Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues

This report discusses the reauthorization of most Federal elementary and secondary education programs, which the 100th Congress is currently considering, as well as the creation of several new programs. Issues have included: (1) Federal versus ~tate/local priorities in the use of funds; (2) use of formula grants or competitive grants to allocate funds; (3) services for eligible nonpublic school children; (4) relationship between Federal programs and State-level school reform activities; and (5) information about programs and participants for the Congress.

Issue Brief Order Code I087055 FEDERAL ELEMENTARY AND SECOMDARY EDUCATION PROGRAMS: REAUTHORIZATIOY ISSUES Updated May 13, 1988 Uayne C. Riddle Education and P u b l i c Welfare Division Congressional Research Serv:ce SUMMARY ISSUE DEFlNITION BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS Ove r v i e w Program D e s c r i p t i o n s Education f o r t h e Disadvantaged Even S t a r t Program B a s i c S k i l l s Improvement and Dropout P r e v e n t i o n G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d Program Drug E d u c a t i o n S t a t e Education Block Grant I m p a c t Aid Bilingual Education Adult Educat ion ~ a t h / S c i e n c eE d u c a t i o n Program E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l F o r e i g n Language P r o g r a m s Magnet S c h o o l s Educational Telecommunications Indian Education Immigrant Education Women's E d u c a t i o n a l E q u i t y T e r r i t o r i a l Assistance E x c e l l e n c e i n E d u c a t i o n Program E l l e n d e r F e l l o w s h i p Program (National) Center f o r Education S t a t i s t i c s O t h e r N e w Programs C r e a t e d Under P.L. 100-297 O t h e r N e w Programs C r e a t e d Under H.R. 3 Issues T a r g e t i n g v s . Local D i s c r e t i o n Formula G r a n t s vs. C o m p e t i t i v e G r a n t s S e r v i c e s f o r P r i v a t e School C h i l d r e n R e l a t i o n s h i p Between F e d e r a l Programs and S t a t e Scho 01 Ref I n f o r m a t i o n Needs of t h e C o n g r e s s LEG1 SLATION FOR ADDITIONAL READING NOTE: T h i s i s s u e b r i e f was o r i g i n a l l y prep,,.ed by K . f o r m e r S e n i o r S p e c i a l i s t i n E d u c a t i o n a t CRS. Forbis Jordan, t h e FEDERAL ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION PROGRAMS: REAUTHORIZATION ISSUES Most of t h e F e d e r a l e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e programs a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n by t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s . The l a r g e s t program, C h a p t e r 1 of t h e E d u c a t i o n C o n s o l i d a t i o n and Improvement Act of 1981 (ECIA), a u t h o r i z e s F e d e r a l a i d f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n of d i s a d v a n t a g e d e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The n e x t l a r g e s t program b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n i s impact a i d t o l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s ( L E A S ) w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of s t u d e n t s A third r e s i d i n g w i t h p a r e n t s who work a n d / o r l i v e on F e d e r a l p r o p e r t y . program, C h a p t e r 2 of t h e ECIA, t h e S t a t e e d u c a t i o n b l o c k g r a n t , p r o v i d e s f u n d s t o S t a t e e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s (SEAS) and LEAs. O t h e r programs b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n c l u d e a s s i s t a n c e t o "magnet" s c h o o l s t o e n c o u r a g e v o l u n t a r y d e s e g r e g a t i o n , immigrant e d u c a t i o n , r n a t h / s c i e n c e programs u n d e r T i t l e I1 of t h e E d u c a t i o n f o r Economic S e c u r i t y A c t , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n Act programs a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n (ED), and t h e Women's E d u c a t i o n a l E q u i t y Act. The t o t a l FY88 a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r t h e s e programs a r e a b o u t $6.5 b i l l i o n . Each program h a s i t s own s e t o f i s s u e s , b u t s e v e r a l g e n e r a l i s s u e s have emerged d u r i n g t h e r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s t h u s f a r . These i s s u e s i n c l u d e , s h o u l d Q e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e be a l l o c a t e d t h r o u g h f o r m u l a g r a n t s f o r s p e c i f i c programs t o s e r v e s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s and t a r g e t e d on a r e a s of g r e a t e s t n e e d , o r t h r o u g h b l o c k g r a n t s w i t h broad F e d e r a l o b j e c t i v e s s o t h a t d e c i s i o n s a b o u t s t u d e n t s t o be s e r v e d and programs t o be p r o v i d e d c o u l d be made by t h e S t a t e s o r LEAs? Another i s s u e i s w h e t h e r t o p r o v i d e f u n d s t o v i r t u a l l y a l l LEAs t h r o u g h f o r m u l a g r a n t s o r t o a few LEAs t h r o u g h n a t i o n a l l y c o m p e t i t i v e programs. Q u e s t i o n s a l s o have been r a i s e d a b o u t t h e t y p e o f involvement t h a t p a r e n t s s h o u l d have i n t h e e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n F e d e r a l l y - a s s i s t e d programs. O t h e r i s s u e s h a v e been r e l a t e d t o p r o v i s i o n s f o r s e r v i c e s and programs f o r e l i g i b l e p r i v a t e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between F e d e r a l programs and S t a t e - l e v e l s c h o o l r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s , and i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t programs and p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h e Congress. C o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t s on two major b i l l s a u t h o r i z i n g a i d t o e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n have been c o n s i d e r e d by t h e Congress i n r e c e n t Hawkins-Robert T. Stafford weeks. P.L. 100-297, t h e Augustus F. E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y School Improvement Amendments of 1988, was s i g n e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t on Apr. 28, 1988. The c o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t on H.R. 3, t h e Omnibus T r a d e and C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s Act of 1988, t h a t c o n t a i n s e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s , was a g r e e d t o by t h e House on Apr. 2 1 , and by t h e S e n a t e on Apr. 27, 1988. ISSUE DEFINITION The 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s i s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f most F e d e r a l e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n programs, a s w e l l a s t h e c r e a t i o n of (1) Federal versus s e v e r a l new p r o g r a m s . I s s u e s have included: ~ t a t e / l o c a lp r i o r i t i e s i n t h e u s e o f f u n d s ; ( 2 ) u s e of f o r m u l a g r a n t s o r competitive g r a n t s t o a l l o c a t e funds; ( 3 ) s e r v i c e s f o r e l i g i b l e nonpublic s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ; ( 4 ) r e l a t i o n s h i p between F e d e r a l programs a n d S t a t e - l e v e l s c h o o l r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s ; and ( 5 ) i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r o g r a m s a n d p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h e Congress. BACKGKOLJND AND ANALYSIS E x c e p t f o r e d u c a t i o n o f t h e h a n d i c a p p e d and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , most F e d e r a l p r o g r a m s f o r e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n by