Legislative Branch Staffing, 1954-2007

This report provides data and analysis concerning legislative branch staffing levels since 1954.

Legislative branch staff include congressional staff, who work in the House or Senate, and legislative agency staff, who work in a legislative branch agency. At present, there is no legislation pending before Congress to change existing staff arrangements in Congress or legislative branch agencies. As policies and issues before Congress continue to proliferate in volume and complexity, new proposals for change in staffing levels or changes in the balance between congressional staff and legislative agency staff may emerge. This report, which will be updated annually, is one of several CRS products focusing on various aspects of congressional operations and administration.

ȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ǯȱ›’ŒȱŽŽ›œŽ—ȱ —Š•¢œȱ’—ȱ–Ž›’ŒŠ—ȱŠ’˜—Š•ȱ ˜ŸŽ›—–Ž—ȱ Œ˜‹Ž›ȱŗśǰȱŘŖŖŞȱ ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŝȬśŝŖŖȱ    ǯŒ›œǯ˜Ÿȱ ŚŖŖśŜȱ ȱŽ™˜›ȱ˜›ȱ˜—›Žœœ Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress ȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ž––Š›¢ȱ This report provides data and analysis concerning legislative branch staffing levels since 1954. Legislative branch staff include congressional staff, who work in the House or Senate, and legislative agency staff, who work in a legislative branch agency. Legislative branch staff are counted by full-time equivalent (FTE) positions or payroll positions. FTE positions are based on an estimate of time needed to carry out the work of an agency, which is used to compute an estimated level of staffing. The second method considers staff on the payroll, a Ahead count@ method that counts the number of people actually carrying out the work of an agency. Because of their consistency and availability, payroll data are used for this report. FTE data are used in a few cases when payroll data are unavailable. At present, there is no legislation pending before Congress to change existing staff arrangements in Congress or legislative branch agencies. As policies and issues before Congress continue to proliferate in volume and complexity, new proposals for change in staffing levels or changes in the balance between congressional staff and legislative agency staff may emerge. This report, which will be updated annually, is one of several CRS products focusing on various aspects of congressional operations and administration. Others include CRS Report RL34619, Use of the Capitol Rotunda and Capitol Grounds: Concurrent Resolutions, 101st to 110th Congress, by Matthew Eric Glassman and Jacob R. Straus; CRS Report RL33220, Support Offices in the House of Representatives: Roles and Authorities, by Ida A. Brudnick; and CRS Report RL34545, Congressional Staff: Duties and Functions of Selected Positions, by R. Eric Petersen. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ˜—Ž—œȱ Counting Positions: Full Time Equivalent and Payroll Positions.................................................... 2 FTE Positions ............................................................................................................................ 2 Payroll Positions........................................................................................................................ 3 Legislative Branch Staffing Trends, 1954-2007.............................................................................. 3 Potential Staffing Issues for Congress............................................................................................. 6 ’ž›Žœȱ Figure 1. Legislative Branch Staffing, 1954-2007 .......................................................................... 1 Figure 2. Distribution of Legislative Branch Staff, 1955-2005....................................................... 2 Figure 3. House and Senate Staffing, 1975-2007 ........................................................................... 4 Figure 4. Distribution of Legislative Branch Staff, 1975-2005....................................................... 5 Figure 5. Selected Legislative Agency Staffing, 1954-2007 ........................................................... 6 Š‹•Žœȱ Table 1. Change in Legislative Branch Staffing, 1955-2005........................................................... 3 Table 2. Legislative Branch Employment, 2001-2007 .................................................................... 7 Table 3. Legislative Branch Employment, 1991-2000 .................................................................... 8 Table 4. Legislative Branch Employment, 1981-1990 .................................................................... 