Space Policy

O r d e r C o d e IB87018 SPACE POLICY U p d a t e d J u n e 29, 1987 NORTHERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY LIBRARY GWERNMENT DOCUMENTS COLLECTION by Patricia Humphlett and Marcia S m i t h Science Policy Research Division Congressional Research Service SUMMARY ISSUE DEFINITION BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS U.S. Civilian Space Program Military Space Activities Civilian/Military Interface Current Status of U.S. Space Program Space Shuttle Space Station Launch Vehicles: "Mixed Fleet" and Private ELVs Space Science and Appl icat ions Commercialization of Space Landsat Reagan Administrat ion Policy International Cooperation and Competition Issues Space Station Returning the Shuttle to Safe Operation Land sat NASA Management Duplication between NASA and DOD Comnercialization of Space Private ELVs Space Policy Decision-Making Mechanism Long-Term Goals LEG1 SLATION CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCUMENTS CHRONOLOGY FOR ADDITIONAL READING SPACE POLICY The s p a c e s h u t t l e C h a l l e n g e r a c c i d e n t and t h e r e s u l t i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n , combined w i t h p o t h e r l a u n c h - v e h i c l e f a i l u r e s i n 1986 a n d 1987, h a v e had a n impact on b o t h c i v i l i a n and m i l i t a r y s p a c e programs. Traditionally, Congress d e b a t e s s p a c e i s s u e s i n t h e c o n t e x t of f u n d i n g b i l l s f o r t h e N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (NASA) and t h e Department o f D e f e n s e (DOD). Most o v e r s i g h t o f t h e i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d h e r e o c c u r s a t t h e c o m n i t t e e l e v e l d u r i n g a u t h o r i z a t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t i o n hearings. However, b e c a u s e of t h e a t t e n t i o n t h e s h u t t l e a c c i d e n t h a s drawn, and b e c a u s e of t h e o v e r l a p between NASA and DOD, some f e e l i t i s t i m e f o r C o n g r e s s t o l o o k a t s p a c e p o l i c y more b r o a d l y . Some Members b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s h u t t l e a c c i d e n t and NASA's r e s p o n s e i n d i c a t e s t h a t NASA i s p o o r l y managed a n d r e q u i r e s c l o s e r c o n g r e s s i o n a l o v e r s i g h t . C o n v e r s e l y , some c h a r g e t h a t Congress i s micromanaging b u d g e t a r y i s s u e s . T h e N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (NASA) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1958 a s t h e c i v i l i a n s p a c e agency w h i l e m i l i t a r y s p a c e NASA'S c u r r e n t a c t i v i t i e s c o n t i n u e d i n t h e Department of Defense (DOD). programs i n c l u d e t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e , which i s t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f manned s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s a s w e l l a s a m a j o r l a u n c h v e h i c l e , and t h e newest m a j o r i n i t i a t i v e , a p e r m a n e n t l y manned s p a c e s t a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , NASA c o n d u c t s r e s e a r c h i n s p a c e s c i e n c e and a p p l i c a t i o n s and promotes t h e commercial u s e of s p a c e . I n an e r a o f f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t , t h e r e i s some c o n c e r n t h a t t h e development o f t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n w i l l d e t r a c t f r o m o t h e r DOD a l s o u s e s s p a c e f o r a v a r i e t y programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y space science. of s u p p o r t f u n c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g r e c o n n a i s s a n c e , communications, w e a t h e r , and n a v i g a t i o n . DOD's s p a c e budget h a s f a r s u r p a s s e d NASA'S b u d g e t , c a u s i n g some t o reexamine t h e i n t e r f a c e between t h e two programs. Both NASA and DOD h a v e had t o d e a l w i t h l a u n c h v e h i c l e f a i l u r e s . Returning the s h u t t l e t o safe operation i s a t t r a c t i n g considerable a t t e n t i o n i n C o n g r e s s , a l o n g w i t h NASA's p l a n s t o b u i l d a p e r m a n e n t l y occupied space s t a t i o n . NASA's management and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s h u t t l e and NASA and DOD's u s e of e x p e n d a b l e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s (ELVs) i s a f f e c t i n g t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r f i r m s p r o d u c i n g ELVs and l o o k i n g f o r l a u n c h s e r v i c e contracts. NASA's s u p p o r t f o r p r i v a t e s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s i s b e i n g reevaluated. Congress i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h how s p a c e p o l i c y i s made and by whom, and w h e t h e r C o n g r e s s c a n g e t i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o t h e policy-making mechanism. F i n a l l y , t h e need f o r long-term g o a l s t o g u i d e t h e s p a c e program i s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . ISSUE DEFINITION In the wake of the Challenger .tragedy and other. launch vehicle failures in 1986 affecting both civilian and national security space missions, Congress is paying more .attention to space activities and their underlying policy than at any time since the beginning of the Apollo program. The dominant issues include NASA's continued recovery from the shuttle accident, plans for building a space station, NASA management, duplication between NASA and DOD, commercialization and privatization of space, the space policy decision-making mechanism, and long-term goals. Coupled with the strong increase in military space activities, space policy has been catapulted once again into the national scene. Traditionally, space issues are debated in the context of funding bills for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Most oversight of the issues discussed here Department of Defense (DOD). will probably occur at the committee level during authorization and appropriation hearings. However, in the aftermath of the shuttle accident, some feel i t is time for Congress to look at space policy more broad1y. BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS The U.S. Civilian Space Program The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (P.L. 85-568) outlines objectives for NASA in both aeronautical and space activities. NASA's space objectives include: (1) the expansion of human knowledge, ( 2 ) the improvement of space vehicles, ( 3 ) the development and operation of space transportation systems, ( 4 ) the establishment of long-range studies of space activities for peaceful and scientific purposes, (5) the preservation of the United States as a leader in space science and technology and in their application for peaceful purposes, (6) the transfer of information to other agencies, and (7) international cooperation. The establishment of NASA, incorporating the National Advisory Comnittee on Aeronautics (NACA), symbolized the entrance of the United States into the space age. The Soviet Union had successfully orbited the first artificial satellite, Sputnik, in October 1957, lending the U.S. space program a new urgency. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, was orbited in January 1958. In 1961, President Kennedy announced that the United States intended to put a man on the Moon within a decade. The Apollo program, costing approximately $25 billion (then-year dollars), achieved this goal in 1969, when two astronauts landed on the Moon. Meanwhile, the 1960s witnessed the development of communications and meteorological satellites, and a wide range of spacecraft for space science missions in Earth orbit or beyond. Apollo was followed by the Skylab space station program (to which three crews were sent in 1973-1974) and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in which a U.S. Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz docked for two days of joint experiments. These successes did not provide the immediate momentum for major follow-on programs such as a permanent manned space station or a manned mission to Mars, as some had predicted. However, i n 1972 P r e s i d e n t Nixon approved NASA's s p a c e s h u t t l e program, a n d i n 1984 P r e s i d e n t Reagan e n d o r s e d development o f a p e r m a n e n t l y o c c u p i e d s p a c e s t a t i o n f o r o p e r a t i o n i n t h e mid-1990s. A l t h o u g h NASA i s t h e . p r i m a r y .agency f o r c o n d u c t i n g c i v i l i a n s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e United S t a t e s , o t h e r agencies a r e a l s o involved. The n e x t l a r g e s t i s t h e N a t i o n a l Oceanic and Atmospheric A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (NOAA) i n t h e Department of Commerce, which o p e r a t e s c i v i l i a n w e a t h e r s a t e l l i t e s . Several o t h e r agencies a r e d a t a u s e r s o r a r e otherwise involved i n space policy. M i l i t a r y Space A c t i v i t i e s The c r e a t i o n of NASA i n 1958 was a d e l i b e r a t e s t e p by t h e E i s e n h o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o s e p a r a t e m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s . P r e s i d e n t Eisenhower wanted t o s t r e s s t o t h e world t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p e a c e f u l u s e s of s p a c e , b u t he r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s p a c e had m i l i t a r y a p p l i c a t i o n s a s w e l l . The N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and S p a c e Act s p e c i f i e d t h a t m i l i t a r y s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s would be c o n d u c t e d u n d e r t h e p u r v i e w of t h e Department of Defense. The Department of Defense ( W D ) u s e s s p a c e f o r a v a r i e t y o f s u p p o r t reconnaissance ( i n c l u d i n g photographic, e l e c t r o n i c , e a r l y functions w a r n i n g , and n u c l e a r e x p l o s i o n d e t e c t i o n ) , communications, w e a t h e r , and navigation. I n a d d i t i o n , WD h a s a major i n t e r e s t i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f s p a c e - b a s e d weapons. The m i l i t a r y s p a c e b u d g e t s u r p a s s e d NASA'S f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n 1982, and c u r r e n t l y i s a b o u t t w i c e t h a t of NASA. -- I n 1959, t h e United S t a t e s conducted t h e f i r s t t e s t of an a n t i s a t e l l i t e (ASAT) d e v i c e t o d e s t r o y s a t e l l i t e s . T h i s c a p a b i l i t y was deemed n e c e s s a r y n o t o n l y s o t h a t S o v i e t s a t e l l i t e s c o u l d be d e s t r o y e d i n times of h o s t i l i t i e s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e t h e r e was c o n c e r n t h a t t h e S o v i e t s might p l a c e o f f e n s i v e weapons i n o r b i t . Although t h a t ASAT program d i d n o t p r o c e e d t o d e p l o y m e n t , by 1964 t h e United S t a t e s had a n o p e r a t i o n a l ASAT s y s t e m u s i n g ground based m i s s i l e s on J o h n s t o n I s l a n d . The s y s t e m was decommissioned i n 1975, and development of a new t y p e of ASAT d e v i c e u s i n g a n a i r - l a u n c h e d homing i n t e r c e p t o r began i n 1977. That system i s now t h e s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y i n C o n g r e s s and t e s t i n g of t h e system i s s t r i c t l y limited. The S o v i e t Union d e v e l o p e d i t s own ASAT s y s t e m i n t h e l a t e 19609, which WD h a s c o n s i d e r e d o p e r a t i o n a l s i n c e t h e 1970s. The d e b a t e o v e r ASAT d e v i c e s i s d i s c u s s e d i n CRS I s s u e B r i e f 85176. The development of t h e U.S. a i r - l a u n c h e d ASAT s p a r k e d a more g e n e r a l d e b a t e a b o u t t h e "weaponization" o f s p a c e t h a t was expanded i n 1983 by t h e announcement by P r e s i d e n t Reagan t h a t he p l a n n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r a s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e s y s t e m s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d t o d e s t r o y incoming b a l l i s t i c missiles , which might u s e space-based weapons. Called the S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e ( S D I ) , o r " S t a r Wars," t h i s program h a s been t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e i n Congress a s w e l l a s a t o p i c o f s t r o n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o v e r s y ( s e e CRS R e p o r t 86-8 and I s s u e B r i e f 8 5 1 7 0 ) . The program i s s t i l l i n a r e s e a r c h p h a s e , s o i t i s n o t c l e a r what p a r t o f i t might b e space-based. I f t h e United S t a t e s d e c i d e s t o d e p l o y s u c h a s y s t e m , s u p p o r t f u n c t i o n s of l a u n c h d e t e c t i o n and m i s s i l e t r a c k i n g w i l l - a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y i n v o l v e s a t e l l i t e s , b u t w h e t h e r t h e weapons t o d e s t r o y t h e m i s s i l e s w i l l be based i n s p a c e r e m a i n s an open q u e s t i o n . The ASAT and .SDI d e b a t e s n a t u r a l l y i n v o l v e s p a c e p o l i c y i n a b r o a d s e n s e , b u t t h e i s s u e s t h a t s u r r o u n d them a r e more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o arms c o n t r o l and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . Therefore, these subjects a r e not discussed a t length in t h i s issue brief. Civilian/Military Interface The s e p a r a t i o n between m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s h a s remained i n p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e U.S. s p a c e program, b u t t h e f u n c t i o n s performed by s a t e l l i t e s and t h e v e h i c l e s t h a t Launch them a r e not e a s i l y divided. Both s e c t o r s u s e communications, n a v i g a t i o n , w e a t h e r , and r e m o t e s e n s i n g / r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s a t e l l i t e s , which may o p e r a t e a t d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s o r have d i f f e r e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s , but have s i m i l a r technology. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e same l a u n c h v e h i c l e s c a n b e u s e d t o l a u n c h a n y t y p e o f m i l i t a r y , c i v i l i a n , o r commercial s a t e l l i t e . T h i s h a s become more a p p a r e n t s i n c e t h e r e c e n t l a u n c h v e h i c l e s f a i l u r e s , a s b o t h DOD a n d NASA c o n s i d e r l a u n c h r e c o v e r y o p t i o n s . I n t h e a r e a of launch v e h i c l e s , some h a v e a r g u e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d redundancy i s n e e d e d , In other areas, i n c r e a s e d c o o p e r a t i o n may a l l o w a d e c r e a s e i n d u p l i c a t i o n . The N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space Act e s t a b l i s h e d a c i v i l i a n / m i l i t a r y l i a i s o n c o m m i t t e e , d i s s o h e d i n 1965, and t h e N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space C o u n c i l i n t h e E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e of t h e P r e s i d e n t , a b o l i s h e d i n 1973. Coordination has continued through i n t e r a g e n c y comittees. P r e s i d e n t Reagan c r e a t e d t h e S e n i o r I n t e r a g e n c y ~ r o u p / S p a c e ( S I G / S p a c e ) i n 1982 t o c o o r d i n a t e s p a c e p o l i c y , and i t s members i n c l u d e NASA, DOD, and o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n s p a c e p o l i c y , i n c l u d i n g t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e