Polygraph Testing: Employee and Employer Rights

If- I ief -87 SUMMARY ISSUE DEFINITION BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS Overview of Polygraphs F e d e r a l a n d S t a t e Laws Arbitration H.R. 1212: P r o a n d C o n L E G 1 SLATION CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCUMENTS FOR ADD1 TIONAL READING POLYGRAPH TEST1 NC : EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYER RIGHTS P o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g o f employees h a s e x i s t e d f o r many y e a r s , b u t i n t h e most r e c e n t d e c a d e i t s u s e by e m p l o y e r s h a s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . A c c o r d i n g t o a Nov. 26, 1986 New York Times a r t i c l e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y two m i l l i o n p r i v a t e s e c t o r j o b a p p l i c a n t s and employees underwent p o l y g r a p h t e s t s i n 1 9 8 5 , t h r e e t i m e s t h e number who t o o k t h e t e s t i n 1975. Roughly 75% o f t h o s e t e s t e d were j o b a p p l i c a n t s . The American P o l y g r a p h A s s o c i a t i o n e s t i m a t e s t h a t f u l l y 98% of p o l y g r a p h t e s t s a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y w i t h o n l y 2% o f t h e t o t a l a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e p u b l i c sector. I n a s o c i a l c l i m a t e i n which d r u g u s e h a s become v e r y p r e v a l e n t and many b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e s a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o employee t h e f t , e m p l o y e r s a r g u e t h a t employee t e s t i n g i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n s u r e t h a t e m p l o y e e s a r e h o n e s t and drug f r e e . Employees and u n i o n s , however, have o b j e c t e d v o c i f e r o u s l y t o polygraph t e s t s arguing t h a t : t h e t e s t s a r e a n i n v a s i o n of e m p l o y e e s ' p r i v a c y ; many p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g programs a r e u n f a i r l y and i n c o n s i s t e n t l y applied; and, t h e s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d i t y of t h e polygraph t e s t i s questionable. T h e r e i s a l o t of s k e p t i c i s m i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c community r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l i d i t y of polygraph t e s t s . Although most p o l y g r a p h e x p e r t s a g r e e t h a t polygraph t e s t s a r e a b l e t o measure p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s , t h e y d i s a g r e e on t h e t e s t ' s a b i l i t y t o c o r r e l a t e t h e s e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s w i t h t r u t h and d e c e p t i o n . E s t i m a t e s of t h e t e s t ' s a c c u r a c y i n c o r r e c t l y d e t e c t i n g g u i l t r a n g e from a low of 3 5 X t o a h i g h of 100X. Many e x p e r t s a r g u e t h a t o n e s e r i o u s problem w i t h p o l y g r a p h t e s t s i s t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t e s t d a t a g e n e r a t e s a l a r g e number of " f a l s e p o s i t i v e s " , i . e . , innocent people i n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d a s d e c e i t f u l . However, most a g r e e t h a t t h e polygraph t e s t i s o f t e n a s u c c e s s f u l t o o l i n o b t a i n i n g confessions. I n t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , two b i l l s have been i n t r o d u c e d on p o l y g r a p h H.R. 1212 would p r o h i b i t t h e u s e o f p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g by p r i v a t e tescs. H.R. 1212 i s a r e s p o n s e t o employee c l a i m s t h a t p o l y g r a p h employers. t e s t s v i o l a t e e m p l o y e e s 1 p r i v a c y , and a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e g e n e r a l s k e p t i c i s m i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o r n u n i t y a s t o whether o r n o t polygraphs a r e an A second b i l l , H . R . e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e f o r a s s e s s i n g t r u t h and f a l s e h o o d . 