9 Table 5. Legislative Branch Employment, 1971-1980 .................................................................. 10 Table 6. Legislative Branch Employment, 1961-1970 ...................................................................11 Table 7. Legislative Branch Employment, 1954-1960 .................................................................. 12 ˜—ŠŒœȱ Author Contact Information .......................................................................................................... 13 Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................... 13 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ T his report provides data and analysis of legislative branch staffing levels since 1954. Legislative branch staff include congressional staff, who work in the House or Senate, and legislative agency staff, who work in a legislative branch agency.1 All staff positions discussed in this report are funded in the annual legislative branch appropriations act. Legislative branch staffing levels since 1954 reflect a number of trends and characteristics. From the mid-1950s, and through the 1960s, staffing levels were characterized by modest, steady growth. This pattern gave way to a sharper increase in congressional staff throughout the 1970s, primarily due to the implementation of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 (LRA) and the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 (CBA). The LRA mandated enhanced congressional oversight, including additional congressional staff for House and Senate committees and increased staff in some legislative agencies. The CBA established the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and the Senate and House Committees on the Budget. Agency staff levels were essentially flat from the mid-1970s until the mid-1980s, when they began to decline. In the 1980s, congressional staff levels were also flat, resulting in a small overall decrease in legislative staff employment. Congressional staff levels began to decrease in the early 1990s, and the rate of legislative agency decline accelerated. The decreases were due in part to reductions in House committee staff, the General Accounting Office (GAO), and other legislative branch entities, and the abolition of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). Decreases continued in the early 2000s, but appear to show slight increases in the past few years. Figure 1 provides an overview of legislative branch staffing trends. Figure 1. Legislative Branch Staffing, 1954-2007 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 19 54 19 59 19 64 19 69 19 74 19 79 19 84 19 89 19 94 19 99 20 04 0 Year Congress Legislative Branch Agencies Total, Legislative Branch Office of Personnel Management (OPM), or its predecessor agency, U.S. Civil Service Civil Commission, except for the U.S. Capitol Police (USCP), which is included in the data since 2003. From 19541968, federal employment statistics were published in the Monthly Report of Federal Employment. For the period 1969-1985, statistics were published in Federal Civilian Manpower Statistics – Monthly Release. Since 1986, OPM Source: 1 In 2008, legislative branch agencies include the Office of the Architect of the Capitol (AOC); U.S. Botanic Garden (USBG); U.S. Capitol Police (USCP); Congressional Budget Office (CBO); Government Accountability Office (GAO); Government Printing Office; (GPO); Library of Congress (LOC); Congressional Research Service (CRS); and Office of Compliance (OOC). ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ tatistics have been published bimonthly in Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, Employment and Trends. Data collected by OPM since 1997 are available at http://www.opm.gov/feddata/html/empt.asp. For USCP data, see U.S. Congress, House, Subcommittee on Legislative, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2004, pt. 1 (Washington: s GPO, 2003), p. 1140; and Ibid, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2009, pt. 1 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 236. Data for all entities except USCP are based on payroll information as of December in each year, except 2007, which are as of September, the latest data available from OPM. USCP data are full-time equivalent (FTE) positions reported by that agency in appropriations requests. Before 2007, data include legislative branch entities in existence at that time. Notes: During the same period, the distribution of legislative branch employees shifted between legislative agencies and Congress. In 1954, approximately three-fourths of legislative branch staff worked in agencies. The percentage of staff working for Congress grew