community. S I ~ / S p a c eh a s been i n t h e c e n t e r o f many p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s f o l l o w i n g t h e s h u t t l e a c c i d e n t and i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e i s s u e s s e c t i o n below. S p a c e Program S t a t u s T h e r e a r e many i s s u e s f a c i n g t h e U.S. s p a c e program t o d a y , most of which c e n t e r on NASA'sprogram. A s n o t e d above, t h e most c o n t r o v e r s i a l m i l i t a r y s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s (ASAT and SDI) a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h i n t h i s i s s u e b r i e f s i n c e t h e i r main i s s u e s a r e r e l a t e d t o arms c o n t r o l and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , r a t h e r than space policy. Space S h u t t l e The c o r n e r s t o n e o f t h e U.S. manned s p a c e program i s t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e , o r t h e space t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system (STS), a p a r t i a l l y r e u s a b l e space vehicle. I n 1972, P r e s i d e n t Nixon approved t h e s h u t t l e program, and announced t h a t i t would be t h e N a t i o n ' s p r i m a r y l a u n c h v e h i c l e , m e e t i n g a wide r a n g e o f r e q u i r e m e n t s . The f i r s t s h u t t l e f l i g h t t o o k p l a c e on Apr. 1 2 , 1981. Through J a n u a r y 1986, t h e r e were a t o t a l of 24 f l i g h t s , i n c l u d i n g two d e d i c a t e d m i l i t a r y f l i g h t s . The 2 5 t h f l i g h t , on J a n . 28, 1986, ended i n a n e x p l o s i o n j u s t a f t e r l a u n c h , t h e most s e r i o u s s p a c e a c c i d e n t i n U.S. history. The s h u t t l e accident i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d i n CRS I s s u e B r i e f 86015. and resulting It The s p a c e s h u t t l e h a s been used f o r a v a r i e t y o f o p e r a t i o n s . s e r v e s a s a s a t e l l i t e - l a u n c h . v e h i c l e f o r - g o v e r n m e n t . ( m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n ) and commercial s a t e l l i t e s , o f t e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n u p p e r s t a g e , which c a r r i e s t h e s a t e l l i t e t o an o r b i t h i g h e r t h a n t h e s h u t t l e ' s capability. Space s h u t t l e crews a r e a l s o a b l e t o r e t r i e v e and r e p a i r s a t e l l i t e s , and have c o n d u c t e d s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , some w i t h p o t e n t i a l comnercial a p p l i c a t i o n . S e v e r a l f l i g h t s have been d e d i c a t e d t o S p a c e l a b , a s p a c e s c i e n c e p a y l o a d , p r o v i d i n g a working e n v i r o n m e n t i n which t h e crew can conduct experiments. NASA c u r r e n t l y p l a n s t o resume s h u t t l e f l i g h t s i n J u n e 1988, b u t , i n t h e meantime, t h e g r o u n d i n g of t h e s h u t t l e h a s a f f e c t e d a l l u s e r s . In August 1986, P r e s i d e n t Reagan i n i t i a t e d a p o l i c y t o l i m i t t h e u s e of t h e s h u t t l e by commercial c u s t o m e r s t o t h o s e w i t h s h u t t l e - u n i q u e s p a c e c r a f t ( s e e b e l o w ) . NASA h a s r e l e a s e d a m a n i f e s t f o r t h e f i r s t s e v e n y e a r s a f t e r r e s u m i n g o p e r a t i o n s which a l l o c a t e s 41% of f l i g h t s t o DOD, 47% t o NASA ( i n c l u d i n g s p a c e s c i e n c e and t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n ) , and 12% t o c o m e r c i a l and foreign users. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t s f o r DOD, a n d a d e c r e a s e f o r non-Government u s e r s . Bringing t h e s h u t t l e back t o s a f e o p e r a t i o n and t h e Government's u s e of e x p e n d a b l e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e I s s u e s s e c t i o n below. Space S t a t i o n I n h i s 1984 S t a t e o f t h e Union A d d r e s s , P r e s i d e n t Reagan d i r e c t e d NASA t o b u i l d a s p a c e s t a t i o n c a p a b l e of b e i n g p e r m a n e n t l y o c c u p i e d . NASA h a s d e s c r i b e d t h i s program a s t h e "next l o g i c a l s t e p " f o l l o w i n g t h e shuttle. New c o s t e s t i m a t e s i n 1987 showed a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n e s t i m a t e d c o s t s f o r t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n ( f r o m $8 b i l l i o n t o $14.5 b i l l i o n i n FY84 d o l l a r s ) . Another $3-4 b i l l i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o b e s p e n t by J a p a n , Canada, and t h e European Space Agency f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o s p a c e s t a t i o n hardware. The s p a c e s t a t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e one c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e and s e p a r a t e p l a t f o r m s l o c a t e d n e a r t h e s t a t i o n o r i n p o l a r o r b i t , and c o u l d be u s e d f o r a v a r i e t y of s c i e n t i f i c and c o m e r c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . N e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h Europe, J a p a n and Canada a r e c u r r e n t l y underway f o r t h e i r participation in the project. C o n g r e s s h a s r a i s e d s e v e r a l i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o t h e f u n d i n g and t i m i n g o f t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n , a s w e l l a s q u e s t i o n s on some o f i t s s p e c i f i c components. C u r r e n t l y , t h e major i s s u e s i n v o l v e s p a c e s t a t i o n c o s t s and DOD u s e of t h e s t a t i o n . [ F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n , s e e CRS I s s u e B r i e f 85209.1 Launch V e h i c l e s : ''Mixed F l e e t " and P r i v a t e ELVs A series of l a u n c h f a i l u r e s i n 1986, compounded by a l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of v a r i o u s l a u n c h v e h i c l e s , c r e a t e d a s e v e r e s h o r t a g e i n c a p a b i l i t y t o l a u n c h U.S. satellites. The U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s f o u r e x p e n d a b l e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s (ELVs), S c o u t , D e l t a , A t l a s , and T i t a n , and o n e r e u s a b l e s y s t e m , t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e . When t h e s h u t t l e program was a p p r o v e d i n 1 9 7 2 , i t was w i t h t h e i n t e n t t h a t i t would r e p l a c e a l l t h e ELVs. A l t h o u g h t h e Government s t o p p e d o r d e r i n g A t l a s and D e l t a v e h i c l e s a s p l a n n e d , i n 1984 t h e A i r F o r c e d e c i d e d t o r e t a i n t h e T i t a n f a m i l y o f v e h i c l e s and t o add a new member ( t h e T i t a n IV). The s p a c e s h u t t l e C h a l l e n g e r t r a g e d y i n J a n u a r y - 1986 n o t o n l y t o o k t h e l i v e s of s e v e n a s t r o n a u t s , b u t grounded one of t h e m a j o r U.S. l a u n c h v e h i c l e s . I t was f o l l o w e d by t h e e x p l o s i o n of a T i t a n and a D e l t a . A t l a s v e h i c l e s h a v e components s i m i l a r t o D e l t a , s o t h e y were a l s o g r o u n d e d f o r s e v e r a l months. D e l t a and A t l a s were b o t h f l y i n g by t h e end o f 1986, and o n e v e r s i o n of t h e T i t a n resumed s e r v i c e i n e a r l y 1987, b u t t h e s h u t t l e w i l l n o t f l y a g a i n u n t i l 1988. One o f t h e l a s t r e m a i n i n g A t l a s v e h i c l e s was d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g a l a u n c h a t t e m p t i n March 1987 when i t was h i t by lightning. These launch v e h i c l e f a i l u r e s have s e v e r e l y complicated p l a n s t o l a u n c h s a t e l l i t e s and h a s l e d t o a g o v e r n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n