Pay Compatibility for Federal White-Collar Workers

NOV Order C o d e I B 8 5 Q 3 5 P A Y COMPARABILITY FOR F E D E R A L WEITE-COLLAR WORKERS UPDATED 0 3 / 0 7 / 8 5 aY Barbara S c h w e m l e Government Division C o n g r e s s ~ o n a lR e s e a r c h S e r v i c e NORTHERN KENTUCKY LiBRARY 1985 CRS- 1 ISSUE GEFINITIOK -2 e d e r a l white-collar salaries are, theoretically, adjusted annually to ~ a k ec 3 e m c o m p a r a b l e t o p r i v a t e s e c t o r w a g e r a t e s . Congress, in its bu2get res0lu:ion for fiscal year 1 9 8 6 , has frczez Federal pay for o n e year. 3ACKGROVND AND P3L;CYAANALYSIS -r.e F e C e r a l ?ay c o r , p a r a S 1 1 1 = y A c t zf 1 9 7 C , P . L . 5 -- - 5 5 5 , 3 4 S z a t . 1 9 4 6 , ari2 a s ame'ded b y P.L. 9 i - 8 2 , 9 9 3:ac. 4 2 0 , mardazee z n a z "znere Se equal Fay for sl:bstart;ally e q u a l w o r ~ "a n d t h a t " F e d e r a l F a y razes 5 e zomparaSle wlth private enterprise pay rates for the same levels of work." T ' ,, also established tne framework f o r determining c o m p a r a L ~ l ~ t ya n d g a v e =he P r e s ~ d e n t?rlrnary a u t h o r ~ t y t o a d l u s t G e n e r a l S c h e d n l e p a y r a t e s . m n Y o s t F e d e r a l l.a?P,ite-zollar o c ~ z p a z i c n s a r e q r ~ u ~ ei z Sta 1 5 General S ~ ! - ~ e C ~ x l g r a d e s (a f e w t o p p o s i t i o n s a r e i n g r a d e s 1 6 - 1 5 ) w i t h l e v e l s o f p a y b a s e d on j o b Cifficu1:y. Z a c h g r a d e h a s 12 s t e p s . The following are eight aspects of t3e comparability statute: xAuthorlzes annual adlustments co Federal w h ~ t e - c o l l a r p a y , d e z e r m l n e d by c o n p a r ~ n g publlc wlth private sector wage rates. *Kandates that a n annual National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and C l e r i c a l P a y ( P A T C ) b e c o n d u c t e d by t h e B u r e a u of LabCr Scatistics to establish the pay comparison; survey results are submitted to the P r e s i d e n t ' s Pay Agent. *Creates the foiiowlng three bodies co ~ m p l e m e n tthe comparability process: President's P a y Agent -- comprised of the Directors of the Office of Personnel Management and the Office of Management a n d Budget and the Secretary of Labor; determines the industries to be surveyed, geographic s c o p e , s i z e o f establishments to be i n c l u d e d , and occupational coverage of the PATC survey; formulates the comparability formula; establishes and confers with the Federal Employees Pay Council; and recommends an annual comparability adjustment to the President. (2) Advisory Committee on Federal Pay -- comprised of three members representing the private sector; provides the President with advice on comparability pay proposals. Current members are Martin Duggan, Eva Robins, and Frank Zarb. CRS- 2 (3) F e d e r a l E m p l o y e e s P a y C o u n c ~ l - - comprised o f f i v e m e m b e r s o f F e d e r a l e m p l o y e e organizations whlch represent substantla1 numbers of Federal workers; meezs witn and recommends ComparaDility adjustments to the Presldenz's Pay Agent. C-rrent memDers a r e Kenneth 3 l a y l o c ~ (AFGZ), John Layden ( A F L - C I O ) , J a m e s P e l r c e ( K 7 F Z ) , ;onn S t c r d l v a n t (AFGE) , a n d Fobert T o b ~ a s (YTEU). *Uses a pay-settlng formula that weights average races o f p a y f o r e a c h o f t h e j o b s included ;n t h e ? A T C s u r v e y a c c o r d i n g c o z n e l r f r e q u e n c y - n :he F e d e r a l s e c t o r ; e s z a ~ l ~ s h eas p a y r a n g e f c r e a c l 2 5 z n e f o g r ?ATC o c z u p a t i c n a l 5 r o , ~ ~- s - ?r~fess:o~al, Ac~inlstrative, Technical, a n d C l e r ~ c a l ; m e r g e s t h e s e f o u r p a y r a n g e s i n z o a PATC pay line that 1 s used to derlve a welghted private s e c t o r pay r a t e f o r e a z n G e n e r a l S c 3 e e 2 l e g r a d e ; c o m p a r e s t h e w e l ~ h t e dF e d e r a l a n d p r ~ v a c e s e c c o r a v e r a q e s ~ o c c m p c t e a :orparaL:l:ti7 adlustment. * Z m p o w e r s t h e F r a s i d e n z to 5 e c l d e t n e s l z e o f t h e comparability adjustment a n d m a n d a t e s that he report the flndlngs of 2 1 s Pay Agenz a n d t h e A d v i s o r y Cornmlttee o n F e d e r a l P a y t o Congress. *Grants the President the authorizy to override comparability and issue an a l t e r n a t i v e p a y p l a n by S e p t e m b e r 1 f o r reasons o f national emergency or economic c o n d i t i o n s ; a l t e r n a t i v e p i a c car! r e c o m m e n d that no increase be granted, that the comparability' a d j u s t m e n t be c h a n g e d or that t h e e f f e c t i v e d a t e be c h a n g e d . *Provides that Congress can override the P r e s i d e n t by a simple majority of e i t h e r H o u s e within 30 calendar days of continuous session following announcement o f the President's plan; the Pay Agent's recommended comparability a d j u s t m e n t would then be granted by October 1. * E s t a b l i s h e s t h e first pay period o n or after October 1 of each year a s the effective date of t h e c o m p a r a b i l i t y a d j u s t m e n t ; he s t a t u t e authorized that the first two adjustments under the Act (1971 and 1972) be effective o n or a f t e r J a n . 1. Several varying comparability adjustments have been discussed recently. P r e s i d e n t R e a g a n p r o p o s e d a 5% c u t i n F e d e r a l w a g e s e f f e c t i v e J a n . 1 , 1 9 8 6 i n his F Y 8 6 budget. T h e President's Pay Agent reported in 1 9 8 4 that a n 18.285 increase would be necessary to align public with private sector salaries w h i l e t h e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e o n F e d e r a l P a y r e c o m m e n d e d a 5.5% increase. A "Study of Total Compensation in the Federal, State, and Private Sectors" p r e p a r e d by H a y / H u g g i n s C o m p a n y a n d H a y M a n a g e m e n t C o n s u l t a n t s f o r t h e B o u s e Committee on Post Office and Civil Service revealed that Federal total cash CRS- 3 I885035 UPDATE-08/07/85 c o m p e n s a t l o n l a g s b e h l n d p r l v a t e s e c t o r p a y l e v e l s by 10.3%. When all forms o f c o m p e n s a t l o n ( s u c h a s r e t i r e m e n t , l e a v e , a n d h e a l t h benefits) a r e totaled H a y f o u n d t h e c o r n p a r a b l l ~ t y g a p t o b e 7.2%. Flnally, rhe Office of Personnel Management ln ~ t r A n Exac2na:lon of s e p o r t entitled, " R e f o r m i n g F e d e r a l P a y : M o r e R e a l i s t i c P a y A l t e r n a t ~ v e s , "a s s e r t s t h a t a truly represenratlve PATC s u r v e y w o u l d s h o w t h a t l e s s t h a n a 2 % ~ n c r e s s e2 s r e q u l r e e t o ensbre Farity wrrh prlvate industry. T n e C o n g r e s s l o n a i b c d g e t r e s o i u z i o n f o r P Y 8 6 , S.Con.Res. 32, ~ a s s e d rhe Fhls seasure, the resclt of a S e n a t e X a y 9 , 1 9 8 5 S y a 5 0 t o 49 v c t e . compromise b e t w e e n t h e S e n a t e Republican l e a d e r s h ~ p and the Whlte House, f r e e z e s F e d e r a l c l v l l ~ a np a y i n T Y 8 6 . F e d e r a l w a g e s w o u l d i n c r e a s e by 3.8% ln 1987 and b y 4 . " % in 1988. A d d ~ t i o ~ a l l yw;tclc-grade , lncreases would ncz b e grar,zed ~ n F Y 6 6 . In t 3 e H o u s e , H.Con.Res. 1 5 2 , l c s versron of zne budget resolution for F Y 8 6 , p a s s e d b y a v o t e o f 2 5 8 t o 1 7 0 o n K a y 2 3 , 1 9 8 5 . s' ~n the Senate, rhls sand p r c v ~ 2 e s 3 . 5 % a n 5 4.-% b l ~ d g ep~l a n f r e e z e s 'ederal c i T ~ i l r a np a y ;r '"5 p a y l n c r e a s e s I!? F Y 8 7 a n d PI'S&?. C o n f e r e n c e Cornnittee H o u s e a n d S e n a t e differences w e r e r e c o n c ~ l e d ~ n a w h ~ c kr e p o r z e d o t t o n Aug. 1 , 1 9 8 5 ( S . 2 e p z . 