slowly and steadily and by the mid1980s accounted for approximately half of legislative branch employment. In 2007, approximately 56% of legislative branch employees worked in the House or Senate, with the remainder distributed throughout the legislative agencies. The data show that Senate and House staffs have grown from approximately 17% and 29%, respectively, in 1975, to approximately 21% and 34%, respectively, of legislative branch staff in 2007. Figure 2 displays changes in the distribution of legislative branch staff between 1955 and 2005. Figure 2. Distribution of Legislative Branch Staff, 1955-2005 Congressional and Legislative Agency Staff 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1955 1965 Congress 1975 1985 1995 2005 Legislative Agencies Office of Personnel Management, CRS calculations. Source: Table 2 through Table 7 provide legislative branch staffing data between 1954 and 2007. ˜ž—’—ȱ˜œ’’˜—œDZȱž••ȱ’–Žȱšž’ŸŠ•Ž—ȱŠ—ȱ Š¢›˜••ȱ˜œ’’˜—œȱ Legislative branch staff are counted by full-time equivalent (FTE) positions or payroll positions. FTE positions are based on an estimate of time needed to carry out the work of an agency, which is used to compute an estimated level of staffing. The second method considers staff on the payroll, a Ahead count@ method that counts the number of people actually carrying out the work of an agency. FTEs capture the long-term staffing expectations of an agency, while head counts represent on-board personnel at a specific moment in time. ȱ˜œ’’˜—œȱ According to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), FTEs are determined by a formula that adds the total number of hours worked by all employees of agencies during a year and then divides that total by 2,080, which is the number of scheduled work hours in a work year. The 2,080 hours can be worked by one employee who works a full time schedule of 40 hours each ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Řȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ week for 52 weeks, or two or more part-time employees who work a total of 2,080 hours between or among them. This method provides the means for an agency to determine its long term staffing expectations and the impact of those expectations on the agency=s future budgets. FTE estimates do not reflect the actual number of people needed to carry out the work of the agency.2 While OPM requires federal executive branch agencies to estimate their staffing needs in FTEs, no standard has been explicitly mandated by Congress for legislative entities to use for staff planning. Nevertheless, FTE estimates appear to be widely employed. Regular references to legislative branch staff in terms of FTEs were made by the House Committee on Appropriations beginning in the early 1990s, according to a survey of its hearings and reports. Š¢›˜••ȱ˜œ’’˜—œȱ A second method of calculating employment levels considers staff on payroll. While the FTE method provides an estimate of the long-term staff needs of an agency, the payroll method captures the actual number of employees working at any one time. Payroll data are supplied by the legislative branch entities to OPM on a monthly basis and made available as a public document.3 Because of their consistency and availability, payroll data are used for this report. FTE data are used in a few cases when payroll data are unavailable. Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ȱ›Ž—œǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ Between 1954 and 2007, total legislative branch staff increased by 44.50%. Most of this growth occurred among congressional staff, which more than tripled over the five-decade period, while legislative agency staff decreased by 13.28%. Table 1 summarizes changes in legislative branch staffing between 1955 and 2005. Table 1. Change in Legislative Branch Staffing, 1955-2005 Year Congress Legislative Agencies % - 15,761 Total, Legislative Branch % - 21,467 % 1955 5,706 - 1960 6,866 20.33% 15,651 -0.70% 22,517 4.89% 1965 8,754 27.50% 16,278 4.01% 25,032 11.17% 1970 11,127 27.11% 18,523 13.79% 29,811 19.09% 1975 17,039 53.13% 20,264 9.40% 37,303 25.13% 1980 18,838 10.56% 19,862 -1.98% 38,700 3.75% 1985 19,488 3.45% 18,590 -6.40% 38,078 -1.61% 2 Office of Personnel Management, Employment and Trends of Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, September 2007, available at http://www.opm.gov/feddata/html/2007/september/intro.asp. According to the Government Accountability Office (GAO), annual leave, sick leave, compensatory time off, and other approved leave categories are considered to be “hours worked” for purposes of defining FTE employment. See Government Accountability Office, A Glossary of Terms Used in the Federal Budget Process (Washington: GPO, 2005), p. 57. 