Civil Rights Legislation: Responses to Grove City College v. Bell

This report discusses how broad should the coverage of Federal civil rights laws be? This was the central issue in the debate over legislation introduced in response to the February 1984 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Grove City College v. Bell.

SUMMARY ISSUE DEFINITION BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS Grove C i t y C o l l e g e D e c i s i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e 100th Congress S h o u l d C o v e r a g e Be Broad o r Narrow? Should Coverage Occur Through A s s i s t a n c e t o I n d i v i d u a l s ? S h o u l d L e g i s l a t i o n Change o r L i m i t P r o v i s i o n s a b o u t A b o r t i o n ? D a n f o r t h a n d W e i c k e r Amendments LEG1 SLATION CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCUMENTS CHRONOLOGY CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION: RESPONSES TO GROVE CITY COLLEGE V. BELL How b r o a d s h o u l d t h e c o v e r a g e o f F e d e r a l c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s b e ? T h i s was t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e i n t h e d e b a t e o v e r l e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e F e b r u a r y 1984 U.S. Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n i n Grove C i t y C o l l e g e v. I n t h a t c a s e , t h e Court r u l e d t h a t t h e p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t s e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n T i t l e IX of t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments o f 1972 c o v e r s o n l y t h e p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n "program o r a c t i v i t y " r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , n o t i n s t i t u t i o n s a s a whole, The C o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n a l s o a f f e c t e d t h r e e o t h e r c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s w i t h "program o r a c t i v i t y " l a n g u a g e : T i t l e V I o f t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Act o f 1 9 6 4 , S e c t i o n 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act of 1973, and t h e Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act ( p r o h i b i t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o n t h e b a s i s of r a c e , h a n d i c a p , a n d a g e , respectively). m. The tlouse and S e n a t e b o t h p a s s e d a n amended v e r s i o n o f S. 5 5 7 , t h e " C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act of 1987," which would e n s u r e a b r o a d d e f i n i t i o n o f "program o r a c t i v i t y " f o r T i t l e I X and t h e o t h e r t h r e e c i v i l r i g h t s laws. P r e s i d e n t Reagan v e t o e d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n and u r g e d a d o p t i o n o f a s u b s t i t u t e m e a s u r e , t h e " C i v i l R i g h t s P r o t e c t i o n Act of 1988," u n d e r w h i c h c o v e r a g e would be l e s s e x t e n s i v e . However, b o t h t h e S e n a t e a n d House v o t e d t o o v e r r i d e t h e v e t o on Mar. 2 2 , 1 9 8 8 , t h u s e n a c t i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o law (P.L. 100-259). P r o p o n e n t s of S . 557 a r g u e d t h a t a b r o a d s c o p e o f c o v e r a g e i s e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e c i v i l r i g h t s Laws. They c i t e d e x a m p l e s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n f e d e r a l l y f u n d e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g e n c i e s t h a t c a n n o t be a d d r e s s e d b e c a u s e of t h e Supreme C o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n . The n a r r o w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c o v e r a g e , t h e y b e l i e v e d , c a u s e d u n c e r t a i n t y and d e l a y a n d i g n o r e d t h e u a y t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s a s a whole b e n e f i t f r o m F e d e r a l funding. O p p o n e n t s of S. 557 a r g u e d t h a t b r o a d c o v e r a g e would make c i v i l r i g h t s requirements disproportional to the b e n e t i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s receive from F e d e r a l a i d . Broad c o v e r a g e , t h e y c o n t e n d e d , would e n a b l e t h e Government t o u s e a s m a l l g r a n t t o o n e s c h o o l program a s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r extending Federal r e g u l a t i o n s t o everything e l s e t h e school does. They a l s o a r g u e d t h a t F e d e r a l f u n d s r a r e l y a r e g i v e n f o r u n r e s t r i c t e d u s e by i n s t i t u t i o n s a s a whole; i n s t e a d , t h e y g e n e r a l l y a r e g i v e n j u s t f o r p a r t i c u l a r purposes t h a t can be s e p a r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d . One key i s s u e d u r i n g t h e d e b a t e on o v e r r i d i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s v e t o was t h e e x t e n t t o which c o v e r a g e would e x t e n d t o c h u r c h e s a n d o t h e r r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A n o t h e r i s s u e c o n c e r n e d t h e employment o f p e o p l e w i t h c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e o r i n f e c t i o n . O t h e r i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s were w h e t h e r coverage should occur through a s s i s t a n c e extended t o i n d i v i d u a l s ( f o r e x a m p l e , s h o u l d s c h o o l s be c o v e r e d i f t h e i r s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e a i d ) a n d whether t h e T i t l e I X r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o a b o r t i o n should be changed o r limited. ISSUE DEFINITION How b r o a d s h o u l d t h e c o v e r a g e o f F e d e r a l c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s b e ? T h i s was t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e i n t h e d e b a t e o v e r l e g i s l a t i o n C o n g r e s s p a s s e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e F e b r u a r y 1984 U . S . Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n i n G r o v e C i t y In t h a t c a s e , t h e Court r u l e d t h a t t h e p r o h i b i t i o n C o l l e g e v. a g a i n s t s e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n T i t l e IX o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments o f 1972 c o v e r s on1 y t h e p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n "program o r a c t i v i t y " r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , n o t i n s t i t u t i o n s a s a whole. Also a f f e c t e d were t h r e e c i v i l r i g h t s laws p r o h i b i t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n due t o r a c e , h a n d i c a p , and age. u. The l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d by C o n g r e s s , t h e " C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act o f 1987" would e n s u r e b r o a d c o v e r a g e f o r T i t l e I X a n d t h e o t h e r t h r e e c i v i l r i g h t s laws. P r e s i d e n t Reagan v e t o e d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o n Mar. 1 6 , 1 9 8 8 , b u t t h e S e n a t e and House b o t h v o t e d t o o v e r r i d e t h e v e t o o n Mar. 2 2 , The P r e s i d e n t had 1 9 8 8 , t h u s e n a c t i n g t h e b i l l i n t o law ( P . L . 100-2591. p r o p o s e d a l t e r n a t i v e L e g i s l a t i o n , t h e " ~ i v i l R i g h t s P r o t e c t i o n Act o f 1988," u n d e r which t h e r e would b e l e s s e x t e n s i v e c o v e r a g e o f t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws f o r e n t i t i e s r e c e i v i n g Federal f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . One k e y i s s u e d u r i n g t h e v e t o o v e r r i d e d e b a t e was t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c o v e r a g e would e x t e n d t o c h u r c h e s and o t h e r r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A n o t h e r i s s u e c o n c e r n e d t h e employment o f p e o p l e w i t h c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e o r i n f e c t i o n . O t h e r i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s were w h e t h e r c o v e r a g e s h o u l d o c c u r t h r o u g h a s s i s t a n c e e x t e n d e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s ( f o r e x a m p l e , s h o u l d s c h o o l s be covered i f t h e i r s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e a i d ) and w h e t h e r t h e T i t l e I X r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o a b o r t i o n s h o u l d be changed o r l i m i t e d . BACKGROUND AHD ANALYSIS The Grove C i t y C o l l e g e D e c i s i o n The t i r s t s e c t i o n o f begins a s follows: T i t l e I X of t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments o f 1972 No p e r s o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s h a i l , on t h e b a s i s o f s e x , b e e x c l u d e d from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n , b e d e n i e d t h e b e n e f i t s o f , o r b e s u b j e c t e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n under any e d u c a t i o n program o r a c t i v i t y receiving Federal financial assistance....