May 27, 2015
E.O. 13690 and the Federal Flood Risk Management Standard
President Obama issued Executive Order (E.O.) 13690 on
January 30, 2015, to improve the nation’s resilience to
floods and manage federal disaster recovery costs. It
requires federal agencies to update their procedures and
regulations related to federal investment and other actions
in floodplains. E.O. 13690 amended a 1977 order on
floodplain management, E.O. 11988. The amendments
added a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard
(FFRMS) and new approaches to use in determining the
floodplain for E.O. 11988 compliance. Public comment on
draft implementing guidelines for the amended E.O. 11988
ended May 6, 2015 (see FR Doc. 2015-02284). The Water
Resources Council (WRC) is to issue the final guidelines.
Affected agencies have until June 6, 2015, to develop plans
for updating agency-specific procedures; the agency update
processes are anticipated to provide additional public
comment opportunities. Congress is weighing whether to
influence E.O. 13690 and FFRMS implementation. It can
influence implementation through oversight and
authorization, appropriations, and other legislation.
determined. The order also requires use of natural systems,
ecosystem processes, or nature-based approaches (i.e.,
human designs that mimic natural processes) where
possible during development for alternatives for federal
actions in the floodplain.
E.O. 13690 requires agencies to determine the floodplain
using one of three currently available approaches: freeboard
value, 500-year floodplain, or climate-informed science.
Collectively these approaches are referred to herein as the
“E.O. 13690 floodplain.” The E.O. 13690 floodplain in
most cases will be wider than the BFE floodplain. The
FFRMS provides details regarding how to select and apply
each approach. In the near term, for many federal actions,
the most common approach to determine the E.O. 13690
floodplain may be the freeboard value approach, which is 2
feet above BFE (BFE+2), as illustrated by Figure 1. For
critical actions, the freeboard value approach is BFE+3.
Figure 1. Illustration of E.O. 13690 Floodplain
Determination Using 2 Foot Vertical Increase
E.O. 11988 remains the framework for federal agencies to
avoid or minimize actions in or impacting floodplains. E.O.
11988 defines “action” as any federal activity, including
(1) acquiring, managing, and disposing of Federal
lands, and facilities; (2) providing Federally
undertaken, financed, or assisted construction and
improvements; and (3) conducting Federal
activities and programs affecting land use,
including but not limited to water and related land
resources planning, regulating, and licensing
For E.O. 11988, the floodplain had been defined as the 1%
annual chance floodplain (i.e., 100-year floodplain), which
is known as the base flood elevation (BFE) floodplain.
Implementing guidelines from 1978 had established use of
the 0.2% floodplain for critical actions (i.e., the 500-year
floodplain). A critical action is any activity for which even
a slight chance of flooding would be too great (e.g.,
prisons). Section 3 of E.O. 11988 established specific
requirements for federal real property and facilities. For
new construction or major rehabilitations, agencies were to
(1) use accepted floodproofing and other flood protection
measures for structures and facilities, and, (2) wherever
practicable, elevate structures above the BFE floodplain. A
structure is a walled or roofed building; a facility is a manmade or man-placed item other than a structure.
While E.O. 13690 maintained the federal actions covered
under E.O. 11988, it changed how the floodplain is
Notes: Topography will largely determine the horizontal increase.
E.O. 13690 amends Section 3 of E.O. 11988 to use the E.O.
13690 floodplain for the floodproofing and elevation
requirements for federal real property and facilities. E.O.
13690 and the FFRMS indicate that a similar structural
elevation requirement applies to federally funded actions.
The final guidelines and updates of agency procedures are
anticipated to clarify which new construction and major
rehabilitations of structures are required to have their
elevations in compliance with the FFRMS.
Given the federal action definition, numerous departments,
agencies, programs, and projects that are covered by E.O.
11988 also may be affected by the amendments and
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E.O. 13690 and the Federal Flood Risk Management Standard
requirements in E.O. 13690 and the FFRMS. These include
the activities of the Departments of Agriculture, Defense,
Energy, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban
Development, the Interior, and Transportation; the
Environmental Protection Agency; the General Services
Administration; and NASA. Under E.O. 13690, an agency
or department may “except” (i.e., exempt) particular
activities from the E.O. 13690 floodplain for national
security, emergency actions, and federal facilities for which
it is demonstrably inappropriate. What is known and what
remains uncertain regarding agency-level implementation
of E.O. 13690 and the FFRMS varies depending on the
extent that publicly available documents address various
topics. Table 1 addresses select topics related to the Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (Corps).