1 5 3 6 , would e s t a b l i s h minimum s t a n d a r d s f o r p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n s , and would p r o h i b i t t h e i r u s e i f t h e s e s t a n d a r d s a r e n o t met. This b i l l i s an attempt to address t h e c o n c e r n s of i n d i v i d u a l s and employer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who r e c o g n i z e t h e need f o r r e g u l a t i o n of p o l y g r a p h s b u t a r g u e t h a t p o l y g r a p h t e s t s s h o u l d n o t be p r o h i b i t e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t t o o l s i n h e l p i n g e m p l o y e r s c o n t r o l t h e g r o w i n g p r o b l e m of d r u g u s e and t h e f t among e m p l o y e e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e S e n a t e Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s Committee h e l d h e a r i n g s on p o l y g r a p h s i n t h e w o r k p l a c e on J u n e 19, 1987. No p o l y g r a p h l e g i s l a t i o n h a s been i n ~ r o d u c e d i n t h e S e n a t e s o f a r t h i s session. ISSUE DEFINITION I n t h e 1 9 8 0 s i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f e m p l o y e r s a r e u s i n g p o l y g r a p h t e s t s t o s c r e e n j o b a p p l i c a n t s and employees f o r i l l e g a l d r u g u s e and t o a v e r t p o t e n t i a l and d e t e r a c t u a l employee t h e £ t . Employees, u n i o n s and c i v i l l i b e r t a r i a n s f e e l t h e s e t e s t s a r e n o t a c c u r a t e m e a s u r e s of t r u t h a n d f a l s e h o o d , and v i o l a t e employees' r i g h t t o p r i v a c y . The i s s u e f o r C o n g r e s s i s w h e t h e r t o p r o h i b i t t h e u s e o f p o l y g r a p h s by e m p l o y e r s , a n d i f s o , whether t h e p r o h i b i t i o n should extend only t o p r i v a t e employers, o r s h o u l d i n c l u d e p u b l i c e m p l o y e r s as w e l l , o r w h e t h e r t o p e r m i t p o l y g r a p h u s a g e u n d e r F e d e r a l s t a n d a r d s and r e g u l a t i o n s . BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS O v e r v i e w of Polygraphs P o l y g r a p h t e s t s h a v e become a w i d e l y u s e d method o f e m p l o y e e s c r e e n i n g i n r e c e n t y e a r s . About h a l f of a l l r e t a i l c o m p a n i e s r e p o r t e d l y use polygraph t e s t s f o r pre-employment s c r e e n i n g o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f employee misconduct. The p r i m a r y r a t i o n a l e p r i v a t e e m p l o y e r s g i v e f o r t e s t i n g i s t o c o n t r o l employee t h e f t . Estimates of the extent of t h e l o s s e s e x p e r i e n c e d by b u s i n e s s e s a s a r e s u l t o f s u c h t h e f t r a n g e f r o m $40 t o $50 b i l l i o n a n n u a l l y . The S m a l l B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n e s t i m a t e s t h a t 5 0 % o f a l l b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e s a r e d u e t o t h e f t ; a n d , 60% o f b u s i n e s s t h e f t i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o employees. T h e t h e o r y b e h i n d p o l y g r a p h t e s t s i s t h a t some p h y s i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s s u c h a s h e a r t r a t e , b r e a t h r a t e , and t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f p e r s p i r a t i o n can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t r u t h f u l n e s s o r d e c e i t . To p e r f o r m t h e t e s t , p n e u m o n i c t u b e s a r e s t r a p p e d a r o u n d t h e s u b j e c t ' s abdomen, a blood p r e s s u r e c u f f i s s t r a p p e d t o t h e s u b j e c t ' s arm, and e l e c t r o d e s a r e a t t a c h e d t o two f i n g e r s . Employees o f t e n v i e w t h e p r o c e s s o f u n d e r g o i n g a polygraph t e s t as q u i t e i n v a s i v e ; and, t h e q u e s t i o n s themselves a r e f r e q u e n t l y p e r c e i v e d t o b e p e r s o n a l and a c c u s a t o r y . The two m o s t w i d e s p r e a d m e t h o d s of p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g f o r employment p u r p o s e s a r e t h e r e l e v a n t - i r r e l e v a n t and t h e c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . The r e l e v a n t - i r r e l e v a n t t e c h n i q u e r e l i e s on t h e assumption t h a t a g u i l t y p e r s o n w i l l h a v e s t r o n g e r p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s when l y i n g i n r e s p o n s e t o a crime-relevant q u e s t i o n t h a n when r e s p o n d i n g t r u t h f u l l y t o a crime-relevant o r a crime-irrelevant question. However, c r i t i c s o f t h i s t e s t n o t e t h a t some p e o p l e may f i n d c r i m e - r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s d i s t r e s s i n g a n d r e a c t more s t r o n g l y t o them t h a n t o i r r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s e v e n i f t h e y a r e i n n o c e n t o f any wrongdoing. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s no s y s t e m a t i c way t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e s u l t s of a r e l e v a n t - i r r e l e v a n t t e s t . This tec.hique i s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n pre-employment s c r e e n i n g . T h e c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n t e c h n i q u e was d e v e l o p e d t o t r y a n d c o r r e c t some of t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e r e l e v a n t - i r r e l e v a n t t e s t . The c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n m e t h o d i s most o f t e n u s e d i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f p o s s i b l e e m p l o y e e w r o n g d o i n g . The c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s a r e v e r y g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s a b o u t c r i m e s s i m i l a r t o t h e one under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . For example, i n a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a t h e f t , a c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n might be: "Did you e v e r t a k e a n y t h i n g t h a t d i d n ' t b e l o n g t o you b e f o r e you were 25?" S i n c e most p e o p l e w i l l f e e l c o m p e l l e d t o s a y t h e y h a v e n ' t even i f t h e y h a v e , c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s generally e l i c i t strong physiological responses. I f the subject reacts more s t r o n g l y t o t h e c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n t h a n t o t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e s p e c i f i c crime under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , h e l s h e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o have answered t h e crime-related questions truthfully. T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s p u t e among e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d r e g a r d i n g t h e a c c u r a c y o f p o l y g r a p h t e s t s , w i t h many e x p e r t s a r g u i n g t h a t t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e t e s t i s u n a c c e p t a b l y low. Estimates of t h e polygraph t e s t ' s a c c u r a c y i n c o r r e c t l y d e t e c t i n g g u i l t r a n g e f r o m a low of 35% t o a A 1983 O f f i c e of Technology Assessment r e p o r t found h i g h o f 1002. m e a n i n g f u l e v i d e n c e of p o l y g r a p h v a l i d i t y t o e x i s t o n l y i n c a s e s where t h e t e s t was u s e d i n c r i m i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . E x p e r t s have a l s o argued t h a t t h e t e s t i s n o t r e a l l y a " l i e d e t e c t o r " ; r a t h e r i t m e a s u r e s p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s t h a t may o c c u r when a person i s l y i n g . However, s t r e s s may a l s o o c c u r when a n i n d i v i d u a l i s nervous o r f e e l s h i s / h e r honesty o r i n t e g r i t y i s being challenged. P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h o s e p e o p l e most c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h l y i n g may be more l i k e l y t o f o o l t h e machine s i n c e t h e y w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y u n d e r g o s t r e s s i f t h e y do l i e . I n a Bureau o f N a t i o n a l A f f a i r s r e p o r t on p o l y g r a p h s o n e e x p e r t s t a t e d : "The p o l y g r a p h c a n n o t d i s t i n g u i s h r e a l from i r r a t i o n a l g u i l t , n o r I think the g u i l t f r o m f e a r , n o r f e a r from r i g h t e o u s i n d i g n a t i o n p o l y g r a p h t e s t v i c t i m i z e s i n n o c e n t p e o p l e who a r e u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d b u t t h a t i t e r r s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f p a s s i n g l i a r s who know how t o b e a t i t . " .... F e d e r a l and S t a t e Laws