(Section 901) 'The s t a t u t e r e f e r s t o t h e "program o r a c t i v i t y 1 ' r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e , n o t t o i n s t i t u t i o n s a s a whole. N o n e t h e l e s s , a s t h e Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , a n d W e l f a r e and l a t e r t h e Department O F E d u c a t i o n i n p r a c t i c e i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s phrase, g e n e r a l l y a l l p a r t s of an i n s t i t u t i o n o r agency w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e c o v e r e d by t h e p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i f any p a r t r e c e i v e d Federal funds. (Among t h e p a r t s n o t c o v e r e d were p r o g r a m s ~r a c t i v i t i e s e x p r e s s l y d e l s t e d by t h e s t a t u t e , s u c h a s undergraduate a d m i s s i o n s i n p r i v a t e c o l l e g e s , o r by t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , s u c h as t e x t b o o k s ) . One r a t i o n a l e g i v e n f o r t h i s b r o a d d e f i n i t i o n o f c o v e r a g e was t h a t p a r r s o f s c h o o l s n o t r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l f u n d i n g d i r e c t l y may s t i l l be i n t e g r a l t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . O r i g i n a l l y t h e Department of J u s t i c e c o n c u r r e d i n t h i s b r o a d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 1' p r o g r a m o r a c t i v i t y . " However, i n August o f 1 9 8 3 , a f t e r r a i s i n g the i s s u e i n s e v e r a l o t h e r c a s e s , i t f i l e d a b r i e f w i t h t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t i n t h e c a s e of Grove C i t y C o l l e g e v. B s a r g u i n g t h a t T i t l e IX c o v e r a g e g e n e r a l l y s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m o r a c t i v i t y t h a t r e c e i v e s a s s i s t a n c e . On Feb. 28, 1 9 8 4 , t h e Supreme C o u r t r u l e d t h a t a r e s t r i c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o r r e c t and t h a t a l l o f Grove C i t y C o l l e g e d i d n o t come u n d e r T i t l e I X j u s t b e c a u s e i t r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e from B a s i c E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y G r a n t s ( c a l l e d P e l 1 G r a n t s b e g i n n i n g i n 1981). I n s t e a d , t h e Court h e l d t h a t T i t l e IX's p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o v e r e d o n l y t h e C o l l e g e ' s s t u d e n t a i d program. The Grove C i t y C o l l e g e c a s e o r i g i n a t e d i n 1977 when t h e D e p a r t m e n t of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e (HEW) began p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t t h e C o l l e g e b e c a u s e i t had n o t e x e c u t e d an " a s s u r a n c e o f c o m p l i a n c e " f o r m a s r e q u i r e d by T i t l e IX r e g u l a t i o n s . By t h i s f o r m , t h e C o l l e g e had t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t a p p l i c a b l e p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s would be o p e r a t e d i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d t h a t r e m e d i a l a c t i o n would be u n d e r t a k e n i f needed t o e l i m i n a t e e x i s t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o r t h e e f f e c t s o f p a s t discrimination. A f t e r a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l a w j u d g e u p h e l d HEW a n d t e r m i n a t e d F e d e r a l s t u d e n t a i d , t h e C o l l e g e f i l e d s u i t on a number, o f grounds t o n u l l i f y t h e order. The d i s t r i c t c o u r t r u l e d in- f a v o r o f t h e C o l l e g e on some i s s u e s and i n f a v o r of t h e Government on o t h e r s . When t h e Supreme C o u r t c o n s i d e r e d t h e c a s e , i t d e c i d e d , a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t h a t At t h e p h r a s e "program o r a c t i v i t y ' ' s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d b r o a d l y . t h e same time, t h e C o u r t r e j e c t e d t h e other a r g u m e n t s p u t f o r t h by t h e C o l l e g e t h a t would h a v e f u r t h e r l e s s e n e d T i t l e IX c o v e r a g e o r r e s t r i c t e d i t s enforcement: -- -- -- t h e C o u r t r u l e d t h a t t h e C o l l e g e was a " r e c i p i e n t " o f F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r purposes of T i t l e I X even t h o u g h t h a t a s s i s t a n c e was r e c e i v e d o n l y i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h Federal grants t o students. ( S e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s i s s u e below. ) t h e C o u r t h e l d t h a t F e d e r a l a i d c o u l d be t e r m i n a t e d j u s t f o r f a i l u r e of t h e C o l l e g e t o s i g n a n a s s u r a n c e o f c o m p l i a n c e form ( i f i t w e r e l i m i t e d co programs r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ) , e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e had n o t been a f i n d i n g o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . t h e C o u r t a l s o h e l d t h a t r e q u i r i n g t h e C o l l e g e t o comply w i t h T i t l e IX i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e F e d e r a l s t u d e n t g r a n t s d i d n o t i n f r i n g e f i r s t amendment r i g h t s o f e i t h e r t h e College o r its students. The D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e s u c c e s s f u l l y a r g u e d a g a i n s t t h e C o l l e g e on e a c h of t h e s e matters. Grove C i t y C o l l e g e d e a l t o n l y w i t h T i t l e I X . However, i t was g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a b o u t s c o p e o f c o v e r a g e a p p l i e d as w e l l t o t h r e e o t h e r c i v i l r i g h t s s t a t u t e s t h a t a l s o h a v e "program o r a c t i v i t y " l a n g u a g e : T i t l e VI of t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Act o f 1 9 6 4 , S e c t i o n 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act o f 1 9 7 3 , and t h e Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act of 1975. W h i l e T i t l e IX p r o h i b i t s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f s e x i n most e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , t h e o t h e r t h r e e laws p r o h i b i t c e r t a i n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n a x p r o g r a m o r a c t i v i t y receiving such a s s i s t a n c e : T i t l e V I of t h e C i v i l R i g h t s A c t , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s of r a c e , c o l o r , o r n a t i o n a l o r i g i n ; S e c t i o n 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f h a n d i c a p p i n g c o n d i t i o n ; and t h e Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A c t , c e r t a i n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s of age. T h e s e f o u r laws a r e i m p o r t a n t p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e U.S. Code p r o t e c t i n g t h e c i v i l r i g h t s of women and g i r l s , r a c i a l and e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n s , and o l d e r Americans. F e d e r a 1 d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s p r o v i d i n g g r a n t s , l o a n s , or c o n t r a c t s ( o t h e r t h a n c o n t r a c t s of i n s u r a n c e o r g u a r a n t y ) t o r e l e v a n t programs a r e r e q u i r e d t o i s s u e r u l e s f o r e n f o r c i n g t h e c i v i l r i g h t s a c t s . To a c h i e v e c o m p l i a n c e , t h e y may t e r m i n a t e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o r u s e o t h e r means a u t h o r i z e d by law. ( A l t h o u g h s u c h o t h e r means a r e n o t s p e c i f i e d i n t h e c i v i l r i g h t s s t a t u t e s , they could i n c l u d e law s u i t s However, t e r m i n a t i o n of b r o u g h t by t h e Government o r p r i v a t e p a r t i e s . ) In Title IX, for f u n d i n g may o n l y b e what i s c a l l e d " p i n p o i n t e d . " example, t e r m i n a t i o n ... s h a l l be l i m i t e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y , o r p a r t t h e r e o f , o r o t h e r r e c i p i e n t a s t o whom s u c h a f i n d i n g h a s b e e n made, and s h a l l be l i m i t e d i n i t s e f f e c t t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m , o r p a r t t h e r e o f , i n which s u c h n o n c o m p l i a n c e h a s b e e n s o found... S i n c e t h i s language e x p l i c i t l y l i m i t s t h e scope of fund t e r m i n a t i o n s t o p a r t i c u l a r programs o r p a r t s of p r o g r a m s , i t g e n e r a l l y was a r g u e d t h a t i t , u n l i k e t h e l a n g u a g e d e f i n i n g s c o p e of c o v e r a g e , was n o t a f f e c t e d by Grove C i t y C o l l e g e . By I1p i n p o i n t i n g , " t h e t e r m i n a t i o n l a n g u a g e h a s always implied narrowness r a t h e r than breadth. Nonetheless, questions sometimes were r a i s e d about whether proposed l e g i s l a t i o n might a l s o a l t e r t h e s c o p e of t e r m i n a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s . L e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e 100th Congress S e v e r a l b i l l s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s t o o v e r t u r n t h e Supreme c o u r t ' s n a r r o w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n oE "program o r a c t i v i t y 1 ' i n Grove City College. The p r i n c i p a l b i l l , S. 557 ( K e n n e d y ) , t h e " c i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act o f 1987," would e n s u r e a broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h a t p h r a s e w i t h r e s p e c t t o any r e l e v a n t r e c i p i e n t of F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e n o t o n l y f o r T i t l e I X o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments of 1972 b u t a l s o f o r T i t l e V I of t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Act of 1964, S e c t i o n 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act of 1973, and t h e Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A c t . An amended v e r s i o n o f S. 557 was p a s s e d by t h e S e n a t e on J a n . 