3 Office of Personnel Management, Employment and Trends of Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, available at http://www.opm.gov/feddata/html/empt.asp. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ řȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 Source: Congress % 19,181 17,453 16,504 17,376 -1.58% -9.01% -5.44% 5.28% Legislative Agencies 17,551 14,601 14,325 14,248 % -5.59% -16.81% -1.89% -0.54% Total, Legislative Branch 36,732 32,054 30,829 31,620 % -3.53% -12.74% -3.82% 2.57% Office of Personnel Management, CRS calculations. Since 1954, there have been changes not only in the size but also in the deployment of legislative branch staff. From the mid-1950s through the 1970s, there were considerably more legislative agency employees than congressional staff. In 1954, 16,051 employees served in legislative agencies, compared to 5,621 congressional staff. By 1970, the gap decreased with legislative agencies comprising 18,523 employees and Congress having 11,127 staff members. During the 1980s, legislative branch employees were effectively evenly divided between Congress and legislative branch agencies, with 1985 staffing levels of 18,590 in legislative agency offices and 19,488 in congressional offices. In the 1990s, both congressional staff and agency staff numbers declined significantly, but the decline was higher for agency staff. In 2000, legislative branch agencies accounted for 14,325 employees; congressional staff was 16,504. In the past several years, legislative agency staff numbers have continued to decrease, but at a slower pace than during the 1990s, while congressional staff levels have grown slightly. In 2007, the latest available data from OPM show 13,390 employees working in legislative agencies, and 17, 396 staff members in congressional offices. 19 75 19 77 19 79 19 81 19 83 19 85 19 87 19 89 19 91 19 93 19 95 19 97 19 99 20 01 20 03 20 05 20 07 The growth of congressional staff was likely Figure 3. House and Senate Staffing, due to a number of factors. These include a 1975-2007 steady increase in the volume and complexity of issues addressed by Congress,4 which 14,000 12,000 required the acquisition of specialized 10,000 congressional staff, and legislative changes, 8,000 including the implementation of the LRA and 6,000 CBA. It appears from available data that 4,000 between 1954 and the mid-1980s, staff levels 2,000 in the House increased at a slightly higher 0 rate than the Senate. During the 1990s, staff levels in both chambers decreased, with larger Senate House decreases occurring in the House. Since then, Source: Office of Personnel Management, CRS staff changes have been proportional in both calculations. chambers. Figure 3 provides an overview of House and Senate staffing trends between 1975 and 2007. Figure 4 provides the distribution of legislative branch staff in the House, Senate, and legislative agencies between 1975 and 2005. 4 See, for example, Nelson W. Polsby, “The Institutionalization of the U.S. House of Representatives,” The American Political Science Review, vol. 62, no. 1 (March 1968), pp. 144-168. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Śȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ Figure 4. Distribution of Legislative Branch Staff, 1975-2005 House, Senate, and Legislative Agency Staff 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 House Source: Senate Legislative Agencies Office of Personnel Management, CRS calculations. The overall downward trend in legislative agency staffing, displayed in Figure 2, has not affected every agency. Figure 5 provides staffing levels for four legislative agencies that have operated continuously between 1954 and 2007: the Architect of the Capitol (AOC), GAO, the Government Printing Office (GPO), and the Library of Congress (LOC). Staffing levels in two of the agencies, AOC and LOC, appear to reflect trends similar to that of the legislative branch as a whole. By contrast, both GAO and GPO had fewer staff in 2007 than in 1954. GAO staff levels appear to have fallen until the 1970s before growing in the years after passage of the LRA and the General Accounting Office Act of 1974. Relatively small growth continued at GAO until the mid-1990s, when the agency’s staff levels were reduced by Congress. Since the mid-1990s, GAO staff levels have remained flat. GPO staff levels grew continuously between 1954 and 1975, but have declined steadily since. This is due in part to the adoption by the agency of less labor intensive printing technologies, increased utilization of contracted printing services, and reduced demands from government clients who have opted to provide their documents through electronic means. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ śȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ . Selected Legislative Agency Staffing, 1954-2007 Figure 5 Architect of the Capitol, Government Accountability Office, Government Printing Office, and Library of Congress AOC GAO GPO 2004 1999 1994 1989 1984 1979 1974 1969 1964 1959 1954 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 LOC Office of Personnel Management, CRS calculations. Notes: LOC data include CRS staff. Source: ˜Ž—’Š•ȱŠ’—ȱ œœžŽœȱ˜›ȱ˜—›Žœœȱ At present, there is no legislation pending before Congress to change existing staff arrangements in Congress or legislative branch agencies. As policies and issues before Congress continue to proliferate in volume and complexity, new proposals for change in staffing levels or changes in the balance between congressional staff and legislative agency staff may emerge. Those proposals may also be incorporated into broader issues, including how to fund additional staff resources,5 and how to accommodate more staff in congressional facilities. Periodically, concerns have been raised that congressional buildings and facilities on Capitol Hill are overcrowded, or inadequate to support the work of Congress,6 despite the recent addition of congressional facilities in the Capitol Visitors’ Center expansion. Any discussion of adding congressional staff would likely raise questions related to the adequacy of current congressional facilities. 5 See CRS Report RL34490, Legislative Branch: FY2009 Appropriations, by Ida A. Brudnick. U.S. Congress, House Committee on House Administration, Committee Funding, 109th Cong., 1st sess., March 10, 2005 (Washington: GPO, 2005), p. 4; Jennifer Yanchin, “House Panels Request More Funding, Space,” Roll Call, March 14, 2005, retrieved through nexis.com; Richard Sammon, “A Walk Through the Capitol Illustrates Safety Concerns,” CQ Weekly, August 6, 1994, p. retrieved from cq.com.; and Sarah Booth Conroy, “Plan for Capitol Hill Ready: Capital Master Plan Would Limit Staffs, Buildings,” The Washington Post, September 25, 1981, p. A1, retrieved through nexis.com. 6 ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ Ŝȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ . Legislative Branch Employment, 2001-2007 Table 2 2001 U.S. Senate U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Congress Legislative Branch Entities Architect of the Capitol U.S. Botanic Garden U.S. Capitol Policea Congressional Budget Office Government Accountability Officeb Government Printing Office Library of Congressc Congressional Research Serviced Office of Compliance Legislative Branch Agencies Total, Legislative Branch 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 6,343 10,806 17,149 6,414 10,890 17,304 6,588 10,330 16,918 6,689 10,489 17,178 6,803 10,573 17,376 6,718 10,086 16,804 6,686 10,710 17,396 1,974 44 1,481 231 3,219 3,009 3,591 660 18 14,227 31,376 2,081 50 1,750 225 3,357 3,018 3,716 662 14 14,873 32,177 2,156 53 1,895 229 3,260 2,663 3,749 693 18 14,716 31,634 2,201 59 1,993 236 3,258 2,404 3,643 692 19 14,505 31,683 2,162 57 2,004 233 3,204 2,362 3,519 681 22 14,244 31,620 2,235 57 2,075 234 3,263 2,359 3,333 669 23 14,248 31,052 2,189 57 2,083 232 3,172 2,252 3,252 658 25 13,920 31,316 Office of Personnel Management (OPM), except for Congressional Research Service (CRS) data, which were provided by that agency, and the U.S. Capitol Police (USCP), which were taken from agency appropriations requests. OPM statistics since 1986 have been published bimonthly in Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, Employment and Trends. Data collected by OPM since 1997 are available at http://www.opm.gov/feddata/html/empt.asp. For USCP data, see U.S. Congress, House, Subcommittee on Legislative, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2004, pt. 1 (Washington: GPO, 2003), p. 1140; and Ibid, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2009, pt. 1 (Washington: GPO, Source: 2008), p. 236. All entities listed are funded in the annual legislative branch appropriations act. Data for all entities except USCP are based on payroll information as of December in each year, except 2007, which are as of September, the latest data available from OPM. USCP data are full time equivalent (FTE) positions reported by that agency in appropriations requests. From time to time, OPM includes in its legislative branch employment numbers entities that are neither part of the legislative branch nor funded in the annual legislative branch appropriations act. In September 2007, these entities included