99-249). Cr z n e s a n e a , cne E o u s e a n d S e n a t e a g r e e d 20 t h e c o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t s y v o t e s o f 3 C 9 t o 9 and 6 7 t o 3 2 , respectively. T h e f l s c a l y e a r 1 9 8 6 b u d g e t resolution f r e e z e s F e d e r a l e m p l o y e e c a y for each year, o n e y e a r a n d p o s t p o n e s f u t u r e i n c r e a s e s f r o m O c t . 1 :o 2 a 2 . 1 o f 198; ard b e g l n n ~ n gin FY57. P a y r a i s e s o f 3.8% a n d 4.7% w-1: S e a w a r d e d ~ n 1988, respectlvely. T h e resolution also extends the use of 2 , 0 8 7 work year hours, rather than 2 , 0 8 0 h o u r s , i n computing G e n e r a l Schedule pay. The Senate provision to f r e e z e w i t h i n - g r a d e i n c r e a s e s f o r o n e year w a s deleted f r o m t h e r e s o l u t i o n in conference. CONCZRNS F e d e r a l e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e d a 3.5% c o m p a r a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e f o r 1985 but its effective date was postponed until Jan. 1 , 1985. fiscal year T h i s l a t e s t pay i n c r e a s e g r a n t e d to F e d e r a l workers illustrates how the comparability process has.operated recently. The increase wag authorized by t h e P r e s i d e n t u n d e r a n a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n a n d i t s e f f e c t i v e d a t e w a s d e l a y e d by three months. Indeed, since 1 9 7 7 , the President has used alternative plans to grant Federal salary increases, making this procedure rhe rule r a t h e ~ . ~ h a n 4 have fully t'he e x c e p t i o n . "Of the 1 1 pay increases under the Act, only followed the Act's principles." (A D e c a d e o f F e d e r a l W h i t e - c o l l a r Pay p. 1 2 . ) Comparability, I' M a n y o b s e r v e r s on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e F e d e r a l p a y issue believe that the credibility o f the comparability system has Seen reduced because of the seven following reasons. *PATC survey is narrow in scope and design. For instance -State and local Governments, non profit CRS- 4 organizations, and workers in small and m e d i u m s i z e d f i r m s ( t h o s e w i t h u n d e r 250 employees) are excluded; this exclusion t o t a l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 0 t o 60% o f t h e U.S. non-farm workforce. Only 25% of the Federal workforce 1s s u r v e y e d ; 1 1 3 l e v e l s o f w o r : ~~ n 2 5 o c c c 2 a t l c n a l c a c e q o r ~ e so u t c f m o r e t h a n 4 0 0 d ~ f f e r e n t393s a r e included. One-third of the workers surveyed are ic firms employing 2500 or more workers. Kany of the survey's work levels comprise highly skilled joSs s u c h a s l a w y e r s , accountants, and engineers; only 13% of technical workers an2 12% of administrative workers are represented. * A w l d e r a n g e o f l o b s a r e g r o u p e d I n t o tile Seneral Schedcl? grades. *Entry and lower level professional and c l e r i c a l positions a r e g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r . *Differences in regions or locales are not considere? in setting pay scales, except in Alaska and Hawaii; "Federal salaries equated c o a n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e e x c e e d pay i n many c o m m u n i ~ i e s , '(~D e c a d e o f F e d e r a l W h i t e - c o l l a r P a y C o m p a r a b i l i t y , " p. 24). *Overclassification and underclassification of Federal jobs has resulted from salaries which have been either lesser than or greater than ComparaSility. *Pay setting system prevents the Federal Government from being competitive with the private sector in recruiting and hiring candidates for hard-to-fill occupations. *General public does not understand the system; compares Federal salaries according to overall averages rather than against those for like jobs. O F F I C E OF P E R S O N N E L MANAGEMENT P R O P O S A L In December 1 9 8 4 OPM issued a report entitled "Reforming Federal Pay: An