t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s . Conference r e p o r t s on 2 m a j o r b i l l s a u t h o r i z i n g a i d t o e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n P.L. 100-297, t h e h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o n g r e s s i n r e c e n t weeks. A u g u s t u s F. Hawkins-Robert T. S t a f f o r d E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l Improvement Amendments o f 1 9 8 8 , was s i g n e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t o n Apr. 2 8 , 3, t h e Omnibus T r a d e a n d 1988. T h e c o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t on W.R. C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s Act o f 1 9 8 8 , t h a t c o n t a i n s e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s , was a g r e e d t o by t h e House o n Apr. 2 1 , a n d by t h e S e n a t e o n Apr. 2 7 , 1988. Overview Of t h e t o t a l f u n d s f o r e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n f r o m l o c a l , S t a t e , a n d F e d e r a l s o u r c e s , F e d e r a l f u n d s c o m p r i s e l e s s t h a n 7%. However, t h e p e r c e n t of f u n d s from F e d e r a l s o u r c e s i s g r e a t e r i n t h o s e S t a t e s and l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c y (LEAS) w i t h l a r g e numbers o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n o r m a j o r F e d e r a l f a c i l i t i e s , and i s a m a j o r s o u r c e o f r e v e n u e f o r compensatory e d u c a t i o n and b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . I n t e r e s t i n F e d e r a l programs l i k e l y w i l l i n c r e a s e p a r t l y b e c a u s e of t h e p r o j e c t e d changes i n t h e composition of t h e school age p o p u l a t i o n . Large i n c r e a s e s a r e projected i n t h e proportion of t h e school-age p o p u l a t i o n from poor o r m i n o r i t y f a m i l i e s . The e f f e c t l i k e l y w i l l be g r e a t e s t i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e Nacion's o l d e r urban a r e a s and i n t h e S t a t e s e x t e n d i n g f r o m T e x a s t o C a l i f o r n i a . Many o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n w i l l be e d u c a t i o n a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d a n d / o r have limited English language p r o f i c i e n c y , and l i k e l y w i l l need supplementary e d u c a t i o n a l programs and services. Many u r b a n a r e a s a l s o a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a d e c l i n i n g t a x b a s e a n d a g r o w i n g e l d e r l y and d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h n e e d s a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . C o m p e t i t i o n among a g e n c i e s l i k e l y w i l l be s t r o n g f o r l i m i t e d o r decreasing public funds. I n t e r e s t i n t h e F e d e r a l programs of a i d t o e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i s a l s o h i g h b e c a u s e many of t h e s e p r o g r a m s h a d n o t b e e n t h o r o u g h l y c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C o n g r e s s s i n c e a d o p t i o n o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Amendments of 1978. The many c h a n g e s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l , p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l , and demographic environment t h a t have o c c u r r e d o v e r t h e p a s t decade a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d a s p a r t of t h e r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n process. Program D e s c r i p t i o n s F o r e a c h program b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n by t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , sumnary i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . Summary p r o v i s i o n s of P.L. 100-297 and t h e c o n f e r e n c e v e r s i o n o f H.R. 3 have b e e n n o t e d . Note t h a t w h i l e i t e x t e n d s and amends t h e programs c u r r e n t l y a u t h o r i z e d under t h e E C I A , P.L. 100-297 r e p e a l s t h e E C I A , w h i l e a u t h o r i z i n g t h e former ECIA and o t h e r -- programs u n d e r a n amended v e r s i o n of t h e Elementary and Secondary E d u c a t i o n Act (ESEA) o f 1965. Except where o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , t h e p e r i o d f o r which a p p r o p r i a t i o n s would be a u t h o r i z e d u n d e r t h e s e b i l l s i s FY88 o r FY89 t h r o u g h FY93. -- Education f o r t h e Disadvantaged The l a r g e s t F e d e r a l e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n program i s t h e ECIA C h a p t e r 1 compensatory e d u c a t i o n program f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n . Under t h e b a s i c g r a n t program, f u n d s a r e a l l o c a t e d t h r o u g h SEAS t o LEAs based p r i m a r i l y on t h e number of low income c h i l d r e n and t h e S t a t e a v e r a g e e x p e n d i t u r e p e r p u p i l f o r pub1 i c e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e b a s i c g r a n t s t o LEAs, E C I A C h a p t e r 1 f u n d s are u s e d f o r S t a t e agency programs f o r m i g r a n t , h a n d i c a p p e d , and n e g l e c t e d and delinquent children. I n 1985-86, a b o u t 4.5 m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n were s e r v e d by ECIA C h a p t e r 1 b a s i c g r a n t programs o p e r a t e d by LEAs, and a b o u t 650,000 s t u d e n t s w e r e s e r v e d i n t h e S t a t e agency programs. P.L. 100-297 e x t e n d s t h i s program a s T i t l e I , C h a p t e r 1 of t h e ESEA. P.L. 100-297 u p d a t e s c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n f a c t o r s used i n t h e b a s i c g r a n t a l l o c a t i o n f o r m u l a , and p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e f i r s t $400 m i l l i o n o f LEA g r a n t a p p r o p r i a t i o n s above t h e FY88 l e v e l , p l u s 10% of a p p r o p r i a t i o n s above t h i s amount, s h a l l be used f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n g r a n t s a l l o c a t e d o n l y t o c o u n t i e s where t h e number of c h i l d r e n c o u n t e d i n t h e b a s i c g r a n t a l l o c a t i o n f o r m u l a e i t h e r e x c e e d s 6 , 5 0 0 c h i l d r e n o r c o n s t i t u t e s 15% o r more of t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n a g e d 5-17 y e a r s . A d d i t i o n a l C h a p t e r 1 amendments i n P.L. 100297 a u t h o r i z e an Even S t a r t program and g r a n t s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and d r o p o u t p r e v e n t i o n ; and a t t e m p t t o i n c r e a s e program a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and i n n o v a t i o n , improve e v a l u a t i o n s , p l u s i n c r e a s e p a r e n t a l involvement. Even S t a r t Program P.L. 100-297 a u t h o r i z e s a program f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s f o r j o i n t e d u c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n 1-7 y e a r s o l d and t h e i r p a r e n t s who l a c k a h i g h s c h o o l diploma ( o r e q u i v a l e n t ) . This program becomes a new P a r t B of C h a p t e r 1. G r a n t s a r e t o b e made on a d i s c r e t i o n a r y b a s i s by t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n i f a p p r o p r i a t i o n s a r e l e s s t h a n $50 m i l l i o n , b u t a l l o c a t e d t o S t a t e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o C h a p t e r 1 b a s i c g r a n t s a t higher funding l e v e l s . B a s i c S k i l l s Improvement and Dropout P r e v e n t i o n P.L. 100-297 a u t h o r i z e s programs of d r o p o u t p r e v e n t i o n and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l