the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom; John C. Stennis Center for Public Development; Medicare Payment Advisory Commission; United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission; U.S. Court of Veterans Appeals; and U.S. Tax Court. Employees of these entities are not included in this table. a. Full time equivalent data. Until FY2003, USCP personnel assigned to duties in the House or Senate were counted in the staff rolls of the respective chamber. USCP data for years prior to 2004 are not counted in the agency or legislative branch totals because they are included in House or Senate numbers. Notes: Ȭŝȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ Prior to 2004, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was called the General Accounting Office. For consistency, the agency is listed as “Government Accountability Office,” and GAO staff are included in the tables for all years. c. Data for each year reflect total Library of Congress (LOC) employees reported by OPM less the number provided by CRS for its employees. d. Data provided by CRS. CRS numbers are not reported separately by OPM; they are included by OPM in LOC figures. b. . Legislative Branch Employment, 1991-2000 Table 3 1991 U.S. Senate U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Congress Legislative Branch Entities Architect of the Capitol U.S. Botanic Garden U. S. Capitol Policea Congressional Budget Office Copyright Royalty Tribunal Government Accountability Officeb Government Printing Office Library of Congressc Congressional Research Serviced Office of Compliance Office of Technology Assessment Legislative Branch Agencies Total, Legislative Branch 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 7,495 12,714 20,209 7,461 12,676 20,137 7,417 12,683 20,100 7,207 11,516 18,723 6,830 10,623 17,453 6,572 10,351 16,923 6,768 10,477 17,245 6,106 10,435 16,541 6,164 10,532 16,696 6,085 10,419 16,504 2,270 54 NA 230 10 5,378 4,883 4,189 831 — 197 18,042 38,251 2,430 53 NA 231 9 5,189 4,894 4,111 838 — 209 17,964 38,101 2,300 53 NA 221 — 4,888 4,560 3,830 814 — 206 16,872 36,972 2,265 53 NA 214 — 4,461 4,243 3,868 763 — 198 16,065 34,788 2,001 51 NA 236 — 3,810 3,942 3,806 755 — — 14,601 32,054 1,956 50 NA 228 — 3,468 3,727 3,725 742 18 — 13,914 30,837 1,786 46 NA 231 — 3,270 3,537 3,667 721 22 — 13,280 30,525 1,855 41 1,240 216 — 3,355 3,363 3,632 718 20 — 14,440 30,981 1,929 30 1,329 222 — 3,245 3,229 3,638 712 19 — 14,353 31,049 1,963 33 1,511 229 — 3,115 3,130 3,663 664 17 — 14,325 30,829 Office of Personnel Management (OPM), except for Congressional Research Service (CRS) data, which were provided by that agency, and the U.S. Capitol Police (USCP), which were taken from agency appropriations requests. From 1969-1985, federal employment statistics were published in Federal Civilian Manpower Statistics – Monthly Release. Since 1986, OPM statistics have been published bimonthly in Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, Employment and Trends. Data collected by OPM since 1997 are available at http://www.opm.gov/feddata/html/empt.asp. For USCP data, see U.S. Congress, House, Subcommittee on Legislative, Legislative Branch Appropriations for Source: 2004, pt. 1 (Washington: GPO, 2003), p. 1140; and Ibid, Legislative Branch Appropriations for 2009, pt. 1 (Washington: GPO, 2008), p. 236. ȬŞȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ Data for all entities except USCP are based on payroll information as of December in each year, except 2007, which are as of September, the latest data available from OPM. USCP data are full time equivalent (FTE) positions reported by that agency in appropriations requests. A dash indicates when a legislative branch entity was not in existence. a. Full time equivalent data. Until FY2003, USCP personnel assigned to duties in the House or Senate were counted in the staff rolls of the respective chamber. USCP data for years prior to 2004 are not counted in the agency or legislative branch totals because they are included in House or Senate numbers. Specific USCP data prior to 1998 are unavailable, and marked NA for the appropriate years. b. Prior to 2004, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was called the General Accounting Office. For consistency, the agency is listed as “Government Accountability Office,” and GAO staff are included in the tables for all years. c. Data for each year reflect total Library of Congress (LOC) employees reported by OPM less the number provided by CRS for its employees. d. Data provided by CRS. CRS numbers are not reported separately by OPM; they are included by OPM in LOC figures. Notes: Table 4. Legislative Branch Employment, 