2 8 , 1 9 8 8 , and by t h e House w i t h o u t f u r t h e r amendment on Mar. 2 , 1988. P r e s i d e n t Reagan v e t o e d S. 557 o n Mar. 1 6 , 1 9 8 8 , b u t b o t h t h e House and S e n a t e v o t e d t o o v e r r i d e H.R. on Mar. 2 2 , 1 9 8 8 , e n a c t i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o law (P.L. 100-259). 1214 ( ~ a w k i n s ) was i d e n t i c a l t o S. 557 a s t h e l a t t e r was i n t r o d u c e d . P r i o r t o t h e p a s s a g e o f S. 557, t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u p p o r t e d e n a c t m e n t of H.R. 1 8 8 1 ( S e n s e n b r e n n e r ) , which a p p l i e d o n l y t o e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Upon v e t o i n g S . 5 5 7 , P r e s i d e n t Reagan urged t h e a d o p t i o n of a s u b s t i t u t e m e a s u r e , " T h e . C i v i 1 R i g h t s P r o t e c t i o n Act o f 1988" w h i c h was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House as H.R. 4203 ( S e n s e n b r e n n e r ) and i n t h e S e n a t e as S. 2184 (Hatch).) F o r s u m n a r i e s o f S. 5 5 7 and H . R . 4 2 0 3 / S . 2184, see L e g i s l a t i o n s e c t i o n , below. S u p p o r t e r s o f S. 5 5 7 a r g u e d t h a t i t would r e s t o r e t h e b r o a d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f "program o r a c t i v i t y " t h a t was a p p l i e d t o t h e c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s b e f o r e Grove C i t y C o l l e g e . However, t h e r e was some q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e p r o p o s e d l e g i s l a t i v e l a n g u a g e would s i m p l y r e t u r n t h e s c o p e o f c o v e r a g e t o what i t was b e f o r e t h e C o u r t d e c i s i o n o r w h e t h e r c o v e r a g e would b e e x p a n d e d . A s t h e w o r d i n g o f S. 557 r e f l e c t e d d e b a t e s i n p r e v i o u s C o n g r e s s e s a b o u t e x p a n s i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e v i e w what o c c u r r e d on t h i s issue. I n t h e 9 8 t h Congress, t h e p r i n c i p a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o e n s u r e broad c o v e r a g e (H.R. 5 4 9 0 1 s . 2 4 6 8 ) would h a v e d e l e t e d t h e p h r a s e " p r o g r a m o r a c t i v i t y ' ' i n t h e f o u r c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s and r e p l a c e d i t w i t h t h e t e r m It r e c i p i e n t , " w h i c h i n t u r n was d e f i n e d s i m i l a r l y , t h o u g h n o t i d e n t i c a l l y , O p p o n e n t s o f H.R. t o t h e way i t was d e f i n e d i n t h e l a w s ' r e g u l a t i o n s . 5 4 9 0 / ~ . 2468 a r g u e d t h a t p a r t s o f t h e p r o p o s e d s t a t u t o r y d e f i n i t i o n o f r e c i p i e n t were s o ambiguous t h a t t h e y would h a v e g r e a t l y e x p a n d e d c o v e r a g e f r o m what i t had been b e f o r e t h e Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n . In t h e i r v i e w , c o v e r a g e would h a v e " t r i c k l e d down" t o a l l s u b u n i t s w i t h i n a n e n t i t y t h a t received Federal a s s i s t a n c e ( t o a l l municipalities within an a i d e d c o u n t y , f o r e x a m p l e ) , " t r i c k l e d up" t o a n e n t i t y o n e o f whose s u b u n i t s r e c e i v e d a i d , a n d e v e n " t r i c k l e d around" t o a l l p a r t s o f S t a t e o r l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t when o n l y o n e S t a t e o r l o c a l a g e n c y i s a s s i s t e d . P r o p o n e n t s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f r e c i p i e n t would n o t be a m b i g u o u s upon a p p l i c a t i o n , j u s t a s t h e r e g u l a t o r y l a n g u a g e h a d n o t b e e n , a n d t h a t l e g i s l a t i v e h i s t o r y would c l e a r l y show t h a t t h e i n t e n t i o n o f C o n g r e s s was t o r e s t o r e , n o t e x p a n d , c o v e r a g e , H.R. 5490 p a s s e d t h e House i n J u n e 1984. ( S e e C h r o n o l o g y s e c t i o n , below.) I n t h e c l o s i n g d a y s o f t h e 9 8 t h C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e s u p p o r t e r s o f S. 2 4 6 8 a t t e m p t e d t o r e s o l v e t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r c o v e r a g e by new l e g i s l a t i v e l a n g u a g e i n c l u d e d i n a n amendment t o a r e s o l u t i o n f o r cont inuing a p p r o p r i a t i o n s . Among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e amendment h a d a I1 g r a n d f a t h e r " c l a u s e p r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e t e r m " r e c i p i e n t " would i n c l u d e a n e n t i t y t h a t would h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d s u c h u n d e r a g e n c y r e g u l a t i o n s o n e d a y p r i o r t o t h e Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n i n Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , b u t would e x c l u d e a n e n t i t y t h a t would n o t have been s o c o n s i d e r e d on t h a t d a y . A f t e r f l o o r d e b a t e , t h e p r o p o s e d amendment was t a b l e d . (See Chronology s e c t i o n , below.) I n t h e 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , t h e p r i n c i p a l Grove C i t y C o l l e g e l e g i s l a t i o n 7 0 0 / S . 4 3 1 ) a t t e m p t e d t o a v o i d c r i t i c i s m t h a t c o v e r a g e would expand beyond what i t had p r e v i o u s l y been by d e f i n i n g t h e p h r a s e "program o r a c t i v i t y " t o mean " a l l t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f " e n t i t i e s ( s u c h a s S t a t e a g e n c i e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , e t c . ) a n y p a r t o f which r e c e i v e s F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l assistance. " R e c i p i e n t s " was n o t m e n t i o n e d . Nonetheless, d e b a t e over Before t h e c o v e r a g e w a s r e k i n d l e d when t h e l e g i s l a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d . House C o m n i t t e e o n E d u c a t i o n and Labor and t h e House C o m n i t t e e on t h e J u d i c i a r y r e p o r t e d H.R. 700, t h e y b o t h a d o p t e d t h e same s u b s t i t u t e v e r s i o n t h a t t r i e d t o c l a r i f y t h e i s s u e of c o v e r a g e : (H .R. t h e y d e l e t e d a p r o v i s i o n , c r i t i c i z e d a s open-ended, t h a t would h a v e p r o v i d e d c o v e r a g e f o r a l l t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f "any o t h e r e n t i t y " i n a manner l i k e t h o s e t h a t h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n named in the b i l l (State agencies, universities, etc.) t h e y added a p r o v i s i o n exempting " u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s " who had been e x c l u d e d b e f o r e Grove C i t y C o l l e g e . (One example o f a n u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r y i s an i n d i v i d u a l , s u c h a s a m o t h e r r e c e i v i n g Aid f o r F a m i l i e s With D e p e n d e n t C h i l d r e n (AFDC) b e n e f i t s , who i s s e r v e d by a f e d e r a l l y t u n d e d program. ) ; t h e y i n c l u d e d a l l t h e o p e r a t i o n s of s y s t e m s e d u c a t i o n o n l y i f t h e y were p u b l i c systems; of higher t h e y i n c l u d e d a l l t h e o p e r a t i o n s of c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d o t h e r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o n l y i f t h e y were p r i n c i p a l l y involved i n t h e business of providing education, h e a l t h c a r e , h o u s i n g , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , o r p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n ; otherwise, only t h e operations of the p a r t i c u l a r p l a n t , e t c . , would be c o v e r e d . i n t r o d u c e d , S . 