Examination of More Realistic Pay Alternatives." OPM officials have descriSed it a s a legislative agenda for the agency during the 99th Congress. The report's central theme i s that the present white-collar General Schedule jobs into broad system should be replaced by one that places Federal classification and pay bands. Furthermore, the competitive recruiting position of the Federal Government vis-a-vis the private sector would b e used to set salaries. That i s , salary increases would be established by the use leave of quit rates (the pace a t which F e d e r a l worker-s v'oluntarily ' Government). Employees i n o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h h i g h t u r n o v e r r a t e s would r e c e i v e with low quit rates would receive salary increases while those i n jobs smaller r a i s e s o r be denied increases. O P M r e p o r t s t h a t t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t q u l c r a t e was 3 . 8 % ;n 1983 whlie 1981 (nanufacznrlng), 18% ~n 1351 p r l v a t e s e c t c r a v e r a g e s w e r e 1 3 . 2 % ~n service). ?he perso~nel ( n o n m a n ; l i a c t c r ~ n g ) ,a n d 13.4% ~n 1963 (postal management agency concludes that "overall c o ~ p e n s a t l o n i ~ n :he Feeera: :re G o v e r ~ n e n t ! 2 s t o o h:gkn and reczrn?ends tLe f a l 1 o b ; ~ r i g a d j 1 ~ s t ! r e r ~ tc s F e d e r a l pay system. (i) Federai 1 0 9 s w o u i d ~ e a n a l y z e d separately Sy g r a d e l e v e l . (2) L o c a l pay r a z e s would s e z c e c n n l c a l and c l e r l c a l salaries, n a t l o n a l p a y r a t e s w o u l d S e t ? r o f e s S i O ! l Z l Z n c ZeF:P.:StTat:iT3 s a l a r ~ e s . (3) Federal p a y increases w o u l d b e b a s e d o n q u i t r a t e s c a l c c l a c e d f o r 2acR o c c u ? a z ~ o n . f u l l r a i s e wocid be granced zo e m p l o y e e s l n l o b s w l t h q u ~ tr a t e s between 7 and 1 2 % . A One-half t h e amount of a f u l l rai-se would be g r a n t e d t o employees i n o c c u p a t i o n s wlth q u i t r a t e s between 3 and 6%. No p a y i n c r e a s e s w o u l d b e g r a n t e e t o workers i n jobs w i t h q u i t r a t e s below 3%. P a y i n c r e a s e s w o u l d b e e f f e c t i v e or! 2an. 1 of each y e a r . ( 4 ) S p e c i a l s a l a r y r a t e s of up t o 60% above r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e r a t e s would be established for hard-to-fill occupations; a l l occupations w i t h q u i t r a t e s above 12% would be c a n d i d a t e s f o r s p e c i a l r a t e s . (5) s u r v e y would be expanded t o i n c l u d e smaller firms and s t a t e and l o c a l workers; ( i n 1 9 8 5 f i r m s e m p l o y i n g 50 o r more w o r k e r s w i l l be i n c l u d e d ; i n 1986 n o n - p r o f i t f i r m s e m p l o y i n g 2 0 o r more w o r k e r s w i l l S e surveyed and s t a t e and l o c a l employees w i l l be surveyed f o r informational purposes, pending legislative authorization). PATC ( 6 ) Terms t h e e x p e c t e d p r o p o s a l t o c u t F e d e r a l employee pay by 5% i n f i s c a l y e a r 1986 a p l a n which w o u l d make t h e F e d e r a l p a y s y s t e m more r a t i o n a l a n d move F e d e r a l s a l a r i e s b a c k t o w a r d m a r k e t l e v e l s . CRS- 6 IB85035 UPCATE-08/07/85 OPM estimates t h a t 6% o f t h e F e d e r a l c l v l l l a n w o r ~ f o r c e ,excluding p o s t a l a n d d e f e n s e e m p l o y e e s , w o u l d b e a f f e c t e d by ~ t ps r o p o s a l . Some observers of the Federal bureaucracy have ~ n d l c a t e dthat Federal employee morale, which they belleve is already low, would pldmmet and thac many employees woul6 3 e driven from the publlc to the prlvate sector. The Advisory Conmitsee on Federal Pay in ~ t r seport entltled " A Decade of Federal W k ~ t e - C o l l a r ?ay C o n p a r a b r l l t y 1 9 7 0 - 1 9 8 0 , l 1 o b s e r v e d t h a t a r g u n e n t s p a l r i n g l o w t u r n o v e r x:tk :r! e x c e s s i v e F e d e r a l p a y r a c e s d ~ s r e g a r d c s e :nzer:.al aos;l;zy zhat occzrs :he F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t b e c a c s e o f ~ t s size. T h o re?orz a l s ? s t a t e s t ~ a c s e c u r l t y cannot be converted to dollars and c e n z s " ( p . 