b a s i c s k i l l s improvement. One-year (FY89) d e m o n s t r a t i o n programs H.R. 3 f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s a r e a u t h o r i z e d a s a new T i t l e V I o f t h e ESEA. authorizes s i m i l a r demonstration programs f o r FY88, a n d FY88 a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r s u c h a program a r e p r o v i d e d i n P.L. 100-202. P.L. 100297 p r o v i d e s t h a t a n y FY88 a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r d r o p o u t p r e v e n t i o n programs a r e t o be expended i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e new ESEA T i t l e VI. Under t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n programs, g r a n t s would be made on t h e b a s i s of n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n t o model programs of s c h o o l d r o p o u t p r e v e n t i o n l r e e n t r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l b a s i c s k i l l s improvement, a l t h o u g h s p e c i f i e d p r o p o r t i o n s of s h e d r o p o u t p r e v e n t i o n must be a l l o t t e d t o LEAs i n c e r t a i n enrollment s i z e categories. The S e c r e t a r y o f E d u c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e a d e f i n i t i o n of t h e t e r m , "school d r o p o u t . " For FY90-93, P.L. 100-297 a u t h o r i z e s formula g r a n t s t o t h e S t a t e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l b a s i c s k i l l s improvement and d r o p o u t p r e v e n t i o n , a s a new P a r t C of C h a p t e r 1. These g r a n t s would b e made t o S t a t e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o C h a p t e r 1 b a s i c g r a n t s , w i t h a S t a t e minimum of t h e g r e a t e r o f 0.25% of t o t a l g r a n t s o r $250,000. S t a t e s would a l l o t f u n d s t o LEAs t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e t h e g r e a t e s t need f o r a s s i s t a n c e and propose innovative approaches. Not more t h a n 50% of t h e s e g r a n t s may be used by LEAs f o r d r o p o u t p r e v e n t i o n and r e - e n t r y . G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d Program J a v i t s G i f t e d and T a l e n t e d P.L. 100-297 a u t h o r i z e s a J a c o b K . S t u d e n t s E d u c a t i o n A c t , t h a t would p r o v i d e g r a n t s f o r programs t o meet t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s of g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n . Funds might be used f o r t r a i n i n g p e r s o n n e l , e s t a b l i s h i n g and o p e r a t i n g model p r o g r a m s , s t r e n g t h e n i n g S t a t e l e a d e r s h i p and c a p a c i t y , providing t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and c a r r y i n g o u t n a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , e v a l u a t i o n s , s u r v e y s , and data collection. Drug E d u c a t i o n POL. 100-297 e x t e n d s and amends t h e Drug-Free S c h o o l s and Communities H.R. 3 a l s o amends t h e Drug-Free S c h o o l s and Act o f 1986 t h r o u g h FY93. Communities Act t o r e q u i r e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of f u n d s t o LEAs w i t h i n S t a t e s on t h e b a s i s of t h e e n r o l l m e n t i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e n o n p r o f i t s c h o o l s , r a t h e r t h a n on t h e school-age p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h LEA, a n amendment t h a t i s a l s o c o n t a i n e d i n P.L. 100-297. S t a t e E d u c a t i o n Block G r a n t E C I A C h a p t e r 2 i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e S t a t e e d u c a t i o n b l o c k g r a n t program. I n 1981, a b o u t 40 programs were c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o t h e S t a t e e d u c a t i o n b l o c k g r a n t w i t h t h r e e broad g r o u p s of a u t h o r i z e d activities b a s i c s k i l l s development, e d u c a t i o n a l improvement and A l l SEAs and LEAs a r e e l i g i b l e t o s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s . r e c e i v c C h a p t e r 2 f u n d s , and a t l e a s t 80% o f a S t a t e ' s f u n d s i s distributed t o LEAs a c c o r d i n g t o a ( S t a t e - d e v e l o p e d ) f o r m u l a . SEAs and LEAs may u s e t h e C h a p t e r 2 f u n d s f o r any p u r p o s e a u t h o r i z e d u n d e r t h e a n t e c e d e n t programs. -- -- a s T i t l e 11, C h a p t e r 2 , P.L. 100-297 amends t h e C h a p t e r 2 program of t h e ESEA t o a u t h o r i z e t h e u s e of f u n d s by S t a t e and l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s f o r " t a r g e t e d a s s i s t a n c e " programs f o r c h i l d r e n a t -- r i s k o f s c h o o l f a i l u r e o r whose e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s h i g h e r t h a n a v e r a g e c o s t s ; a c q u i s i t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ; i n n o v a t i v e , s c h o o l w i d e improvement programs, i n c l u d i n g " e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s " programs; p e r s o n n e l t r a i n i n g ; programs i n t e n d e d t o improve t h e a c h i e v e m e n t and " p e r s o n a l e x c e l l e n c e " o f s t u d e n t s ; and o t h e r i n n o v a t i v e programs t o improve t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c l i m a t e of s c h o o l s . A t l e a s t 20% of t h e S t a t e s h a r e o f Funding C h a p t e r 2 f u n d s must b e u s e d f o r " e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s " programs. p r i o r i t i e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a number o f n a t i o n a l programs and National a c t i v i t i e s , a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y o f E d u c a t i o n D i f f u s i o n Network, I n e x p e n s i v e Book D i s t r i b u t i o n , A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n , LawR e l a t e d E d u c a t i o n , and Blue Ribbon S c h o o l s . -- Impact Aid The impact a i d program was f i r s t a u t h o r i z e d i n 1950 u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s of P.L. 8 7 4 , 8 1 s t Congress. Impact a i d f u n d s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r payments t o LEAs e n r o l l i n g s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of s t u d e n t s r e s i d i n g w i t h p a r e n t s who work a n d / o r l i v e on F e d e r a l p r o p e r t y , i n c l u d i n g d e p e n d e n t s o f u n i f o r m e d m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l and I n d i a n y o u t h r e s i d i n g on F e d e r a l l a n d s . Funds u n d e r P.L. 874 a r e a l l o c a t e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e number o f e l i g i b l e c h i l d r e n m u l t i p l i e d by a payment r a t e , and t h i s i s t h e o n l y F e d e r a l program i n which f u n d s may be used f o r t h e g e n e r a l o p e r a t i o n o f s c h o o l s . I n FY86, f u n d s were a l l o c a t e d t o a b o u t 2,700 of t h e o at ion's 1 6 , 0 0 0 LEAs on t h e b a s i s of a t o t a l of a b o u t 2 m i l l i o n p u b l i c s c h o o l c h i l d r e n e l i g i b l e f o r payments u n d e r t h e program. For FY86, ED e s t i m a t e s t h a t impact a i d payments a v e r a g e d l e s s t h a n 1% o f t h e t o t a l r e v e n u e s f o r c u r r e n t e x p e n d i t u r e s i n t h e r e c i p i e n t LEAs o v e r a l l ; however, i n some i n d i v i d u a l LEAs, t h e payments may r e p r e s e n t p e r h a p s a s much a s 40% o f t o t a l revenues. P.L. 100-297 e x t e n d s P.L. 874 t h r o u g h FY93, s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e v i s i n g t h e payment r a t e s f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of LFAs and F e d e r a l l y - r e l a t e d p u p i l s , and p r o v i d i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n r e s i d i n g i n F e d e r a l l y - s u b s i d i z e d " S e c t i o n 8" h o u s i n g a r e e l i g i b l e f o r g r a n t s t h r o u g h FY88. B i l i n g u a l Education Under t h e B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n Act (BEA), f u n d s a r e a u t h o r i z e d f o r t h e S e c r e t a r y o f E d u c a t i o n t o make d i s c r e t i o n a r y g r a n t s t o LEAs f o r t h e I n school year e d u c a t i o n of l i m i t e d E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n t (LEP) c h i l d r e n . 