557 o f t h e 100th C o n g r e s s was b a s e d upon t h e s u b s t i t u t e v e r s i o n o f H.R. 700 t h a t was a d o p t e d by t h e House c o m m i t t e e s o f previous Congress. Thus t h e l e g i s l a t i o n r e f l e c t e d r e s p o n s e s t o c r i t i c i s m t h a t c o v e r a g e was b e i n g expanded beyond what i t had b e e n p r i o r t o t h e Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , d o u b t s remained. O p p o n e n t s o f S. 5 5 7 , n o t i n g a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t ways l e g i s l a t i o n h a s been d r a f t e d , wond'ered w h e t h e r t h e c u r r e n t p r o p o s a l was c o m p l e t e and f i n a l . Some saw no precedent f o r t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t included a l l t h e o p e r a t i o n s of c o r p o r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , and c e r t a i n o t h e r activities. Some w e r e t r o u b l e d by t h e a b s e n c e of d e f i n i t e a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s a b o u t w h e t h e r p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s would be c o v e r e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e y a s k e d what r e s t o r a t i o n meant when p r i o r t o Grove C i t y C o l l e g e t h e r e sotnecimes were c o n f l i c t i n g r u l i n g s a b o u t c o v e r a g e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , s u p p o r t e r s o f S . 5 5 7 g e n e r a l l y v i e w e d t h e d i f f e r e n t l e g i s l a t i v e proposals a s a t t e m p t s t o c l a r i f y , n o t change, c o v e r a g e ; f o r them, l e g i s l a t i v e p u r p o s e h a s a l w a y s been t h e same. They saw t h e p r o p o s e d of c o v e r a g e a s c l e a r and t h o u g h t i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e , i f n o t m i s l e a d i n g , t o t r y t o s p e c i f y how i t would b e a p p l i e d t o d i f f e r e n t r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e m y r i a d forms o f F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . For them, t h e l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l r e s o l v e whatever previous d i f f e r e n c e s t h e r e were i n r u l i n g s about coverage. Continual questioning about coverage, they t h o u g h t , was m o t i v a t e d by a t t e m p t s t o d e l a y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e legislation. S h o u l d Coverage Be Broad o r Marrow? P r o p o n e n t s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g "program o r a c t i v i t y " l a n g u a g e b r o a d l y a r g u e d t h a t narrow coverage undermines t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws. I f c o v e r a g e was r e s t r i c t e d j u s t t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m s IB87 1 2 3 CRS- 7 05-2 7-88 o r a c t i v i t i e s receiving Federal financial assistance, i n s t i t u t i o n s g e t t i n g F e d e r a l f u n d s would n o t be p r o h i b i t e d by t h e s e l a w s from m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s i n o t h e r m a t t e r s . F o r example, s c h o o l s c o u l d l e g a l l y e x c l u d e g i r l s from a t h l e t i c s w h i l e a c c e p t i n g F e d e r a l assistance f o r t h e i r science o r special education classes. Municipal a g e n c i e s c o u l d l e g a l l y d i s m i s s handicapped employees w h i l e u s i n g F e d e r a l f u n d s f o r d u t i e s o t h e r employees performed. ( F o r s u m n a r i e s o f numerous a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o u r t d e c i s i o n s i n which t h e r e h a v e been r u l i n g s t h a t t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws do n o t c o v e r t h e programs o r a c t i v i t i e s i n which d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was a l l e g e d t o o c c u r , see Federal Funding of Discrimination: The Impact of Grove C i t y C o l l e g e v. E,by Marcia G r e e n b e r g e r of t h e N a t i o n a l women's Law C e n t e r . ) P r o p a n e n t s of broad c o v e r a g e a l s o a r g u e d t h a t w i t h a n a r r o w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f program and a c t i v i t y i t i s n o t c l e a r what t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws c o v e r , I f a company r e c e i v e s a F e d e r a l g r a n t t o p r o v i d e on-the-job t r a i n i n g t o d i s a d v a n t a g e d w o r k e r s , f o r example, i s j u s t t h e i r t r a i n i n g covered? What a b o u t t h e o t h e r work t h e y d o ? What a b o u t t h e i r employee b e n e f i t s ? Would o t h e r workers t h e company i s t r a i n i n g be included a s well? I f Federal funds a r e provided through block g r a n t s , a r e a l l programs f o r which f u n d s c o u l d be s p e n t c o v e t e d ? Would o n l y t h o s e programs t h a t a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e s u p p o r t be? With t h e narrow i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of program o r a c t i v i t y , i t i s c l a i m e d , t h e r e would be u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t r i g h t s and d e l a y s i n e n f o r c e m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , a d v o c a t e s of broad c o v e r a g e a r g u e d t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s of F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r program o r a c t i v i t y that receives aid directly. Outside a s s i s t a n c e f o r one program o f t e n f r e e s up i n s t i t u t i o n a l f u n d s f o r o t h e r s . P r o p o n e n t s of b r o a d c o v e r a g e c l a i m e d t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n one program o f a n i n s t i t u t i o n o r agency I I i n f e c t s " o t h e r s , even i f t h e l a t t e r i n t h e o r y a r e p r o t e c t e d by t h e c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s ' g u a r a n t e e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, o p p o n e n t s of g i v i n g a broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o p r o g r a m o r a c t i v i t y " a r g u e d t h a t such a change would make t h e nondiscrimination requirements disproportional t o t h e benefits i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g e n c i e s r e c e i v e from F e d e r a l a i d . Broad c o v e r a g e , t h e y c o n t e n d e d , would e n a b l e t h e Government t o u s e s m a l l g r a n t s t o i n d i v i d u a l programs a s p r e t e x t s f o r implementing F e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r e v e r y t h i n g A g r a n t t o t h e chemistry department of a i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g e n c i e s do. s c h o o l , f o r example, c o u l d be used t o j u s t i f y e x t e n d i n g F e d e r a l r u l e s t o music programs, gym c l a s s e s , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , employee c o m p e n s a t i o n , and s o on. S u p p o r t f o r l i b r a r i e s c o u l d t r i g g e r c o v e r a g e f o r p a r k s and swimming p o o l s . The r e s t r a i n t i n J u s t i c e W h i t e ' s o p i n i o n i n Grove C i t y C o l l e g e c o u l d be c i t e d : "we have found no p e r s u a s i v e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h e Congress i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t y f o l l o w f e d e r a l l y a i d e d s t u d e n t s from c l a s s r o o m t o c l a s s r o o m , b u i l d i n g t o building, or a c t i v i t y to activity." 1I Opponents of broad c o v e r a g e a l s o a r g u e d t h a t i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y t h e p a r t i c u l a r program o r a c t i v i t y t h a t r e c e i v e s F e d e r a l financial assistance. With few e x c e p t i o n s , F e d e r a l a i d i s p r o v i d e d e x p r e s s l y f o r s t a t e d p u r p o s e s ; i t r a r e l y i s g i v e n f o r u n r e s t r i c t e d use. A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r a i d t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o d e s i g n a t e programs o r a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w i l l be f u n d e d and t o e n s u r e t h a t o t h e r s w i l l n o t be supported. Even i f a F e d e r a l g r a n t t o o n e p r o g r a m d o e s f r e e up i n s t i t u t i o n a l f u n d s f o r o t h e r s , t h a t d o e s n o t mean t h e l a t t e r p r o g r a m s r e c e i v e " ~ e d e r a l " funds. s i m i l a r l y , even i f i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g e n c i e s a s a w h o l e b e n e f i t f r o m F e d e r a l g r a n t s , t h a t d o e s n o t mean t h a t a s a w h o l e they "receive" f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . One q u e s t i o n t h a t r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g t h e d e b a t e o v e r r i d i n g P r e s i d e n t ~ e a g a n ' s v e t o i s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c o v e r a g e would be e x t e n d e d t o c h u r c h e s and o t h e r r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . A church t h a t r e c e i v e s F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r a s o c i a l s e r v i c e program o p e r a t e d