2 5 ) . " d i d u n- A n i n v e s t i g a t o r y s t a f f r e p o r t " i n t o :he acc7:racy a n C c c m s a r a z l l i t y o f zPLe d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n . . . R e f o r m i n g F e d e r a l P a y " w a s i s s u e d by t h e H o u s e C o m m i t t e e o n P o s t C f f i c e a n d C i v i l S e r v i c e o n A p r . 1% ,1985. 3 e p r e s e ~ t a t i v e W i l l i a ~ .D . C h a i r m a n o f -,he C o m m i t t e e , r e q u e s c a d s h e re\7iew ~:w,?Ic~:f ~ c u s e 6 or. Ford (I<:), ,, -..e 11 a s z ? ~ s n t i c i < y a n c z ~ ? . p a r a b i l i ' ~5~ zh? varioxs q r a ~ e Cazz (pace qualifications of 2 9 - e n d o f r e p ~ r t )u s e d i n t h e r e p o r t a n d . . . s u b j e c t x a t e r c?e ZP?: p a r s c ~ n n e ; w h c ~ c c n z r l S 2 c e C t o t h r e p o r t . " A. The review concludes thaz "availaSlo statistics and reporzs were . . . that Government quit rates a r e misrepresented in an attempt to prove mcch lower than those i 3 the privace sector." Two major findings of the r e v i e w a r e cfle f o l l o w i n g : F a c r i c k S. K o r t e n , OPN Z x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r f o r Policy and Communications who prepared the quit rate analysis " h a s n o d i s c e r n i b l e e x p e r i e n c e in personnel management generally o r i n ccmpensation practices particularly" and "made n o effort to enlist the assistance of O P E professionals with compensation expertise" or the authors of the documenzs he used to prepare the analysis. * The report uses data bases that are not comparable. (1) P r i v a t e s e c t o r d a t a i n c l u d e d t e m p o r a r y , p a r t - t i m e , and seasonal employees. "Voluntary movement of w o r k e r s f r o m o n e establishment t o a n o t h e r w a s recorded a s a quit." Turnovers which resulted from retirements, firings, and deaths were counted a s voluntary qults i n the nonmanufacturing sector. (2) F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t d a t a o n l y i n c l u d e d f u l l - t i m e permanent employees and counted only resignations "It appears that employment a s voluntary quics. changes between agencies or large units within an agency, are not counted as quits." (3) P o s t a l S e r v i c e d a t a i n c l u d e d t e m p o r a r y a n d p a r t - t i m e employees. Statistics used were outdated and had been s u p e r s e d e d by m o r e current information. (4) Q u i t r a t e d a t a f o r t h e t e l e p h o n e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s CRS- 7 IBS5035 UPDATE-09/07/85 industry, whose occupational profile is perhaps more similar to and whose quit rate i s lower than the Federal Government, was excluded. C A B I N E T C O U N C I L 3 N MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION PRO?3SALS Upon recommendation of his Cabinet Council on I~ianagernsr.~ a n d A5rniristra:ion, Fresi5er.t 2 e a g a 2 ?as a p p r o v e e t t e P a y nge?.tls 2 e v e l z ~ y . e n : o f possible "market based models for setzing General Schedule salaries." total pay for According to c h e Council's reporc, "a market model would set F e d e r a l e m c l o y e e s a t l e v e l s n o k i g h e r t k a n n e c e s s a r y to recruit a n 2 retaiz the work." T e c h e quality a n d q u a n t i t y af personnel n s c e s s a r y z o perform 3 3 y A g e r t ' s m o d e l s a r e e x p e c t e e t c j e d s z a ~ l e d 1: i t s Augxs: ~ 2 repar:. ~ 2 q n - The Council also agresd zo look at O ? X f s quit rate proposal buc, emphasized thac "quit rate comparisons would require careful evaluation." Z o n c c r r e n t reso1ut;on s e t c ~ n g forch the congresslonal judge: for tte U n ~ t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t f o r f ~ s c a ly e a r s , 1 9 8 5 , 1 9 S 7 , a n d 1 9 8 8 . Reported co H o u s e by C o m m l t t e e o n 3 u d g e t ( R s p o r z S o . 