L e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would p r o h i b i t t h e u s e of p o l y g r a p h s by p r i v a t e e m p l o y e r s h a s been i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s . According t o William H a r t s f i e l d , i n a November 1985 Labor Law J o u r n a l a r t i c l e , f o r t y - o n e S t a t e s have l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g polygraphs. Eleven S t a t e s p r o h i b i t polygraph t e s t i n g , twenty-one S t a t e s r e q u i r e t h a t t h e p o l y g r a p h t e s t b e v o l u n t a r y , and n i n e r e q u i r e t h e p o l y g r a p h e r t o be l i c e n s e d . G e n e r a l l y , p u b l i c employees a r e e x c l u d e d from p r o t e c t i o n u n d e r t h e s e laws. The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s e x c l u s i o n i s a s f o l l o w s : s i n c e some p u b l i c e m p l o y e e s h a v e a c c e s s t o c o n f i d e n t i a l Government d o c u m e n t s , p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o c a t e employees who may h a v e compromised t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , and t o d i s c o u r a g e o t h e r employees from d o i n g s o . The p o l y g r a p h i s widely used i n t h e m i l i t a r y a s a screening device. I n 1983, t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f D e f e n s e c o n d u c t e d 10,502 p o l y g r a p h t e s t s . Additionally, b o t h t h e C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency and t h e N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y Agency r e q u i r e j o b a p p l i c a n t s t o s u b m i t t o a pre-employment p o l y g r a p h t e s t . The U.S. P o s t a l S e r v i c e a l s o makes f r e q u e n t u s e of t h e p o l y g r a p h , b u t o n l y f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f a l l e g e d employee m i s c o n d u c t . A l t h o u g h some c o u r t s have a l l o b e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p o l y g r a p h e v i d e n c e , most h a v e r e j e c t e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of s u c h e v i d e n c e on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t d o e s n o t meet t h e F r y e v . U J , 293 F. 1 0 1 3 ( 1 9 2 3 ) s t a n d a r d r e q u i r i n g t h a t a t e s t be g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d by t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o r m u n i t y b e f o r e r e s u l t s f r o m s u c h a t e s t may b e a d m i t t e d a s e v i d e n c e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e t e s t h a s been held t o unduly i n f l u e n c e j u r i e s . P u b l i c e m p l o y e e s f o r c e d t o u n d e r g o p o l y g r a p h t e s t s may h a v e r e c o u r s e t o certain constitutional protections. Since these protections cover only g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i o n s , i n most c a s e s t h e y are n o t r e l e v a n t f o r p r i v a t e employees. T h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l L i b e r t i e s Union h a s a r g u e d t h a t t h e p o l y g r a p h t e s t v i o l a t e s t h e F o u r t h Amendment U.S. c o n s t i t u t i o n a l g u a r a n t e e o f f r e e d o m f r o m u n r e a s o n a b l e s e a r c h e s , t h e F i f t h Amendment p r o t e c t i o n against self-incrimination, and, d e p r i v e s t h e a c c u s e d of t h e i r r i g h t s u n d e r t h e S i x t h Amendment t o c o n f r o n t a n d c r o s s e x a m i n e t h e i r a c c u s e r s . E m p l o y e e s a l s o h a v e c e r t a i n r i g h t s u n d e r c o m o n l a w . An e m p l o y e e may a r g u e f o r example, t h a t h i s f i r i n g v i o l a t e d one of t h e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e This doctrine allows comnon l a w d o c t r i n e c a l l e d "employment a t w i l l . " e m p l o y e r s t o f i r e e m p l o y e e s f o r a n y r e a s o n . One o f t h e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s d o c t r i n e i s f o r discharges t h a t v i o l a t e "public policy." A t l e a s t two S t a t e c o u r t s have r u l e d t h a t polygraph t e s t i n g does v i o l a t e s p u b l i c policy. A d d i t i o n a l l y , an employee c o u l d b r i n g a d e f a m a t i o n s u i t a g a i n s t a n e m p l o y e r i f h e c