, Shannon Lane, and Anne Menard, Domestic Violence Shelters: Survivors Experiences, December 2008. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/225025.pdf Congressional Research Service 10 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding Table 1. Family Violence Prevention and Services Act Program Authorizations and Appropriations (in millions) Annual Authorization Levels for FY2004– FY2008 FY2006 Enacted FY2007 Enacted FY2008 Enacted $175.00 $126.64 $124.73 $122.55 $127.78 National Domestic Violence Hotline $3.50 $2.97 $2.97 $2.92 $3.21 Demonstration Grants for Community Initiatives $6.00 $5.18 $5.19 $5.00 $5.51 $25.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 Program General Authorization/ Battered Women’s Shelters Transitional Housing for Victims of Domestic Violence FY2009 Enacted Source: For each fiscal year, Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations. For authorization of appropriations–Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided information on Demonstration Grants for Community Initiatives. The Keeping Children and Families Safe Act reauthorized FVPSA programs through FY2008 and no legislation has been considered to extend it further. Nonetheless, Congress continues to provide appropriations. On March 11, 2009, the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 111-8; H.R. 1105) was enacted into law. For FY2009, the act provides funding of $5.5 million for demonstration grants for community initiatives, $127.78 million for battered women’s shelters, and $3.21 million for the national domestic violence hotline (see Table 1). For FY2009, the Bush Administration requested $5 million for demonstration grants for community initiatives, $122.55 million for the family violence prevention and services programs (which included the battered women’s shelters), and $2.92 million for the national domestic violence hotline. General Authorization Section 310 of FVPSA authorized $175 million for each of fiscal years 2004 through 2008. Appropriations are distributed as follows: • Formula Grants to States and Territories for Family Violence/battered women’s shelters (not less than 70%) • Grants to Indian Tribes or Tribal Organizations (not less than 10%) • State Domestic Violence Coalitions (not less than 10%) Congressional Research Service 11 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act: Programs and Funding • Information and Technical Assistance Resource Centers on Domestic Violence (5%) and • Evaluation, Monitoring and Administration32 (up to 2.5%). If, however, appropriations exceed $130 million in a given year, the Secretary is required to reserve a portion of the excess for demonstration programs related to children exposed to domestic violence. (Appropriations have never exceeded that amount.33) National Domestic Violence Hotline and Internet Grant Section 316(g) authorized $3.5 million for the National Domestic Violence Hotline. As noted earlier, the internet grant is funded only if appropriations exceed $3 million in a given year. Demonstration Grants for Community Initiatives Section 318(h) authorized $6 million for each of fiscal years 2004 through 2008 for Demonstration Grants for Community Initiatives. Transitional Housing Assistance Section 319(f) authorized $25 million for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2008 for transitional housing assistance. Author Contact Information Garrine P. Laney Analyst in Social Policy glaney@crs.loc.gov, 7-2518 32 Although the statute does not specify a set percentage for Discretionary Grant Projects and Institutes, ACF reports that any funds not used for administrative activities are available for these purposes. 33 HHS has used proceeds from a “stop family violence” postage stamp for these demonstration projects. Congressional Research Service 12