t o have a "mixed f l e e t " of l a u n c h v e h i c l e s i n which t h e r e w i l l be s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of v e h i c l e s a v a i l a b l e . I n 1986, DOD s e l e c t e d McDonnell Douglas t o b u i l d a new medium l a u n c h v e h i c l e , MLV, based on t h e D e l t a d e s i g n ( c a l l e d D e l t a I I ) , and began c o n s i d e r i n g a new advanced l a u n c h s y s t e m (ALS). NASA and DOD a r e s t i l l d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s e a c h s h o u l d p l a y i n t h e development of t h e ALS program; DOD w a n t s i t f o r t h e S t r a t e g i c D e f e n s e I n i t i a t i v e , w h i l e NASA may u s e i t f o r t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n . NASA r e c e n t l y announced i t s p l a n t o a c q u i r e l a u n c h s e r v i c e s from t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . I n i t i a l l y , i t w i l l do s o n o n c o m p e t i t i v e l y , b u t by 1991 NASA w i l l a c q u i r e 5-9 l a u n c h e s on a c o m p e t i t i v e b a s i s . ,The Department o f Commerce i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n l a u n c h i n g i t s w e a t h e r s a t e l l i t e s on p r i v a t e v e h i c l e s . S e v e r a l p r i v a t e companies a r e marketing launch v e h i c l e s f o r comnercial launches. A t t e m p t s t o " p r i v a t i z e " o r "commercialize" l a u n c h v e h i c l e s d a t e back t o t h e e a r l y 1980s, b u t e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l companies e n c o u n t e r e d many problems. Companies w i t h a g u a r a n t e e d Government m a r k e t h a v e a n a d v a n t a g e b e c a u s e making a d d i t i o n a l v e h i c l e s a v a i l a b l e t o commercial u s e r s i s l e s s r i s k y t h a n m a i n t a i n i n g a p r o d u c t i o n l i n e f o r o n l y commercial u s e r s . S m a l l e r companies t h a t do n o t h a v e g u a r a n t e e d DOD r e c e n t l y awarded t h e D e l t a I1 Government m a r k e t s f a c e g r e a t e r r i s k . c o n t r a c t t o McDonnell Douglas, w i t h t h e e x p l i c i t i n t e n t t h a t t h e D e l t a I1 be o f f e r e d o n t h e c o m n e r c i a l m a r k e t a s w e l l . McDonnell Douglas announced i n A p r i l 1987 t h a t i t had n i n e r e s e r v a t i o n s f o r commercial l a u n c h e s . M a r t i n M a r i e t t a , which b u i l d s t h e T i t a n f a m i l y , announced a t t h e same time t h a t i t had a w a i t i n g l i s t o f 10 c l i e n t s . S p a c e S c i e n c e and A p p l i c a t i o n s NASA c o n d u c t s s p a c e s c i e n c e programs t o s t u d y t h e E a r t h and i t s e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e Moon, o t h e r p l a n e t s , t h e Sun and t h e u n i v e r s e . T h e r e a r e c o n c e r n s t h a t i t w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o fund new s p a c e s c i e n c e programs w h i l e NASA i s d e v e l o p i n g t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n and r e c o v e r i n g f r o m t h e s h u t t l e accident. The s p a c e s c i e n c e comnunity h a s o f t e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e e x p e n s i v e manned programs d o m i n a t e NASA's b u d g e t , overshadowing s p a c e science. I n a d d i t i o n , s p a c e s c i e n c e p r o j e c t s a r e a l s o becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c o s t l y , making them more d i f f i c u l t t o fund. NASA b u d g e t r e q u e s t s h a v e n o t i n c l u d e d many new s p a c e s c i e n c e programs, n o r h a s C o n g r e s s added f u n d s f o r major new programs. IB87018 CRS- 7 06-29-87 S e v e r a l m a j o r s p a c e s c i e n c e p a y l o a d s were t o h a v e b e e n l a u n c h e d o n t h e s h u t t l e i n 1986: t h e Hubble Space T e l e s c o p e ( w h i c h w i l l a l l o w a s t r o n o m e r s t o s e e o b j e c t s 1 0 t i m e s more c l e a r l y t h a n from E a r t h ) , U l y s s e s ( a European p r o b e t o s t u d y t h e p o l a r r e g i o n s o f t h e s u n ) , and t h e G a l i l e o m i s s i o n t o J u p i t e r , 0 t h e r . m a j o r space s c i e n c e . m i s s i o n s i n development a r e t h e M a g e l l a n Venus r a d a r mapping m i s s i o n , t h e Mars O b s e r v e r , and t h e Gamma Ray Observato-ry. The Space T e l e s c o p e i s s c h e d u l e d f o r t h e f i f t h s h u t t l e f l i g h t , and U l y s s e s and G a l i l e o a r e on t h e s h u t t l e m a n i f e s t f o r 1989 and 1990. R e p o r t e d l y , NASA i s c o n s i d e r i n g u s i n g ELVs t o l a u n c h some of i t s p l a n e t a r y m i s s i o n s s i n c e a d e c i s i o n was made a f t e r t h e C h a l l e n g e r a c c i d e n t n o t t o u s e a s p e c i a l h i g h energy upper s t a g e , t h e Centaur, w i t h t h e shuttle. I n a d d i t i o n t o s p a c e s c i e n c e , NASA c o n t i n u e s t o c o n d u c t a d v a n c e d R&D f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s s u c h a s communications s a t e l l i t e s and r e m o t e s e n s i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e s e s a t e l l i t e s i s c o n d u c t e d o u t s i d e o f NASA. The m a j o r a p p l i c a t i o n s R&D program i n which NASA i s now engaged i s t h e Advanced Communications Technology S a t e l l i t e (ACTS) program, f o r which f u n d i n g h a s been c u t r e p e a t e d l y by t h e O f f i c e of Management and Budget; t h e r e h a s , however, been s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t i n Congress t o r e i n s t a t e funding. C o m n e r c i a l i z a t i o n of S p a c e Through l a n g u a g e i n t h e FY85 NASA a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l , C o n g r e s s amended t h e N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space Act r e q u i r i n g NASA t o e n c o u r a g e t1 t h e f u l l e s t commercial u s e o f space." I n 1984, NASA e s t a b l i s h e d i t s O f f i c e of Commercial Programs, f o l l o w i n g a P r e s i d e n t i a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t ( s e e below). Commercial s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s had been t a k i n g p l a c e l o n g b e f o r e t h a t t i m e ; f o r example, some communications s a t e l l i t e s h a v e been c o m n e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d s i n c e 1965. NASA and t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r a r e now p u r s u i n g c o m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g and o n - o r b i t s e r v i c e s . M a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g i s b a s e d o n t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e p u r e s u b s t a n c e s o r new m a t e r i a l s i n m i c r o g r a v i t y , e i t h e r on t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e o r t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n . Private companies a l s o see a f u t u r e market f o r o n - o r b i t s e r v i c e s , d e l i v e r i n g f u e l o r s u p p l i e s o r p r o v i d i n g s p a c e modules i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e proposed by NASA. Many of t h e s e v e n t u r e s a r e dependent on u s e o f t h e s h u t t l e and w i l l h a v e low p r i o r i t y when t h e s h u t t l e resumes f l i g h t , a s i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e i s s u e s s e c t i o n below. Land sa t S i n c e 1972, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had l a u n c h e d a s e r i e s o f remote s e n s i n g s a t e l l i t e s c a l l e d "Landsat" f o r m o n i t o r i n g t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . Landsat d a t a a r e used f o r crop f o r e c a s t i n g , mineral e x p l o r a t i o n , l a n d use management, and s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Developed by NASA, t h e L a n d s a