i n i t s b a s e m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , a p p a r e n t l y would b e c o v e r e d , n o t o n l y f o r t h e program i t s e l f b u t a l s o f o r o t h e r f u n c t i o n s i n t h a t f a c i l i t y . (See P a r a g r a p h 3(B) i n S e c t i o n s 3 through 6 of t h e l e g i s l a t i v e language.) A p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s y s t e m i n which o n e s c h o o l r e c e i v e s F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e would b e c o v e r e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y . (See Paragraph 2(8) i n S e c t i o n s 3 through 6.) P r o p o n e n t s o f S. 5 5 7 a r g u e d t h a t c o v e r i n g c h u r c h e s a n d p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s i n t h i s manner i s a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e o t h e r w i s e t h e y would be t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m n o n r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s r e c e i v i n g Federal assistance. If c h u r c h e s o b j e c t t o complying w i t h t h e nondiscrimination requirements, they should not accept Federal funds. Opponents argued t h a t such coverage of r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e and u n p r e c e d e n t e d . They c l a i m e d t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d n o t f o r c e r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o c h o o s e between p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n t r o l and c o n t i n u i n g t o r u n s o c i a l (H.R. 4 2 0 3 l S . 2 1 8 4 , t h e " c i v i l R i g h t s P r o t e c t i o n Act o f s e r v i c e programs. 1 9 8 8 , " would h a v e e x p l i c i t l y l i m i t e d c o v e r a g e o f c h u r c h e s t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , a n d of parochial schools t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r school receiving such a s s i s t a n c e . ) Another q u e s t i o n of c o v e r a g e t h a t r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g t h e v e t o o v e r r i d e d e b a t e i s w h e t h e r S . 5 5 7 would c h a n g e p r e v i o u s law p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e employment oE p e r s o n s w i t h a c u r r e n t l y c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e o r i n f e c t i o n u n d e r S e c t i o n 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Acc. The q u e s t i o n may b e of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e employment o f p e o p l e who t e s t p o s i t i v e f o r AIDS. The i s s u e a r o s e b e c a u s e o f t h e Humphrey-Harkin amendment, w h i c h was a d d e d t o t h e l e g i s l a t i o n on t h e S e n a t e f l o o r . Some o b s e r v e r s a r g u e d t h a t t h e amendment would o n l y c o d i f y e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s o f c o v e r a g e f o r s u c h p e r s o n s , w h i l e o t h e r o b s e r v e r s a r g u e d t h a t t h e amendment would e x t e n d c o v e r a g e , beyond what t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t had s p e c i f i c a l l y h e l d , t o p e r s o n s who a r e c o n t a g i o u s o r i n f e c t i o u s b u t h a v e n o t y e t m a n i f e s t e d p h y s i c a l symptoms o f d i s e a s e . F o r an a n a l y s i s of t h i s i s s u e , see CRS R e p o r t 88-214, L e g a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e C o n t a g i o u s D i s e a s e o r I n f e c t i o n s Amendment t o t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n A c t , S . 5 5 7 , by Nancy Lee J o n e s . S h o u l d C o v e r a g e O c c u r Through Assistance t o I n d i v i d u a l s ? One a r g u m e n t Grove C i t y C o l l e g e made when i t s s u i t was h e a r d i n Basic F e d e r a l d i s t r i c t c o u r t was t h a t c e r t a i n F e d e r a l s t u d e n t a i d E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y G r a n t s (BEOGs, now c a l l e d P e l 1 G r a n t s ) . a n d s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s f i n a n c i a l G u a r a n t e e d S t u d e n t Loans (GSLs) a s s i s t a n c e t o i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r p u r p o s e s oE T i t l e IX c o v e r a g e . In the ~ o l l e g e ' sv i e w , t h e s e programs p r o v i d e s u p p o r t d i r e c t l y t o s t u d e n t s and t o -- -- b a n k s , n o t t o s c h o o l s , i n a s much a s s c h o o l s a r e n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i s b u r s i n g t h e a i d made a v a i l a b l e . The d i s t r i c t c o u r t d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e C o l l e g e ' s argument. I n a r e v i s e d o p i n i o n i s s u e d on J u n e 28, 1980, t h e c o u r t r u l e d t h a t b o t h BEOGs and GSLs c o n s t i t u t e F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s c h o o l s whose s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e them, t h u s b r i n g i n g them under t h e n o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s of T i t l e I X . The Supreme C o u r t s u b s e q u e n t l y upheld t h i s f i n d i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o BEOCs ( t h e C o l l e g e c h o s e n o t t o a p p e a l t h e f i n d i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o CSLs). Among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e Supreme Court n o t e d t h a t BEOGs were c r e a t e d by t h e same l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t imposed t h e T i t l e I X r e q u i r e m e n t s and t h a t n o t h i n g i n T i t l e I X " s u g g e s t s t h a t Congress e l e v a t e d form o v e r s u b s t a n c e by making t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e n o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r i n c i p l e d e p e n d e n t o n t h e manner i n which a program o r a c t i v i t y r e c e i v e s f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e . " The C o u r t found t h a t b o t h c o n g r e s s i o n a l i n t e n t and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e a p p e a r e d t o i n c l u d e a i d t o s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e s c o p e of " f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e " f o r purpose of T i t l e I X . The Court a l s o s t a t e d i n a f o o t n o t e t h a t T i t l e I X c o v e r a g e o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s was n o t t r i g g e r e d by "food s t a m p s , S o c i a l S e c u r i t y b e n e f i t s , w e l f a r e payments, and o t h e r forms o f g e n e r a l purpose governmental a s s i s t a n c e . " Whether s c h o o l s s h o u l d be c o v e r e d under t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws b e c a u s e of s t u d e n t a i d i s but one example of a l a r g e r i s s u e of w h e t h e r a n y i n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d be c o v e r e d t h r o u g h F e d e r a l payments made d i r e c t l y t o individuals for that i n s t i t u t i o n ' s services. For example, s h o u l d g r o c e r y s t o r e s b e c o v e r e d when t h e y a c c e p t food stamps? Should p h a r m a c i e s be A related c o v e r e d when t h e y f i l l Medicare o r Medicaid p r e s c r i p t i o n s ? q u e s t i o n i s how one i s t o t e l l when i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e c o v e r e d t h r o u g h s u c h payments: Does i t depend upon t h e amount of F e d e r a l f u n d s t h e y r e c e i v e ? Does i t depend on w h e t h e r t h e f u n d s a r e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e , n o t j u s t g e n e r a l income? I s i t r e l e v a n t w h e t h e r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s have a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s u c h a s r e p o r t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s ? Whether Congress e x p r e s s l y i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s be a i d e d by t h e f u n d s ? P r o p o n e n t s of S. 557 p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e L e g i s l a t i o n d o e s n o t a f f e c t w h e t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e c o v e r e d under t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws by t h e e x t e n s i o n of Federal f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s . S. 557 a d d r e s s e d o n l y t h e q u e s t i o n o f how much of a n i n s t i t u t i o n would be c o v e r e d , n o t w h e t h e r i t i s c o v e r e d a t a l l . However, o p p o n e n t s of S. 557 a r g u e d t h a t t h e e x p a n s i o n of c o v e r a g e t h a t would o c c u r u n d e r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n made i t i m p o r t a n t t o c l a r i f y which i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e c o v e r e d and which a r e n o t . (H.R. 4203ls.2184, t h e " C i v i l R i g h t s P r o t e c t i o n Act of 1988," e x p l i c i t l y p r o v i d e d t h a t c o v e r a g e would n o t be e x t e n d e d t o g r o c e r y s t o r e s t h r o u g h food s t a m p s . ) P r o p o n e n t s of t h e view t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s ought t