9 9 - 1 3 3 ) F a y 2 0 , 1 9 9 5 . Passed Bouse May 2 3 , 1 9 6 5 S y a 2 5 8 t o 1 7 0 v o t e . S.Con.Res. 32 (Domenici) Concurrent resolution sectlng forzh the congresslonal budgec for the Unlted Scates Government for the flscal years 1965, 1987, and 1988. Reported t o t h e S e n a c e b y t h e C o m m l t t e e or. t h e B u d g e t (Report nc. 99-i5) Kar. 20, Revised by a compromise b e t w e e n t h e S e n a c e R e p u b l i c a n l e a d e r s h ~ p and 1985. 1585 by a 50 to 49 v o c e . the White Xouse. P a s s e d t n e S e n a t e o n May 9 , 1, 19e5 (li.Re?t. 99-249). Conference R e p o r t e d o u t o f c o n f e r e n c e o n Aug. 1 , 1 9 8 5 by v o t e s o f 3 0 9 to 4eport agreed to ~n the House and Senate on Aug. 119, and 67 to 32, r e s p e c t ~ v e l y . R E P O R T S A N D CCINGRESSIONAL D O C U M E N T S U.S. Congress. Eouse. C o m m i t t e e on P o s t O f f i c e a n d C i v i l Service. Investigation into the accuracy and comparability of t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d " R e f o r m i n g Federal P a y , An Examination of More Realistic P a y A l t e r n a t i v e s , " i s s u e d by t h e O f f i c e o f P e r s o n n e l Management. Staff report. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . Off., A p r . 1 8 , 1 9 8 5 . (99th Congress, 1st session. House. C o m m i t t e e p r i n t no. 99-4) ----- Study of Total Compensation in the Federal, State, and Private Sectors. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v l t . House. Print. Off., 1984. (98th Congress, 2d session. C o m m i t t e e p r i n t no. 9 8 - 1 6 ) CRS- 8 ADDITIONAL RZFERENCE SOURCZS P r e s i d e n t ' s P r i v a t e S e c 2 r S ~ c r v e y o n C o s z C o n t r o l (U.S.). Reporz on Personnel Managemenz. A p p r o v e d by c h e S u ~ c o m m l t c e e f o r t h e f u l l E x a c c t i v e Comrrlttee, s p r ~ n g - f z l l , 1 9 e 3 . ~ W a s h l n g t o1 n ~ T h e S c r v e y .I l-rP o? l~ ! , p p . 1 C l - 1 C 7 . U.S. Advisory Committee on lederal Pay. A Decade of Federal W h i t e - C o l l a r r a y C o m p a r a j i l i t y 197C-1980. W a s h i n g t o n , Advisory Committee on Feeera1 Fay, 1921. S A e v i s o r y C o ~ a i z z e ec n F e e e r a ; ?zap. s e a o r - oc z n e F z s c a l Y e a r 1 9 8 5 P a y I n c r e a s s U n d e r :>e F e d e r a l S z a t u t o r y P a y Systems: A n n u a l S e p o r t of t h e A d v l s o r y C o m m i t t e e o n W a s h ~ n g t s n ,:.dv:s=ry Cocnltzee T e l e r a l P a y 9;g. 2 4 , 1S64. orl P e d e r a l ? a y , 1 9 6 4 . . - U S . Congressional Budget Office and U . S . General Accounting Office. A n a l y s i s o f z a e G r a c e Coxriission's K a j o r P r o ? ~ s a l s for Cosz Control. Xashingcon, Congressional 2udgez O f f i c e , G e n e r a l A c c o u n t i n g C f f i c e , F e S . 1 9 6 4 , pp. 2 7 5 - 2 7 7 . U.S. Department of LaSor. B ~ r e a uof L a S o r S t a z i s t i c s . N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f P r o f e s s i o n a l , Ac?ministrative, T e c h n i c a l , and Clerical Pay. KasP.ingtsn, U.S. G o v ' t . P r i n c . C f f . , Kar. 1 9 8 4 . U.S. Reforning Federal Pay: O f f i c e o f P e r s o n n e l Kanager?ent. An E x a r i n a t i o n o f M o r e R e a l i s t i c P a y A l t e r n a t i v e s . Washingcon, Office of Personnel Yanagement, Dec. 1984. U.S. Presldent's P a y Agent. C o m p a r z b i l ~ t yo f t h e F e d e r a l S t a t u t o r y P a y S y s t e m s W l t h P r l v a c e Enterprise P a y R a t e s : Annual Report of the Presldent's Pay Agent 1984. Yashlngton, President's Pay Agent, 1984.