o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e h i s i n n o c e n c e a n d show t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r made p u b l i c t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p o l y g r a p h t e s t . Arbitration A r b i t r a t o r s g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w t h e c o u r t s i n t h e a r e a of p o l y g r a p h a d m i s s i b i l i t y , and e x c l u d e polygraph t e s t s a s evidence. However, some a r b i t r a t o r s a d m i t t h e t e s t a s e v i d e n c e i f i t was s u b m i t t e d t o v o l u n t a r i l y , a n d i s o n l y b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d a s c o r r o b o r a t i n g evidence. Arbitrators h a v e g e n e r a l l y n o t a l l o w e d e m p l o y e e s who r e f u s e t o t a k e a p o l y g r a p h exam t o b e penalized. T h u s , m o s t a r b i t r a t o r s would n o t u p h o l d a d i s c h a r g e b a s e d on However, some a n e m p l o y e e ' s r e f u s a l t o s u b m i t t o s u c h a n exam. a r b i t r a t o r s h a v e a c c e p t e d a s v a l i d , pre-employment w a i v e r s , i n w h i c h j o b a p p l i c a n t s a g r e e t o submit t o polygraph t e s t s . Thus, i f a n employee h a s s i g n e d s u c h a w a i v e r , t h e a r b i t r a t o r may p e r m i t t h e e m p l o y e r u s e o f polygraph tests. S e e Britt L i d d i c o a t , P o l y g r a p h T e s t i n g of Employees i n P r i v a t e I n d u s t r y , CRS R e p o r t 85-929, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of relevant a r b i t r a t i o n awards. B.R. 1212: P r o a n d Con H.R. 1 2 1 2 would p r o h i b i t t h e u s e of l i e d e t e c t o r t e s t s ( i n c l u d i n g p o l y g r a p h s , t h e v o i c e s t r e s s a n a l y z e r , and o t h e r s i m i l a r d e v i c e s ) by p r i v a t e employers involved i n c o m e r c e o r t h e production of goods f o r comerce. F e d e r a l , S t a t e and l o c a l governments and c e r t a i n employees and c o n t r a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n work r e l a t e d t o n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e provisions of t h e b i l l . (1) polygraphs Proponents of p r o h i b i t i n g polygraphs argue t h a t : v i o l a t e employee p r i v a c y ; ( 2 ) polygraphs a r e n o t a c c u r a t e methods o f d e t e r m i n i n g g u i l t o r i n n o c e n c e ; ( 3 ) n o s t u d i e s h a v e shown t h a t b u s i n e s s l o s s e s a r e g r e a t e r i n S t a t e s which do n o t a l l o w p o l y g r a p h s ; and, ( 4 ) t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g p o l y g r a p h d a t a may l e a d t o a n u n a c c e p t a b l e number o f deceitful. "fa1 s e positives ," -- i.e. finding innocent people to be T h i s problem of f a l s e p o s i t i v e s was examined by Edward K a t k i n o f t h e American Psychological A s s o c i a t i o n i n w r i t t e n testimony o f f e r e d a t 1212. K a t k i n s e t up a h y p o t h e t i c a l employment t e s t i n g h e a r i n g s on H.R. s i t u a t i o n i n which 1000 employees a r e t e s t e d . He assumed an 85% a c c u r a c y r a t e f o r t h e t e s t , i n d assumed t h a t 10% of t h e employees b e i n g t e s t e d were dishonest. T h e r e f o r e , he a r g u e d , a l t h o u g h t h e t e s t would a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y 85 of t h e d i s h o n e s t employees, i t would a l s o i d e n t i f y 135 ( 1 5 % ) of t h e h o n e s t employees a s d i s h o n e s t . Thus h e n o t e d , 220 s u s p e c t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d , of whom 61% a r e i n n o c e n t . However, h e a d d e d , i f t h e a c c u r a c y r a t e o f t h e t e s t were l o w e r o r t h e h o n e s t y r a t e h i g h e r , e v e n more employees would be f a l s e l y a c c u s e d . C o n v e r s e l y i f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f h o n e s t p e o p l e i n t h e t e s t e d p o p u l a t i o n were s m a l l you would g e t a s i g n i f i c a n t p e o p l e who a r e d i s h o n e s t p a s s i n g t h e number o f f a l s e n e g a t i v e s , i . e . , test. Opponents o f p r o h i b i t i n g p o l y g r a p h s a r g u e t h a t : ( 1 ) employee t h e f t and i l l e g a l d r u g u s e h a v e become s u c h s e r i o u s problems t h a t p o l y g r a p h s c r e e