t s y s t e m w a s t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e N a t i o n a l O c e a n i c and Atmospheric A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (NOAA) i n t h e Department o f Commerce i n 1979. Plans t o t u r n operations o v e r t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r were a c c e l e r a t e d by t h e Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and i n 1984 Congress p a s s e d t h e Land Remote S e n s i n g C o m n e r c i a l i z a t i o n Act t o p r o v i d e f o r p r i v a t e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e system. - I n 1985, a c o n t r a c t o r named EOSAT was s e l e c t e d t o o p e r a t e t h e two e x i s t i n g L a n d s a t s a t e l l i t e s and t o b u i l d and l a u n c h two more. The Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n promised EOSAT $250 m i l l i o n o v e r s e v e r a l y e a r s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e t r a n s f e r . . S i n c e t h e n , EOSAT h a s been e m b r o i l e d i n a t u g o f w a r b e t w e e n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o n g r e s s o v e r u p h o l d i n g t h a t commitment. ( S e e I s s u e s s e c t i o n below.) Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P o l i c y I n t h e a f t e r m a t h of the Challenger accident, t h e Reagan Administration i s r e p o r t e d l y planning t o r e v i s i t i t s space p o l i c y t o r e f l e c t r e c e n t changes. However, e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s a r e d e s c r i b e d h e r e a s a p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e . I n a 1982 d i r e c t i v e , P r e s i d e n t Reagan o u t l i n e d U.S. g o a l s i n s p a c e , i n c l u d i n g n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , and s c i e n t i f i c and economic b e n e f i t s . The d i r e c t i v e a l s o c r e a t e d t h e S e n i o r I n t e r a g e n c y Group o n Space ( S I G I S p a c e ) t o p r o v i d e a p o l i c y forum f o r a l l F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n c i v i l i a n and m i l i t a r y s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of SIGISpace a s a policy-making g r o u p i s d i s c u s s e d below. G e n e r a l U.S. g o a l s i n s p a c e were a l s o t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e N a t i o n a l S p a c e S t r a t e g y , r e l e a s e d i n August 1984. The 1984 s t r a t e g y a l s o d i r e c t e d s e v e r a l agencies t o i d e n t i f y requirements f o r f u t u r e launch technology. NASA and DOD headed t h e N a t i o n a l Space T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System A r c h i t e c t u r e s t u d y , which h a s been f o r w a r d e d t o t h e White House. C o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of s p a c e was a m a j o r i n i t i a t i v e i n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s s p a c e p o l i c y , and may be t h e most a f f e c t e d by t h e l a c k of I n May 1983, P r e s i d e n t Reagan i s s u e d a p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g shuttle flights. t h e c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f ELVs, s t a t i n g t h a t t h e Government would f a c i l i t a t e t h e t r a n s f e r o f ELV o p e r a t i o n s t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . In F e b r u a r y 1984, h e i s s u e d a n E x e c u t i v e o r d e r d e s i g n a t i n g t h e Department o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a s t h e l e a d agency. I n August 1986, Reagan announced t h a t t h e s h u t t l e s y s t e m would b e l i m i t e d t o l a u n c h i n g p a y l o a d s t h a t w e r e s h u t t l e - u n i q u e , i n o r d e r t o make b e t t e r u s e of t h e s h u t t l e and t o s u p p o r t t h e p r i v a t e ELV i n d u s t r y , which h a s had d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g c u s t o m e r s . P r e s i d e n t Reagan i s s u e d a more g e n e r a l p o l i c y t o promote t h e commercial u s e o f s p a c e i n J u l y 1984, i n c l u d i n g i n i t i a t i v e s i n f o u r different areas: economic, l e g a l a n d r e g u l a t o r y , r e s e a r c h and A s a r e s u l t , NASA c r e a t e d a d e v e l o p m e n t , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y . new o f f i c e t o e n c o u r a g e p r i v a t e s e c t o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p a c e . I n t h e 1984 S t a t e o f t h e Union a d d r e s s , Reagan d i r e c t e d NASA t o b u i l d a p e r m a n e n t l y manned s p a c e s t a t i o n w i t h i n a d e c a d e . The P r e s i d e n t ' s e n d o r s e m e n t was t h e key t o g e t t i n g s u c h a m a j o r new program funded. I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n and C o m p e t i t i o n The N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space Act s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t NASA c o n d u c t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s , and s i n c e 1958, i t h a s e n t e r e d i n t o more t h a n 1 , 0 0 0 a g r e e m e n t s w i t h o v e r 100 c o u n t r i e s . Many c o u n t r i e s - h a v e been i m p o r t a n t p l a y e r s i n t h e s p a c e a r e n a and some h a v e begun t o demand t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t r e a t them a s e q u a l p a r t n e r s . International n e g o t i a t i o n s on s p a c e s t a t i o n c o o p e r a t i o n have r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h i s i s s u e . C o o p e r a t i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s - a n d S o v i e t Union, a s t h e w o r l d ' s s u p e r p o w e r s , a t t r a c t s much a t t e n t i o n . The most n o t a b l e example o f c o o p e r a t i o n was t h e Apollo-Soyuz T e s t P r o j e c t i n 1975. I n recent years t h e Soviets t i e d cooperation i n c i v i l i a n space a c t i v i t i e s t o d i s m a n t l i n g t h e SDI program. I n t h e sumner o f 1986, however, t h e y d e c o u p l e d t h e two a c t i v i t i e s and n e g o t i a t i o n s began i n September 1986 t o d e v e l o p a new c o o p e r a t i v e agreement. According t o p r e s s a c c o u n t s , a g r e e m e n t h a s been r e a c h e d and a n a c c o r d i s now r e a d y t o b e s i g n e d by l e a d e r s of b o t h c o u n t r i e s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s i s a l s o f a c i n g c o m p e t i t i o n i n s p a c e . The S o v i e t Union, J a p a n , China, I n d i a , and t h e European Space Agency (ESA) c a n l a u n c h s a t e l l i t e s . ESA, c o m p r i s e d of t h i r t e e n European c o u n t r i e s , d e v e l o p e d t h e A r i a n e l a u n c h v e h i c l e , now b e i n g o p e r a t e d by a p r i v a t e company, A r i a n e s p a c e , i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e U.S. shuttle. A launch f a i l u r e grounded t h e v e h i c l e i n 1986; A r i a n e s p a c e e x p e c t s t o resume l a u n c h e s i n 1987. China a l s o h a s begun t o have s u c c e s s i n m a r k e t i n g i t s l a u n c h v e h i c l e s worldwide. Even t h e S o v i e t Union h a s become i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c o m n e r c i a l p r o s p e c t s of l a u n c h v e h i c l e s , s e l l i n g remote s e n s i n g d a t a , and f l y i n g m a t e r i a l s processing experiments f o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . Other a r e a s of c o m p e t i t i o n include: F r a n c e i n r e m o t e s e n s i n g , Europe and J a p a n i n c o m n u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y and, f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n l a u n c h v e h i c l e s , and Germany i n m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g . Issues S p a c e i s s u e s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been d e b a