Parental Leave: Legislation in the 100th Congress

Order Code IB86132 NPRTHEHN KENTUCKY UNlVERSlU LIBRARY m M E N T DOCUMENTS -w!@i P A R E l T A L LEAVE: LEGISLATIOY IN THE 100TH COlGRESS Updated O c t o b e r 1, 1987 by Leslie W, Gladstone Government D i v i s i o n Congressional R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e SUMMARY ISSUE DEFINITION BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS Current Federal and State Family-Related Leave Policies Family-Related Leave Benefits in Private Employment Activity in the 99th Congress Activity in the 100th Congress Pro-Con Analysis LEGISLATION CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCUMENTS CHRONOLOGY FOR ADDITIONAL READING PARENTAL LEAVE: THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT L e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 1 0 0 t h Congress would r e q u i r e e m p l o y e r s t o g r a n t a p a r e n t a l o r f a m i l y l e a v e t o p a r e n t s t o c a r e f o r a newborn, newly a d o p t e d , o r s e r i o u s l y i l l c h i l d and a m e d i c a l o r d i s a b i l i t y l e a v e t o t e m p o r a r i l y d i s a b l e d workers, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e d i s a b l e d b e c a u s e of pregnancy. Although v a r y i n g l e a v e b e n e f i t s a p p l i c a b l e t o p a r e n t a l and t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y n e e d s a r e commonly a v a i l a b l e t o many American w o r k e r s t h r o u g h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e employment b e n e f i t p l a n s , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t h e o n l y m a j o r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r y t h a t d o e s n o t have a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y s t a n d a r d i z i n g s u c h b e n e f i t s . During t h e l a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s , m a j o r c h a n g e s have t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e U.S. work f o r c e and i n t h e economics of t h e f a m i l y . G r e a t e r numbers of m a r r i e d women w i t h young c h i l d r e n a r e now wage e a r n e r s and many f a m i l i e s a r e d e p e n d e n t on t h e s e wages. A s a r e s u l t , p r o p o s a l s a d d r e s s i n g problems of working f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n have been s u g g e s t e d i n Congress. H e a r i n g s h a v e been h e l d by t h e S e n a t e Cornnittee on Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s Subcommittee on C h i l d r e n , F a m i l i e s , Drugs and A l c o h o l i s m and j o i n t l y by t h e House E d ~ c a t i o nand Labor Subcommittees on Labor Management R e l a t i o n s and Labor S t a n d a r d s , and j o i n t l y by t h e House P o s t O f f i c e and C i v i l S e r v i c e Subcommittees on C i v i l S e r v i c e and on Compensation and Employee B e n e f i t s . Those f a v o r i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p a r e n t a l and t e m p o r a r y m e d i c a l d i s a b i l i t y l e a v e b e n e f i t s c i t e t h e need t o accommodate f a r - r e a c h i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e f a m i l y and t h e w o r k f o r c e . Proponents argue t h a t a l t h o u g h some S t a t e s have p r o v i d e d s t a t u t o r y m a t e r n i t y l e a v e b e n e f i t s , a n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i s n e c e s s a r y s o t h a t a woman's a c c e s s t o s u c h b e n e f i t s w i l l n o t depend on such f a c t o r s a s g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , i n d u s t r y , o r company s i z e . They f u r t h e r n o t e t h a t where l e a v e b e n e f i t s a r e n o t t h e same f o r a l l w o r k e r s d i s a b l e d f o r n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l m e d i c a l r e a s o n s , women may be d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n t h e w o r k p l a c e b e c a u s e t h e y may be viewed by e m p l o y e r s a s p o t e n t i a l l y more e x p e n s i v e employees. O p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r o p o s a l comes p r i m a r i l y from b u s i n e s s e s which n o t e t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f o p p o s i n g a b i l l t h a t h a s been l a b e l e d "pro-family" l e g i s l a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y a r g u e t h a t a l l employee b e n e f i t s , however s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t h e y may b e , a r e c o s t l y f o r e m p l o y e r s who must p a s s on t h e s e e x p e n s e s t o consumers. I n addition, they s t a t e t h a t guaranteeing t h e j o b o f a n employee on long-term p a r e n t a l o r t e m p o r a r y m e d i c a l d i s a b i l i t y l e a v e may a l s o be more burdensome f o r s m a l l b u s i n e s s ( r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e m a j o r i t y of b u s i n e s s ) , w i t h t h e i r l i m i t e d p e r s o n n e l resources, than f o r l a r g e businesses. Those opposed a l s o a r g u e t h a t p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i f i c b e n e f i t s s h o u l d remain v o l u n t a r y on t h e p a r t o f e m p l o y e r s o r be s u b j e c t t o labor-management n e g o t i a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n b e mandated by t h e F e d e r a l government. I S S U E DEFINITION Many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g a l l of t h e major i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s , p r o v i d e s t a n d a r d employee l e a v e b e n e f i t s f o r m a t e r n i t y and c h i l d c a r e . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s some employers and some S t a t e s p r o v i d e v a r i o u s b e n e f i t s , b u t t h e r e i s no n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d . A t i s s u e i s t h e q u e s t i o n of whether s u c h b e n e f i t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d be mandated by F e d e r a l law o r l e f t t o t h e S t a t e s , t o i n d i v i d u a l e m p l o y e r s , and t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e bargaining system, a s i s t h e c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . BACKGROUNT) AND ANALYSIS Changes i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e work f o r c e and i n t h e economics o f t h e f a m i l y o v e r t h e l a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s have h e i g h t e n e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f b e n e f i t s t o a s s i s t t h o s e b a l a n c i n g b o t h employment and family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , According t o 1986 Census d a t a , t h e l a b o r f o r c e was 44% f e m a l e , w i t h m a r r i e d women w i t h young c h i l d r e n c o m p r i s i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f new e n t r a n t s . I n 1986, t h e median a n n u a l income f o r f a m i l i e s was $38,346 when t h e w i f e was i n t h e l a b o r f o r c e and $26,803 when s h e was not. C u r r e n t l y , more t h a n 80% o f working women a r e i n t h e i r prime c h i l d b e a r i n g y e a r s ( a g e s 18-44), and 65% o f a l l American women i n t h i s a g e g r o u p a r e i n t h e l a b o r f o r c e . L e s s t h a n 10% of f a m i l i e s a r e made up o f a m a r r i e d c o u p l e w i t h c h i l d r e n where t h e husband i s t h e s o l e p r o v i d e r , and t h u s most c h i l d r e n i n t h e United S t a t e s have working p a r e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - p a r e n t h o u s e h o l d s h a s been i n c r e a s i n g d u e t o t h e h i g h r a t e o f d i v o r c e and t h e growing f r e q u e n c y of out-of-wedlock b i r t h s . While many U.S. employers o f f e r employment-related l e a v e b e n e f i t s i n t h e form o f a n n u a l which a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o pregnancy and c h i l d c a r e l e a v e , t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y o r s i c k l e a v e , o r l e a v e w i t h o u t pay -- no n a t i o n a l p o l i c y mandates s p e c i f i c f a m i l y - r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s f o r a l l w o r k e r s . By c o n t r a s t , a t l e a s t 75 o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g a l l o t h e r Western industrialized nations, have p o l i c i e s requiring various standard family-related benefits. These b e n e f i t s t y p i c a l l y i n c l u d e a m a t e r n i t y l e a v e f o r a s p e c i f i e d t i m e b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e b i r t h of a c h i l d , j o b p r o t e c t i o n d u r i n g m a t e r n i t y l e a v e , and wage r e p l a c e m e n t o r a c a s h b e n e f i t . I n a d d i t i o n , some c o u n t r i e s p r o v i d e a p a i d o r u n p a i d p a r e n t a l l e a v e , a l e a v e g r a n t e d f o r c h i l d c a r e which i s a v a i l a b l e t o e i t h e r p a r e n t and (For a u n r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from c h i l d b i r t h . d i s c u s s i o n o f c u r r e n t m a t e r n i t y - r e l a t e d p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and o v e r s e a s , s e e CRS Report 85-148 GOV, M a t e r n i t y and P a r e n t a l Leave P o l i c i e s : A Comparative ~ n a l y s i s . ) -- T h i s d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n employment p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y n e e d s between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s h a s been a t t r i b u t e d by some r e s e a r c h e r s t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h i l o s o p h i c and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e g a r d t o methods o f p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i v e b e n e f i t s . I n most c o u n t r i e s , s u c h b e n e f i t s a r e an e n t i t l e m e n t p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a n a t i o n a l s o c i a l s e c u r i t y s y s t e m , w h i l e m a t e r n i t y and p a r e n t a l b e n e f i t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a v e been d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , v o l u n t a r i l y , and on a n ad hoc b a s i s , a s w e l l a s t h r o u g h labor-management a g r e e m e n t s . C u r r e n t F e d e r a l and S t a t e Family-Related Leave P o l i c i e s While f a m i l y - r e l a t e d p o l i c i e s i n many c o u n t r i e s a r e d i r e c t e d toward women p r i m a r i l y and a r e i n t e n d e d t o a d d r e s s broad i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o m a t e r n a l and c h i l d h e a l t h , F e d e r a l p o l i c y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s been d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e p r o h i b i t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f employment-related b e n e f i t s . Employment b e n e f i t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e g o v e r n e d by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f T i t l e VII of t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Act o f 1964, a s amended by t h e Pregnancy D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a c t o f 1978. Under T i t l e V I I , a s amended, e m p l o y e r s a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c b e n e f i t s of a n y k i n d , b u t i f e m p l o y e r s do p r o v i d e b e n e f i t s , t h e y may n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e between p r o t e c t e d c l a s s e s of w o r k e r s o r on t h e b a s i s o f pregnancy. Title V I I p r o h i b i t s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s of r a c e , c o l o r , r e l i g i o n , s e x , o r n a t i o n a l o r i g i n w i t h r e s p e c t t o "compensation, t e r m s , c o n d i t i o n s , o r 2000e). p r i v i l e g e s of employment" (P.L. 88-352, 78 S t a t . 