1981-1990 1981 U.S. Senate U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Congress Legislative Branch Entities Architect of the Capitol U.S. Botanic Garden Congressional Budget Office Copyright Royalty Tribunal Government Accountability Officea Government Printing Office Library of Congressb Congressional Research Servicec Office of Technology Assessment Legislative Branch Agencies Total, Legislative Branch 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 6,940 12,163 19,103 7,060 12,003 19,063 7,151 12,514 19,665 7,062 12,318 19,380 7,168 12,320 19,488 6,811 11,554 18,365 7,219 12,047 19,266 7,044 11,929 18,973 7,232 12,039 19,271 7,217 11,964 19,181 2,018 57 207 8 5,269 6,310 4,303 859 150 19,181 38,284 2,128 57 208 8 5,186 5,936 4,415 825 172 18,935 37,998 2,256 56 206 6 5,311 5,742 4,402 873 186 19,038 38,703 2,266 56 220 7 5,339 5,558 4,444 893 207 18,990 38,370 2,141 54 213 8 5,374 5,391 4,363 852 194 18,590 38,078 2,095 51 220 7 5,164 5,223 4,036 768 198 17,762 36,127 2,120 54 212 7 5,382 5,202 4,172 819 202 18,170 37,436 2,190 54 216 7 5,319 5,126 3,992 858 201 17,963 36,936 2,211 53 219 8 5,284 4,997 3,915 829 196 17,712 36,983 2,224 57 234 10 5,283 4,934 3,822 797 190 17,551 36,732 Office of Personnel Management (OPM), except for Congressional Research Service (CRS) data, which were provided by that agency. From 1969-1985, federal employment statistics were published in Federal Civilian Manpower Statistics – Monthly Release. Since 1986, OPM statistics have been published bimonthly in Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics, Employment and Trends. Source: Ȭşȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ Data for all entities are based on payroll information as of December for each year. A dash indicates when a legislative branch entity was not in existence. a. Prior to 2004, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was called the General Accounting Office. Before FY1968, the agency was funded in appropriations for independent offices, and has since been funded in annual appropriations for the legislative branch. For consistency, the agency is listed as “Government Accountability Office,” and GAO staff are included in the tables for all years. b. Data for each year reflect total Library of Congress (LOC) employees reported by OPM less the number provided by CRS for its employees. c. Data provided by CRS. CRS numbers are not reported separately by OPM; they are included by OPM in LOC figures. Notes: Table 5. Legislative Branch Employment, 1971-1980 1971 U.S. Senate U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Congressa Legislative Branch Entities Architect of the Capitol U.S. Botanic Garden Congressional Budget Office Copyright Royalty Tribunal Cost Accounting Standards Board Government Accountability Officeb Government Printing Office Library of Congressc Congressional Research Serviced Office of Technology Assessment Legislative Branch Agencies Total, Legislative Branch 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 NA NA 12,571 NA NA 12,971 NA NA 14,675 NA NA 14,694 6,351 10,688 17,039 6,573 10,744 17,317 6,424 11,352 17,776 6,540 11,384 17,924 6,957 11,680 18,637 6,995 11,843 18,838 1,666 55 — — — 4,681 8,183 3,509 383 — 18,477 31,214 1,723 57 — — — 4,778 8,429 3,752 465 — 19,204 32,348 1,778 55 — — — 4,894 8,169 3,766 584 — 19,246 34,143 1,903 57 — — 40 5,287 8,355 3,804 675 — 20,121 35,083 2,036 62 — — 40 4,897 8,444 4,039 746 — 20,264 37,303 2,129 56 197 2,219 57 205 9 36 5,428 7,698 4,332 810 138 20,932 38,708 2,239 57 203 10 32 5,382 7,375 4,375 805 150 20,628 38,552 2,231 56 207 10 27 5,329 7,069 4,536 857 140 20,462 39,099 2,081 55 210 10 — 5,434 6,610 4,436 888 138 19,862 38,700 40 5,372 8,077 4,131 806 — 20,808 38,125 Office of Personnel Management (OPM), and its predecessor agency, U.S. Civil Service Commission, except for Congressional Research Service (CRS) data, which were provided by that agency. From 1969-1985, federal employment statistics were published in Federal Civilian Manpower Statistics – Monthly Release. Notes: Data for all entities are based on payroll information as of December for each year. A dash indicates when a legislative branch entity was not in existence. a. From 1954-1974, a combined House and Senate employee count was reported under the heading Congress. House and Senate numbers for those years are unavailable, and marked NA. Source: ȬŗŖȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ 4, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was called the General Accounting Office. Before FY1968, the agency was funded in appropriations for independent offices, and has since been funded in annual appropriations