t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f NASA'S and DOD's f u n d i n g b i l l s . The a u t h o r i z i n g and a p p r o p r i a t i n g c o m n i t t e e s a r e most a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n o v e r s i g h t on t h e s e i s s u e s . However, i n t h e a f t e r m a t h of t h e s h u t t l e a c c i d e n t , and b e c a u s e o f t h e o v e r l a p between m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e may be i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n s p a c e p o l i c y . The dominant i s s u e s a r e l i k e l y t o i n c l u d e : S p a c e Stat ion Of t h e myriad i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n program, most c o n t r o v e r s i a l a r e c o s t and DOD u s e of t h e s t a t i o n . t h e two The i n c r e a s e d c o s t e s t i m a t e f o r t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n announced i n A p r i l 1987 l e d t h e White House t o p r o p o s e b u i l d i n g i t i n two p h a s e s . Phase I would c o s t $12.2 b i l l i o n (FY84 d o l l a r s ) w h i l e Phase I1 would c o s t $3.8 b i l l i o n (FY84 d o l l a r s ) , f o r a t o t a l of $16 b i l l i o n , t w i c e t h e o r i g i n a l estimate. T h i s d e c i s i o n d i d n o t s i g n a l a c o m p l e t e comnitment t o t h e program by t h e White House, s i n c e t h e p l a n must now b e r e v i e w e d by t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l ( o f t h e N a t i o n a l Academy of S c i e n c e s ) . NRC i s e x p e c t e d t o c o m p l e t e i t s r e v i e w by S e p t . 1, 1987. Meanwhile, NASA w a n t s t o r e l e a s e t h e r e q u e s t s f o r p r o p o s a l s (RFPs) f o r t h e f i n a l s t a g e ( P h a s e C/D) o f s p a c e s t a t i o n d e s i g n and development, s o t h a t c o n t r a c t a w a r d s c a n be made i n O c t o b e r 1987. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n must a w a i t t h e NRC r e v i e w , however, and t h e FY89 b u d g e t r e q u e s t w i l l r e f l e c t t h a t review. N e v e r t h e l e s s , NASA s t a t e s t h a t i t s r e q u e s t o f $767 m i l l i o n f o r t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n i n FY88 s t a n d s . The d e c i s i o n - o n P h a s e I 1 of t h e program i s n o t p l a n n e d u n t i l 1991. Congress h a s - n o t - d e c i d e d . - w h e t h e r t o f u n d t h e program w i t h a m u l t i - y e a r a u t h o r i z a t i o n - a t a s t e a d y l e v e l f o r t h e next decade, a multi-year a u t h o r i z a t i o n with a bell-shaped funding p r o f i l e ( t h e t y p i c a l way s u c h programs a r e f u n d e d ) , o r w i t h o u t a m u l t i year authorization a t a l l . C o n g r e s s w i l l d e b a t e t h e impact o f s p a c e s t a t i o n f u n d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s on o t h e r NASA programs and NASA's a b i l i t y t o c o n t a i n s p a c e s t a t i o n c o s t g r o w t h i n t h e coming y e a r . A n o t h e r i s s u e i s t h e e x t e n t t o which DOD s h o u l d be a b l e t o u s e t h e DOD h a s made c l e a r t h a t a l t h o u g h i t c a n n o t i d e n t i f y a n y space station. s p e c i f i c n e e d s a t t h i s t i m e , i t wants t o r e t a i n t h e o p t i o n o f u s i n g t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n , even i f i t means t h a t o t h e r c o u n t r i e s w i l l n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e program. L e g i s l a t i o n h a s been i n t r o d u c e d (H.R. 1 7 3 3 ) t o p r e v e n t DOD O t h e r p o i n t s o f view a r g u e t h a t DOD from u s i n g t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n a t a l l . s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d t o p e r f o r m r e s e a r c h , b u t n o t t e s t o r d e p l o y weapons s y s t e m s , w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r s a s s e r t t h a t - DOD s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d t o u s e t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n f o r a n y and a l l n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y p u r p o s e s . Returning t h e S h u t t l e t o Safe Operation G e t t i n g t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e b a c k i n t o s e r v i c e a s a s a f e , r e l i a b l e means of s p a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l be NASA's f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i n t h e n e x t year. The P r e s i d e n t i a l c o m n i s s i o n which i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e c a u s e o f t h e s h u t t l e a c c i d e n t ( t h e Rogers Commission) r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t recommending c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n s i n J u n e 1986. T h i r t y d a y s a f t e r t h e r e p o r t was r e l e a s e d , NASA r e s p o n d e d w i t h a p l a n f o r making t h e r e q u i r e d d e s i g n and management c h a n g e s t o r e t u r n t h e s h u t t l e t o s a f e o p e r a t i o n . NASA c u r r e n t l y e s t i m a t e s t h a t t h e s h u t t l e w i l l resume f l i g h t s i n F e b r u a r y 1988. A l r e a d y t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t i t may n o t be p o s s i b l e t o meet t h a t launch date. Both t h e Defense and NASA a u t h o r i z i n g c o m m i t t e e s , t h r o u g h o v e r s i g h t , w i l l l i k e l y probe t o determine whether s a f e t y i s a t r i s k i n o r d e r t o meet t h e new s c h e d u l e . The N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l h a s c r i t i c i z e d NASA's new f l i g h t r a t e e s t i m a t e s a s b e i n g t o o o p t i m i s t i c . NASA may be i n t h e d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n o f t r y i n g t o b a l a n c e c a u t i o n w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l need t o m a i n t a i n program and p o l i t i c a l momentum. There are c r i t i c s b o t h w i t h i n and o u t s i d e o f NASA who a r e c o n c e r n e d t h a t , f o r example, a d e s i g n change made t o t h e s o l i d r o c k e t b o o s t e r s e a l i s n o t s a f e enough. Land sa t The Reagan ~ d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s commitment t o p r o v i d i n g EOSAT w i t h t h e promised f u n d i n g t o f a c i l i t a t e t r a n s f e r o f L a n d s a t t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r h a s proved weak. The FY87 b u d g e t r e q u e s t f o r NOAA i n c l u d e d no f u n d i n g f o r t h e EOSAT c o n t r a c t . C o n g r e s s r e s t o r e d some o f t h e f u n d i n g and d i r e c t e d NOAA t o f i n d t h e r e s t w i t h i n i t s budget and t o p r o v i d e a new c o m n e r c i a l i z a t i o n p l a n . The p l a n was s u b m i t t e d i n l a t e 1986, b u t c a l l e d f o r l e s s Government s u b s i d i z a t i o n of EOSAT and o n l y o n e more L a n d s a t s a t e l l i t e . Congress r e j e c t e d t h e new p l a n b e c a u s e i t d i d n o t p r o v i d e two follow-on s a t e l l i t e s , which Congress c o n s i d e r s n e c e s s a r y f o r comnercialization. NOAA's FY88 b u d g e t r e q u e s t i n c l u d e s f u n d i n g f o r EOSAT - ( f o r t h e o n e - s a t e l l i t e p l a n ) , b u t t h e FY87 f u n d i n g h a s n o t been r e l e a s e d and EOSAT began l a y i n g o f f employees a t t h e end of 1986. Currently, C o n g r e s s and t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e a t a s t a n d o f f o v e r o n e v e r s u s two Other s a t e l l i t e s as C o n g r e s s - c o n s i d e r s FY87 - s u p p l e m e n t a l . . f u n d i n g . c o u n t r i e s h a v e r e m o t s s e n s i n g programs: . F r a n c e i s a l r e a d y m a r k e t i n g d a t a from i t s l a n d remote s e n s i n g s a t e l l i t e SPOT; t h e S o v i e t Union h a s i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t i n s e l l i n g