241, 42 U.S.C. The P r e g n a n c y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act (PDA) r e q u i r e s t h a t women " a f f e c t e d by p r e g n a n c y , c h i l d b i r t h , o r r e l a t e d m e d i c a l c o n d i t i o n s b e t r e a t e d t h e same f o r a l l employment p u r p o s e s , i n c l u d i n g r e c e i p t of b e n e f i t s u n d e r f r i n g e b e n e f i t programs, a s persons not s o a f f e c t e d but s i m i l a r i n t h e i r a b i l i t y 2000e[K]). o r i n a b i l i t y t o work" ( P . L . 95-555, 92 S t a t . 2076, 42 U.S.C. F e d e r a l , S t a t e , and l o c a l governments a r e c o v e r e d by t h e s e s t a t u t e s , a s a r e p r i v a t e e m p l o y e r s w i t h 15 o r more employees. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of T i t l e V I I , five States ( C a l i f o r n i a , Hawaii, New J e r s e y , New York, and Rhode I s l a n d ) and P u e r t o R i c o h a v e e n a c t e d l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r i n g n e a r l y u n i v e r s a l c o v e r a g e of p r i v a t e s e c t o r employees u n d e r t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e p l a n s . A l t h o u g h n o t a l l t h e s e S t a t e p l a n s i n i t i a l l y i n c l u d e d c o v e r a g e of p r e g n a n c y and m a t e r n i t y , a l l now t r e a t s u c h c o n d i t i o n s t h e same a s o t h e r d i s a b i l i t i e s i n conformance w i t h t h e Pregnancy D i s a b i l i t y Act. Specific b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d u n d e r t h e S t a t e and P u e r t o R i c a n s t a t u t e s i n c l u d e g u a r a n t e e d l e a v e up t o a s p e c i f i e d maximum number o f weeks and p a r t i a l wage r e p l a c e m e n t b a s e d on a p e r c e n t a g e of t h e e m p l o y e e ' s e a r n i n g s . F e d e r a l employees a l s o a r e e n t i t l e d t o c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s which may be a p p l i e d t o f a m i l y n e e d s u n d e r t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e l e a v e system. G u i d e l i n e s r e g a r d i n g m a t e r n i t y and p a r e n t a l b e n e f i t s i n t h e F e d e r a l C i v i l S e r v i c e , i s s u e d by t h e O f f i c e o f P e r s o n n e l Management ( s e e " F e d e r a l P e r s o n n e l Manual: Leave f o r P a r e n t a l and Family R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , " C h a p t e r 6301, do not include a separate maternity o r parental leave. However, t h e g u i d e l i n e s specify t h a t leave f o r childbirth i s chargeable t o a combination of s i c k l e a v e , annual l e a v e , o r l e a v e without pay, w h i l e p a r e n t a l l e a v e may be c h a r g e d t o a n n u a l l e a v e o r l e a v e w i t h o u t pay w i t h t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e agency a f f e c t e d . Family-Related Leave B e n e f i t s i n P r i v a t e Employment O t h e r t h a n r e q u i r e m e n t s mandated by t h e F e d e r a l government and t h e S t a t e s , a s n o t e d a b o v e , l i t t l e i n t h e way of a g g r e g a t e d d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e a b o u t employment-related m a t e r n i t y and p a r e n t a l b e n e f i t s f o r o t h e r w o r k e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , where most w o r k e r s a r e employed. I n t h e a b s e n c e of a need t o m o n i t o r c o m p l i a n c e w i t h a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f f a m i l y - r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s , no d a t a h a v e been r e g u l a r l y and c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y c o l l e c t e d showing t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u c h b e n e f i t s , t h e i r d u r a t i o n and l e v e l , who i s c o v e r e d , a t what c o s t , and w i t h what consequences. Few s u r v e y s o f m a t e r n i t y - r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a v e been made, and t h o s e a v a i l a b l e t e n d t o be l i m i t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o s e l f - s e l e c t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s and f o c u s on l a r g e and medium-sized f i r m s . As a r e s u l t , t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d t e n d s t o o v e r s t a t e t h e e x t e n t of b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e t o workers g e n e r a l l y , s i n c e b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d by l a r g e r f i r m s t e n d t o b e more g e n e r o u s t h a n t h o s e a v a i l a b l e a t s m a l l e r companies which employ t h e m a j o r i t y of w o r k e r s . S i n c e these surveys, despite t h e i r limitations, a r e the best i n f o r m a t i o n t o d a t e on m a t e r n i t y - r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g summation of t h e i r f i n d i n g s may be u s e f u l . [ D a t a d e r i v e d from Kamerman, S h e i l a B . , A l f r e d J. Kahn, and Paul K i n g s t o n , M a t e r n i t y P o l i c i e s and Working Women ( 1 9 8 3 ) and C a t a l y s t , C o r p o r a t e Guide t o P a r e n t a l Leaves (19861.1 -- The p r a c t i c e o f p r o v i d i n g m a t e r n i t y l e a v e , i n c l u d i n g r e i n s t a t e m e n t i n t h e same o r a comparable j o b and p r o t e c t i o n o f s e n i o r i t y , would seem t o be f a i r l y comnon. However, i t seems t o be most comnon i n l a r g e companies and i n t h e b a n k i n g , i n s u r a n c e , and f i n a n c i a l i n d u s t r i e s and l e a s t comnon i n s m a l l c o m p a n i e s a n d i n r e t a i l t r a d e and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . J o b - p r o t e c t e d m a t e r n i t y l e a v e seems t o be l e a s t l i k e l y i n f i r m s w i t h l e s s t h a n 25 employees and o n l y s l i g h t l y more l i k e l y i n f irms w i t h between 26 and 99 employees. -- A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f of t h e companies