1985-86, a b o u t 205,000 LEP s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n BEA programs. In 1985-86, ED e s t i m a t e s t h a t C a l i f o r n i a , T e x a s , and New York r e c e i v e d a b o u t 50% of t h e t o t a l BFA f u n d s . P.L. 100-297 e x t e n d s t h e BEA and p r o v i d e s f o r g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e u s e of f u n d s . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e p r o p c r t i u n o f BEA funds t h a t support i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches o t h e r than b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r LEP p u p i l s , and expands c u r r e n t BEA p r o v i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g program e v a l u a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by ED. Adult Education The A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Act (AEA) p r o v i d e s g r a n t s t o SEAs f o r programs t o meet t h e b a s i c e d u c a t i o n n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e n o t e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l and who a r e n o t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s . SEAs t y p i c a l l y fund programs l o c a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e S t a t e . The AEA i s t h e l a r g e s t s o u r c e of ED h a s e s t i m a t e d t h a t Federal funds t o h e l p a l l e v i a t e a d u l t i l l i t e r a c y . a b o u t 2.8 m i l l i o n p e r s o n s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n AEA-assisted programs i n 1985-86; a b o u t 70% r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h a s a second l a n g u a g e o r b a s i c s k i l l s ; and t h e r e m a i n i n g 30% were i n programs l e a d i n g t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f a h i g h s c h o o l diploma. The AEA r e q u i r e s t h e S t a t e s t o c o n t r i b u t e 10% o f t h e program c o s t s , but a c t u a l S t a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s were e s t i m a t e d t o be 69% i n 1984-85. P.L. 100-297 e x t e n d s t h e AEA t h r o u g h FY93 and c l a r i f i e s t h e l e g i s l a t i v e i n t e n t t h a t t h e program i s t o s e r v e a d u l t s who l a c k s u f f i c i e n t literacy skills. P.L. 100-297 a l s o amends t h e Act t o c r e a t e a 10% s e t a s i d e f o r s e r v i c e s t o persons i n c o r r e c t i o n a l o r o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , c l a r i f y provisions f o r services t o limited-English p r o f i c i e n t individuals, a u t h o r i z e new programs o f workplace l i t e r a c y p a r t n e r s h i p s g r a n t s and E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y f o r l i m i t e d - E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n t a d u l t s , and new n a t i o n a l programs o f a d u l t m i g r a n t farmworker and i m i g r a n t e d u c a t i o n p l u s a d u l t l i t e r a c y volunteer training. H.R. 3 c o n t a i n s a u t h o r i z a t i o n s f o r workplace L i t e r a c y and E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y g r a n t s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s i n P.L. 100-297, e x c e p t t h a t t h e E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y g r a n t a u t h o r i z a t i o n i n H.R. 3 i s f o r FY88 H.R. 3 a l s o r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n ' s A d u l t only. Education Division s e r v e a s a Federal l i t e r a c y coordination o f f i c e . 3 that i t s adult education provisions However, i t i s p r o v i d e d i n H.R. s h a l l n o t t a k e e f f e c t i f P.L. 100-297 h a s f i r s t been e n a c t e d . b l a t h / ~ c i e n c eE d u c a t i o n Program Under T i t l e I1 of t h e E d u c a t i o n f o r Economic S e c u r i t y Act (EESA), P.L. 98-377, f u n d s a r e p r o v i d e d t o S t a t e s and LEAs f o r programs t o improve i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n c e , m a t h e m a t i c s , computer l e a r n i n g , and f o r e i g n languages. S t a t e f u n d s a r e a l l o c a t e d t h r o u g h f o r m u l a g r a n t s t o LEAS, and c o m p e t i t i v e g r a n t s t o LEAs and i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . The p r i m a r y u s e of f u n d s h a s been f o r t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s i n the target subject areas. S i n c e a l l LEAs may r e c e i v e f u n d s u n d e r t h i s program, a l l t e a c h e r s i n t h e t a r g e t s u b j e c t a r e a s c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y r e c e i v e s e r v i c e s , b u t sumnary p a r t i c i p a t i o n d a t a h a v e n o t b e e n made available. P.L. 100-297 a u t h o r i z e s f u n d s t o improve i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n c e and m a t h e m a t i c s a t t h e S t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l under a B. ~ g h tD. Eisenhower M a t h e m a t i c s and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n Act. The p r o p o r t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n of f u n d s i s changed t o p r o v i d e t h a t 75% of f u n d s a r e used f o r e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n programs, and 25% f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n programs. At l e a s t 90% o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n f u n d s a r e t o be a l l o c a t e d t o LEAs: one-half i n p r o p o r t i o n t o e n r o l l m e n t s i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , and one-half i n p r o p o r t i o n t o c o u n t s o f c h i l d r e n i n low-income f a m i l i e s , a s used i n t h e C h a p t e r 1 b a s i c g r a n t formula. S t a t e s a r e t o renew g r a n t s t o LEAs o n l y i f t h e S t a t e d e t e r m i n e s t h a t t h e LEA i s making a d e q u a t e p r o g r e s s i n m e e t i n g t h e g o a l s of t h i s program. H.R. 3 amends t h e E d u c a t i o n f o r Economic S e c u r i t y Act t o a u t h o r i z e a new S t a t e g r a n t program t o e n c o u r a g e p a r t n e r s h i p s between s c h o o l s and H.R. 3 a l s o i n c r e a s e s b u s i n e s s e s o r o t h e r p u b l i c and n o n p r o f i t a g e n c i e s . t h e FY88 a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r EESA T i t l e I1 t o $175 m i l l i o n . E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l F o r e i g n Language Programs C u r r e n t l y , f u n d s p r o v i d e d under T i t l e I1 o f t h e E d u c a t i o n f o r Economic S e c u r i t y Act (EEsA) may be used f o r programs t o improve e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n i n f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s . P.L. 100-297 a u t h o r i z e s two new programs f o r e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e e d u c a t i o n . A new T i t l e 11', P a r t B, o f t h e ESEA a u t h o r i z e s g r a n t s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o p o p u l a t i o n aged 5-17, b u t w i t h a 0.5% S t a t e to States minimum f o r model LEA programs o f f o r e i g n Language e d u c a t i o n . A new T i t l e 11, P a r t C , of t h e ESEA a u t h o r i z e s t h e P r e s i d e n t t o make 104 awards ( 1 e l e m e n t a r y and 1 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r from e a c h S t a t e p l u s t h e D i s t r i c t of Columbia and P u e r t o R i c o ) f o r e x c e l l e n c e i n t e a c h i n g f o r e i g n languages. H.R. 3 a u t h o r i z e s f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e e d u c a t i o n programs s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f P.L. 100-297, b u t o n l y f o r FY88. -- -- Magnet S c h o o l s The S e c r e t a r y o f E d u c a t i o n i s a u t h o r i z e d t o make g r a n t s t o LEAs f o r magnet s c h o o l s t o e n c o u r a g e v o l u n t a r y s c h o o l d e s e g r e g a t i o n u n d e r t h e Funds a r e used f o r c u r r i c u l a r p r o v i s i o n s o f T i t l e VII of P.L. 98-377. m a t e r i a l s , i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs f o r t e a c h e r s , t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s , and p r o m o t i o n o f magnet s c h o o l programs. With FY87 f u n d s , 38 g r a n t s were made. P.L. 100-297 e x t e n d s t h e magnet s c h o o l program t h r o u g h FY93, a s A s e p a r a t e program of " a l t e r n a t i v e c u r r i c u l u m T i t l e 111 o f t h e ESEA. s c h o o l s " i s a u t h o r i z e d under t h e S e c r e t a r y ' s Fund f o r I n n o v a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n ( T i t l e I V , P a r t F, of t h e ESEA), t h a t can be funded o n l y i f a t l e a s t $165 m i l l i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e d Eor t h e magnet s c h o o l program ( t h e FY88 a p p r o p r i a t i o n i s $71.8 m i l l i o n ) . Educational Telecomnunications Each of P.L. 100-297, H.R. 3, and S. 778 a u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y of E d u c a t i o n t o make c o s t - s h a r i n g g r a n t s t o e s t a b l i s h a series of t e l e c o m n u n i c a t i o n s c e n t e r s t o improve i n s t r u c t i o n i n m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e , f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s , and r e m e d i a l o r compensatory e d u c a t i o n , a s a new T i t l e I X of t h e E d u c a t i o n f o r Economic S e c u r i t y Act. Under b o t h P.L. 100-297 and H.R. 3 , no i n d i v i d u a l c e n t e r may r e c e i v e more t h a n $20 m i l l i o n u n d e r t h i s program; and a t l e a s t 25% of g r a n t s must be used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l programming, p l u s a minimum of 50% f o r f a c i l i t i e s , t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , e q u i p m e n t , o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . The H.R. 3 p r o v i s i o n s a r e n o t t o t a k e T h i s program r e c e i v e d a n FY88 e f f e c t i f P.L. 100-297 i s f i r s t e n a c t e d . a p p r o p r i a t i o n of $19.148 m i l l i o n under P.L. 100-202. Indian E d u c a t i o n The I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n Act (IEA) c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p a r t s . Under P a r t A , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f E d u c a t i o n i s a u t h o r i z e d t o make g r a n t s t o LEAs a n d t r i b a l l y o p e r a t e d s c h o o l s f o r s p e c i a l programs t o e d u c a t e I n d i a n y o u t h . ( S e p a r a t e f u n d i n g t h r o u g h t h e Bureau of I n d i a n A f f a i r s (BIA) i n t h e Department o f I n t e r i o r i s provided f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of s c h o o l s f o r I n d i a n y o u t h on I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s . ) IEA P a r t B f u n d s a r e u s e d t o f u n d c o m p e t i t i v e g r a n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s , r e s o u r c e and e v a l u a t i o n c e n t e r s , and p o s t s e c o n d a r y f e l l o w s h i p s f o r I n d i a n s t u d e n t s ; P a r t C funds a r e used t o f u n d c o m p e t i t i v e g r a n t programs t o s e r v e I n d i a n a d u l t s . P.L. 100-297 amends c u r r e n t s t a t u t e s on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f s c h o o l s by t h e Bureau of I n d i a n A f f a i r s ( B I A ) of t h e Department of I n t e r i o r , a n d e x t e n d s IEA p r o g r a m s . Among o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f I n d i a n A new g r a n t s t u d e n t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n IEA programs i s c l a r i f i e d . p r o g r a m and c h a n g e s i n f o r m u l a p r o v i s i o n s a r e a u t h o r i z e d f o r BIA-funded N e w ED programs a r e a u t h o r i z e d f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f contract schools. Native Hawaiians. I n a d d i t i o n , P.L. 100-297 m o d i f i e s p r o v i s i o n s f o r a i d t o N a v a ~ o Community C o l l e g e , and a u t h o r i z e s a W h i t e House C o n f e r e n c e on I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n , a n I n d i a n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n program, g r a n t s f o r t r i b a l d e p a r t m e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n , c e n t e r s f o r g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , a n d a v a r i e t y of programs f o r N a t i v e H a w a i i a n c h i l d r e n a n d youth. Immigrant E d u c a t i o n Under t h e Emergency Immigrant E d u c a t i o n A c t , T i t l e V I o f P.L. 98-511, ED i s a u t h o r i z e d t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o LEAs w i t h l a r g e numbers o f immigrant c h i l d r e n . I n FY86, 31 S t a t e s r e c e i v e d g r a n t s u n d e r t h i s p r o g r a m t o s e r v e a r e p o r t e d 436,612 s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The S t a t e s w i t h t h e l a r g e s t numbers o f s u c h c h i l d r e n a r e C a l i f o r n i a , New York, T e x a s , I l l i n o i s , a n d Florida. P.L. 100-297 a d d s r e p o r t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s and r e a u t h o r i z e s t h i s program. women's E d u c a t i o n a l E q u i t y T i t l e I X , P a r t C of t h e ESEA a u t h o r i z e s t h e S e c r e t a r y o f E d u c a t i o n t o make g r a n t s f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l e q u i t y f o r women a n d g i r l s , and t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n meeting t h e prohibition against sexual discrimination i n Federally a s s i s t e d p r o g r a m s o r a c t i v i t i e s ( T i t l e IX, P.L. 92-318). I n FY85, 59 g r a n t s were made; t h e two most p r o m i n e n t program p r i o r i t i e s were p r o j e c t s on e d u c a t i o n a l e q u i t y f o r r a c i a l and e t h n i c m i n o r i t y women, a n d p r o j e c t s f o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of p e r s i s t e n t b a r r i e r s t o e d u c a t i o n a l e q u i t y f o r women. P.L. 100-297 e x t e n d s t h i s program t h r o u g h FY93. T e r r i t o r i a l Assistance G r a n t s a r e c u r r e n t l y a u t h o r i z e d f o r g e n e r a l e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e V i r g i n I s l a n d s , and f o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g P.L. 100-297 programs i n a l l of t h e O u t l y i n g Areas of t h e United S t a t e s . e x t e n d s t h e s e programs t h r o u g h FY93. E x c e l l e n c e i n E d u c a t i o n Program The S e c r e t a r y i s a u t h o r i z e d t o make awards t o LEAS t o d e m o n s t r a t e s u c c e s s f u l t e c h n i q u e s f o r improving t h e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n . Such awards may n o t e x c e e d $25,000 f o r any f i s c a l y e a r o r a t o t a l of $40,000. P.L. 100-297 