for the legislative branch. For consistency, the agency is listed as “Government Accountability Office,” and GAO staff are included in the tables for all years. c. Data for each year reflect total Library of Congress (LOC) employees reported by OPM less the number provided by CRS for its employees. d. Data provided by CRS. CRS numbers are not reported separately by OPM; they are included by OPM in LOC figures. b. Prior to 200 . Legislative Branch Employment, 1961-1970 Table 6 1961 U.S. Congressa Legislative Branch Entities Architect of the Capitol U.S. Botanic Garden Government Accountability Officeb Government Printing Office Library of Congressc Congressional Research Serviced Legislative Branch Agencies Total, Legislative Branch 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 7,532 7,557 8,039 8,085 8,754 9,311 10,209 9,917 10,721 11,127 1,430 50 4,728 6,889 2,611 224 15,932 23,464 1,417 48 4,585 7,135 2,776 223 16,184 23,741 1,386 50 4,387 7,292 2,880 222 16,217 24,256 1,495 52 4,211 7,408 3,073 224 16,463 24,548 1,609 53 4,044 7,194 3,147 231 16,278 25,032 1,607 56 4,014 7,492 3,362 243 16,774 26,085 1,540 54 4,216 7,785 3,766 300 17,661 27,870 1,543 57 4,265 7,904 4,126 299 18,194 28,111 1,545 55 4,466 8,039 3,691 316 18,112 28,833 1,563 57 4,731 8,308 3,530 334 18,523 29,811 Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission, predecessor agency of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) except for Congressional Research Service (CRS) data, which were provided by that agency. From 1954-1968, federal employment statistics were published in the Monthly Report of Federal Employment. For the period 1969-1985, federal employment statistics were published in Federal Civilian Manpower Statistics – Monthly Release. Notes: Data for all entities are based on payroll information as of December for each year. a. From 1954-1974, a combined House and Senate employee count was reported under the heading Congress. House and Senate numbers for those years are unavailable. b. Prior to 2004, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was called the General Accounting Office. Before FY1968, the agency was funded in appropriations for independent offices, and has since been funded in annual appropriations for the legislative branch. For consistency, the agency is listed as “Government Accountability Office,” and GAO staff are included in the tables for all years. c. Data for each year reflect total Library of Congress (LOC) employees reported by OPM less the number provided by CRS for its employees. d. Data provided by CRS. CRS numbers are not reported separately by OPM; they are included by OPM in LOC figures. Ȭŗŗȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ȱ . Legislative Branch Employment, 1954-1960 Table 7 1954 U.S. Congressa Legislative Branch Entities Architect of the Capitol U.S. Botanic Garden Government Accountability Officeb Government Printing Office Library of Congress Legislative Branch Agencies Total, Legislative Branch 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 5,621 5,706 6,229 6,431 6,561 6,906 6,866 1,043 47 5,791 6,781 2,389 16,051 21,672 1,036 47 5,616 6,658 2,404 15,761 21,467 1,130 48 5,433 6,681 2,473 15,765 21,994 1,141 47 5,439 6,429 2,639 15,695 22,126 1,225 46 5,253 6,460 2,571 15,555 22,116 1,376 47 5,029 6,499 2,703 15,654 22,560 1,401 48 4,885 6,573 2,744 15,651 22,517 Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission, predecessor agency of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). From 1954-1968, federal employment statistics were published in the Monthly Report of Federal Employment. Notes: Data for all entities are based on payroll information as of December for each year. a. From 1954-1974, a combined House and Senate employee count was reported under the heading Congress. House and Senate numbers for those years are unavailable, and marked NA. b. Prior to 2004, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was called the General Accounting Office. Before FY1968, the agency was funded in appropriations for independent offices, and has since been funded in annual appropriations for the legislative branch. For consistency, the agency is listed as “Government Accountability Office,” and GAO staff are included in the tables for all years. ȬŗŘȱ ȱ Ž’œ•Š’ŸŽȱ›Š—Œ‘ȱŠ’—ǰȱŗşśŚȬŘŖŖŝȱ ž‘˜›ȱ˜—ŠŒȱ —˜›–Š’˜—ȱ R. Eric Petersen Analyst in American National Government epetersen@crs.loc.gov, 7-0643 Œ”—˜ •Ž–Ž—œȱ Jennifer Manning and Maureen Bearden, Information Research Specialists in the Knowledge Services Group, provided research support for this report. ˜—›Žœœ’˜—Š•ȱŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ȱŽ›Ÿ’ŒŽȱ ŗřȱ