o be c o v e r e d under t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws t h r o u g h F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s a r g u e d t h a t such a i d o f t e n provides i n s t i t u t i o n s with s u b s t a n t i a l revenue. For example, t h e y c l a i m e d t h a t some c o l l e g e s c o u l d n o t s u r v i v e w i t h o u t Pell G r a n t s and GSLs and t h a t few would e n r o l l a s many s t u d e n t s . ( F o r FY88, Congress h a s a p p r o p r i a t e d n e a r l y $4.3 b i l l i o n f o r P e l l G r a n t s and $2.6 b i l l i o n f o r GSL s u b s i d i e s and o t h e r c o s t s . The a n n u a l CSL new l o a n volume I t i s only from non-Federal s o u r c e s c u r r e n t l y e x c e e d s $9 b i l l i o n . ) a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e y a r g u e d , t h a t programs t h i s imporcant f o r p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n be a c c o m p a n i e d by F e d e r a l c i v i l r i g h t s g u a r a n t e e s . In addition, proponents argued t h a t i f coverage d i d not occur through s t u d e n t a i d , t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws would b e v i o l a t e d : Federal a i d ought n o t support discrimination. O p p o n e n t s o f t h e view t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s o u g h t t o be c o v e r e d u n d e r c i v i l r i g h t s laws through Federal a s s i s t a n c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s argued t h a t it i s i m p e r a t i v e t o d i s t i n g u i s h d i r e c t from i n d i r e c t r e c i p i e n t s . Principal r e c i p i e n t s , who i n i t i a l l y g e t t h e a i d , must b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m s e c o n d a r y o n e s , j u s t a s l e g a l r e c i p i e n t s must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m economic ones. O t h e r w i s e , t h e o p p o n e n t s c l a i m e d , i n s t i t u t i o n s c a n n o t be c e r t a i n whether t h e y a r e covered o r n o t . Opponents a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t w h i l e some c o l l e g e s may r e c e i v e s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t from s t u d e n t s who h a v e P e l 1 G r a n t s o r GSLs, t h a t s u p p o r t comes from s t u d e n t s by their c h o i c e , n o t If a s c h o o l d i s c r i m i n a t e s a g a i n s t s t u d e n t s , t h e y c a n t h e Government's. e n r o l l i n o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , t a k i n g t h e i r F e d e r a l a i d w i t h them. Should L e g i s l a t i o n Change o r L i m i t P r o v i s i o n s about Abortion? One i m p o r t a n t i s s u e r e g a r d i n g b r o a d e n i n g t h e s c o p e of c o v e r a g e of T i t l e IX was w h e t h e r t h i s would r e s u l t i n n o n c o m p l i a n c e by s c h o o l s w i t h policies against abortion. While t h e T i t l e IX s t a t u t e d i d n o t r e f e r t o p r e g n a n c y o r a b o r t i o n , t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n ' s r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l p r o v i s i o n s on t h e s e m a t t e r s . The p r o v i s i o n s w e r e p r o m u l g a t e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e i n 1975 a s p a r t o f t h e In general, the provisions prohibited original T i t l e I X regulations. r e c i p i e n t s o f F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t a n y s t u d e n t , o r e x c l u d i n g a n y s t u d e n t f r o m a n e d u c a t i o n program o r a c t i v i t y , II on t h e b a s i s of s u c h s t u d e n t ' s p r e g n a n c y , c h i l d b i r t h , f a l s e p r e g n a n c y , t e r m i n a t i o n of pregnancy o r recovery therefrom" u n l e s s t h e s t u d e n t v o l u n t a r i l y r e q u e s t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s e p a r a t e program. Leaves of a b s e n c e m u s t be g r a n t e d f o r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t must be r e i n s t a t e d t o t h e s t a t u s s h e h e l d when t h e l e a v e began. M o r e o v e r , r e c i p i e n t s must t r e a t t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e same manner " a s a n y o t h e r t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y " w i t h r e s p e c t t o a n y m e d i c a l o r hospital benefit, service, plan o r policy t h a t they administer, operate, o f f e r , o r p a r t i c i p a t e in. S i m i l a r requirements p e r t a i n e d t o employees. ( 3 4 CFR 1 0 6 ) The a b o r t i o n p r o v i s i o n s , l i k e o t h e r T i t l e IX r u l e s , d i d n o t a p p l y t o e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t q u a l i f y f o r t h e r e l i g i o u s exemption s t a t e d in the statute: ... t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l n o t a p p l y t o an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h i s c o n t r o l l e d by a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n i f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s s u b s e c t i o n would n o t be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e (Section 901(a)(3)) r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s of s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n ; ... However, noc a l l s c h o o l s w i t h a b o r t i o n p o l i c i e s c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h T i t l e I X r e g u l a t i o n s c o u l d q u a l i f y f o r t h i s exemption. Some o f t h e s e s c h o o l s a r e n o t r e l i g i o u s ( p u b l i c s c h o o l s and p u b l i c c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e n o t , n o r a r e many p r i v a t e s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s ) ; o t h e r s n e i t h e r a r e c o n t r o l l e d by a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n n o r have r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s inconsistent with the regulations. S. 557 would e x t e n d t h e r e l i g i o u s e x e m p t i o n t o o p e r a t i o n s o f a n I t e n t i t y " c o n t r o l l e d by a r e l i g i o u s organization, not just an educational i n s t i t u t i o n , provided t h e r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s t e s t was a l s o met. (Museums o r h o s p i t a l s w i t h e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s would be e x a m p l e s . ) With t h e Supreme C o u r t ' s n a r r o w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c o v e r a g e i n G r o v e C i t y C o l l e g e , s c h o o l s c o u l d have p o l i c i e s a b o u t a b o r t i o n t h a t would b e f o u n d d i s c r i m i n a t o r y u n d e r T i t l e 1X r e g u l a t i o n s a s l o n g a s t h o s e p o l i c i e s do n o t a p p l y t o programs o r a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l assistance. F o r e x a m p l e , i f s c h o o l s ' h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e p l a n s h a d no F e d e r a l f u n d i n g , t h e y would n o t h a v e t o p r o v i d e c o v e r a g e f o r A o r t i o n s . However, w i t h t h e amendment of T i t l e IX t o e n s u r e t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s a s a w h o l e wers c o v e r e d i f a n y p a r t r e c e i v e d F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , t h e n t h e p o l i c i e s of s u c h s c h o o l s p r e s u m a b l y would v i o l a t e t h e r e g u l a t i o n s . Some p e o p l e a r g u e d t h a t S. 5 5 7 , a s i n t r o d u c e d , by e x p a n d i n g c o v e r a g e o f T i t l e IX t o " a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f " i n s t i t u t i o n s r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l f u n d s , would e v e n h a v e r e q u i r e d h o s p i t a l s w i t h t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m s t o p r o v i d e a b o r t i o n s t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a s w e l l a s s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y members. T h e D a n f o r t h a n d U e i c k e r Amendments Two f l o o r amendments p e r t a i n i n g t o a b o r t i o n were a d d e d t o S. 557 (The House r e t a i n e d b o t h amendments p r i o r t o i t s p a s s a g e by t h e S e n a t e . The D a n f o r t h amendment p r o v i d e d when i t l a t e r p a s s e d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . ) (1) t h a t T i t l e IX c o u l d n o t b e c o n s t r u e d " t o r e q u i r e o r p r o h i b i t a n y p e r s o n , o r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e e n t i t y , t o p r o v i d e o r pay f o r a n y b e n e f i t o r s e r v i c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e u s e o f f a c i l i t i e s , r e l a t e d t o a n a b o r t i o n " and ( 2 ) t h a t t h i s p r o v i s i o n c o u l d n o t be u s e d t o impose p e n a l t i e s on a n y o n e who i s seeking o r has received any b e n e f i t o r s e r v i c e r e l a t e d t o a l e g a l abortion. The Weicker amendment p r o v i d e d t h a t no p r o v i s i o n o f t h e C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act ( i . e . , S. 5 5 7 ) o r amendment made by i t s h o u l d be c o n s t r u e d