t e r m i n a t e s t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h i s program. E l l e n d e r F e l l o w s h i p Program P.L. 100-297 e x t e n d s and amends t h i s program f o r f e l l o w s h i p s t o p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a b o u t governmental o p e r a t i o n s . Provisions a r e made f o r programs i n S t a t e and l o c a l government a s w e l l a s a t t h e F e d e r a l P.L. 100-297 expands t h e program t o i n c l u d e f e l l o w s h i p s f o r o l d e r level. Americans and r e c e n t i m n i g r a n t s . (National) Center f o r Education S t a t i s t i c s P. L. 100-297 e x t e n d s t h e a-ppropr i a t i o n s a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h e ( ~ a t i o n a l ) C e n t e r f o r E d u c a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s , amending i t s a u t h o r i t y t o e n h a n c e t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of t h e C e n t e r and t o a t t e m p t t o make i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d s t a t u s c o m p a r a b l e w i t h o t h e r F e d e r a l Government s t a t i s t i c a l agencies. O t h e r N e w E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary E d u c a t i o n Programs A u t h o r i z e d P.L. 100-297 Under S e v e r a l o t h e r new i n i t i a t i v e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n P.L. 100-297, f o r which t h e r e a r e no c o m p a r a b l e c u r r e n t programs. These i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : -- -- a S e c r e t a r y ' s Fund f o r I n n o v a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n , a u t h o r i z i n g d i s c r e t i o n a r y g r a n t s f o r o p t i o n a l t e s t s f o r academic e x c e l l e n c e , p r o g r a m s f o r computer-based instruction, programs f o r t h e improvement of comprehensive school h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e curriculum schools, programs of technology e d u c a t i o n , and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e S e c r e t a r y of E d u c a t i o n ; a r u r a l e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s program, a s P a r t F, S u b p a r t 3 of C h a p t e r 1; -- a Fund f o r t h e Improvement and Reform of S c h o o l s and T e a c h i n g , t h a t i s a u t h o r i z e d t o make g r a n t s f o r s c h o o l s and t e a c h e r s , a s well a s f o r family-school p a r t n e r s h i p s ; -- an amendment t o t h e c u r r e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r a N a t i o n a l Assessment of E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r e s s (NAEP) t o a u t h o r i z e a t r i a l m a t h e m a t i c s a s s e s s m e n t w i t h r e s u l t s t o be r e p o r t e d on a S t a t e - b y - S t a t e b a s i s for voluntarily participating States; -- a n a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r a g r a n t t o a "predominantly rural centrally l o c a t e d Western S t a t e which h a s a h i g h b i r t h r a t e and w i t h a low p e r p u p i l e x p e n d i t u r e u , f o r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s "at risk", such a s persons with d i s a b i l i t i e s ; -- an -- a comprehensive c h i l d development program f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . amendment t o t h e Comnunications Act of 1934, r e g a r d i n g t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of obscene o r indecent material over t e l e c o m n u n i c a t i o n s l i n e s ; and O t h e r New E l e m e n t a r y and Secondary E d u c a t i o n Programs C r e a t e d Under H.R. 3 S e v e r a l o t h e r new i n i t i a t i v e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n H.R. 3 , f o r which t h e r e a r e no c o m p a r a b l e c u r r e n t programs. These i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : -- a program o f e d u c a t i o n a l p a r t n e r s h i p s and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , i n s t i t u t i o n s of p r i v a t e s e c t o r , t o increase the e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a w a r e n e s s of s t u d e n t s ; -- a program of a s s i s t a n c e t o up t o 10 d e m o n s t r a t i o n c e n t e r s f o r technology e d u c a t i o n i n secondary s c h o o l s , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n c e n t e r s , and community c o l l e g e s ; -- an a c c e s s d e m o n s t r a t i o n program of a i d f o r t h e t r a i n i n g secondary school personnel, including guidance counselors, r u r a l a r e a s ; and -- a s t u d e n t l i t e r a c y c o r p s program, under which p o s t s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s would b e t r a i n e d a s t u t o r s i n p u b l i c community agencies. between p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , and t h e resources available f o r and i n c r e a s e t h e c a r e e r of in Issues While most d e b a t e o v e r t h e programs d e s c r i b e d above i s b a s e d on p r o g r a m - s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , a v a r i e t y of g e n e r a l i s s u e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h F e d e r a l e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n programs. For i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e m a j o r i s s u e s and r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n o p t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r a m s , s e e t h e r e p o r t s l i s t e d i n t h e r e f e r e n c e s e c t i o n a t t h e end of this issue brief. T a r g e t i n g vs. Local D i s c r e t i o n Basic p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s concerning formula g r a n t s l i k e l y w i l l i n c l u d e w h e t h e r t o ( 1 ) m a i n t a i n c u r r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s a b o u t u s e o f f u n d s and p a r t i c i p a n t e - . i g i b i l i t y ; ( 2 ) t a r g e t f u n d s more on t h o s e s t u d e n t s most i n need of p a r t i c u l a r programs; o r ( 3 ) p r o v i d e SEAS and LEAs w i t h more d i s c r e t i o n i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e s t u d e n t s t o b e s e r v e d and t h e A r e l a t e d i s s u e i s whether t h e t y p e s of programs t o be p r o v i d e d . c o n d i t i o n s among t h e S t a t e s and LEAs a r e s o d i f f e r e n t t h a t t h e s e a g e n c i e s a r e i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t h a n t h e F e d e r a l Government t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s and t o make d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a s s i s t a n c e and u s e of f u n d s . The t a r g e t i n g / l o c a l d i s c r e t i o n i s s u e i s r e l a t e d t o b o t h t h e E C I A C h a p t e r 1 program f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d and t h e C h a p t e r 2 S t a t e education block grants. With C h a p t e r 1 f u n d s , t h e i s s u e i s w h e t h e r t o (1) c o n c e n t r a t e t h e f u n d s on t h e "most needyu s t u d e n t s , o r s c h o o l s o r LEAs w i t h t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e s o f e l i g i b l e s t u d e n t s ; o r ( 2 ) r e l a x c u r r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s i n o r d e r t o promote u s e of "school-wide" p r o j e c t s i n which C h a p t e r 1 a c t i v i t i e s a r e made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s w i t h e s p e c i a l l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s of poor p u p i l s . With C h a p t e r 2 f u n d s , t h e i s s u e h a s been r e l a t e d t o ( 1 ) t h e a p p r o p r i a t e amount o f d i s c r e t i o n f o r t h e S t a t e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i n t r a - S t a t e f u n d i n g