r e s p o n d i n g were f l e x i b l e r e g a r d i n g comnencement o f l e a v e , d e p e n d i n g on i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w h i l e o t h e r s l i m i t e d l e a v e b e f o r e c h i l d b i r t h t o f o u r t o s i x weeks. Most f i r m s l i m i t e d d u r a t i o n of l e a v e t o two t o t h r e e months, a l t h o u g h t h e Kamerman s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 37% of women r e t u r n e d t o work i n l e s s t h a n e i g h t weeks a f t e r c h i l d b i r t h and a n o t h e r 32% r e t u r n e d a f t e r n i n e t o e i g h t e e n weeks. -- C o n t i n u a t i o n o f s e n i o r i t y and p e n s i o n b e n e f i t s d u r i n g m a t e r n i t y l e a v e i s a l s o common, s i n c e employers who d i v e s t women of t h e i r accumulated s e n i o r i t y merely because they t a k e m a t e r n i t y l e a v e a r e i n v i o l a t i o n of T i t l e VII, a c c o r d i n g t o a 1977 Supreme C o u r t r u l i n g , N a s h v i l l e Gas Co. v. S a t t y (434 U.S. 1 3 6 ) . L e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d by t h e 9 8 t h C o n g r e s s , t h e " R e t i r e m e n t P e n s i o n E q u i t y Act" (P.L. 98-3971, allows employees on " m a t e r n i t y o r p a t e r n i t y l e a v e " t o be a b s e n t from a j o b f o r up t o f i v e y e a r s and t o r e t a i n c r e d i t f o r t h e i r i n i t i a l p e r i o d of employment i f t h e y r e t u r n t o t h e same employer s o t h a t t h e y do n o t l o s e t i m e a c c r u e d f o r pension p a r t i c i p a t i o n . -- While t h e C a t a l y s t s u r v e y of l a r g e f i r m s showed t h a t p a t e r n i t y l e a v e , e.g., leave permitted a father t o a s s i s t with family care needs, was o f f e r e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 37% o f r e s p o n d i n g companies, few men t o o k advantage of such l e a v e s . No i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e on t h e number o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d , t h e l e n g t h of p a t e r n i t y l e a v e s i n companies o f f e r i n g t h i s b e n e f i t , o r w h e t h e r t h e l e a v e was p a i d o r unpaid. S i n c e t h e S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (SSA) m o n i t o r s c a s h b e n e f i t s f o r s h o r t - t e r m s i c k n e s s , d a t a on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of p a i d m a t e r n i t y l e a v e i s a v a i l a b l e from t h a t s o u r c e . The most r e c e n t a v a i l a b l e d a t a ( 1 9 8 1 ) showed t h a t 63% of a l l w o r k e r s i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y and government employment w e r e under some s o r t of f o r m a l p l a n o f f e r i n g s i c k pay o r income r e p l a c e m e n t d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y . According t o t h e SSA, d u r a t i o n o f s i c k l e a v e b e n e f i t s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o l e n g t h o f employee s e r v i c e , b u t seldom e x c e e d s 15 d a y s p e r y e a r . D u r a t i o n o f t h e t y p i c a l t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e p l a n i s 26 weeks, b u t b e n e f i t s c o v e r o n l y t h e a c t u a l p e r i o d of i n c a p a c i t y , e s t i m a t e d a t 7.5 weeks on a v e r a g e by t h e SSA f o r a normal pregnancy. A c t i v i t y i n t h e 9 9 t h Congress L e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 9 9 t h Congress (H.R. 430015. 2278) would h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y on f a m i l y - r e l a t e d employee b e n e f i t s , a f f e c t i n g b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s . C r e a t e d would h a v e been two k i n d s of employee l e a v e b e n e f i t s t h a t were s e x - n e u t r a l i n conformance w i t h The l e a v e s would have been u n p a i d , T i t l e VII ( s e e d i s c u s s i o n a b o v e ) . a l t h o u g h e i t h e r t h e employer o r t h e employee c o u l d h a v e e l e c t e d t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n of p a i d l e a v e f o r p a r t of t h e unpaid l e a v e . The f i r s t , a p a r e n t a l o r f a m i l y l e a v e , was i n t e n d e d t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f d e p e n d e n t c a r e a t a t i m e when t h e number o f m o t h e r s i n t h e The l a b o r f o r c e w i t h p r e - s c h o o l and s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n i s i n c r e a s i n g . p r o p o s e d l e a v e , by d e f i n i t i o n , would have be a v a i l a b l e t o b o t h p a r e n t s . S i n c e a d o p t i v e p a r e n t s h a v e t h e same family-bonding n e e d s a s b i o l o g i c a l p a r e n t s , t h e y a l s o would h a v e been e l i g i b l e f o r p a r e n t a l l e a v e . Under H.R. 43001s. 2278, a n employee would have been e n t i t l e d t o a p a r e n t a l l e a v e o f 1 8 workweeks d u r i n g any 24-month p e r i o d t o c a r e f o r a new-born, Workers on a r e d u c e d l e a v e newly a d o p t e d , o r s e r i o u s l y i l l c h i l d . s c h e d u l e c o u l d h a v e t a k e n 18 workweeks o v e r a p e r i o d o f 36 c o n s e c u t i v e workweeks. The second l e a v e b e n e f i t t o h a v e been e s t a b l i s h e d , a t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y o r m e d i c a l l e a v e , would have a l l o w e d a l l w o r k e r s who were t e m p o r a r i l y d i s a b l e d f o r h e a l t h reasons, i n c l u d i n g pregnancy, a l e a v e b e n e f i t of 26 weeks f o r u s e i n any one c a l e n d a r y e a r . T h i s p r o v i s i o n was i n t e n d e d t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e of d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t o f p r e g n a n t w o r k e r s , who h a v e been g r a n t e d more g e n e r o u s b e n e f i t s t h a n o t h e r t e m p o r a r i l y d i s a b l e d w o r k e r s under some S t a t e s t a t u t