Other Implementation and Policy Topics
The Administration conducted listening sessions in March
and April 2015 on FFRMS implementation. Topics that
may be clarified in the final guidelines or in agency
procedures include “grandfathering” of ongoing projects
and implementation oversight. Regarding grandfathering,
many infrastructure projects take years or decades to plan
and construct. For many activities, E.O. 11988 compliance
has been met as part of National Environmental Policy Act
(NEPA) compliance. Regarding oversight, E.O. 11988 has
been policy since 1977, but the extent to which it was
followed in recent decades is unclear. When E.O. 11988
was signed, the Water Resources Council was active in
coordinating and overseeing executive branch water
activities. With the WRC largely inactive since 1983, there
has been limited oversight of E.O. 11988 implementation
beyond floodplain considerations being incorporated within
The Administration’s position is that E.O. 13690 and the
FFRMS are in the interest of national security and
consistent with the Administration’s Climate Action Plan.
The Office of Management and Budget released a statement
on the order’s budget impacts indicating that its
implementation is anticipated to increase federal costs but
that effects on federal obligations and outlays will depend
on appropriations. It cited the order’s benefits as increasing
resilience against flooding and helping to preserve the
natural values of floodplains. No comprehensive benefitcost analyses of E.O. 13690 and the FFRMS (e.g., analysis
that evaluates anticipated effects and their distribution
across stakeholders in the near term and long term) is
required or has been released. Benefit-cost analyses may be
part of the update processes for agency-specific regulations.
Whether the ongoing development process provides
sufficient opportunities to satisfy the requirement in the
Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriation Act of
FY2015 (P.L. 113-235) for input by governors, mayors, and
other stakeholders is a subject of debate.
local freeboard and floodplain requirements. That is, the
structural elevation for FFRMS compliance may be less,
equal, or more than is required locally.
Table 1. Select Questions Raised by E.O. 13690 and
FFRMS for FEMA and Corps
Agency/Department, Program, and Questions
FEMA: Disaster Assistance and Mitigation Programs
How does E.O. 13690 affect FEMA’s emergency response
programs? The E.O. does not apply to emergency work
undertaken with the authority of Stafford Act, Section 403.
How does this affect other Stafford Act sections? FEMA’s
permanent work to repair and restore facilities, Section 406 of
Stafford, is covered by E.O. 13690. This would include any
mitigation activities within a Section 406-funded project. FEMA
regulations do not contemplate rebuilding of any facilities unless
they are more than 50% damaged.
Does the FFRMS apply to FEMA mitigation programs? As with
E.O. 11988, E.O. 13690 covers Section 404, FEMA’s Hazard
Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP); Section 203, the Pre-Disaster
Mitigation Program (PDMP); and the Flood Mitigation Assistance
(FMA) Program, which is a part of the National Flood Insurance
FEMA: National Flood Insurance Program
The NFIP uses the 100-year flood to indicate Special Flood
Hazard Areas (SFHA), as well as a minimum flood level to be
addressed by a community’s floodplain management ordinances.
FEMA stipulates that these ordinances require the first floor of
newly constructed buildings in SFHA to be at least at BFE. E.O.
13690 does not trigger an update of these local ordinances.
According to the Council on Environmental Quality in its fact
sheet, “Taking Action to Protect Communities and Reduce the
Cost of Future Flood Disasters,” E.O. 13690 and the FFRMS are
not anticipated to directly affect NFIP standards or rates. One
question that is anticipated to be addressed in agency-specific
regulations is: could there be indirect NFIP impacts if FEMA
amends FEMA regulations at 44 C.F.R. §9, Floodplain Management
and Protection of Wetlands (which were developed in response
to E.O. 11988) to address E.O. 13690?
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Projects, Repairs and Permits
Because Corps civil works are often in floodplains, several
questions arise. For example, does E.O. 13690 create a minimum
design standard for Corps coastal storm damage reduction
projects? To comply with E.O. 11988, the Corps regulatory
program is to avoid both significant adverse impacts associated
with floodplain occupancy and floodplain development whenever
practicable. Do E.O. 13690 and its floodplain determination for
E.O. 11988 create new requirements for the regulatory program?
Nicole T. Carter, firstname.lastname@example.org, 7-0854
Rawle O. King, email@example.com, 7-5975
Francis X. McCarthy, firstname.lastname@example.org, 7-9533
Numerous states and communities have established
freeboard requirements within their jurisdictions. Therefore,
any structural elevation requirement emanating from the
FFRMS would be part of a preexisting collage of state and
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