t o r e q u i r e r e c i p i e n t s of F e d e r a l f u n d s t o p e r f o r m o r pay f o r a n abortion. I n e f f e c t , t h e D a n f o r t h amendment r e p e a l e d T i t l e I X r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t o include abortion i n t h e medical s e r v i c e s o r i n s u r a n c e p l a n s t h e y o f f e r (though d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n o t h e r forms w i t h r e s p e c t t o l e g a l a b o r t i o n s would s t i l l be p r o h i b i t e d ) . In contrast, the W e i c k e r amendment d i d n o t a f f e c t t h o s e a b o r t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s ; i t o n l y c l a r i f i e d t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n t o o v e r t u r n Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , by i t s e l f , d i d not e s t a b l i s h such requirements. S u p p o r t e r s o f t h e D a n f o r t h amendment p r i n c i p a l l y a r g u e d t h a t t h e F e d e r a l government ought n o t r e q u i r e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o p r o v i d e o r pay f o r a b o r t i o n s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y r e c e i v e F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l assistance. They c o n t e n d e d t h a t when C o n g r e s s e n a c t e d T i t l e IX i n 1972 ( o n e - h a l f y e a r b e f o r e t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t r u l e d i n R o e v . W a d e t h a t women h a v e a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r t o t e r m i n a t e c e r t a i n p r e g n a n c i e s ) i t would noc h a v e i n t e n d e d t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s i s s u e d p u r s u a n t t o t h e s t a t u t e c o n t a i n such requirements. O p p o n e n t s o f t h e D a n f o r t h amendment p r i n c i p a l l y a r g u e d t h a t C o n g r e s s s h o u l d s i m p l y r e s t o r e t o T i t l e I X and r h e o t h e r c i v i l r i g h t s l a w s t h e b r o a d c o v e r a g e t h e y had b e f o r e Grove C i t y . I n no o t h e r r e s p e c t t h a n a b o r t i o n , t h e y a d d e d , would t h e l e g i s l a t i o n c h a n g e what c o n s t i t u t e s tI d i s c r i m i n a t ion" o r " n o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ." LEG1 SLATIOM P.L. 100-259, H.R. 12141s. 557 C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act o f 1987. Amends T i t l e I X of t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments of 1972, T i t l e V I o f t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Act o f 1 9 6 4 , S e c t i o n 504 o f t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act o f 1973, and t h e Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p h r a s e "program o r a c t i v i t y u means "a11 t h e d p e r a t i o n s o f " t h e f o l l o w i n g ( s t a t e d g e n e r a l l y ) , any p a r t of which i s e x ~ e n d e d FederdL f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e : -- -- --- S c a t e and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t a l u n i t s ( i n c l u d i n g t h o s e t h a t e x t e n d F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and t h o s e t o which t h e y extend i t ) ; s c h o o l s and s c h o o l s y s t e m s ; p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s and s y s t e m s o f p u b l i c h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n ; and c e r t a i n private organizations: t h o s e t o which a s s i s t a n c e i s e x t e n d e d as a w h o l e , and t h o s e p r i n c i p a l l y e n g a g e d i n providing education, health housing, s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , o r p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n . (For o t h e r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o n l y t h e o p e r a t i o n s of " t h e e n t i r e p l a n t o r o t h e r geographically separate facility" t o which Federal a s s i s t a n c e i s extended a r e covered. P r o v i d e s t h a t t h e amendments do n o t e x t e n d a p p l i c a t i o n of a n y of t h e f o u r a c t s t o u l t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a r i e s not previously covered. Extends t h e r e l i g i o u s e x e m p t i o n p r o v i s i o n o f T i t l e IX of t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments o f 1972 t o o p e r a t i o n s of e n t i t i e s ( n o t j u s t educational i n s t i t u t i o n s ) c o n t r o l l e d by r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r o v i d e d t h e y a l s o meet t h e Also makes c l e a r w i t h r e s p e c t t o S e c t i o n 504 o f r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s test. t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act t h a t s m a l l p r o v i d e r s a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o make significant structural alterations to their existing f a c i l i t i e s so that t h e i r p r o g r a m s a r e a c c e s s i b l e , i f o t h e r means of p r o v i d i n g t h e s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . H.R. 1214 i n t r o d u c e d Feb. 2 4 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e s S . 557 i n t r o d u c e d Feb. 1 9 , on E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r , and on t h e J u d i c i a r y . 1 9 8 7 ; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s . H e a r i n g s began F u r t h e r amended w i t h two Mar. 19. Amended and o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d May 2 0 . p r o v i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g r o a b o r t i o n ( t h e D a n f o r t h and Weicker amendments) and o n e p e r t a i n i n g t o employment o f p e r s o n s w i t h i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s ( t h e Humphrey-Harkin amendment). P a s s e d S e n a t e J a n . 2 8 , 1988. P a s s e d House, w i t h o u t f u r t h e r amendment, Mar. 2. Vetoed by P r e s i d e n t Reagan Mar. 16. P a s s e d House and S e n a t e o v e r p r e s i d e n t i a l v e t o Mar. 22, 1988. 42031s. 2184 ( S e n s e n b r e ~ e r / H a t c h ) C i v i l R i g h t s P r o t e c t i o n Act of 1988. Amends T i t l e I X of t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments of 1972, T i t l e VI of t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Act o f 1 9 6 4 , S e c t i o n 504 o f t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act of 1973, and t h e Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p h r a s e "program o r a c t i v i t y u means, w i t h some e x c e p t i o n s , " a l l t h e operations of" e n t i t i e s ( s i m i l a r t o those l i s t e d a b o v e f o r S. 5571, a n y p a r t of which i s e x t e n d e d F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l assistance. I n c o n t r a s t t o S. 5 5 7 , c o r p o r a t i o n s and o t h e r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s would be c o v e r e d - i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y o n l y i f t h e a s s i s t a n c e were p r o v i d e d t o them a s a whole; o n l y t h e p a r t of t h e c h u r c h t h a t p a r t i c i p a r e s i n t h e f e d e r a l l y - a s s i s t e d program would be c o v e r e d ; o n l y t h e H.R. i n d i v i d u a l r e l i g i o u s s c h o o l r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e would be c o v e r e d ( n o t t h e e n t i r e r e l i g i o u s schooL s y s t e m ) and o n l y t h e S t a t e o r l o c a l p r o g r a m s r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e would be c o v e r e d ( n o t t h e e n t i r e S t a t e o r l o c a l agency). In a d d i t i o n , e x p l i c i t l y provides t h a t coverage is not extended t o g r o c e r y s t o r e s t h r o u g h t h e r e c e i p t o f food s t a m p s o r t o f a r m s a n d r a n c h e s t h r o u g h t h e r e c e i p t of F e d e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n c e . Broadens t h e T i t l e I X r e l i g i o u s exemption t o i n c l u d e e n t i t i e s " c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d " w i t h t e n e t s of r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Otherwise includes o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s of S . 557 a s p a s s e d by t h e House and S e n a t e , i n c l u d i n g t h e Danf o r t h , W e i c k e r , and Humphrey-Harkin amendments. H.R. 4203 i n t r o d u c e d Mar. 1 7 , 1988; r e f e r r e d j o i n t l y t o Committees on E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r , and on t h e J u d i c i a r y . S. 2184 i n t r c d u c e d Mar. 1 7 , 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s . CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCWELITS U.S. Congress. House. Committee on E d u c a t i o n and Labor. Civil Rights Restoration Act o f 1985. O c t . 7 , 1986. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 2 3 p. ( 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . House. R e p o r t no. 99-963, P a r t 2 ) . U.S. C o n g r e s s . House. Committee on E d u c a t i o n and Labor and C o m n i t t e e on the Judiciary. S u b c o m n i t t e e on C i v i l and C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Rights. C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act of 1985. Joint hearings, 99th C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n . Mar. 4 , 7 , 1 1 , 1 5 , 2 2 , 2 5 , 27-28, a n d Apr. 4, 1985. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 1329 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Civil Rights R e s t o r a t i o n Act o f 1985. O c t . 3 , 1986. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Report P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 4 3 p. ( 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . House. no. 99-963, P a r t 1 ) . U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s . The C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act of 1987. J u n e 5 , 1987. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1987. 38 p . ( 1 0 0 t h c o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n , S e n a t e . Reporc no. 100-64) ---- - C i v i l R i g h t s R e s t o r a t i o n Act of 1987. H e a r i n g s , 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Mar. 19 and Apr. 1 , 1987. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 679 p. ----- P r o p o s e d Grove C i t y l e g i s l a t i o n , r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y , and p r i v a t e education. Hearings, 99th Congress, 1 s t session. J u l y 17 and S e p t . 20, 1985. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. C o v t . P r i n c . O f f . , 1986. 03/22/88 --- S e n a t e (73-24) and House (292-133) p a s s e d S. 557 o v e r t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s v e t o , e n a c t i n g i t i n t o l a w (P.L. 100-259). S e n a t e began d e b a t e on o v e r r i d i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s v e t o of S. 557. P r e s i d e n t Reagan v e t o e d S. 557 and u r g e d t h e a d o p t i o n o f a s u b s t i t u t e m e a s u r e t h a t would b r o a d e n t h e T i t l e IX r e l i g i o u s exempcion and h a v e l e s s e x t e n s i v e c o v e r a g e o f c h u r c h e s , r e l i g i o u s s c h o o l s , c o r p o r a t i o n s , and S t a t e and l o c a l governments. House p a s s e d (315-98) passed i n January. t h e v e r s i o n of S. 557 t h a t t h e S e n a t e S t t n a t e p a s s e d (75-14) t h e r e p o r t e d v e r s i o n of S . 557 a f t e r a d d i n g two amendments p e r t a i n i n g t o a b o r t i o n and a c l a r i f y i n g amendment a b o u t S e c t i o n 5 0 4 . S e n a t e began d e b a t e on S. 557. S e n a t e Committee on Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s amended and o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d S. 557 ( S . R e p t . 100-64). P r e s i d e n t Reagan s i g n e d H.R. 4021, t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act ( P . L . 99-506). S e c t i o n 1003 p r o v i d e s Amendments of 1986 t h a t S t a t e s a r e n o t immune u n d e r t h e E l e v e n t h Amendment o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n from s u i c i n F e d e r a l c o u r t f o r v i o l a t i o n s of S e c t i o n 504 of t h e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Act of 1 9 7 3 , T i t l e IX o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments of 1972, T i t l e V I of t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Act o f 1964, and t h e Age D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A c t . The l e g i s l a t i o n o v e r t u r n e d t h e J u n e 28, 1985 A t a s c a d e r o d e c i s i o n o f t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t , U.S. Supreme Scanlon, t h a t , contrary, the against State Act o f 1973 assistance. C o u r t r u l e d i n A t a s c a d e r o S t a t e H o s p i t a l v. absent unequivocal s t a t u t o r y language t o t h e E l e v e n t h Amendment b a r s s u i t i n F e d e r a l c o u r t a g e n c i e s u n d e r S e c t i o n 504 of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n even though t h e y r e c e i v e F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l House Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d H.R. 700 w i t h two amendments: ( 1 ) a new v e r s i o n of t h e b i l l i n t h e n a t u r e o f a s u b s t i t u t e and ( 2 ) a d i s c l a i m e r t h a t t h e 700 " a r e n o t i n t e n d e d t o c o n v e y amendments made by H.R. e i t h e r t h e a p p r o v a l o r d i s a p p r o v a l of C o n g r e s s c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of T i t l e IX r e g u l a t i o n s concerning h e a l t h care insurance or services with regard t o abortion." ( T h i s amendment was o f f e r e d by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Edwards o f C a l i f o r n i a . ) House C o m i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n and Labor o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d H . R . 700 w i t h t h r e e amendments: ( 1 ) a new v e r s i o n of t h e b i l l i n t h e n a t u r e of a s u b s t i t u t e ( i d e n t i c a l t o t h e s u b s t i t u t e v e r s i o n a d o p t e d t h e n e x t day by t h e C o m i t t e e o n t h e Judiciary); ( 2 ) a provision s t i p u l a t i n g t h a t T i t l e I X s h a l l n o t be c o n s t r u e d " t o g r a n t o r s e c u r e o r d e n y a n y r i g h t ," r e l a t i n g t o abortion o r t h e funding thereof o r t o require o r p r o h i b i t any b e n e f i t o r s e r v i c e r e l a t i n g t o a b o r t i o n ( t h i s amendment was o f f e r e d by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e T a u k e ) ; a n d ( 3 ) a p r o v i s i o n b r o a d e n i n g t h e T i t l e IX r e l i g i o u s e x e m p t i o n t o i n c l u d e o p e r a t i o n s of a n e n t i t y " a f f i l i a t e d " w i t h a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n when t h e r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of s u c h o p e r a t i o n s . 10/02/84 --- 09/29/84 --- 09/27/84 --- 06/26/84 --- 05/23/84 --- House C o m n i t t e e s on E d u c a t i o n and Labor and o n t h e J u d i c i a r y b o t h o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d H.R. 5490. 02/28/84 --- U.S. Supreme C o u r t r u l e d i n Grove C i t y C o l l e g e v. Bell t h a t t h e C o l l e g e was a r e c i p i e n t of F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r p u r p o s e s o f T i t l e I X by way of t h e B a s i c E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y G r a n t s t h e Government made t o i t s s t u d e n t s . However, t h e C o u r t h e l d t h a t T i t l e IX c o v e r a g e g e n e r a l l y i s l i m i t e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c program o r a c t i v i t y r e c e i v i n g F e d e r a l financial assistance. The C o u r t a l s o h e l d t h a t F e d e r a l a i d c o u l d be t e r m i n a t e d f o r f a i l u r e o f t h e C o l l e g e t o s i g n a p r o g r a m - s p e c i f i c a s s u r a n c e o f c o m p l i a n c e form, even t h o u g h t h e r e had n o t been a f i n d i n g o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a n d t h a t c o m p l i a n c e w i t h T i t l e IX i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e F e d e r a l s t u d e n t a s s i s t a n c e d o e s n o t i n f r i n g e F i r s t Amendment r i g h t s o f e i t h e r t h e College o r i t s students. S e n a t e a g r e e d (53-45) t o t a b l e t h e c i v i l r i g h t s amendment t o H.J.Res. 6 4 8 t h a t S e n a t o r Byrd had p r o p o s e d S e p t . 27. S e n a t e a g r e e d (92-4) t o end f u r t h e r r i g h t s amendment t o H.J.Res. 648. debate on the civil D u r i n g d e b a t e o n H . J .Res. 648, making c o n t i n u i n g a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r FY85, S e n a t o r Byrd i n t r o d u c e d a n amendment t h a t was d e s i g n e d t o be a s u b s t i t u t e f o r S. 2568, t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Act o f 1984. Among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e p r o p o s e d amendment, which had t h e s u p p o r t of S e n a t o r s Kennedy a n d Packwood ( t w o of t h e p r i n c i p a l p r o p o n e n t s o f S. 2 5 6 8 ) would h a v e i n s e r t e d a g r a n d f a t h s r c l a u s e i n t h e c i v i l r i g h t s laws e x p l i c i t l y providing t h a t t h e term "recipient" included an e n t i t y t h a t would h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d s u c h u n d e r a g e n c y r e g u l a t i o n s o n e d a y p r i o r t o t h e Supreme c o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n i n Grove C i t y C o l l e g e , b u t e x c l u d e d an e n t i t y t h a t would n o t h a v e been s o c o n s i d e r e d on t h a t d a y . House p a s s e d ( ( 3 7 5 - 3 2 ) H.R. 5490 a l o n g w i t h two amendments: ( 1 ) a p r o v i s i o n s t a t i n g t h a t Members o f C o n g r e s s a n d t h e F e d e r a l j u d i c i a r y may be c o n s i d e r e d r e c i p i e n t s o f F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r p u r p o s e s of e x t e n d i n g c o v e r a g e of t h e f o u r c i v i l r i g h t s s t a t u t e s and ( 2 ) a p r o v i s i o n c l a r i f y i n g t h a t n o t h i n g i n t h e Act c h a n g e s t h e s t a t u s of b l a c k c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .