Drug Control

How to prevent the non-medical use of dependency-producing drugs has been a public policy concern for at least a century. A large part of the responsibility for controlling such substances has been assumed by the Federal Government. Historically based on decision to restrict availability through a system of close regulation, including selective prohibition, the current Federal anti-drugs strategy lives on activities and programs in five major areas: 1) regulation and other “enforcement” efforts; 2) support for international control and for control efforts of individual drug-producing and drug-transiting countries; 3) education and other prevention activities; 4 ) treatment and rehabilitation for drug-dependent persons; and ( 5 ) research on drugs , drug dependency, and prevention and treatment methods.

CONTENTS SUMMARY ISSUE DEFINITION BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS General Background Broad I s s u e s Recent Congressional Context I s s u e Elements of I n t e r e s t t o the 100th Congress LEGISLATION CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCUMENTS CHRONOLOGY FOR ADDITIONAL READING DRUG CONTROL How t o p r e v e n t t h e non-medical u s e o f dependency-producing d r u g s h a s been a p u b l i c p o l i c y c o n c e r n f o r a t l e a s t a c e n t u r y . A l a r g e p a r t of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t r o l l i n g s u c h s u b s t a n c e s h a s been assumed by t h e F e d e r a l Government. H i s t o r i c a l l y b a s e d on a d e c i s i o n t o r e s t r i c t a v a i l a b i l i t y t h r o u g h a s y s t e m of c l o s e r e g u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g s e l e c t i v e p r o h i b i t i o n , t h e c u r r e n t F e d e r a l a n t i-drug s t r a t e g y r e l i e s on a c t i v i t i e s and programs i n f i v e m a j o r a r e a s : ( 1 ) r e g u l a t i o n and o t h e r " e n f o r c e m e n t " e f f o r t s ; ( 2 ) s u p p o r t f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l and f o r c o n t r o l e f f o r t s of i n d i v i d u a l d r u g - p r o d u c i n g and d r u g - t r a n s i t i n g c o u n t r i e s ; ( 3 ) e d u c a t i o n and other prevention activities, ( 4 ) t r e a t m e n t and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r d r u g - d e p e n d e n t p e r s o n s ; and ( 5 ) r e s e a r c h on d r u g s , d r u g d e p e n d e n c y , and p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t methods. A l t h o u g h t h e b a s i c p o l i c y o f r e s t r i c t i o n h a s been c r i t i c i z e d , i t seems t o e n j o y g e n e r a l n a t i o n a l s u p p o r t . A renewed d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m e r i t s of l e g a l i z a t i o n o r " d e c r i m i n a l i z a t i o n " h a s n o t y e t been r e f l e c t e d , t o any s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e , i n c o n g r e s s i o n a l concerns o v e r d r u g m a t t e r s . I n s t e a d , t o d a y ' s p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s a r e more l i k e l y t o c o n c e r n t h e d e g r e e of p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d t o t h e problem, t h e l e v e l o f r e s o u r c e s d e v o t e d , t h e e m p h a s i s g i v e n t o e a c h o f t h e m a j o r components o f t h e a n t i - d r u g s t r a t e g y , and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p o l i c y implementation ( i n c l u d i n g o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n ) . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n of t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , i n t e r e s t i n d r u g c o n t r o l c e n t e r e d on b u d g e t l e v e l s and g e n e r a l o v e r s i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r o v i s i o n s of a n omnibus l a w e n a c t e d i n 1986, t h e Anti-Drug Abuse A c t . I n t h e second s e s s i o n , t h e f o c a l p o i n t i s a new omnibus b i l l a u t h o r i z i n g between $2 b i l l i o n and $2.5 b i l l i o n i n additional a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , c r e a t i n g a number of new programs a s w e l l a s e x p a n d i n g e x i s t i n g o n e s , and e s t a b l i s h i n g new p e n a l t i e s and o t h e r s a n c t i o n s f o r d r u g offenses . I S S U E DEFINITION The n o n m e d i c a l u s e o f n a r c o t i c s and o t h e r d a n g e r o u s d r u g s h a s been a n a t i o n a l problem s i n c e t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A l a r g e p a r t o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t r o l l i n g s u c h s u b s t a n c e s h a s been assumed by t h e F e d e r a l Government. C u r r e n t l y embracing a broad spectrum of a p p r o a c h e s , t h e F e d e r a l commitment t o a n t i - d r u g e f f o r t s h a s expanded r a p i d l y i n recent years. A t t h e most g e n e r a l l e v e l , t h e m a j o r i s s u e i s whether t h e p o l i c y of preventing t h e abuse of drugs through r e s t r i c t i v e and even p r o h i b i t o r y c o n t r o l s i s t h e b e s t one p o s s i b l e . Assuming t h a t i t i s , t h e s e c o n d - l e v e l p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s a r e : i s t h e d r u g problem a c c o r d e d a n a p p r o p r i a t e p o s i t i o n i n t h e l i s t of n a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s ; a r e we p u r s u i n g t h e r i g h t s t r a t e g i e s f o r carrying t h e policy out; a r e these s t r a t e g i e s b e i n g p r o p e r l y implemented; i f n o t , how c a n t h e y be improved; and d o t h e s t r a t e g i e s c o n f l i c t with other national o r public i n t e r e s t s ? BACKGROUWD AND ANALYSIS General Background How t o p r e v e n t t h e n o n t h e r a p e u t i c u s e of dependency-producing d r u g s h a s been a p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r a t l e a s t a century. I n t e r e s t i n t h e q u e s t i o n , which i s i n t e r m i t t e n t , h a s been e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g i n t h e p a s t 25 y e a r s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , a n a p p a r e n t l y s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n h e r o i n u s e i n many i n n e r c i t i e s a f t e r World War I1 was including cocaine and, augmented by t h e growing a b u s e of o t h e r d r u g s more r e c e n t l y , c o c a i n e b a s e ("crack" and "rock"). -- S t a t i s t i c s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d r u g problem a r e c o n t r o v e r s i a l . Even t h e and, concomitantly, any e x t e n t o f a b u s e , p a s t and p r e s e n t , i s d i s p u t e d a t t e m p t t o d e p i c t t h e t r e n d s of a b u s e . However, most a u t h o r i t i e s a g r e e t h a t t h e r e h a s i n f a c t been a n i n c r e a s e s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s , t h a t i t h a s been substantial, and t h a t i t h a s i n v o l v e d p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s p r e v i o u s l y u n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e problem. -- On t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l , b o t h t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h and C o n g r e s s have l e g i s l a t i v e and r e a c t e d t o p u b l i c c o n c e r n w i t h new i n i t i a t i v e s a s w e l l a s w i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n of e x i s t i n g programs. administrative Many a p p r o a c h e s have been t a k e n : i n t h e "demand r e d u c t i o n " a r e a s of treatment, p r e v e n t i o n , and r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h a s w e l l a s i n " s u p p l y reduction" e f f o r t s s u c h a s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and p r o s e c u t i o n s o f d r u g t r a f f i c k e r s , d r u g i n t e r d i c t i o n , and t h e development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l accords. -- -- D u r i n g t h e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l F e d e r a l e m p h a s i s on s u p p l y r e d u c t i o n was c h a l l e n g e d i n C o n g r e s s , and t h e t r e n d o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h a t period r e f l e c t e d a g r e a t e r concern f o r r e d u c t i o n i n demand t h r o u g h p r o v i s i o n o f t r e a t m e n t and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s t o u s e r s , a l o n g w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s t o p r e v e n t o r r e d u c e drug use. The Comnunity Mental H e a l t h C e n t e r s Act of 1963 became t h e v e h i c l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g i n 1968 a s p e c i a l i z e d g r a n t program f o r t r e a t m e n t of d r u g d e p e n d e n c e , a s w e l l a s f o r p r e v e n t i o n e f f o r t s . The Drug Abuse E d u c a t i o n Act o f 1970 c r e a t e d a n o t h e r p r e v e n t i o n program, with a d i f f e r e n t e m p h a s i s and a d m i n i s t e r e d by a s e p a r a t e agency. CRS- 3 I887013 09-30-88 Budget t o t a l s p r o v i d e a measure o f t h e l e v e l and t r e n d of t h e g r o w i n g F e d e r a l comnitment t o combat t h e d r u g problem: spending f o r a l l such e f f o r t s r o s e f r o m $82 m i l l i o n i n FY69 t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y $3.9 b i l l i o n i n FY87 and $3.5 b i l l i o n i n FY88. The F e d e r a l s t r a t e g y f o r p r e v e n t i n g a b u s e of d a n g e r o u s d r u g s i s multi-faceted. I t i s based on d o m e s t i c laws which c l o s e l y r e g u l a t e t h e cormerce i n such drugs i n some i n s t a n c e s e f f e c t i v e l y b a n n i n g them backed up by a s y s t e m o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l s and by a complex o f m u l t i l a t e r a l and b i l a t e r a l a g r e e m e n t s c o v e r i n g n o t o n l y p r o d u c t i o n b u t a l s o g e n e r a l d o m e s t i c r e g u l a t i o n and o t h e r a s p e c t s of government e f f o r t s t o p r e v e n t i l l i c i t comnerce. A t t h e same t i m e , t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e s e s u p p l y r e d u c t i o n e f f o r t s , t h e F e d e r a l Government p u r s u e s a demand r e d u c t i o n s t r a t e g y by s u p p o r t i n g t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i o n programs t h r o u g h g r a n t s - i n - a i d and by m a i n t a i n i n g a program o f r e s e a r c h , b o t h e x t r a - and i n t r a m u r a l , r e l a t e d t o t h e a b u s e o f d r u g s and methods o f curbing it. -- -- Broad Issues The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e i n d i c a t e s a r a n g e of p o s s i b l e s k e l e t a l a n s w e r s t o these general questions: I s t h e b a s i c p o l i c y of r e s t r i c t i o n t h e r i g h t Are w e . p u r s u i n g t h e r i g h t set o f s t r a t e g i e s t o c a r r y o u t t h e one? p o l i c y ? Are t h e y p r o p e r l y implemented? and How c o u l d t h e y b e improved? - 1. 2. 3. The b a s i c p o l i c y i s wrong. We s h o u l d l e g a l i z e d r u g s b e c a u s e : a. t h e b l a c k m a r k e t would c o l l a p s e and a l o n g w i t h i t t h e accompanying p o t e n t i a l f o r c o r r u p t i o n of t h e s o c i e t y , and b. - e x p e r i e n c e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t we c a n ' t s t o p t h e i l l i c i t t r a f f i c i n any case. Both p o l i c y and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e a b o u t r i g h t . C o n t i n u e b a s i c p o l i c y o f r e g u l a t i o n and s e l e c t i v e p r o h i b i t i o n , but: a. S u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e r e s o u r c e s committed (1) a l l around. (2) selectively. b. Reduce commitment. (1) We're s p e n d i n g t o o much, and w e ' r e u n c e r t a i n a b o u t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of what we're d o i n g . (2) Rely on demand r e d u c t i o n e f f o r t s t o make t h e problem more manageable. (3) R e l y on t i m e t o s o l v e t h e problem America ( a s w e l l a s other countries) has experienced drug epidemics before, and t h e y e v e n t u a l l y s u b s i d e d . They have a n a t u r a l l i f e c y c l e t h a t must r u n i t s c o u r s e , f o l l o w e d by a p e r i o d of reaction. c. Change t h e e m p h a s i s . C u r r e n t p o l i c y pu;s t o o much e m p h a s i s on s u p p l y r e d u c t i o n . (1) C o n c e n t r a t e on demand r e d u c t i o n ( i t ' s t h e u s e r who k e e p s t h e m a r k e t g o i n g , and t h e r e ' s more l i k e l i h o o d o f r e a c h i n g him t h a n o f s t o p p i n g t h e t r a f f i c i t s e l f ) ( a ) t h r o u g h more e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r p r e v e n t i o n e f f o r t s . ( b ) t h r o u g h more and b e t t e r t r e a t m e n t of t h o s e a l r e a d y d e p e n d e n t on d r u g s . -- -- -- d. ( c ) t h r o u g h more e m p h a s i s on d e t e r r e n c e by random t e s t i n g f o r d r u g u s e , i n t h e w o r k p l a c e and i n s c h o o l s , f o l l o w e d by a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n ; by a more d e t e r m i n e d e n f o r c e m e n t of "simple" p o s s e s s i o n s t a t u t e s by t h e p o l i c e ; and t h r o u g h i m p o s i t i o n o f h i g h e r p e n a l t i e s by the courts. (2) C u r r e n t p o l i c y p u t s t o o much ( o r n o t enough) e m p h a s i s on Overseas e f f o r t s t o s o l v i n g t h e problem "at t h e s o u r c e " . r e d u c e t h e p r o d u c t i o n of p o p p i e s , c o c a , and c a n n a b i s a r e u n r e a l i s t i c and doomed t o f a i l ( o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , o f f e r t h e m a j o r hope, j u s t i f y i n g a n e v e n g r e a t e r commitment t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l N a r c o t i c s C o n t r o l program u n d e r t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e Act and t o v a r i o u s r e l a t e d e f f o r t s ) . I t ' s more e f f i c i e n t t o s e i z e (3) C o n c e n t r a t e on i n t e r d i c t i o n . drugs before they e n t e r t h e country o r a t the border than a f t e r t h e y h a v e been moved i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r . (4) The b r e a k u p o f t r a f f i c k i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s , i n t h e l o n g r u n , t h e b e s t way t o r e d u c e s u p p l y . T h i s r e q u i r e s p u t t i n g more e m p h a s i s on i n v e s t i g a t i o n and p r o s e c u t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . R e o r g a n i z e t h e ~ o v e r n m e n It s a n t i - d r u g s t r u c t u r e f o r g r e a t e r efficiency by c r e a t i o n of a new e n t i t y ( s u c h a s a s u p e r - a g e n c y headed (1) by a II c z a r , " a c a b i n e t c o m n i t t e e , o r a d d i t i o n a l t a s k f o r c e s 1. (2) by s h i f t i n g of e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s o r f u n c t i o n s (such a s a t o t a l merger of t h e Drug E n f o r c e m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e FBI o r moving t h e C o a s t Guard back t o t h e Treasury Department). -- The q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r a n t i - d r u g s t r a t e g i e s c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n a l o r p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s c o u l d be a s k e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h : (1) t h e u s e of s a n c t i o n s o r o t h e r forms of p r e s s u r e on f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s where t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s o t h e r major i n t e r e s t s t h a t might t h u s b e compromised; ( 2 ) p r a c t i c e s , s u c h a s random employee t e s t i n g , t h a t might t h r e a t e n a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t ; ( 3 ) s e l e c t i v e law e n f o r c e m e n t a p p r o a c h e s b a s e d on It p r o f i l e s , " a g a i n p e r h a p s c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s ; and ( 4 ) t h e e x p e n d i t u r e of l a r g e sums of money a t a time when t h e F e d e r a l Government i s l a b o r i n g u n d e r a m a s s i v e b u d g e t d e f i c i t . A d d i t i o n a l p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s a r e posed by a l m o s t e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e o v e r a l l F e d e r a l d r u g c o n t r o l program. I n t h e c a s e of p r e v e n t i o n e f f o r t s , f o r example, t h e o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n i s w h e t h e r t h e y c a n be p r o v e d effective. C r i t i c s of c u r r i c u l a - b a s e d e f f o r t s i n t h e s c h o o l s c o n t e n d t h a t by s t i m u l a t i n g a n s u c h methods h a v e oft_en proved c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e i n t e r e s t t h a t ends i n experimentation. Likewise, q u e s t i o n s about t h e Long-run r e s u l t s of t r e a t m e n t and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n regimens c o n t i n u e t o be r a i s e d , a s we1 1 a s a b o u t t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t modalities. -- Recent C o n g r e s s i o n a l C o n t e x t D u r i n g t h e c l o s i n g months o f t h e 1986 s e s s i o n , C o n g r e s s e n a c t e d a 1 5 - t i t l e , 480-page d r u g c o n t r o l b i l l . Developed i n t h e wake o f t h e c o c a i n e - r e l a t e d d e a t h s of two prominent U.S. a t h l e t e s and amid r e p o r t s o f e p i d e m i c u s e of c o c a i n e and c o c a i n e b a s e , t h e m e a s u r e was t h e p r o d u c t on t h e House s i d e of 12 s t a n d i n g c o m n i t t e e s . The f i n a l v e r s i o n borrowed from a c o m p a r a b l e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o p o s a l a s w e l l a s f r o m a number o f S e n a t e b i l l s p u t t o g e t h e r by Members on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e a i s l e . i n c l u d i n g a new I n a d d i t i o n t o making s u b s t a n t i v e s t a t u t o r y c h a n g e s p e n a l t y s y s t e m f e a t u r i n g mandatory s e n t e n c e s f o r t h e more s e r i o u s trafficking offenses t h e new law ( P . L . 99-570, t h e Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1 9 8 6 ) a u t h o r i z e d i n c r e a s e d s p e n d i n g o f $1.7 b i l l i o n f o r FY87 a l o n e . -- -- -- -- The 1986 omnibus measure c o n t a i n e d p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o v i r t u a l l y e v e r y a s p e c t of t h e F e d e r a l a n t i - d r u g e f f o r t . S u b j e c t s of s e p a r a t e and i n most c a s e s p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d b i l l s t h a t were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n c l u d e d : ( 1 ) a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r o l s designed t o c u r b t h e "laundering" of monetary i n s t r u m e n t s d e r i v e d from i l l i c i t d r u g t r a f f i c k i n g ; ( 2 ) r e g u l a t i o n of so-called "designer drugs"; ( 3 ) new s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t u n c o o p e r a t i v e d r u g - s o u r c e c o u n t r i e s ; ( 4 ) a new program o f g r a n t s f o r S t a t e and l o c a l d r u g law e n f o r c e m e n t ; ( 5 ) a new program of d r u g a b u s e e d u c a t i o n g r a n t s ; ( 6 ) a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e f u n d i n g of t r e a t m e n t g r a n t p r o g r a m s ; ( 7 ) i n c r e a s e s i n p e n a l t i e s f o r t r a f f i c k i n g o f f e n s e s , i n c l u d i n g mandatory minimums f o r more s e r i o u s v i o l a t i o n s ; and ( 8 ) s u b s t a n t i a l new e n f o r c e m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e Customs S e r v i c e . Among t h e more c o n t r o v e r s i a l p r o p o s a l s o m i t t e d from t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n were t h o s e t o (1) g r e a t l y expand t h e r o l e o f t h e Armed F o r c e s i n d r u g law e n f o r c e m e n t , ( 2 ) c r e a t e a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e E x c l u s i o n a r y R u l e , and ( 3 ) p r o v i d e f o r t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y f o r convicted t r a f f i c k e r s under c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d circumstances. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e omnibus b i l l , t h e 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s p a s s e d s e v e r a l m e a s u r e s t a k i n g more i n c r e m e n t a l a p p r o a c h e s t o d r u g c o n t r o l p r o b l e m s . * I s s u e Elements o f I n t e r e s t t o t h e 1 0 0 t h Congress C o n g r e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e d r u g i s s u e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n of of t h e F e d e r a l e f f o r t i n t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s was f o c u s s e d on o v e r s i g h t g e n e r a l and of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e 1986 l e g i s l a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . With t h e p r e s i d e n t ' s FY88 budget r e f l e c t i n g a $900 m i l l i o n d o l l a r r e d u c t i o n from t h e e s t i m a t e d l e v e l f o r FY87, d i s p u t e s o v e r t h e r e q u e s t e d c u t s w e r e a prominent f e a t u r e of t h e s e s s i o n . The FY89 b u d g e t , however, p r o v i d i n g an a p p r o x i m a t e 13% i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e e n a c t e d FY88 l e v e l , h a s g e n e r a l l y been well received. N e v e r t h e l e s s , Congress i s moving toward p a s s a g e o f a new omnibus b i l l , which would p r o v i d e f o r m a j o r f u n d i n g i n c r e a s e s i n most programs a l o n g w i t h o t h e r c h a n g e s and a d d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s . -- LEG1 SLATION P.L. 100-71, H.R. 1827 S u p p l e m e n t a l A p p r o p r i a t i o n s , FY87. Includes a provision s e t t i n g f o r t h c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e u s e of f u n d s made a v a i l a b l e by t h e a c t t o implement p r o v i s i o n s o f E x e c u t i v e O r d e r 12564 p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e t e s t i n g of c e r t a i n F e d e r a l w o r k e r s f o r u s e of i l l i c i t d r u g s . Reported t o House (H.Rept. 100-28) Mar. 25, 1987. P a s s e d House, amended, Apr. 24. Reported t o R e f e r r e d t o S e n a t e C o m n i t t e e on A p p r o p r i a t i o n s Apr. 27. Passed S e n a t e , amended, J u n e 2. S e n a t e , amended (S.Rept. 100-48) May 1. C o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t f i l e d ( ~ . R e ~ t 100-1951, . t o which House a g r e e d J u n e 30 and Senate a g r e e d J u l y 1. S i g n e d i n t o law J u l y 11, 1987. P.L. 100-180, H.R. 1748 N a c i o n a l Defense A u t h o r i z a t i o n Act f o r FY88. Contains provisions requiring: ( 1 ) t h e General Accounting O f f i c e t o conduct a comprehensive s t u d y o f d r u g smuggling and F e d e r a l c a p a b i l i t i e s t o d e t e r i t , p a y i n g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r o l e of t h e Defense Department; ( 2 ) DOD t o t r a n s f e r t o ' t h e Department o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n $ 3 m i l l i o n of i t s FY88 a p p r o p r i a t i o n and $6 m i l l i o n o f i t s FY89 a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r t h e C o a s t Guard Law Enforcement Detachment program; and ( 3 ) DOD t o s u b m i t a n n u a l l y t o C o n g r e s s a p l a n f o r r e n d e r i n g d r u g law e n f o r c e m e n t a s s i s t a n c e t o c i v i l i a n d r u g law e n f o r c e m e n t and i n t e r d i c t i o n a g e n c i e s d u r i n g t h e forthcoming f i s c a l year. (As p a s s e d House, i n c l u d e d c o n t e n t s o f H.R. 47 ( q . v . ) p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of an expanded Armed F o r c e s r o l e i n drug c o n t r o l . ) I n t r o d u c e d Mar. 23, 1987; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on Armed Services. R e p o r t e d , amended (H.Rept. 100-581, Apr. 1 5 , 1987. Passed House, amended, May 20. P a s s e d S e n a t e Oct. 2 , w i t h c o n t e n t s of S. 1174, amended. C o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t f i l e d i n House (H.Rept. 100-446) Nov. 1 7 , t o which House and S e n a t e a g r e e d . Signed i n t o law Dec. 4 , 1987. P.L. 100-297, H.R. 5 S c h o o l Improvement Amendments o f 1988. Among o t h e r t h i n g s , r e p e a l s t h e Drug-Free S c h o o l s and C o m n u n i t i e s Act p o r t i o n o f t h e Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 and r e a u t h o r i z e s i t as T i t l e V o f t h e E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n A c t , a t a u t h o r i z a t i o n l e v e l s o f $250 m i l l i o n f o r FY89, and s u c h a s may be n e c e s s a r y f o r FY90-93. R e q u i r e s d i s t r i b u t i o n of d r u g f u n d s t o l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s w i t h i n e a c h S t a t e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e n r o l l m e n t i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e n o n p r o f i t s c h o o l s , r a t h e r t h a n on t h e school-age population. Adds p r o v i s i o n s t o i n c l u d e s u i c i d e p r e v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a s p a r t o f l o c a l d r u g a b u s e e d u c a t i o n and p r e v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and t o r e q u i r e a s t u d y o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between d r u g and a l c o h o l a b u s e and y o u t h s u i c i d e . I n t r o d u c e d J a n . 6 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e on Passed E d u c a t i o n and Labor. R e p o r t e d , amended (H .Rept. 100-95) May 15. House May 21. R e f e r r e d t o S e n a t e Committee on Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s June 3 . R e p o r t e d t o S e n a t e ( w i t h o u t w r i t t e n r e p o r t ) Nov. 19. Passed ' S e n a t e , w i t h l a n g u a g e o f S. 373 a s amended, Dec. 1, 1987. Conference r e p o r t (H.Rept. 100-567) a g r e e d t o by House Apr. 1 9 and by S e n a t e Apt. 20. S i g n e d i n t o law Apr. 28, 1988. H.R. 2585 ( H u g h e s ) / ~ . 1 3 6 1 (DeConcini) Chemical D i v e r s i o n and T r a f f i c k i n g Act of 1987. Amends t h e C o n t r o l l e d S u b s t a n c e s Act t o s u p p r e s s t h e d i v e r s i o n o f , and t r a f f i c k i n g i n , p r e c u r s o r c h e m i c a l s and e s s e n t i a l c h e m i c a l s u t i l i z e d i n t h e i l l i c i t I887013 CRS- 7 09-30-88 m a n u f a c t u r e of c o n t r o l l e d s u b s t a n c e s . H.R. 2585 i n t r o d u c e d J u n e 3 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o Committees on Energy and Commerce (Subcommittee on H e a l t h and t h e E n v i r o n m e n t ) and on t h e J u d i c i a r y ( S u b c o r n i t t e e on C r i m e ) . Hearings 2585 i n c l u d e d i n H.R. 4916, a s h e l d S e p t . 1 6 , 1987. C o n t e n t s o f H.R. o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d , amended, J u n e 3 0 , 1988. S. 1361 i n t r o d u c e d J u n e 11, 1987; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . (Similar provisions i n c l u d e d i n H.R. 5210.) H.R. 3051 ( H i n e t a ) A i r P a s s e n g e r P r o t e c t i o n Act of 1987. Amends t h e F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Act of 1958 t o e s t a b l i s h minimum s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g a i r c a r r i e r p a s s e n g e r services. I n c l u d e s t e s t i n g f o r t h e unauthorized use of a l c o h o l and c o n t r o l l e d s u b s t a n c e s by o p e r a t o r s o f r a i l r o a d t r a i n s , a i r c r a f t , and commercial motor v e h i c l e s . I n t r o d u c e d J u l y 2 9 , 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on P u b l i c Works and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . P a s s e d House, amended, O c t . 5. P a s s e d S e n a t e , amended, Oct. 3 0 , a f t e r s u b s t i t u t i n g c o n t e n t s of S. 1 4 8 5 , which had p r e v i o u s l y been amended t o i n c l u d e c o n t e n t s o f S. 1041. Conferences scheduled. Motion t o i n s t r u c t . c o n f e r e e s p a s s e d House J u n e 1 5 , 1988. ( R e l a t e d b i l l s : H.R. 280, H.R. 6 9 1 , H.R. 6 9 3 , S. 356.) H.R. 4264 (Aspin) Department o f Defense Amended Budget A u t h o r i z a t i o n A c t , 1989. As p a s s e d by House, includes provisions to: (1) authorize additional a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r d r u g i n t e r d i c t i o n by t h e m i l i t a r y ; ( 2 ) d i r e c t t h e P r e s i d e n t , w i t h i n 30 d a y s of e n a c t m e n t , t o d e p l o y Armed F o r c e s e q u i p m e n t and p e r s o n n e l ( i n c l u d i n g members o f t h e N a t i o n a l Guard and t h e R e s e r v e s ) " s u f f i c i e n t t o halt'.' t h e smuggling o f n a r c o t i c s i n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by a i r o r s e a ; and ( 3 ) d i r e c t t h e S e c r e t a r y of D e f e n s e t o " s u b s t a n t i a l l y h a l t , " w i t h i n 4 5 d a y s , t h e smuggling of n a r c o t i c s i n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n t r o d u c e d Mar. 28, 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on Armed S e r v i c e s . Recommitted t o c o m m i t t e e . Reported R e p o r t e d (H.Rept. 100-563) Apr. 5. w i t h amendment ( w i t h o u t w r i t t e n r e p o r t ) May 11; p a s s e d House, amended. P a s s e d S e n a t e , w i t h t e x t of S. 2355, May 27. Conference r e p o r t f i l e d (H.Rept. 100-7531 J u l y 7 ; a g r e e d t o by House and S e n a t e J u l y 14. Vetoed by t h e P r e s i d e n t Aug. 3, 1988. H.R. 4505 ( L l o y d ) Department o f Energy C i v i l i a n R e s e a r c h and Development A u t h o r i z a t i o n A s r e p o r t e d , i n c l u d e s t h e s o - c a l l e d "walker amendment" Act f o r FY89. p r o h i b i t i n g f u n d s from b e i n g expended i n a n y w o r k p l a c e t h a t i s n o t f r e e of i l l e g a l u s e o r p o s s e s s i o n of c o n t r o l l e d s u b s t a n c e s which i s made known t o t h e e n t i t y o r o f f i c i a l t o which f u n d s a r e b e i n g a p p r o p r i a t e d . Introduced May 2 , 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on S c i e n c e , S p a c e , and Technology. R e p o r t e d w i t h amendment (H.Rept. 100-636) May 19. P a s s e d House, amended, J u n e 3 , 1988. R e f e r r e d t o S e n a t e Committee on Energy and N a t u r a l (Note: S i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s h a v e been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n o t h e r Resources. b i l l s , i n c l u d i n g t h e r e p o r t e d FY89 a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l s f o r NASA, NBS, and NSF, a s w e l l a s t h e FY89 l e g i s l a t i v e b r a n c h a p p r o p r i a t i o n s b i l l . ) H.R. 4637 (Obey) Foreign O p e r a t i o n s Export Financing and R e l a t e d Programs A p p r o p r i a t i o n s A c t , 1989. Makes a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r f o r e i g n o p e r a t i o n s , e x p o r t f i n a n c i n g , and r e l a t e d programs f o r t h e f i s c a l y e a r e n d i n g S e p t 30, 1 9 8 9 , and f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . As p a s s e d by House, i n c l u d e s a f l o o r . amendment t h a t p r o h i b i t s e x p e n d i t u r e o f f u n d s i n a n y w o r k p l a c e , i n c l u d i n g a workplace "within any government.or m i l i t a r y f o r c e , " t h a t is not f r e e of any i l l e g a l p o s s e s s i o n o r u s e of c o n t r o l l e d s u b s t a n c e s , o r b r i b e r y , t a x e v a s i o n , g r a f t , o r p r i c e f i x i n g , which i s made known t o t h e F e d e r a l e n t i t y o r o f f i c i a l t o which f u n d s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e d . I n t r o d u c e d May 1 9 , 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on A p p r o p r i a t i o n s . R e p o r t e d (H.Rept. 100-641) May 19. P a s s e d House May 25. R e f e r r e d t o S e n a t e Committee on A p p r o p r i a t i o n s May 26. R e p o r t e d w i t h amendment (S.Rept. 100-3951 J u n e 22. Passed S e n a t e , amended, J u l y 7 , 1988. C o n f e r e n c e s c h e d u l e d . H.R. 4658 (Hutt-o) C o a s t Guard Drug Enforcement Act o f 1988. Contains authorizations d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e more e f f e c t i v e C o a s t Guard e n f o r c e m e n t o f laws r e l a t i n g t o drug abuse. I n t r o d u c e d May 24, 1988; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e s on Merchant Marine and F i s h e r i e s and on Ways and Means. Reported, amended (H.Rept. 100-814), Aug. 3 , 1988. (Similar provisions included i n H.R. 5 2 1 0 . ) H.R. 4719 ( B r o o k s ) Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988. S e t s f o r t h drug-free workplace r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r F e d e r a l g r a n t e e s and c o n t r a c t o r s . I n t r o d u c e d J u n e , 1988; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e on Government O p e r a t i o n s . Ordered r e p o r t e d , amended, J u n e 2 9 , 1988. ( S i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d i n H.R. 5210.) 4841 ( F a s c e l l ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l N a r c o t i c s C o n t r o l Act o f 1988. A u t h o r i z e s an a d d i t i o n a l $36 m i l t i o n f o r t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l N a r c o t i c s C o n t r o l program u n d e r t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e Act. R e q u e s t s t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f American S t a t e s t o c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a m u l t i n a t i o n a l regional anti-narcotics force. I n t r o d u c e d J u n e 1 6 , 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committees on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , o n Ways and Means, and on Banking, F i n a n c e , and Urban A f f a i r s . R e p o r t e d by C o m n i t t e e on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s (H.Rept. 100720, P a r t I ) J u n e 2 2 , 1988. ( S i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d i n H.R. 5 2 1 0 . ) H.R. 4842 ( M i c h e l ) Comprehensive Anti-Drugs Act o f 1988. An omnibus 4 - t i t l e b i l l ( w i t h 4 0 s u b t i t l e s ) e m p h a s i z i n g d r u g demand r e d u c t i o n t h r o u g h u s e r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , increased c r i m i n a l s a n c t i o n s f o r drug o f f e n s e s , t i g h t e r r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s , expanded e n f o r c e m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s f o r some a g e n c i e s , i n c r e a s e s i n F e d e r a l p r i s o n c a p a c i t y and i n f u n d i n g of o t h e r s e g m e n t s o f t h e F e d e r a l c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e s y s t e m , added a s s i s t a n c e f o r d r u g law e n f o r c e m e n t e f f o r t s o f f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , and m e a s u r e s d e s i g n e d t o i m p r o v e U.S. interdiction e f f o r t s (including greater i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e Armed S e r v i c e s ) . I n t r o d u c e d J u n e 1 6 , 1988; r e f e r r e d j o i n t l y t o Committees on t h e J u d i c i a r y , on A g r i c u l t u r e , on Armed S e r v i c e s , on E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r , on Energy and Comnerce, o n F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , on Government O p e r a t i o n s , on Merchant Marine and F i s h e r i e s , on P o s t O f f i c e and C i v i l S e r v i c e , on P u b l i c Works and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , on Ways and Means, and on Banking, F i n a n c e , and Urban A f f a i r s ; a l s o t o t h e Permanent S e l e c t C o m n i t t e e on I n t e l l i g e n c e . ( R e l a t e d b i l l : H.R. 4446.) H.R. H.R. 4872 (Hawkins) E s t a b l i s h e s e d u c a t i o n programs r e l a t i n g t o t h e i l l i c i t u s e o f d r u g s by y o u t h . I n t r o d u c e d J u n e 21, 1988; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r . R e p o r t e d , amended (H.Rept. 100-779) J u l y 1 4 , 1988. (Similar p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d i n H.R. 5210.) H.R. 4907 (Leland) Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Amendments of 1987. Amends the Public Health Service Act to revise and extend appropriation authorizations for expiring programs of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. Among other things, breaks up the existing alcohol and drug abuse and mental health services block grant to the States to form separate grants for mental health and for substance abuse. For Alcohol and Drug Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabi 1 i tat ion Services ( including the proposed new block grant 1, authorizes $475 million for FY89 and such sums as may be necessary for FY90 and FY91. Authorizes $100 million for grants for the purpose of expanding treatment capacity and reducing waiting periods of existing qualified programs. H.R. 3187 introduced Aug. 7, 1988; H.R. 4907, clean bill in lieu of H.R. 3187, introduced June 23, 1988; referred to Energy and Commerce. Ordered reported, amended, June 28, 1988. (Related bills: S. 924, S. 1943.) (Similar provisions included in H.R. 5210.) H.R. 4916 (Hughes) Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988. Includes: the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act; the Joint Federal Task Force on Clandestine Drug Laboratories Act; the Asset Forfeiture Amendments Act; the State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Act; the Drug Enforcement Enhancement Act (for FY89, an additional $620 million for the Drug Enforcement Administration, $9 million for the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement program, and $82.3 million for the Inmigration and Naturalization Service); the Money Laundering Prosecution Act; establishment of an Office of Anti-Drug Operations and Policy; and provisions for denying certain Federal benefits (for specified periods) to persons convicted within a 10-year period of any felony drug offense or two misdemeanor offenses. As reported, includes an amendment providing for a police check/waiting period for comnercial handgun transfers ("Brady bill"). Original bill H.R. 4868 introduced June 21, 1988; referred jointly to Committees on the Judiciary and on Energy and Comnerce. Clean bill H.R. 4916 introduced June 27, 1988; referred jointly to Committees on the Judiciary, on Energy and Commerce, on Post Office and Civil Service, on Government Operations, and on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs. Ordered reported by Committee on the Judiciary, amended, June 30, 1988. (Similar provisions included in H.R. 5210.) H.R. 4953 ( S t Germain) Money Laundering Control Amendments of 1988. Amends Title 31, U.S. Code, to establish new requirements and procedures to combat money laundering. Introduced June 16, 1988; referred to Cornmi ttee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs. Reported (H.Rept. 100-716) June 21, 1988. (Similar provisions included in H.R. 5210.) H.R. 5096 (mitten) Makes special supplemental appropriations for FY88, including $2.6 billion, in lump sum, for anti-drug efforts. Original bill H.R. 4728 introduced June 2; referred jointly to Committees on Appropriations and on Government Operations. Provisions included in H.R. 5096 (replacing H.R. 5027 ), as reported by Committee on Appropriations (H.Rept. 100-799) July 26, 1988. H.R. 5210 ( F o l e y , M i c h e l ) Omnibus Drug I n i t i a t i v e Act of 1988. C o n t a i n s 10 t i t l e s (named f o r o r i g i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e s ) , i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s which: ( 1 ) make i t more d i f f i c u l t t o l a u n d e r t h e p r o c e e d s from d r u g t r a f f i c k i n g and o t h e r c r i m i n a l e n t e r p r i s e s ; ( 2 ) e s t a b l i s h s e v e r a l new d r u g a w a r e n e s s and e d u c a t i o n programs; ( 3 ) impose s t r i c t e r p e n a l t i e s f o r c e r t a i n d r u g - r e l a t e d o f f e n s e s ; ( 4 ) e x t e n d and expand t h e e x i s t i n g program o f g r a n t s t o S t a t e and l o c a l law e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s f o r d r u g law e n f o r c e m e n t p u r p o s e s ; ( 5 ) r e a u t h o r i z e two i m p o r t a n t b l o c k g r a n t s f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i o n s e r v i c e s ; ( 6 ) r e a u t h o r i z e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l e f f o r t s and earmark funds f o r s p e c i f i c purposes; ( 7 ) r e v i s e c e r t i f i c a t i o n procedures and r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e programs; ( 8 ) r e q u i r e F e d e r a l g r a n t e e s and c o n t r a c t w i n n e r s t o p r o v i d e a d r u g - f r e e w o r k p l a c e ; and ( 9 ) c r e a t e a new g r a n t program f o r t r e a t m e n t o f i n t r a v e n o u s d r u g u s e r s and f o r c o u n s e l i n g on AIDS. Authorizes additional appropriations f o r Federal a g e n c y d r u g c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s and f o r g r a n t s - i n - a i d of $2.1 b i l l i o n . Major House f l o o r amendments i n c l u d e t h o s e which: ( 1 ) p r o v i d e f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y f o r c e r t a i n d r u g t r a f f i c k i n g o f f e n s e s r e s u l t i n g i n d e a t h ; ( 2 ) c r e a t e a new F e d e r a l o f f i c e f o r d e v e l o p i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g d r u g law e n f o r c e m e n t p o l i c y ; ( 3 ) a r e d e s i g n e d t o foment " u s e r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y n through d e n i a l of c e r t a i n Federal b e n e f i t s t o persons c o n v i c t e d of s p e c i f i e d d r u g o f f e n s e s ; ( 4 ) e s t a b l i s h a c i v i l p e n a l t y ( u p t o $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 ) f o r i l l e g a l p o s s e s s i o n of a c o n t r o l l e d s u b s t a n c e ; ( 5 ) s t r i k e f o r c o m n e r c i a l handgun p r o v i s i o n s f o r a Federal "waiting period" p u r c h a s e s ; and ( 6 ) i n c r e a s e p e n a l t i e s f o r c e r t a i n c o c a i n e b a s e p o s s e s s i o n offenses. I n t r o d u c e d Aug. 11, 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committees on Banking, F i n a n c e , and Urban A f f a i r s , on E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r , on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , on Government O p e r a t i o n s , on I n t e r i o r and I n s u l a r A f f a i r s , on t h e J u d i c i a r y , on Merchant Marine and F i s h e r i e s , on P u b l i c Works and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , on Ways and Means, and on Energy and Comnerce. Rule g r a n t e d p r i o r t o i n t r o d u c t i o n and r e p o r t e d t o House (H.Rept. 100-861) Aug. 1 0 ; s u p e r s e d e d R u l e p a s s e d House S e p t . 7. by H.Rept. 100-861, par.t 2 , r e p o r t e d S e p t . 6. B i l l p a s s e d House S e p t . 2 2 , 1988. (comparable b i l l s : H.R. 4230, H.R. 4 4 4 6 , H.R. 4842; and S . 2205.) S. 789 (Biden)/B.R. 2454 ( R a n g e l , Gilman, Rodino) N a t i o n a l N a r c o t i c s L e a d e r s h i p Act o f 1987. E s t a b l i s h e s a new a g e n c y , t h e O f f i c e o f N a t i o n a l Drug C o n t r o l P o l i c y , t o be headed by a c a b i n e t l e v e l o f f i c i a l w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r coordinating the "overall d i r e c t i o n o f U n i t e d S t a t e s p o l i c y , r e s o u r c e s , and o p e r a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o d r u g c o n t r o l and abuse." Among l i s t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s o n e f o r d e v e l o p i n g b u d g e t a r y p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o d r u g c o n t r o l and a b u s e , " i n c o n c e r t w i t h o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a l e n t i t i e s . " Empowers t h e D i r e c t o r t o d i r e c t e a c h d e p a r t m e n t o r a g e n c y w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r drug c o n t r o l t o c a r r y out t h e p o l i c i e s he e s t a b l i s h e s , It c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l a u t h o r i t y of e a c h a g e n c y o r d e p a r t m e n t . " Requires t h e D i r e c t o r t o submit t o Congress a n n u a l l y a " ~ a t i o n a l and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Drug C o n t r o l s t r a t e g y . " T e r m i n a t e s t h e N a t i o n a l Drug Enforcement P o l i c y Board. Provides t h a t proceeds of a l l drug t r a f f i c k e r a s s e t f o r f e i t u r e a c t i o n s , a f t e r payment of agency e x p e n s e s , be used f o r d r u g a b u s e p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l . S. 789 i n t r o d u c e d Mar. 1 9 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e on t h e J u d i c i a r y . H e a r i n g s h e l d May 1 4 , 1987. H.R. 2454 i n t r o d u c e d May 18, 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y ( S u b c o r n i t t e e on Crime). ( R e l a t e d b i l l s : H.R. 353, S. 1 5 . ) S. 1274 ( ~ e l l ) / L f . R . 3100 ( F a s c e l l ) I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y and Development C o o p e r a t i o n Act o f 1987. Among o t h e r t h i n g s , amends t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e Act t o a u t h o r i z e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s o f $98,750,000 f o r t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l N a r c o t i c s C o n t r o l program f o r FY88. A l s o ( 1 ) r e p e a l s s e c t i o n 2013 o f t h e Anti-Drug Abuse Act ( r e q u i r i n g a b i a n n u a l r e p o r t by t h e P r e s i d e n t on d r u g s o u r c e c o u n t r i e s whose g o v e r n m e n t s o r o f f i c i a l s a r e g u i l t y of a n y o n e of f o u r s p e c i f i e d t y p e s o f c o n d u c t r e l a t i n g t o d r u g t r a f f i c k i n g and i t s c o n t r o l ) ; and ( 2 ) amends t h a t a c t ' s p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e a n n u a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f m a j o r d r u g source c o u n t r i e s a s t a k i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y anti-drug measures, t o provide that U.S. a s s i s t a n c e be w i t h h e l d from u n c e r t i f i e d c o u n t r i e s ( i n l i e u of 50%, a s now r e q u i r e d ) . O r i g i n a l S e n a t e b i l l (S. 7 2 0 , by r e q u e s t ) i n t r o d u c e d Mar. 11, 1987; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . Amended c o n t e n t s i n c l u d e d i n S. 1274, r e p o r t e d May 22 (S.Rept. 100-60). O r i g i n a l House b i l l (H.R. 1630, by r e q u e s t ) i n t r o d u c e d Mar. 1 7 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . R e l a t e d p r o v i s i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n H.R. 3100, r e p o r t e d Aug. 26 (H.Rept. 100-294), which p a s s e d House, amended, Dec. 10; r e f e r r e d t o S e n a t e Committee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Dec. 1 6 , 1987. P r o v i s i o n s i n s e r t e d i n H.R. 4471, a s p a s s e d House May 1 2 , 1988. S. 1943 (Kennedy) Comprehensive A l c o h o l Abuse, Drug Abuse, and Mental H e a l t h Amendments Act of 1987. Among o t h e r t h i n g s : amends and e x t e n d s t h e a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e ADMS b l o c k g r a n t . Revises t h e a l l o c a t i o n formula t o t a k e i n t o account S t a t e p o p u l a t i o n i n need of s e r v i c e s and S t a t e f i s c a l c a p a c i t y . E s t a b l i s h e s a b l o c k g r a n t program f o r p r e v e n t i o n o f AIDS among i n t r a v e n o u s drug users. I n t r o d u c e d Dec. 11, 1987; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s . R e p o r t e d , amended (S.Rept. 100-3281, May 4 , 1988. ( R e l a t e d b i l l : H.R. 4907.) S. 1970 (Thurmond)/~.R. 3777 (Gekas) C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e Reform Act o f 1987. P r o v i d e s t h a t e v i d e n c e o b t a i n e d by s e a r c h o r s e i z u r e s h a l l n o t be e x c l u d e d i n a F e d e r a l c r i m i n a l p r o c e e d i n g i f t h e s e a r c h o r s e i z u r e was u n d e r t a k e n i n a n o b j e c t i v e l y r e a s o n a b l e b e l i e f t h a t i t was i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e F o u r t h Amendment; g e n e r a l l y r e v i s e s p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e r e v i e w o f h a b e a s c o r p u s p e t i t i o n s by t h e l o w e r F e d e r a l c o u r t s ; and b o t h e s t a b l i s h e s p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y u n d e r e x i s t i n g F e d e r a l law and authorizes penalties f o r additional offenses (including causing the death of a p e r s o n w h i l e engaged i n a c o n t i n u i n g c r i m i n a l d r u g e n t e r p r i s e ) . S. 1970 i n t r o d u c e d Dec. 1 8 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o S e n a t e Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y (Subcommittee on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ) . H.R. 3777 i n t r o d u c e d Dec. 16, 1987; r e f e r r e d t o House Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y ( S u b c o m m i t t e e on Criminal J u s t i c e ) . S. 2205 (DeConcini, ~'Amato)/~.g.4230 ( E n g l i s h ) Omnibus A n t i d r u g Abuse Act of 1988. A u t h o r i z e s a p p r o p r i a t i o n s of $2.5 b i 11 i o n f o r i n c r e a s e d a n t i - d r u g e f f o r t s . E s t a b l i s h e s a n Off i c e of Enforcement and B o r d e r A f f a i r s w i t h i n t h e T r e a s u r y D e p a r t m e n t , t o i n c l u d e t h e C o a s t Guard. E s t a b l i s h e s w i t h i n t h e D e f e n s e Department (ISA) t h e new p o s i t i o n o f Deputy A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Drug I n t e r d i c t i o n and E n f o r c e m e n t . E s t a b l i s h e s s e v e r a l new r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t programs t o a s s i s t l a w e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s . P r o v i d e s f o r a d d i t i o n a l IRS s t a f f t o c o l l e c t $1.25 b i l l i o n i n r e v e n u e s owed t o t h e U.S. Government, t o CRS- 1 2 be u s e d t o f u n d a p a r t o f t h e new a u t h o r i z a t i o n s u n d e r t h e b i l l ; a l s o d i r e c t s F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s t o c o l l e c t $2 b i l l i o n ( o v e r and a b o v e t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s budget p r o p o s a l ) i n non-tax d e l i n q u e n t d e b t t o t h e Government, t o b e d e p o s i t e d i n a new Anti-Drug Abuse Fund, and f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . S. 2205 i n t r o d u c e d Mar. 23, 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on t h e J u d i c i a r y . H.R. 4230 i n t r o d u c e d Mar. 23, 1988; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e s on Government O p e r a t i o n s , on t h e J u d i c i a r y , on Ways and Means, on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , on Energy and Commerce, on E d u c a t i o n and Labor, on Armed S e r v i c e s , on Merchant Marine and F i s h e r i e s , on I n t e l l i g e n c e , on P o s t O f f i c e and C i v i l S e r v i c e , and on S c i e n c e , S p a c e , and Technology. S. 2355 (Nunn) N a t i o n a l Defense A u t h o r i z a t i o n Act f o r FY89. F l o o r amendments r e l a t i n g t o d r u g c o n t r o l would: ( 1 ) have t h e e f f e c t o f making d r u g i n t e r d i c t i o n ( w i t h a n e m p h a s i s on d e t e c t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g o r a e r i a l a n d m a r i t i m e s m u g g l i n g ) an o f f i c i a l m i s s i o n o f t h e Armed F o r c e s ; and ( 2 ) p r o v i d e f o r t h e d e p u t i z a t i o n o f m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l t o make a r r e s t s beyond t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and i t s t e r r i t o r i a l w a t e r s by d e s i g n a t e d members o f t h e C o a s t Guard. I n t r o d u c e d May 4 , 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on Armed Text i n s e r t e d i n H.R. 4264, Services. R e p o r t e d (S.Rept. 100-326) May 4. a s passed Senate. S . . 2 4 5 5 (D'Amato, DeConcini) Amends t h e C o n t r o l l e d S u b s t a n c e s Act t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e i m p o s i t i o n of t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y f o r t h e i n t e n t i o n a l k i l l i n g of a law e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r and f o r c e r t a i n " C o n t i n u i n g C r i m i n a l E n t e r p r i s e " ( 2 1 U.S.C. 8 4 8 ) o f f e n s e s . I n t r o d u c e d May 27, 1988; p l a c e d on S e n a t e l e g i s l a t i v e c a l e n d a r . Passed S e n a t e , amended, J u n e 1 0 , 1988. 268 ( ~ i l s o n ) / H . ~ . R e s . 499 ( S m i t h ) S.J.Res. D i s a p p r o v i n g t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n of t h e P r e s i d e n t , w i t h r e s p e c t t o d r u g c o n t r o l e f f o r t s o f t h e Government o f Mexico, u n d e r S e c t i o n 4 8 1 ( h ) o f t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e Act. S.J.Res. 268 i n t r o d u c e d Mar. 2 , 1988; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . Committee d i s c h a r g e d Apr. 1 2 . P a s s e d S e n a t e Apr. 14. H.J.Res. 499 i n t r o d u c e d Mar. 1 5 , 1988; r e f e r r e d t o C o m n i t t e e s on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , and on Banking, F i n a n c e , and Urban A f f a i r s . Subcommittee h e a r i n g s h e l d Mar. 29, 1988. Forwarded t o f u l l c o m m i t t e e ( w i t h o u t recormmendation) Apr. 1 3 , 1988. (Note: S i m i l a r r e s o l u t i o n s h a v e been i n t r o d u c e d r e s p e c t i n g t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n of d r u g c o n t r o l e f f o r t s by t h e Bahamas, P e r u , B o l i v i a , and Paraguay.) CONGRESSIONAL LIEABINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCUnENTS U.S. C o n g r e s s . House. Committee on Armed S e r v i c e s . D e l e g a t i o n t o L a t i n America; r e p o r t . Was-hington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1987. 32 p. A t head of t i t l e : 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . Comnittee p r i n t no. 23. U.S. Congress. House. C o m n i t t e e on Banking, F i n a n c e and Urban A f f a i r s . Money L a u n d e r i n g C o n t r o l Amendments o f 1988; r e p o r t t o accompany H.R. 4853. Washington, U.S. G o v t , P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 22 p. (99th C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . House. Report no. 100-716) U.S. Congress. House. C o m n i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r . Drug Abuse E d u c a t i o n and P r e v e n t i o n Amendments o f 1988; r e p o r t t o accompany H.R. 4872. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 39 p. (100th C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . House. Report no. 100-779) U.S. Drug Abuse Congress. House. C o m n i t t e e on Energy and Comnerce. P r e v e n t i o n and T r e a t m e n t Act of 1986; r e p o r t t o accompany H.R. 5334. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 46 p. ( 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . House. R e p o r t no. 99-792, p a r t 1 ) U.S. Congress. House. Committee on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . Narcotics issues i n t h e Bahamas and t h e C a r i b b e a n . H e a r i n g , 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1987. 110 p. ----- I n t e r n a t i o n a l N a r c o t i c s C o n t r o l Act of 1988; r e p o r t t o accompany H.R. 4841. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 4 6 p. (100th C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . House. R e p o r t no. 100-720, p a r t 1 ) ----- U.S. n a r c o t i c s c o n t r o l programs o v e r s e a s : c o n t i n u i n g a s s e s s m e n t . R e p o r t o f a s t a f f s t u d y m i s s i o n t o S o u t h America, t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n and M i d d l e E a s t , and S o u t h e a s t A s i a , March 1986 t o J a n u a r y 1987. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1987. 39 p. A t h e a d of t i t l e : 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n . Comnittee p r i n t . U.S. C o n g r e s s . House. Committee on Government O p e r a t i o n s . The N a t i o n a l Drug P o l i c y Board: a f a i l u r e i n t h e war on d r u g s . W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1987. 22 p. ( 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n . House. R e p o r t no. 100-184) ----- D r u g - f r e e Workplace Act o f 1988; r e p o r t t o accompany H.R. 4719. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 15 p. ( 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . House. R e p o r t no. 100-829) U.S. Congress. House. Committee on I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce; Comprehensive Drug Abuse P r e v e n t i o n and C o n t r o l Act o f 1970; r e p o r t 18583. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1970. t o accompany H.R. ( 9 1 s t C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . House. R e p o r t no. 91-1444, p a r t s 1 and 2 ) ----- C o m p r e h e n s i v e A l c o h o l Abuse, Drug Abuse, and M e n t a l H e a l t h Amendments Act of 1988; r e p o r t t o accompany H.R. 4907. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 147 p. ( 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n . House. R e p o r t no. 100-927) U.S. Congress. House. C o m n i t t e e on t h e J u d i c i a r y . S u b c o m n i t t e e on Crime. Designer drugs. H e a r i n g , 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n , on H.R. 2014, H.R. 2977, H.R. 3936, and S. 1437. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 199 p. ----- F o r f e i t u r e p o r t i o n o f t h e Comprehensive Crime B i l l and t h e Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986. H e a r i n g , 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 406 p. U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. Annual report for the year 1987. Washing.ton, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1988. At head of title: 99th Congress, 1st session. Comnittee print. ----- Drug abuse prevention in America's schools. Hearing, 100th Congress, 1st session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1987. 72 p. ----- Federal drug enforcement and interdiction provisions of the AntiDrug Abuse Act of 1986. Hearing, 100th Congress, 1st session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1987. 171 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Caucus on International Narcotics Control. Narcotics-related foreign aid sanctions: an effective foreign policy? Report...on a seminar... Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1987. 4 2 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Committee on the ~ u d i c i a r ~ . International terrorism, insurgency, and drug trafficking: present trends in terrorist activity. Joint hearings, 99th Congress, 1st session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1986. 426 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Border management reorganization and drug interdiction; report prepared by the Congressional Research Service. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1988. 1599 p. (S.Prt. 100-111) At head of title: 100th Congress, 2d session. Committee print. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Permanent Subcomnittee on Investigations. Crime and secrecy: the use of offshore banks and companies. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1985. 180 p. (99th Congress, 1st session. Senate. Report no. 99-130) ----- Federal drug interdiction: command, control, comnunications, and intelligence network. Hearings, 100th Congress, 1st session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1987. 514 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Cowittee on the Judiciary. Comprehensive Crime Washington, U.S. Govt. Control Act of 1983; report on S. 1762. Print. Off., 1983. 797 p. (98th Congress, 1st session. Senate. Report no. 98-225) ----- Money laundering legislation. Hearing, 99th Congress, 1st session, on S. 572, S. 1335, and S. 1385. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1986. ----- National Narcotics Act of 1983; report to accompany S. 1787. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1983. 63 p. (98th Congress, 1st session. Senate. Report no. 98-278) U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Subcomnittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism. Impact of drug education. Hearing, 99th Congress, 2d session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1986. 100 p. 09/22/88 --. 03/21/88 --- 02/18/88 --- 12/21/87 --- 05/22/87 --- 03/26/87 --- 10127186 --- 08/14/86 --- 04/08/86 --- An omnibus b i l l (H.R. 52101, s i m i l a r i n s c o p e t o t h e A n t i Drug Abuse Act o f 1986, p a s s e d t h e House. I t a u t h o r i z e s an a d d i t i o n a l $2.1 b i l l i o n f o r d r u g c o n t r o l i n FY89. Customs S e r v i c e i n i t i a t e d i t s "Zero T o l e r a n c e " program a t U.S. p o r t s o f e n t r y . P o s s e s s i o n of a n i l l i c i t c o n t r o l l e d s u b s t a n c e e n t a i l s s e i z u r e o f p a s s p o r t and of a n y p r i v a t e v e h i c l e involved. P r e s i d e n t ' s budget f o r FY89 was s u b m i t t e d t o C o n g r e s s . The r e q u e s t f o r a l l f u n c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o d r u g c o n t r o l was e s t i m a t e d t o be $3.9 b i l l i o n , a $451 m i l l i o n i n c r e a s e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 3 % ) o v e r t h e amount a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r FY88 u n d e r t h e c o n t i n u i n g r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d i n December 1987. C o n g r e s s p a s s e d H.J.Res. 395, C o n t i n u i n g A p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r The e s t i m a t e d t o t a l amount f o r a l l d r u g a b u s e c o n t r o l FY88. f u n c t i o n s f u n d e d i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y $3.5 b i l l i o n . The N a t i o n a l Drug P o l i c y Board approved a d i r e c t i v e d e s i g n a t i n g lead agencies i n t h e p r i n c i p a l a r e a s of t h e Federal a n t i - d r u g program. The m a j o r c o n t e s t f o r s u c h d e s i g n a t i o n , i n t h e i n t e r d i c t i o n segment g e n e r a l l y , was won by t h e Customs S e r v i c e , b u t t h e C o a s t Guard was named l e a d a g e n c y i n m a r i n e i n t e r d i c t i o n and co--lead i n a i r i n t e r d i c t i o n . President i s s u e d an Executive o r d e r p l a c i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l F e d e r a l a n t i - d r u g programs including those having i n one Cabinet l e v e l t o do with treatment o r prevention b o a r d , t o be known a s t h e N a t i o n a l Drug P o l i c y Board, w i t h A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l a s c h a i r m a n , and S e c r e t a r y of H e a l t h and Human S e r v i c e s a s v i c e chairman. --- P r e s i d e n t s i g n e d (P.L. 99-570) t h e omnibus d r u g c o n t r o l b i l l p a s s e d i n t h e c l o s i n g h o u r s of t h e 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s . The l e g i s l a t i o n , which t o u c h e s upon v i r t u a l l y e v e r y a s p e c t of t h e n a t i o n ' s e f f o r t s t o p r e v e n t and c o n t r o l d r u g a b u s e , was d e v e l o p e d on t h e House s i d e by t w e l v e s e p a r a t e c o m m i t t e e s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u b m i t t e d an a l t e r n a t e b i l l , and t h e S e n a t e l e a d e r s h i p d e v e l o p e d s e v e r a l v a r i a n t s . The f i n a l v e r s i o n was t h e r e s u l t of i n t e n s i v e n e g o t i a t i o n . -- A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l announced a m a j o r new c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t Operation Alliance t o combat d r u g t r a f f i c k i n g a l o n g t h e U.S.-Mexican border. The program c a l l s f o r a n a d d i t i o n a l 600 Federal agents a t t h e border; it i s expected t o r e q u i r e a t l e a s t 2 y e a r s t o become f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l . -- President reportedly signed a National Directive designating the international national security threat. S e c u r i t y Decision drug trade a s a 10/12/84 --- 03/23/83 --- P r e s i d e n t s i g n e d H.J.Res. 648 (P.L. 98-473). T i t l e I1 i s t h e Comprehensive C r i m e C o n t r o l Act o f 1984, w i t h a number of i t s m a j o r p r o v i s i o n s aimed p r i n c i p a l l y a t t h e i l l i c i t t r a f f i c i n n a r c o t i c s and o t h e r d a n g e r o u s d r u g s . The White House announced t h e c r e a t i o n of a new d r u g i n t e r d i c t i o n g r o u p headed by Vice P r e s i d e n t George Bush. To be known a s t h e N a t i o n a l N a r c o t i c s - B o r d e r I n t e r d i c t i o n System (NNBIS), i t w i l l c o o r d i n a t e t h e work of F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r d i c t i o n of s e a - b o r n e , a i r - b o r n e and a c r o s s - b o r d e r i m p o r t a t i o n of n a r c o t i c s and o t h e r d a n g e r o u s drugs p r i n c i p a l l y t h e Customs S e r v i c e , t h e C o a s t Guard, and t h e armed s e r v i c e s . -- 10/14/82 --- 01/21/82 --- 12/01/81 --- 08/13/81 --- 07/01/73 --- 03/21/72 --- P r e s i d e n t announced a major new d r i v e a g a i n s t i l l i c i t d r u g t r a f f i c k i n g . The O r g a n i z e d C r i m e Drug Enforcement program i n v o l v e s c r e a t i o n of 12 r e g i o n a l m u l t i - a g e n c y t a s k f o r c e s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n - a n d p r o s e c u t i o n of drug t r a f f i c k i n g o f f e n s e s . A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l announced t h a t t h e FBI had been g i v e n c o n c u r r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h t h e Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) o v e r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f v i o l a t i o n s of F e d e r a l d a n g e r o u s d r u g laws. The DEA A d m i n i s t r a t o r w i l l r e p o r t t o t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l t h r o u g h t h e FBI D i r e c t o r . P r e s i d e n t s i g n e d P.L. 97-86, which c o n t a i n e d a p r o v i s i o n . a u t h o r i z i n g c e r t a i n k i n d s of c o o p e r a t i o n by t h e Armed S e r v i c e s w i t h c i v i l i a n law e n f o r c e m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s f o r s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s , i n c l u d i n g d r u g law e n f o r c e m e n t . P r e s i d e n t s i g n e d t h e Omnibus Budget R e c o n c i l i a t i o n Act of 1 9 8 1 (P.L. 97-35). Among o t h e r t h i n g s , i t c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o a s i n g l e S t a t e b l o c k g r a n t program t h e e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i c a l g r a n t programs f o r t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i o n o f a l c o h o l and d r u g a b u s e and f o r t h e promotion o f m e n t a l h e a l t h i n g e n e r a l ( t h e ADAMS b l o c k g r a n t ) . Bureau of N a r c o t i c s and Dangerous Drugs and s e v e r a l o t h e r a g e n c i e s were merged into the Drug E n f o r c e m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , by R e o r g a n i z a t i o n P l a n No. 2 of 1973. The new a g e n c y a b s o r b e d a number of Customs Bureau o f f i c i a l s . P r e s i d e n t s i g n e d t h e Drug Abuse O f f i c e and T r e a t m e n t Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-255), which e s t a b l i s h e d s e v e r a l programs t o f o c u s t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e F e d e r a l Government o n d r u g a b u s e . C r e a t e d t h e S p e c i a l A c t i o n O f f i c e f o r Drug Abuse P r e v e n t i o n It a l s o provided i n t h e Executive O f f i c e of t h e President. f o r a n expanded d r u g a b u s e p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t program w i t h i n t h e Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e (HEW) and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on Drug Abuse (NIDA) w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on Mental H e a l t h (NIMH). In 1974, N I D A and NIMH w e r e combined w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f Alcohol Abuse and A l c o h o l i s m t o form t h e A l c o h o l , Drug Abuse, and Mental H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (ADAMHA), t h e l e a d HEW a g e n c y f o r s u b s t a n c e a b u s e and m e n t a l h e a l t h programs. 02/07/72 --- President signed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1971 (P.L. 92-2261, which contained a provision establishing a program of assistance designed to encourage international narcotics control and the reduction of overseas drug production. 10/27/70 --- President signed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, an omnibus bill containing the Controlled Substances Act and the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, which consolidated and revised all Federal laws regulating the commerce in narcotics and other dangerous drugs. 10/15/68 --- President signed P.L. 90-574, which included provisions to establish the first program of specialized grants for construction and staffing support (within the existing community mental health centers program) for treatment and rehabilitation of narcotic addicts and alcoholics. FOR ADDITIONAL READING Carpenter, Ted Calen. The U.S. campaign against international narcotics trafficking: a cure worse than the disease. Cato Institute Policy Analysis, no. 63, Dec. 9 , 1985. 23 p. DuPont, Robert L,, Jr., M.D. Getting tough on gateway drugs: a guide for family. Washington, American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1984. 332 p. Kerr, Peter. Anatomy of an issue: drugs, the evidence, the reaction. New York times, Nov. 17, 1986: Al, B6. Morgan, H. Wayne. Drugs in America. A social history: Syracuse, N.Y., Syracuse University press, 1981. 233 p. Nahas, Gabriel C. The decline of drugged nations. July 11, 1988: 18. 1800-1980. Wall Street journal, National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse. Drug use in America: problem in perspective. Second report... Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1973. 481 p. The limitations of control-of-supply models for Peele, Stanton. explaining and preventing alcoholism and drug addiction. Journal of studies on alcohol, v. 48, January 1987: 61-77. Reuter, Peter. The (continued) vitality of mythical numbers. interest, spring 1984: 135-147. The pub1 ic ----- The public Eternal hope: America's quest for narcotics control. interest, spring 1985: 79-95. R e u t e r , P e t e r , Gordon Crawford, and J o n a t h a n Cave. Sealing the borders; t h e e f f e c t s of i n c r e a s e m i l i t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n drug i n t e r d i c t i o n . ( P r e p a r e d f o r t h e O f f i c e o f t h e Under S e c r e t a r y of D e f e n s e f o r Policy). S a n t a Monica, Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1988. 155 p. S h a f e r , Jack. Designer drugs. Thinking t h e unthinkable. S c i e n c e , March 1985: 60-67. Time, May 30, 1988: 12-19. U.S. Congress. O f f i c e of Technology Assessment. drugs. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1987. The b o r d e r war on 62 p. (OTA-0-336) U.S. Dept. of H e a l t h and Human S e r v i c e s . P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e . A l c o h o l , Drug Abuse, and Mental H e a l t h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Drug Abuse T r e a t m e n t Evaluation: S t r a t e g i e s , P r o g r e s s and P r o s p e c t s . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1984. 180 p. (DHHS Pub. no. (ADMI 84-1329) N I D A R e s e a r c h Monograph 5 1 ----- Drug u s e among American h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , and o t h e r young a d u l t s : n a t i o n a l t r e n d s t h r o u g h 1985. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. 237 p. "DHHs P u b l i c a t i o n no. (ADM) 86-1450" U.S. Dept. o f S t a t e . Bureau o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l N a r c o t i c s M a t t e r s . 1, 1986. I n t e r n a t i o n a l n a r c o t i c s c o n t r o l s t r a t e g y r e p o r t , v. [ W a s h i n g t o n , The B u r e a u ] , a n n u a l l y w i t h a mid-year s u p p l e m e n t . U.S. General Accounting O f f i c e . C o n t r o l l i n g drug abuse: a s t a t u s r e p o r t . Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 45 p. (GAOIGGD-88-39) ----- I s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g i n c r e a s e d u s e of t h e m i l i t a r y i n drug interdiction. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 37 p. (G~o/NsI~D-88-156) ----- N a t i o n a l Drug P o l i c y Board: l e a d e r s h i p e v o l v i n g g r e a t e r r o l e i n developing budgets possible. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , (GAO/GGD/~~-24) 1988. 2 8 p. ----- U.S. i n t e r n a t i o n a l n a r c o t i c s c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s . Washington, Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1988. 29 p. (GAO/NSIAD-~~-~~~) U.S. U.S. L i b r a r y of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Drug and a l c o h o l a b u s e : p r e v e n t i o n , t r e a t m e n t , and e d u c a t i o n , by Edward Klebe. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] Dec. 18, 1986. 29 p. CRS R e p o r t 86-1052 EPW ----- Drug c o n t r o l a t t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l : c o o r d i n a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n , H a r r y Hogan. [Washington] S e p t . 1 6 , 1987. 54 p. CRS R e p o r t 87-780 GOV ----- by Drug c o n t r o l : h i g h l i g h t s of P.L. 99-570, Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, by H a r r y L. Hogan, Edward Klebe, Raphael P e r 1 and Kent Ronhovde. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] O c t . 3 1 , 1986. 15 p. CRS R e p o r t 86-968 GOV ---- Drug c o n t r o l : i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y and o p t i o n s , by Raphael F. and Roy S u r r e t t . [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1988. (Updated r e g u l a r l y ) CRS I s s u e B r i e f 88093 ----- Drug l e g a l i z a t i o n : p r o and c o n , [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1988. 19 p. CRS R e p o r t 88-500 GOV by H a r r y Hogan. Aug. 8, Per1 1988. ----- Drug t e s t i n g i n t h e workplace: F e d e r a l programs, by Sharon G r e s s l e . [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1987. (Updated r e g u l a r l y ) CRS I s s u e B r i e f 87174 ----- Drug t e s t i n g i n t h e w o r k p l a c e : a n o v e r v i e w o f employee and e m p l o y e r i n t e r e s t s , by G a i l McCallion. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1987. (Updated r e g u l a r l y ) CRS I s s u e B r i e f 87139 ----- F e d e r a l l a w s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n t r o l of n a r c o t i c s and o t h e r d a n g e r o u s d r u g s , e n a c t e d 1961-1985; b r i e f summaries, by H a r r y Hogan. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] J a n . 1 5 , 1986. 40 p. CRS R e p o r t 86-12 GOV ----- International narcotics control: the President's Karch 1 c e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y and o p t i o n s f o r congressional action. P o l i c y a l e r t , by Raphael P e r l . [Washington] Mar. 2 , 1988. 1 1 p. CRS R e p o r t 88-175 F U. S. N a t i o n a l Drug Enforcement Pol i c y Board. p r o g r e s s r e p o r t , 1986. Washington, U.S. (published annually) ----- N a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f , , drug 1987. F e d e r a l d r u g e n £o r c e m e n t Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1986. Law e n f o r c e m e n t strategy. (published annually) U.S. N a t i o n a l N a r c o t i c s I n t e l l i g e n c e Consumers Committee. Narcotics i n t e l l i g e n c e e s t i m a t e . The s u p p l y o f d r u g s t o t h e U.S. i l l i c i t m a r k e t from f o r e i g n and d o m e s t i c s o u r c e s . Washington [Drug E n f o r c e m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ] 1978. ( p u b l i s h e d a n n u a l l y ) U.S. P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on O r g a n i z e d Crime. America's h a b i t : drug a b u s e , d r u g t r a f f i c k i n g , and o r g a n i z e d c r i m e . R e p o r t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t and t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l [ W a s h i n g t o n , t h e C o m i s s i o n ] 1986. 454 p. U.S. White House C o n f e r e n c e f o r a Drug F r e e America. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] J u n e 1988. 238 p. Final report.