n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y f o r e m p l o y e r s t o o b t a i n a t r u s t w o r t h y and productive workforce; ( 2 ) many employees g u i l t y o f wrongdoing c o n f e s s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a p o l y g r a p h t e s t , making i t a v e r y e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i n g d e v i c e ; ( 3 ) s i n c e polygraph t e s t s a r e g e n e r a l l y only used a s c o r r o b o r a t i n g e v i d e n c e o f g u i l t , employees a r e u n l i k e l y t o b e wrongly a c c u s e d ; a n d , ( 4 ) i f p o l y g r a p h t e s t s a r e n o t a c c u r a t e measures of g u i l t o r i n n o c e n c e , t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o p r o h i b i t t h e government from u s i n g p o l y g r a p h s t o s c r e e n employees and j o b a p p l i c a n t s . LEGISLATION 99th Congress 1524 ( W i l l i a m s e t a l . ) P o l y g r a p h P r o t e c t i o n Act of 1985. t o C o m n i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n and Labor. 1 2 , 1986. R e c e i v e d i n t h e S e n a t e Mar. Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s . H.R. I n t r o d u c e d Mar. 7 , 1985; r e f e r r e d P a s s e d House w i t h amendments Mar. 1 3 , 1986; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on S. 1815 (Hatch et al.) P o l y g r a p h P r o t e c t i o n Act of 1985. I n t r o d u c e d O c t . 3 1 , 1985; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on Labor and Human Resources. H e a r i n g s h e l d A p r i l 2 3 , and markup May 2 0 , 1986. Ordered r e p o r t e d w i t h o u t amendment J u n e 2 5 , 1986. R e p o r t e d t o S e n a t e and p l a c e d on S e n a t e L e g i s l a t i v e C a l e n d a r S e p t . 1 7 , 1986. 100th Congress H.R. 1212 ( W i l l i a m s et al.) Employee P o l y g r a p h P r o t e c t i o n Act. Introduced Feb. 24, 1987; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n and Labor. H e a r i n g s h e l d by t h e Subcommittee on Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s Mar. 5 , 1987. E x e c u t i v e comment was r e q u e s t e d from t h e Department o f Labor Mar. 2 3 , 1987. Comnittee c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d markup s e s s i o n h e l d J u n e 1 0 , 1987. Amended v e r s i o n o f H.R. 1212 o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d J u n e 10, 1987. R e p o r t e d , amended, J u l y 9 , 1987. H . R . 1536 (Young et al.) P o l y g r a p h Reform Act of 1987. C o m n i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n a n d L a b o r . 1987. I n t r o d u c e d Mar. 1 0 , 1 9 8 7 ; r e f e r r e d t o R e f e r r e d t o s u b c o m n i t t e e s Mar. 3 0 , CONGBESSIONAL tIEABINGS, REPORTS AND DOCUHENTS U.S. Congress. House. Committee on E d u c a t i o n a n d L a b o r . Subcommittee o n Employment O p p o r t u n i t i e s . Polygraphs i n t h e workplace: The u s e Hearings, 99th Congress, o f " l i e d e t e c t o r s " i n h i r i n g and f i r i n g . 1st s e s s i o n . J u l y 30 a n d S e p t . 1 8 , 1985. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 362 p . U.S. Congress. Senate. C o m n i t t e e on L a b o r a n d Human R e s o u r c e s . P o l y g r a p h P r o t e c t i o n Act of 1985. H e a r i n g , 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d session. Apr. 23, 1986. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 524 p. FOR ADDITIONAL BEADING U.S. L i b r a r y of Congress. Congressional An e x a m i n a t i o n other stress tests: g e n e r a l and l e g a l a c c e p t a n c e , by S e p t . 2 7 , 1 9 7 8 . [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1978. CRS R e p o r t 78-194 A Research S e r v i c e . P o l y g r a p h and o f developments b e a r i n g on t h e i r J e r e m y H u t t o n a n d Murl L a r k i n . 20 p. ----- P o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g of e m p l o y e e s i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , L i d d i c o a t . Aug. 7 , 1985. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1985. 19 p. CRS R e p o r t 85-929 A U,S. O f f i c e o f T e c h n o l o g y A s s e s s m e n t . S c i e n t i f i c v a l i d i t y of p o l y g r a p h A T e c h n i c a l Memorandum. t e s t i n g : A r e s e a r c h review and e v a l u a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , November 1983. by Britt