i t s remote s e n s i n g d a t a ; and J a p a n and t h e European Space Agency a r e e a c h p l a n n i n g remote s e n s i n g s a t e l l i t e s i n t h e near future a s well. ( F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s e e CRS R e p o r t 87-477 SPR, P r i v a t i z a t i o n o f t h e L a n d s a t Remote S e n s i n g S a t e l l i t e System: Current Issues.) NASA Uanagemen t C o n g r e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n NASA management c o v e r s a r a n g e of i s s u e s , i n c l u d i n g how NASA i s managing s p e c i f i c programs, w h e t h e r NASA h a s p r o p e r l y a s s i g n e d p r i o r i t i e s among programs, and w h e t h e r NASA's i n t e r n a l In the f i r s t s t r u c t u r e is optimal f o r handling i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . c a s e , t h e House A p p r o p r i a t i o n s Committee h a s been o v e r s e e i n g s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n program, i n c l u d i n g power l e v e l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Some have c h a r g e d t h a t C o n g r e s s i s t r y i n g t o micromanage t h e program. Because of t h e s i z e of t h e program and i t s c o m p l e x i t y , a n d b e c a u s e of management problems d i s c o v e r e d i n NASA following t h e Challenger accident, d e t a i l e d oversight is l i k e l y t o continue. The second i s s u e c o n c e r n s t h e t r a d e - o f f w i t h i n NASA among d i f f e r e n t p r o g r a m s , and w h e t h e r NASA'S commitment t o l a r g e r programs, s u c h a s s h u t t l e and s p a c e s t a t i o n , d r a i n s r e s o u r c e s from o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , s u c h a s s p a c e s c i e n c e and a p p l i c a t i o n s . I n t h e f a c e o f b u d g e t a r y c o n s t r a i n t s and r i s i n g program c o s t s , d i f f i c u l t c h o i c e s may have t o b e made d u r i n g t h e 100th Congress. F i n a l l y , t h e Rogers Comnission r e p o r t on t h e s h u t t l e a c c i d e n t recomnended t h a t NASA r e v i e w i t s management s t r u c t u r e . NASA c o n t r a c t e d a management s t u d y , headed by G e n e r a l Samuel P h i l l i p s ( R e t . ) , which r e s u l t e d i n many c h a n g e s a t NASA. Congress w i l l be a s s e s s i n g w h e t h e r t h e y a r e t h e r i g h t changes. Duplication between NASA a n d DOD A s b u d g e t s c o n t i n u e t o be c o n s t r a i n e d , Congress may r e e v a l u a t e d u p l i c a t i o n between t h e c i v i l i a n and m i l i t a r y s p a c e programs. The FY87 d e c i s i o n t o have DOD p r o v i d e t h e money t o r e p l a c e t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e C h a l l e n g e r ( b u t i n t h e NASA b u d g e t ) may p r e s a g e a growing a w a r e n e s s o f t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n s p a c e a c t i v i t i e s . When t h e s h u t t l e resumes o p e r a t i o n s , DOD w i l l u s e n e a r l y h a l f of a l l f l i g h t s and t h i s may a l s o draw a t t e n t i o n t o m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s . NASA and DOD h a v e begun t o s t u d y f u t u r e l a u n c h v e h i c l e r e q u i r e m e n t s , i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a n R6D a n d / o r procurement program. Both a g e n c i e s are f u n d i n g r e s e a r c h o n t h e N a t i o n a l Aerospace P l a n e , a l t h o u g h NASA i s p r o v i d i n g a small percentage of t h e t o t a l . C o m n e r c i a l i z a t i o n of Space A l t h o u g h commercial o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n s p a c e have been c o n s i d e r e d by NASA t o h a v e g r e a t p o t e n t i a l , s k e p t i c s h a v e q u e s t i o n e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s from t h e s t a r t . The g r o u n d i n g o f t h e s h u t t l e h a s a t l e a s t d e l a y e d c o m n e r c i a l a c t i v i t y , and may h a v e c a u s e d s e r i o u s long-term damage i f companies l o s e c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e Government's a b i l i t y t o a s s u r e them a c c e s s t o space. NASA and some p r i v a t e companies a r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g p o s s i b l e ways t o c o n t i n u e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on t h e ground o r t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f ELVs d u r i n g t h e h i a t u s i n s h u t t l e f l i g h t s . NASA h a s a number o f agreements t o provide f r e e s h u t t l e f l i g h t s t o support comnercialization, and r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r s c h e d u l i n g c o m n e r c i a l p a y l o a d s on t h e s h u t t l e when i t resumes f l i g h t . P r i v a t e eLVs I n t h e p r i v a t i z a t i o n a r e a , s e v e r a l f i r m s a r e a c t i v e l y m a r k e t i n g ELV s e r v i c e s and h a v e b e n e f i t t e d from r e c e n t Government i n i t i a t i v e s t o s u p p o r t t h e i n d u s t r y . A t i s s u e i s t h e amount of s u p p o r t a n d / o r encouragement t h e Government n e e d s t o p r o v i d e t o p r o s p e c t i v e p r i v a t e l a u n c h i n g s e r v i c e s and w h e t h e r NASA s h o u l d p u r c h a s e ELVs o r ELV s e r v i c e s from t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e F e d e r a l Government r e p r e s e n t s a l a r g e s h a r e o f t h e demand f o r l a u n c h e s , r a i s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r a t r u l y commercial l a u n c h s e r v i c e s i n d u s t r y c a n emerge i f some companies have g u a r a n t e e d Government markets. S p a c e P o l i c y D e c i s i o n - h k i n g Hechani sm The S e n i o r I n t e r a g e n c y Group/Space h a s come u n d e r i n c r e a s e d s c r u t i n y s i n c e t h e Challenger accident. The 9 9 t h Congress p a s s e d a p r o v i s i o n i n H.R. 5495, t h e FY87 NASA a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l , t o r e p l a c e S I G / ~ p a c ew i t h t h e National Space Council. The p r o v i s i o n e s s e n t i a l l y would h a v e r e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space C o u n c i l , o r i g i n a l l y c r e a t e d by t h e N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space Act, b u t w i t h o u t t h e a e r o n a u t i c s component. However, P r e s i d e n t Reagan v e t o e d t h e b i l l b e c a u s e o f o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e C o u n c i l , a s w e l l a s t o o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s . The r e a s o n s f o r r e p l a c i n g SIGISpace w i t h t h e C o u n c i l i n c l u d e t h a t i t would i n v o l v e h i g h e r l e v e l o f f i c i a l s t o speed decision-making and c r e a t e a permanent s t a f f f o r space policy. L e g i s l a t i o n h a s been i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 1 0 0 t h Congress t o r e c r e a t e t h e Council. Long-Term G o a l s C o n g r e s s and t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h w i l l c o n s i d e r l o n g - t e r m g o a l s f o r t h e s p a c e program a s t h e y r e v i e w t h e r e p o r t of t h e N a t i o n a l Comnission o n Space. The C o m n i s s i o n , c r e a t e d by C o n g r e s s , c o m p l e t e d i t s r e p o r t i n 1986 and l a i d o u t a n a m b i t i o u s agenda f o r t h e U.S. s p a c e program o v e r t h e n e x t 50 y e a r s . NASA p l a n s t o announce i t s p r o p o s a l f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e C o m n i s s i o n ' s recommendations i n 1987. Some o b s e r v e r s have s t a t e d t h a t i t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o d e f i n e long-term g o a l s combined w i t h a program f o r t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i f t h e U.S. i s t o c o n t i n u e a s a l e a d e r i n s p a c e . NASA's a u t h o r i z i n g and a p p r o p r i a t i o n s c o m n i t t e e s may want t o examine . t h e q u e s t i o n of long-term g o a l s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h b u d g e t d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e upcoming f i s c a l y e a r s a n d . f u t u r e y e a r s . LEG1 SLATION H A . 1733 ( H i n e t a ) P r o h i b i t s u s e o f t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n by o r on b e h a l f of t h e Department of Defense. I n t r o d u c e d Mar. 1 9 , 1987; r e f e r r e d to- C o m n i t t e e on S c i e n c e , S p a c e , and Technology. H A . 1741 (Roe) A u t h o r i z e s FY88 a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r NASA. I n t r o d u c e d Mar. r e f e r r e d t o Committee on S c i e n c e , Space, and Technology. S. 1164 ( R i e g l e ) A u t h o r i z e s FY88 a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r NASA. r e f e r r e d t o C o r n i t t e e on Commerce. 31, 1987; I n t r o d u c e d May 7 , 1987; CONGRESSIONAL BEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCUMENTS U.S. Congress. House. Committee on S c i e n c e and Technology./ C o m n i t t e e on Armed S e r v i c e s . Assured a c c e s s t o s p a c e d u r i n g t h e 1990s. H e a r i n g s , 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n . J u l y 23-25, 1986. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 183 p. ( A l s o R e p o r t , J a n . 1986. 29 p.) U.S. C o n g r e s s . House. Committee on S c i e n c e and Technology. NXSA'S l o n g range plans. H e a r i n g s , 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n . Sept. 17, 19, 1985. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 221 p. ----- Space s c i e n c e and t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n . H e a r i n g s , 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st session. S e p t . 24, 1985. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 8 5 p. ----- S t r a t e g y f o r s a f e l y returning the space s h u t t l e t o f l i g h t s t a t u s . H e a r i n g , 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . May 1 5 , 1986. Washington;U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 121 p. ----- U n i t e d S t a t e s c i v i l i a n s p a c e programs. Vols. p r e p a r e d by t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e . Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1981 & 1983. 1339 & 381 p. Comnittee p r i n t s . U.S. I & 11. Reports Washington, U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce, S c i e n c e , and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . S o v i e t s p a c e programs: 1976-1980, p a r t s 1-3. P r e p a r e d by t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1982, 1984, 1985. 04/03/87 --- 08/15/86 --- P r e s i d e n t Reagan announced new "phased approach" t o b u i l d i n g t h e s p a c e s t a t i o n and new c o s t e s t i m a t e s f o r t h e program showing a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e . P r e s i d e n t Reagan announced h i s d e c i s i o n t o p r o c u r e a r e p l a c e ment s h u t t l e o r b i t e r and t o l i m i t t h e u s e o f t h e s h u t t l e t o shuttle-unique payloads. 05/23/86 --- payloads, limiting 01/28/86 01/25/84 --- 11/11/82 --- F i r s t "operational" 04/12/81 --- F i r s t l a u n c h of t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e . 07/20/69 --- 05/25/61 --- 05/05/61 --- Alan 04/18/86 for commercial on D e l t a launch v e h i c l e exploded d u r i n g launch. T i t a n launch v e h i c l e exploded d u r i n g launch. Space s h u t t l e C h a l l e n g e r e x p l o d e d 73 s e c o n d s a f t e r l i f t - o f f , k i l l i n g a l l s e v e n crew members. I n h i s S t a t e of t h e Union a d d r e s s , P r e s i d e n t Reagan c a l l e d f o r t h e development of a p e r m a n e n t l y o c c u p i e d s p a c e s t a t i o n w i t h i n a decade. l a u n c h of t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e . F i r s t men l a n d e d on t h e Moon P r e s i d e n t Kennedy's 1961 mandate. (Apollo ll), fulfilling P r e s i d e n t Kennedy c a l l e d upon t h e N a t i o n t o commit t o t h e g o a l of l a n d i n g a man on t h e Moon by t h e end of t h e d e c a d e . Shepard became t h e f i r s t American a l t h o u g h h i s f l i g h t was s u b o r b i t a l . 10/01/58 ----- 10/04/57 --- W o r l d ' s 04/12/61 use The N a t i o n a l . Commission on Space r e l e a s e d i t s r e p o r t long-term g o a l s f o r t h e U.S. c i v i l i a n s p a c e . program. ------- 05/03/86 its to reach space, Y u r i G a g a r i n became t h e f i r s t human t o o r b i t E a r t h . The N a t i o n a l created. first S o v i e t Union. Aeronautics satellite, and Space Sputnik Administration 1, was launched by was the FOR ADDITIONAL READING U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Budget O f f i c e . Setting space transportation policy f o r t h e 1 9 9 0 s , by David H. Moore. Washington, 1986. 52 p. U.S. L i b r a r y o f Congress. Congressional Research Service. ASATs: a n t i s a t e l l i t e weapon systems. [Washington] 1987. (Updated r e g u l a r l y ) CRS I s s u e B r i e f 85176 ----- A n a l y s i s o f t h e FY88 budget r e q u e s t f o r t h e N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space Administration. [Washington] 1987. CRS R e p o r t 87-892 SPR ----- Comnonly used acronyms and [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1987. CRS Report 87-256 SPR program names in the s p a c e program. . IB87018 ----- CRS-15 06-29-87 NASA'sp r o p o s e d postponement o f t h e Mars o b s e r v e r m i s s i o n . [Washington] 1987. 4 p. Feb. 6 , 1987. CRS R e p o r t 87-123 SPR - ----- Space a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e . U n i t e d S t a t e s , S o v i e t l a u n c h i n g c o u n t r i e s , 1957-1986, by Marcia Smith. 1987. CRS Report 87-229 SPR ----- Space a c t i v i t i e s of t h e non-launching Humphlett. Rev. Mar. 7 , 1985. 9 8 p. CRS R e p o r t 85-72 SPR Union, Rev. countries, and o t h e r Feb. 27, by Patricia Space l a u n c h o p t i o n s a f t e r t h e s h u t t l e a c c i d e n t , by Humphlett and A r t h u r F. M a n f r e d i . J a n . 27, 1987. 11 p. CRS I s s u e B r i e f 86121 Patricia ----- ----- S p a c e s t a t i o n s , by Marcia S. regularly) CRS I s s u e B r i e f 85209 Smith. [Washington] 1987. (Updated ----- The s t r a t e g i c d e f e n s e i n i t i a t i v e : program d e s c r i p t i o n and m a j o r i s s u e s , by Cosmo DiMaggio, A r t h u r M a n f r e d i , and S t e v e n H i l d r e t h . J a n . 7 , 1986. 47 p. CRS Report 86-8 SPR ----- The s t r a t e g i c defense i n i t i a t i v e : program f a c t s , by S t e v e n H i l d r e t h and A l i c e Maroni. [Washington] 1987. (Updated r e g u l a r l y ) CRS I s s u e B r i e f 85170 ----- S t r a t e g i c forces: m i n i a t u r e homing v e h i c l e (MHV) and a n t i s a t e l l i t e (ASAT), weapons f a c t s , by A r t h u r Manfredi. J a n . 20, 1987. 7 p. CRS I s s u e B r i e f 86052 U.S. N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A e r o n a u t i c s and s p a c e r e p o r t of t h e P r e s i d e n t ; a n n u a l r e p o r t . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off. U.S. N a t i o n a l Comnission on Space. York, Bantam books, 1986. 213 p. U.S. O f f i c e of applications. ---- - Technology Assessment. Civilian Washington, 1982. 391 p. I n t e r n a t i o n a l cooperation activities. Washington, 1985. ----- Pioneering t h e space f r o n t i e r . and c o m p e t i t i o n 472 p. C i v i l i a n s p a c e s t a t i o n s and t h e U.S. 1984. 234 p. U.S. space in policy civilian f u t u r e i n space. New and space Washington, P r e s i d e n t i a l Commission on t h e Space S h u t t l e C h a l l e n g e r A c c i d e n t . R e p o r t . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 256 p.