f o r m u l a ; and ( 2 ) a u t h o r i z e d u s e s of f u n d s by LEAs. I n t e r e s t g r o u p s h a v e q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r a " f a i r " s h a r e of t h e f u n d s i s g o i n g t o t h o s e LEAS w i t h e i t h e r h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s o r l a r g e numbers of s p e c i a l n e e d s s t u d e n t s . P e r c e i v e d n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and F e d e r a l p r i o r i t i e s may come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h SEA and LEA p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s . Some o b s e r v e r s c o n t e n d t h a t programs such a s E C I A C h a p t e r 1 f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n of d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n and P.L. 94-142 f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n of h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n w e r e e n a c t e d b e c a u s e SEAS and LEAs were e i t h e r u n a b l e o r unwilling t o serve these populations adequately. Formula C r a n t s vs. C o m p e t i t i v e C r a n t s An i s s u e i s w h e t h e r F e d e r a l e d u c a t i o n programs s h o u l d ' b e p r o v i d e d t o v i r t u a l l y a l l LEAs, o r a t l e a s t a l l S t a t e s , t h r o u g h f o r m u l a g r a n t s , o r t o a few LEAS o r S t a t e s t h r o u g h c o m p e t i t i v e g r a n t s . Formula g r a n t s a r e u s e d i n a l l o c a t i n g f u n d s f o r t h e l a r g e s t F e d e r a l e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n programs s u c h a s C h a p t e r 1 compensatory e d u c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n of t h e h a n d i c a p p e d , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , and C h a p t e r 2 S t a t e e d u c a t i o n b l o c k g r a n t s ; c o m p e t i t i v e g r a n t s a r e u s e d i n a l l o c a t i n g f u n d s f o r s u c h programs a s magnet s c h o o l s a s s i s t a n c e , b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , and ED r e s e a r c h . With l i m i t e d F e d e r a l f u n d s , c o m p e t i t i v e g r a n t s may b e u s e d t o fund a s e r i e s of "model" o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n programs t o promote new i n i t i a t i v e s ; one c o n c e r n w i t h t h i s o p t i o n i s t h a t LEAs i n f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s may n o t h a v e t h e r e s o u r c e s t o r e p l i c a t e t h e model programs i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l problems. I n a d d i t i o n , LEAs o f t e n r a i s e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t ( 1 ) t h e r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d t o submit a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r a l i m i t e d number o f c o m p e t i t i v e g r a n t s ; ( 2 ) t h e merits o f t h e c r i t e r i a u s e d i n making a w a r d s ; The and ( 3 ) a p o s s i b l e l a c k o f o b j e c t i v i t y i n s e l e c t i n g r e c i p i e n t s . a l t e r n a t i v e may be t o u s e f o r m u l a g r a n t s and p r o v i d e f u n d s t o a l l e l i g i b l e LEAs, b u t p o s s i b l y h a v e l i m i t e d impact b e c a u s e o f l i m i t e d f u n d s p e r individual grant. S e r v i c e s f o r P r i v a t e School P u p i l s A g e n e r a l i s s u e may be t h e p e r m i s s i b l e p r o c e d u r e s t h a t LEAs c a n u s e i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s and programs f o r p r i v a t e s c h o o l p u p i l s who a r e e l i g i b l e f o r t h e F e d e r a l programs. U n t i l t h e J u l y 1, 1985, A g u i l a r v. F e l t o n d e c i s i o n o f t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t , LEAs c o u l d employ t e a c h e r s and provide s p e c i a l non-sectarian i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e children a t r e l i g i o u s l y a f f i l i a t e d , o r o t h e r , n o n p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The d e c i s i o n h e l d t h a t p r o v i s i o n of C h a p t e r 1 i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s on t h e p r e m i s e s of s e c t a r i a n s c h o o l s was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , b e c a u s e i t l e a d t o " e x c e s s i v e public o f f i c i a l s with religious institutions. entanglement" of S i n c e t h e s t a t u t e s f o r C h a p t e r 1 and c e r t a i n o t h e r F e d e r a l e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n programs r e q u i r e t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and a r r a n g e m e n t s be p r o v i d e d on an e q u i t a b l e b a s i s t o e l i g i b l e p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g p r i v a t e e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , LEAs a r e r e q u i r e d t o s e r v e t h e e l i g i b l e c h i l d r e n i n a p l a c e o t h e r t h a n on t h e p r e m i s e s of a r e l i g i o u s l y a f f i l i a t e d nonpublic school. Suggested a l t e r n a t i v e s i n c l u d e providing s e r v i c e s t o t h e nonpublic school s t u d e n t s i n t h e p u b l i c schools, r e n t i n g space i n "neutral" s i t e s near t h e nonpublic school, using mobile c l a s s r o o m s , o r u t i l i z i n g new i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y . One problem w i t h t h e n e u t r a l s i t e and m o b i l e c l a s s r o o m o p t i o n s i s t h a t ED h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f C h a p t e r 1 , any c o s t s o f r e n t i n g o r p u r c h a s i n g n e u t r a l s i t e s o r p o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m s must be d e d u c t e d from t h e t o t a l payments t o t h a t LEA r a t h e r t h a n o n l y from t h a t p o r t i o n a l l o c a b l e t o e l i g i b l e nonpublic school students. This i s s u e i s e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l i n c e r t a i n u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h l a r g e numbers of e l i g i b l e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g r e l i g i o u s l y a f f i l i a t e d nonpublic schools, R e l a t i o n s h i p Between F e d e r a l Programs and S t a t e School Reforms F e d e r a l a c t i v i t i e s and programs t o s u p p o r t t h e c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n r e f o r m movement have been l i m i t e d ; however, t h e q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s a s t o w h e t h e r c h a n g e s s h o u l d be made i n e x i s t i n g F e d e r a l programs t o s u p p o r t o r encourage S t a t e school reform e f f o r t s . Some have proposed t h a t , a s a c o n d i t i o n of r e c e i p t o f F e d e r a l f u n d s , S t a t e s be r e q u i r e d t o a d o p t c e r t a i n education reforms. T h i s o p t i o n s u g g e s t s an i n c r e a s e d d e g r e e of F e d e r a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s c h o o l s ; however, some might c o n t e n d t h a t c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l problems a r e o f s u f f i c i e n t magnitude t o j u s t i f y t h e a c t i o n . A s a n a l t e r n a t i v e , F e d e r a l i n c e n t i v e s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d t o e n c o u r a g e S t a t e a d o p t i o n of c e r t a i n r e f o r m s ; however, o p p o s i t i o n might d e v e l o p b e c a u s e of a l a c k o f agreement c o n c e r n i n g t h e programs o r a c t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m s , t h e i r r e l a t i v e m e r i t s , t h e means t o a s h i e v e them, o r t h e way t o f i n a n c e them. Another o p t i o n would b e t o promote o r e n c o u r a g e r e f o r m s t h r o u g h F e d e