e s . The p r a c t i c e of d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t was r e c e n t l y upheld by t h e Supreme C o u r t i n 4077). C a l i f o r n i a F e d e r a l S a v i n g s and Loan v. G u e r r a ( 5 5 U.S.L.W. [ T h e U.S. Supreme Court i n C a l i f o r n i a F e d e r a l S a v i n g s and Loan A s s o c i a t i o n v. G u e r r a found t h a t a C a l i f o r n i a s t a t u t e t h a t r e q u i r e s up t o f o u r months of e m p l o y e r s c o v e r e d by T i t l e VII t o g r a n t employees job-protected d i s a b i l i t y l e a v e i s n o t preempted by t h e P r e g n a n c y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act (PDA), an amendment t o T i t l e VII which g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e s t h a t p r e g n a n t w o r k e r s must be t r e a t e d t h e same a s w o r k e r s w i t h o t h e r non-employment-related disabilities. Noting t h a t t h e PDA o n l y p r e e m p t s S t a t e laws t h a t a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s p u r p o s e s , t h e C o u r t a g r e e d w i t h t h e c o u r t of a p p e a l s t h a t t h e PDA was i n t e n d e d t o e x t e n d b e n e f i t s , n o t c o n t r a c t them, e . g . , t o be "a f l o o r b e n e a t h which p r e g n a n c y d i s a b i l i t y b e n e f i t s may n o t d r o p , n o t a c e i l i n g above which t h e y may n o t rise." The Court o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e i n t e n t o f T i t l e V I I and t h e C a l i f o r n i a s t a t u t e a r e t o make women e q u a l i n t h e w o r k p l a c e , n o t t o g i v e them f a v o r e d t r e a t m e n t o v e r men. By t a k i n g pregnancy i n t o a c c o u n t , t h e Court o b s e r v e d , t h e C a l i f o r n i a s t a t u t e a l l o w s women, a s w e l l a s men, t o have f a m i l i e s without l o s i n g t h e i r jobs. The Court n o t e d t h a t s i n c e e m p l o y e r s a r e f r e e t o g i v e c o m p a r a b l e b e n e f i t s t o o t h e r employees, t h e C a l i f o r n i a s t a t u t e d o e s n o t compel e m p l o y e r s t o t r e a t p r e g n a n t w o r k e r s b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r d i s a b l e d workers i t m e r e l y s e t s a minimum l e v e l o f b e n e f i t s f o r pregnant workers.] -- 4300/S. 2278, both k i n d s of proposed l e a v e would h a v e Under H . R . i n c l u d e d c o n t i n u a t i o n of h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s and t h e r i g h t t o re-employment a t e i t h e r t h e same o r a comparable job. The b i l l would have c o v e r e d f u l l - t i m e and r e g u l a r p a r t - t i m e employees and e m p l o y e r s i n b o t h t h e p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s . Employers of f i v e o r more employees would have been a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Act. Excluded from c o v e r a g e would h a v e been p e r s o n s e l e c t e d t o p u b l i c o f f i c e and t h e i r i m n e d i a t e policy advisors. To t h e e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , employees would h a v e been r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l e n o t i c e and t o make an e f f o r t t o accommodate t h e n e e d s of t h e employer. H.R. 43001s. 2278 f u r t h e r would have p r o v i d e d b o t h c i v i l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n f o r c e m e n t . Remedies f o r v i o l a t i o n s would have i n c l u d e d r e i n s t a t e m e n t , back-pay and b e n e f i t s , and g e n e r a l damages. The b i l l a l s o would h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d a c o m n i s s i o n t o recomnend means of p r o v i d i n g s a l a r y r e p l a c e m e n t f o r employees t a k i n g p a r e n t a l and m e d i c a l d i s a b i l i t y Leaves. H . R . 4300 was v o t e d o u t by House Committees on E d u c a t i o n and Labor and P o s t O f f i c e and C i v i l S e r v i c e . Before v o t i n g out t h e b i l l , t h e E d u c a t i o n and Labor C o m n i t t e e amended t h e s e c t i o n s under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . A l t h o u g h a r u l e was g r a n t e d (H.Res. 552) p r o v i d i n g f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f H.R. 4300, t h e 9 9 t h Congress a d j o u r n e d b e f o r e t a k i n g f u r t h e r a c t i o n . A c t i v i t y i n t h e 100th Congress The b i l l amended by t h e House E d u c a t i o n and Labor C o r n i t t e e ( T i t l e s I , 111, and IV) and v o t e d o u t by t h e P o s t O f f i c e and C i v i l S e r v i c e C o m n i t t e e ( T i t l e 1 1 ) was r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 1 0 0 t h Congress a s H.R. 9 2 5 , t h e "Family and Medical Leave Act of 1987." A v a r i a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e S e n a t e a s S. 249, t h e " P a r e n t a l and Medical Leave Act of 1987." Both 4300, a s o r i g i n a l l y p r o p o s e d , by t h e s e p r o p o s a l s d i f f e r from H.R. i n c r e a s i n g t h e exemption f o r s m a l l employers from 5 t o 15 w o r k e r s ( a n e s t i m a t e d 78% of t h e p r i v a t e work f o r c e i s employed by f i r m s w i t h 15 o r more e m p l o y e e s ) and r e q u i r i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f m e d i c a l c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e l e a v e c o u l d be t a k e n . Employees a l s o would have t o p r o v i d e p r i o r n o t i c e and t o s c h e d u l e l e a v e t o accommodate t h e employer when t h e need f o r l e a v e i s f o r e s e e a b l e , and i t i s m e d i c a l l y f e a s i b l e t o do S O . H.R. 925 and S . 249 a l s o d i f f e r w i t h e a c h o t h e r on s e v e r a l p o i n t s . H.R. 925 would a l l o w employees unpaid f a m i l y l e a v e t o c a r e f o r a s e r i o u s l y i l l p a r e n t a s w e l l a s f o r a s e r i o u s l y i l l c h i l d , would i n s t i t u t e a v e s t i n g p e r i o d of t h r e e months b e f o r e a worker c o u l d become e l i g i b l e f o r l e a v e , would l i m i t t h e combined p a r e n t a l and d i s a b i l i t y l e a v e a n employee might t a k e t o 36 weeks p e r y e a r , and would l i m i t t h e e n t i t l e m e n t t o p a r e n t a l l e a v e t o t h e 12-month p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e b i r t h o r placement of a c h i l d . S. 249, on t h e o t h e r hand, would c o v e r a l l f u l l and p a r t - t i m e employees w i t h o u t a v e s t i n g p e r i o d , would n o t p e r m i t p a r e n t a l l e a v e t o b e u s e d t o c a r e f o r a c h i l d o v e r a g e 18 who i s i n c a p a b l e of s e l f - c a r e b e c a u s e of a p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l d i s a b i l i t y , and would s e t up an a d v i s o r y p a n e l r a t h e r t h a n a commission t o recommend means o f p r o v i d i n g s a l a r y r e p l a c e m e n t f o r employees t a k i n g l e a v e . A t h i r d b i l l concerning p a r e n t a l l e a v e , H.R. 284, t h e "Family and M e d i c a l Leave J o b A c t , " a l s o h a s been i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s . H.R. 284 would e n t i t l e employees t o f a m i l y l e a v e i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g t h e b i r t h , a d o p t i o n , o r s e r i o u s h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n of a s o n , d a u g h t e r , o r p a r e n t and t e m p o r a r y m e d i c a l l e a v e i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g i n a b i l i t y t o work b e c a u s e of a s e r i o u s h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n . Exempted from c o v e r a g e would be e m p l o y e r s w i t h l e s s t h a n 5 0 employees ( a n e s t i m a t e d 56% of t h e p r i v a t e work f o r c e i s employed by f i r m s w i t h 50 o r more e m p l o y e e s ) . C o n g r e s s i o n a l employees would be c o v e r e d u n d e r r u l e s e s t a b l i s h e d by Congress and r e l a t e d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s of t h e A c t . Family l e a v e would be l i m i t e d t o e i g h t workweeks i n a n y 24-month p e r i o d . E n t i t l e m e n t t o m e d i c a l l e a v e would be l i m i t e d t o 1 3 workweeks i n any 12-month p e r i o d . The f i r s t t h r e e weeks a f t e r c h i l d b i r t h would b e c o n s i d e r e d m e d i c a l l e a v e , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l weeks p r o v i d e d i f a m e d i c a l c a r e p r o v i d e r c e r t i f i e d t h e need. S p o u s e s employed by t h e same employer c o u l d t a k e e i g h t a g g r e g a t e workweeks i n a n y 24-month period. An employer c o u l d deny r e i n s t a t e m e n t t o t h e same o r a c o m p a r a b l e j o b t o t h e h i g h e s t p a i d 20 p e r c e n t o f h i s o r h e r employees i f n e c e s s a r y t o prevent s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u r y t o t h e employer's operations. The l e g i s l a t i o n would s e t up a t a s k f o r c e t o s t u d y and t o r e p o r t t o Congress r e g a r d i n g t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f r e q u i r i n g s m a l l employers t o p r o v i d e a minimum number o f p r o t e c t e d f a m i l y and t e m p o r a r y m e d i c a l l e a v e p e r i o d s t o t h e i r employees. Pro-Con A n a l y s i s Those who f a v o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p a r e n t a l and t e m p o r a r y m e d i c a l d i s a b i l i t y l e a v e b e n e f i t s c i t e t h e need t o accommodate f a r - r e a c h i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e f a m i l y and t h e w o r k f o r c e . They b e l i e v e t h a t F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n s u r e t h a t a l l w o r k e r s have e q u a l a c c e s s t o s u c h b e n e f i t s , e l i m i n a t i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s based on s u c h f a c t o r s a s geography, i n d u s t r y , o r company s i z e . Proponents a l s o a r g u e t h a t a l t h o u g h some S t a t e s h a v e p r o v i d e d s t a t u t o r y m a t e r n i t y l e a v e b e n e f i t s , where s u c h l e a v e b e n e f i t s do n o t i n c l u d e t h e same b e n e f i t s f o r a l l w o r k e r s d i s a b l e d f o r n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l m e d i c a l r e a s o n s , women may b e d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n t h e w o r k p l a c e b e c a u s e t h e y may be viewed by employers a s p o t e n t i a l l y more e x p e n s i v e employees. They n o t e t h a t t h e b i l l i n c l u d e s a s m a l l employer e x e m p t i o n t o e a s e t h e burden of c o v e r i n g p e r s o n n e l a b s e n c e s f o r those businesses. They a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t e s t i m a t e s of c o s t s s h o u l d t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o c i e t a l b e n e f i t s and s u c h f a c t o r s b e n e f i t t i n g e m p l o y e r s a s improved w o r k f o r c e s t a b i l i t y due t o i n c r e a s e d m o r a l e and loyalty. O p p o n e n t s n o t e t h a t a l l employee b e n e f i t s , however s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e t h e y may b e , a r e c o s t l y f o r employers who must p a s s on t h e s e expenses t o customers. Because t h i s p r o p o s a l would have wide i m p a c t , i t s economic c o s t s would be h i g h , t h e y a r g u e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y o b s e r v e t h a t g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e job o f an employee on long-term p a r e n t a l o r t e m p o r a r y m e d i c a l d i s a b i l i t y l e a v e may a l s o be more burdensome f o r s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s (representing the majority or businesses), with t h e i r limited personnel resources, than f o r l a r g e businesses. Those opposed a l s o a r g u e t h a t p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i f i c b e n e f i t s s h o u l d remain v o l u n t a r y on t h e p a r t o f e m p l o y e r s o r be s u b j e c t t o labor-management n e g o t i a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n b e mandated by t h e F e d e r a l Government. LEG1 SLATION 925 (Clay) Family and Medical Leave Act of 1987. A p p l i e s t o e m p l o y e r s w i t h 15 o r more employees. E n t i t l e s employees t o 1 8 weeks of p a r e n t a l l e a v e d u r i n g a n y 24-month p e r i o d i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g t h e b i r t h , a d o p t i o n , o r s e r i o u s i l l n e s s of a c h i l d o r t h e s e r i o u s h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n o f a p a r e n t ; and 26 weeks of t e m p o r a r y m e d i c a l l e a v e d u r i n g any one c a l e n d a r y e a r i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g t h e i n a b i l i t y t o work due t o a s e r i o u s h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n . P r o v i d e s t h a t s u c h l e a v e may be l e a v e w i t h o u t pay, Provides f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f employees1 employment and b e n e f i t r i g h t s d u r i n g and a f t e r such l e a v e s . Covers e m p l o y e r s i n t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s . P r o v i d e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c i v i l e n f o r c e m e n t . Authorizes a c o m n i s s i o n t o d e t e r m i n e ways o f p r o v i d i n g s a l a r y r e p l a c e m e n t f o r employees who t a k e p a r e n t a l and d i s a b i l i t y l e a v e s . I n t r o d u c e d Feb. 3 , 1987; r e f e r r e d j o i n t l y t o t h e C o r n i t t e e s on E d u c a t i o n and Labor and P o s t O f f i c e and C i v i l S e r v i c e . J o i n t h e a r i n g s h e l d Feb. 25 and Mar. 5 , 1987 by t h e E d u c a t i o n and Labor Subcommittees on Labor-Management R e l a t i o n s and on Labor S t a n d a r d s . H.R. S . 249 (Dodd) P a r e n t a l and Medical Leave Act of 1987. A p p l i e s t o e m p l o y e r s w i t h 15 o r more employees. Entitles employees t o 1 8 weeks of p a r e n t a l l e a v e d u r i n g a n y 24-month p e r i o d i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g t h e b i r t h , a d o p t i o n , o r s e r i o u s i l l n e s s of a c h i l d ; and 26 weeks of t e m p o r a r y m e d i c a l l e a v e d u r i n g any o n e c a l e n d a r y e a r i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g i n a b i l i t y t o work due t o a serious h e a l t h condition. P r o v i d e s t h a t s u c h l e a v e may be l e a v e w i t h o u t pay. P r o v i d e s f o r p r o t e c t i o n of e m p l o y e e s 1 employment and b e n e f i t r i g h t s d u r i n g and a f t e r such l e a v e . Covers employers i n t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e sectors. P r o v i d e s c i v i l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e m e d i e s . E s t a b l i s h e s an a d v i s o r y p a n e l t o s t u d y and recomnend s y s t e m s f o r p r o v i d i n g s a l a r y S. 249 r e p l a c e m e n t f o r employees who t a k e p a r e n t a l and m e d i c a l l e a v e s . i n t r o d u c e d J a n . 6 , 1987; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on Labor and Human Resources. H . R . 284 (Roukema) F a m i l y and Medical Leave J o b S e c u r i t y Act of 1987. Applies t o E n t i t l e s employees t o e i g h t weeks of e m p l o y e r s w i t h 50 o r more employees. p a r e n t a l l e a v e d u r i n g any 24-month p e r i o d b e c a u s e of t h e b i r t h o f a c h i l d , p l a c e m e n t of a c h i l d f o r f o s t e r c a r e of a d o p t i o n , o r i l l n e s s o f a c h i l d o r parent w i t h a s e r i o u s h e a l t h condition; and, i n t h e case of a female employee, t h r e e weeks o f t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y l e a v e a f t e r t h e b i r t h o f a child. P r o v i d e s t h a t s u c h l e a v e may be l e a v e w i t h o u t pay. P e r m i t s an employer to limit the aggregate number of workweeks of all types of leave to not less than 26 workweeks in any 24-month period. Provides for the protection of employees' employment and benefit rights during and after such leave. Covers employers in the public and private sectors. Provides civil and administrative remedies. Establishes a Task Force on Family and Medical Leave for Employees of Small Employers. Includes coverage of employees of Congress. Introduced Jan. 6, 1987; referred to Comnittee on Education and Labor. CONGBESSIONAL HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCIRfENTS U.S. Congress. House. Comnittee on Education and Labor. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1986. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1986. 57 p. (99th Congress, 2d session. House. Report no. 99-699, Part 2). U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Labor. Subcommittee on Labor-Managemen t Relations and the Subcomnittee on Labor Standards. The Parental and Medical Leave Act of 1986. Joint hearing, 99th Congress, 2nd session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1986. 248 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Parental and Medical Leave Act of 1986. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1986. 21 p. (99th Congress, 2d session. House. Report no. 99-699, Part 1). U.S. Congress House. Comnittee on Subcomnittee on Civil Service and and Employee Benefits. Parental Joint hearing, 99th Congress, 1st Print. Off., 1986. 102 p. Post Office and Civil Service. the Subcomnittee on Compensation and Medical Leave Act of 1986. session. Washington, U.S. Govt. CHRONOLOGY 05/19/87 --- H.R. 925 approved for full comnittee action by the House Post Office and Civil Service Subcommittee on Compensation and Employee Benefits. 05/13/87 --- H.R. 925 approved for full committee action by the House Education and Labor Subcommittee on Labor-Management Relations. 05/05/87 --- H.R. 925 approved for full comnittee action by the House Post Office and Civil Service Subcommittee on Civil Service. 04/23/87 --- Hearings on S. 249 continued before the Senate Labor and Human Resources Subcomnittee on Children, Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism. 04/02/87 --- Joint hearings on H.R. 925 held before the House Comnittee on Post Office and Civil Service Subcomnittees on Civil Service and on Comnerce and Employee Benefits. 03/05/87 --- 02/25/87 --- J o i n t h e a r i n g s on H . R . 925 h e l d b e f o r e t h e House C o m n i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n a n d Labor Subcommittees on Labor Management R e l a t i o n s and Labor S t a n d a r d s . 02/19/87 --- H e a r i n g s on S. 249 h e l d b e f o r e t h e S e n a t e Labor and Human R e s o u r c e s Subcomnit t e e on C h i l d r e n , F a m i l i e s , Drugs, and Alcoholism. 10/18/86 --- 09/17/86 --- Committee on R u l e s g r a n t e d m o d i f i e d open r u l e p r o v i d i n g two h o u r s of g e n e r a l d e b a t e i n H.R. 4300. 06/24/86 --- The House E d u c a t i o n and Labor Committee o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d by a 4300 a s amended i n t h e n a t u r e o f a v o i c e v o t e H.R. s u b s t i t u t e . The committee renamed H.R. 4300 t h e "Family and Medical Leave Act o f 1986" and made t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a n g e s : ( I ) i n c r e a s e d t h e exemption f o r s m a l l e m p l o y e r s from f i v e t o f i f t e e n w o r k e r s , ( 2 ) i n s t i t u t e d a v e s t i n g p e r i o d of t h r e e months b e f o r e w o r k e r s c o u l d become e l i g i b l e f o r l e a v e , ( 3 ) l i m i t e d t h e combined f a m i l y and m e d i c a l l e a v e a n employee might t a k e t o 36 weeks p e r y e a r , ( 4 ) l i m i t e d e n t i t l e m e n t t o p a r e n t a l l e a v e t o t h e 12 month p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e b i r t h o r p l a c e m e n t of a c h i l d , ( 5 ) r e q u i r e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f m e d i c a l conditions before l e a v e could be taken, ( 6 ) r e q u i r e d employees t o g i v e p r i o r n o t i c e and t o s c h e d u l e l e a v e t o accommodate t h e employer when p o s s i b l e , and ( 7 ) expanded t h e c o n c e p t o f " p a r e n t a l " l e a v e t o "family1' l e a v e t o a l l o w employees l e a v e t o c a r e f o r a s e r i o u s l y i l l p a r e n t . 06/11/86 --- 04/22/86 --- J o i n t h e a r i n g s on H.R. 4300 h e l d b e f o r e t h e House E d u c a t i o n and Labor S u b c o m n i t t e e s on Labor-Management R e l a t i o n s , and Labor S t a n d a r d s . 04/10/86 --- J o i n t h e a r i n g s o n H.R. 4300, t h e " P a r e n t a l and Medical Leave Act o f 1986," h e l d b e f o r e t h e House P o s t O f f i c e and C i v i l S e r v i c e Subcornmi t t e e s on C i v i l S e r v i c e , and Compensation and Employee B e n e f i t s . 10/17/85 --- J o i n t h e a r i n g s on H.R. 2020, t h e " P a r e n t a l and D i s a b i l i t y Leave Act o f 1985," h e l d b e f o r e t h e House P o s t O f f i c e and C i v i 1 S e r v i c e Subcommittees on C i v i l S e r v i c e , and Compensation and Employee B e n e f i t s , and t h e E d u c a t i o n and Labor Subcommittees on Labor-Management R e l a t i o n s , and Labor Standards. J o i n t h e a r i n g s c o n t i n u e d on H . R . 925 b e f o r e t h e Committee on E d u c a t i o n and Labor Subcommittees on Management R e l a t i o n s and Labor S t a n d a r d s . 9 9 t h Congress a d j o u r n e d w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of H.R. House Labor 4300. The House P o s t O f f i c e and C i v i l S e r v i c e Committee, by a v o t e o f 18-0, o r d e r e d r e p o r t e d p r o v i s i o n s of H.R. 4300 r e l a t i n g t o F e d e r a l Employees. POR ADDITIONAL READING Bureau o f N a t i o n a l A f f a i r s . Work and f a m i l y : a c h a n g i n g dynamic. Washington, The Bureau of N a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , I n c . , 1986. 336 p. Catalyst. R e p o r t on a n a t i o n a l C a t a l y s t , 1986. 83p. Dowd, s t u d y of parental leaves. New York, Maternity leave: taking sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o account. Nancy E. Fordham law r e v i e w , v. 54, A p r i l 1986: 699-765. A l f r e d J. Kamerman, S h e i l a B . , p o l i c i e s and working women. 1983. 183 p. S c a r r , Sandra. 302 p. U.S. Kahn, and P a u l K i n g s t o n . Maternity New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , Mother c a r e l o t h e r c a r e . New York, B a s i c Books, 1984. L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s . C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e . C o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g proposed f a m i l y l e a v e l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e 9 9 t h [Washington] 1986. 28 p. Congress [by] Vincent Treacy. --------- ----- The j u d i c i a l and l e g i s l a t i v e t r e a t m e n t o f pregnancy: a r e v i e w of d e v e l o p m e n t s from u n p r o t e c t e d s t a t u s t o a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n equal t r e a t m e n t and s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t [ b y ] C h a r l e s Dale and Karen J . Lewis. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1987. 32 p. -- M a t e r n i t y and p a r e n t a l l e a v e p o l i c i e s : a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s , by L e s l i e W. G l a d s t o n e , J e n n i f e r D. W i l l i a m s , and R i c h a r d S. B e l o u s . [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1985. 97 p. CRS Report 85-148 GOV P a r e n t a l l e a v e : a comparison of H.R. 4300 ( 9 9 t h C o n g r e s s ) and H . R . 9 2 5 , S. 249, and H.R. 284 ( 1 0 0 t h C o n g r e s s ) , by L e s l i e W. G l a d s t o n e . [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1987. 31 p. CRS Report 87-223 GOV