COVID-19 International Responses: Resources for the 117th Congress


COVID-19 International Responses:
Resources for the 117th Congress

January 28, 2021
Numerous international organizations, educational institutions, and private research firms have compiled
information and are tracking international responses to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This
Insight presents selected resources and CRS products that may be useful for Congress in tracking and
understanding different countries’ approaches to addressing the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some
of these resources are listed below in alphabetical order by organization, along with brief notes on the
type of information provided.
Table 1.Tools Comparing International Responses to COVID-19
Title of International
COVID-19 Response
Comparison Tool
Cambridge University, United
Cambridge Core Blog
Comparative information on country responses
and some state or province measures, including
social safety net efforts and direct payments to
Centre for Economic Policy
Economic policy responses to a A review of economic policy measures adopted
pandemic: Developing the
by 166 countries. The COVID-19 Economic
Covid-19 economic stimulus
Stimulus Index, upon which the review is based,
includes fiscal, monetary, and exchange rate
measures. See the Oxford Coronavirus
Government Response Tracker
for a different
approach to a “stimulus index.” The Economic
Stimulus Index is hosted by Boğaziçi University in
Istanbul, Turkey.
Funding the Response to
“Development funding opportunities [related to
COVID-19: Analysis of Funding
COVID-19] and news related to major donors,
Opportunities, January 1 to
foundations, private sector entities, media, and
November 29, 2020
philanthropies. These are sourced from press
releases, media outlets, donor country strategy
reports, and more.” Devex serves as a media
platform for the global development community.
Congressional Research Service
Prepared for Members and
Committees of Congress

Congressional Research Service
Title of International
COVID-19 Response
Comparison Tool
Georgetown Global Health
COVID Analysis and Mapping
“A comprehensive list of policies and plans
Science & Security; Talus
of Policies (AMP)
implemented globally to address the COVID-19
Analytics, LLC; NTI
pandemic. In many cases, response efforts have
been led by subnational governments or private
and non-profit organizations.” Where available,
COVID AMP has included a PDF of the ful
document or notice. Georgetown University
developed COVID AMP in partnership with
several data analytics companies and non-
governmental organizations.
European Commission
Proposed Country-Specific
Economic and disease control monitoring for
European Union member states and the United
Kingdom (UK).
Effects of COVID-19 on Global Healthcare system reactions to COVID-19 in
Healthcare Systems
Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, the
United States, and Canada. IBISWorld is an
industry research site.
Institute of International Finance
Regulatory international responses to COVID-
19, including Insurance Regulatory Actions Taken
in Response to COVID-19
and the banking
sectors’ Prudential Regulatory Measures in
Response to COVID-19. Th
e IIF is the global
association of the financial industry.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) COVID-19 Policy Tracker
Tool that “summarizes the key economic
responses governments are taking to limit the
human and economic impact of the COVID-19
Government Response –
Roundup of governments’ and international
Global Landscape
institutions’ responses to COVID-19. KPMG is a
consulting group.
McKinsey & Company
The $10 Tril ion Rescue: How
Analysis of governments’ responses to COVID-
Governments can Deliver
19, with charts. McKinsey & Company is a
consulting group.
Organization for Economic
Key Country Policy Responses
Policy papers and an interactive map on 97
Cooperation and Development
countries’ responses to COVID-19. Users may
also download the underlying data that support
the map. The fol owing spreadsheets are

Fiscal and Monetary Policy Responses by

Employment and Social Responses by

Tax Policy Responses by Country,

Health Policy Responses by Country, and

Science and Innovation Policy Responses by

The OECD is an intergovernmental economic

Congressional Research Service
Title of International
COVID-19 Response
Comparison Tool
United States Chamber of
Global Dashboard on COVID-
Compilation of foreign governments’ responses
19 Government Policies
to COVID-19, including emergency declarations,
export restrictions, and trade enhancing
University of Oxford, United
Coronavirus Government
Data on COVID-19 policy responses for more
Response Tracker
than 180 countries, including regional
aggregations and a separate analysis of all 50 U.S.
states. The tracker scores the number and
“stringency” of 19 indicators of government
responses (such as income support to citizens
and containment policies, such as school
closures) and aggregates them into a “Stringency
Index.” See the Centre for Economic Policy
Research’s COVID-19 Economic Stimulus Index
for a different approach to a “stimulus index.”
The Oxford website also features a Lockdown
Rol back Checklist on which countries meet the
World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for
rol ing back lockdowns, as well as a Risk of
Openness Index comparing epidemiological data
by country to the WHO criteria for openness.
University of Oxford, United
A metatracker of COVID policy trackers and
World Bank
The World Bank Group’s
World Bank’s portal to access their reporting on
Response to the COVID-19
COVID-related topics, as well as their COVID-
(coronavirus) Pandemic
19-related data.
World Health Organization
COVID-19 Health System
European countries’ responses to COVID-19
Report Monitor
(primarily health system responses, but also
governance and expenditure responses) in a
single PDF. Users may select up to 10 countries
and up to 4 topics at a time to compare among
Yale Program on Financial Stability
COVID-19 Fiscal Response
Compilation of interventions by central banks,
fiscal authorities, and organizations aimed at
restoring financial stability in 79 countries and
international organizations (such as the World
Bank Group and the Nordic Investment Bank).
The “Fiscal Stimulus” category includes, but does
not disaggregate, direct payments to individuals,
increases in defense spending, and the
construction of new homes.
Source: Table compiled by the Congressional Research Service from individual sources listed.
CRS Reports
For more information on global responses to COVID-19, U.S. foreign assistance for low-income
countries, and global economic effects of the pandemic, among other related topics, see the following
CRS reports:
Global Economic Effects and Monetary Policy

Congressional Research Service
 CRS Insight IN11477, Fiscal and Monetary Policy Initiatives by Major Economies to
Address COVID-19, by James K. Jackson
 CRS Report R46270, Global Economic Effects of COVID-19, coordinated by James K.
Global Human Rights Impact and Foreign Assistance
 CRS Report R46430, Global Democracy and Human Rights Impacts of COVID-19: In
Brief, coordinated by Michael A. Weber
 CRS In Focus IF11496, COVID-19 and Foreign Assistance: Issues for Congress, by Nick
M. Brown, Marian L. Lawson, and Emily M. Morgenstern
Global Implications and Responses
 CRS In Focus IF11575, COVID-19 and Global Food Security: Issues for Congress, by
Alyssa R. Casey and Emily M. Morgenstern
 CRS Report R46319, Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19): Q&A on Global
Implications and Responses, coordinated by Tiaji Salaam-Blyther
 CRS In Focus IF11421, COVID-19: Global Implications and Responses, coordinated by
Sara M. Tharakan

Author Information

Ronda L. Mason


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