r a l g r a n t s f o r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n o r model programs. I n f o r m a t i o n Needs of t h e C o n g r e s s An i s s u e i s t h e c o n f l i c t between (1) t h e i n t e r e s t i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e s t a t e d i n t e n t of t h e Paperwork R e d u c t i o n A c t , and t h e i m p l i c i t i n t e n t of t h e E d u c a t i o n C o n s o l i d a t i o n and Improvement A c t , t o minimize t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g and r e p o r t i n g burdens on F e d e r a l g r a n t r e c i p i e n t s ; and ( 2 ) t h e need o f t h e Congress f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , program, and e v a l u a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t F e d e r a l programs. When r e a u t h o r i z i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e Congress l i k e l y w i l l s e e k program i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t r e q u i r i n g LEAs and SEAS t o p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n imposes a paperwork burden. The c h a l l e n g e i s how t o b a l a n c e t h e c o m p e t i t i v e g o a l s of paperwork r e d u c t i o n and t h e need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n making p u b l i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h e t h e r t o m a i n t a i n o r modify a p a r t i c u l a r F e d e r a l program. LEG1 SLATIOY P.L. 100-297, H.R. 5 A u g u s t u s F. Hawkins-Robert T. S t a f f o r d E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y School Improvement Amendments o f 1988. Extends and amends t h e E l e m e n t a r y a n d S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n Act and most o t h e r F e d e r a l programs f o r e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . I n t r o d u c e d J a n . 6 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n and Labor. Reported by t h e Committee on E d u c a t i o n and Labor on May 1 5 , 1987 (H.Rept. 100-95). P a s s e d by t h e House on May 2 1 , 1987. P a s s e d by t h e S e n a t e on Dec. 1, 1987. C o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t (H. R e p t . 100-5671 a g r e e d t o by House on Apr. 1 9 , and by S e n a t e on Apr. 20, 1988. H . R . 3 ( G e p h a r d t et a l . ) Omnibus T r a d e and C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s Act of 1988. Includes T i t l e V I , t h e E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g f o r a C o m p e t i t i v e America Act o f 1988. C o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t (H. Rept. 100-576) a g r e e d t o by House on Apr. 21, and by S e n a t e on Apr. 27, 1988. S. 360 (Inouye) A u t h o r i z e e d u c a t i o n programs f o r N a t i v e Hawaiians. Introduced Jan. 2 1 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on I n d i a n A f f a i r s ; o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d ( S . R e p t . 100-36) Apr. 9; p a s s e d S e n a t e Apr. 22. B a s i c p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d i n T i t l e I V of P.L. 100-297 ( s e e a b o v e ) . S. 3 7 3 ( P e l l ) The R o b e r t T. S t a f f o r d Elementary and Secondary E d u c a t i o n Improvement Act o f 1987. Amends and e x t e n d s most programs o f F e d e r a l a i d t o e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , and a u t h o r i z e s c e r t a i n new programs. I n t r o d u c e d on J a n . 21, 1987. Reported by t h e C o m n i t t e e on Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s on Oct. 1 4 , 1987 ( S . Rept. No. 100-222). Provisions i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o P.L. 100-297, a s p a s s e d by t h e S e n a t e , o n Dec. 1, 1987. S. 778 (Kennedy) S t a r S c h o o l s Program A s s i s t a n c e Act. E s t a b l i s h e s telecommunication n e t w o r k s t o improve i n s t r u c t i o n i n m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e , and f o r e i g n languages. I n t r o d u c e d Mar. 1 8 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e o n Labor a n d Human R e s o u r c e s . R e p o r t e d Apr. 23 ( ~ . R e p t . 100-44); p a s s e d S e n a t e Apr. 23. R e f e r r e d t o House Committee on E d u c a t i o n and Labor Apr. 27, 1987. S i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n f e r e n c e v e r s i o n s of H.R. 3 and P.L. 100-297 ( s e e a b o v e ) . S. 1238 (Kennedy) B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n Act Amendments of 1987. Amends t h e B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n Act t o make F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e f o r l i m i t e d English p r o f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n while i n c r e a s i n g t h e f l e x i b i l i t y allowed g r a n t e e s r e g a r d i n g t h e s p e c i f i c method o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Introduced, r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e on Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s ; r e p o r t e d (S.Rept. 100-92) May 2 0 , 1987. S i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n P.L. 100-297 ( s e e above). CRS- 1 4 FOR ADDITIONAL READING U. S o Congress. House. Committee on E d u c a t i o n a n d L a b o r . Federal a s s i s t a n c e f o r e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n : background i n f o r m a t i o n on s e l e c t e d p r o g r a m s l i k e l y t o c o n s i d e r e d f o r r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n by t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s . Committee P r i n t S e r i a l No, 100-A. J a n . 2 7 , 1987. U.S. L i b r a r y of Congress. Congressional Research literacy issues, p r o g r a m s , and o p t i o n s [ b y ] [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1985. ( U p d a t e d r e g u l a r l y ) CRS I s s u e B r i e f 85167 ----- Service. P a u l M. Adult Irwin. E a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n and development: Federal policy i s s u e s [ b y ] Wayne R i d d l e . [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1988 ( U p d a t e d r e g u l a r l y ) CRS I s s u e B r i e f 88048 ----- Education f o r disadvantaged children: Reauthorization i s s u e s [by] [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1987 ( U p d a t e d r e g u l a r l y ) Wayne C . R i d d l e . CRS I s s u e B r i e f 87070 ----- Elementary and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n : f i s c a l y e a r I987 and 1988 a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , p l u s i n i t i a l y e a r a u t h o r i z a t i o n s , f o r programs t h a t would b e a u t h o r i z e d u n d e r t h e House o r S e n a t e v e r s i o n s o f H.R. 5 , 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s [ b y ] Wayne R i d d l e . [Washington] February 17,1988 CRS R e p o r t f o r C o n g r e s s 88-142 EPW ----- F e d e r a l a i d t o e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n : A side-by-side c o m p a r i s o n o f c u r r e n t law w i t h H.R. 5 , a s p a s s e d by t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ( t h e S c h o o l Improvement Act o f 1 9 8 7 ) , a n d b y t h e S e n a t e ( t h e R o b e r t T. S t a f f o r d E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n Improvement Act o f 1 9 8 7 ) [ b y ] t h e E d u c a t i o n S e c t i o n , E d u c a t i o n a n d P u b l i c Welfare Division. ( W a s h i n g t o n ] J a n u a r y 4 , 1988. 212 p . CRS R e p o r t f o r C o n g r e s s 88-41 EPW ----- The B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n Act -- Should a s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l [Washington] 1986. a p p r o a c h be s u p p o r t e d ? ( b y ] Ruby Ann M. E s q u i b e l . (Updated r e g u l a r l y ) CRS I s s u e B r i e f 86139