Education in America: Reports on Its Condition, Recommendations for Change

The quality of education in our schools, particularly our high schools, and appropriate Federal actions to improve educational quality have become a major political issue. A number of reports on education with recommendations for change have been issued, among them A Nation At Risk by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. These reports are critical of how our Schools are functioning and call for improvement in areas such as teaching, curriculum, and standards for student performance and behavior. Some issues raised by these reports are whether these changes are needed, how these changes might be implemented, and what might be the roles of different- levels of government in this process.

O r d e r C o d e IB83106 D I T I O N , RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHANGE edman elfare Division arch Service CRS- 1 ISSUE DEFINITION T h e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n i n o u r s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o u r high schools, and appropriate Federal actions to inprove educational quality have become a m a j o r p o l i t i c a l issue. A n u m b e r of r e p o r t s o n e d u c a t i o n w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i ~ n s f o r c h a n g e h a v e been i s s u e d , a m o n g them A N a t i o n At Risk by the National C o m m i s s i o n o n E x c e l l e n c e in Education. These reports a r e critical of how our S c h o o l s a r e f u n c t i o n i n g and c a l l f o r i m p r o v e m e n t i n a r e a s such a s t e a c h i n g , c U r r i c U l U m , a n d s t a n d a r d s f o r s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e and behavior. Some issues raised by t h e s e r e p o r t s a r e whether these c h a n g e s a r e n e e d e e , how these c h a n g e s might b e i m p l e m e n t e d , a n d w h a t m i g h t be t h e r o l e s of d i f f e r e n - i e v e l s of g o v e r n m e n t i n t h i s process. B A C K G R O U N D AND P O L I C Y A N A L Y S I S Introduction . F o r m o r e t h a n t w o y e a r s , r e p o r t s c r i t i c a l of the condition of American education, particularly a t t h e high school level, have been issued p e r i o d i c a l l y by a d i v e r s e m i x of n a t i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n s , task forces, and academic groups. T h e s e r e p o r t s c o m e at a t i m e of concern abgut American e c o n o m i c producti'vity, i n t e r n a t i o n a l competition, and the impact of new technology on t h e workforce. Debate is currently underway over the needed changes in American education, and, performance, goals and p a r t i c u l a r l y , o v e r w h a t t h e F e d e r a l r o l e s h o u l d be. T h i s i s s u e brief c o n s i d e r s the r o l e of r e f o r m r e p o r t s f o c u s e d o n t h e high s c h o o l , p r o v i d e s brief s u m m a r i e s of ten o f the reports and explores the p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s to a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e f r o m t h e r e p o r t s . These q u e s t i o n s are: (1) W h a t i s t h e c o n d i t i o n of s c h o o l i n g i n t h i s c o u n t r y ? ( 2 ) What are the causes of educational problems in our schools? ( 3 ) Are the recommended changes appropriate? ( 4 ) W h a t h a s been h a p p e n i n g i n t h e S t a t e s i n r e s p o n s e to the recent reports? ( 5 ) W h a t a r e t h e p o s s i b l e F e d e r a l r e s p o n s e s to t h e p r o b l e m s h i g h l i g h t e d by t h e r e c e n t r e p o r t s ? I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t m a n y of the most recent reports on American educational performance are focused on higher education. These reports are not considered i n t h i s i s s u e brief (e.g., "Involvement In Learning: R e a l i z i n g t h e P o t e n t i a l o f A m e r i c a n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n " , r e p o r t of the Study G r o u p o n t h e C o n d i t i o n s of E x c e l l e n c e i n A m e r i c a n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , s p o n s o r e d A Report on by t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of E d u c a t i o n ; or " T o R e c l a i m a L e g a c y : the Humanities in H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n " , by William J. Bennett, National E n d o w m e n t f o r t h e Humanities). CRS- 2 R o l e o f Reform R e p o r t s R e p o r t i n g on h o w w e l l or h o w poorly o u r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a r e f u n c t i o n i n g such r e p o r t s is not a new activity. High s c h o o l s h a v e been the s u b j e c t of s i n c e their e m e r g e n c e a s widely accepted institutions in the late 19th c e n t u r y . What i s e v i d e n t from a r e v i e w of previous high school "reform" r e p o r t s i s that such r e p o r t s e m b r a c e d widely d i f f e r e n t i m a g e s of t h e higP. school. In s o m e i n s t a n c e s , the high s c h o o l was v i e w e d p r i n c i p a l l y a s a m e a n s of preparing a c a d e m i c a l l y talented y o u t h f o r c o l l e g e . Other r e p o r t s s a w t h e high s c h o o l a s p r e p a r i n g American y o u t h for the w i d e V a r i e t y of social and career paths they w o u l d follow. S t i l l o t h e r s h a v e v i e w e d t h e high s c h o o l a s a n engine for s o c i a l change or a s a means of h a r m o n i z i n g a Z i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n within a d e m o c r a t i c society. he In t h e view of some observers, school "reform" reports reflect e d u c a t i o n a l a n d p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e s in which they are written. In international " c o n s e r v a t i v e " p e r i o d s , they claim, the reports stress c o m p e t i t i o n , z h e d e v e l o p m e n t of b a s i c s k i l l s a n d the strengthening of the academic curricnlum. In more "liberal" " i l m e s , a c c o r d i n g to the thesis, e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e i s focused o n " d i s a d v a n t a g e d " s t u d e n t s a n d the broader f u n c t i o n s of s c h o o l i n g for = h e s o c i e t y . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e R a y be used to c h a l l e n g e the v a l i d i t y of t h e s e " r e f o r m " r e p o r t s a n d argue against their c a l l s for change. In c o n t r a s t , o t h e r s might c o n t e n d t h a t i t i s a n oversimplification to to c a t e g o r i z e . h i s t o r i c a l periods a s "conservative" or "liberal" and c h a r a c t e r i z e a l l o f t h e school " r e f o r m l ~r e p o r t s produced i n a n y time period with a s i n g l e label. Some have asserted that the reports often do gauge how well schools are.functioning, and provide necessary balance to p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l changes. S u m m a r i e s of R e c e n t R e p o r t s T h e ten reports s u m m a r i z e d b e l o w , which a r e released to d a t e , a r e from: among the most (1) t h e N a t i o n a l C o m m i s s i o n o n E x c e l l e n c e i n E d u c a t i o n (A Nation At R i s k ) , ( 2 ) the T w e n t i e t h Century F u n d Task F o r c e (Making the Grade), (3) t h e N a t i o n a l Task F o r c e o n E d u c a t i o n for E c o n o m i c Growth (Action for E x c e l l e n c e ) , ( 4 ) the C a r n e g i e F o u n d a t i o n for t h e A d v a n c e m e n t of T e a c h i n g (High S c h o o l ) , ( 5 ) A S t u d y o f High S c h o o l s (Horace's C o m p r o m i s e ) , ( 6 ) A S t u d y o f Schooling (A P l a c e Called S c h o o l ) , (7) the N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e Board C o m m i s s i o n o n P r e c o l l e g e E d u c a t i o n i n M a t h e m a t i c s , S c i e n c e , and T e c h n o l o g y ( E d u c a t i n g Americans f o r t h e 2 1 s t C e n t u r y ) , (8) the P a i d e i a Group (The P a i d e i a P r o p o s a l ) , a n d (9) the E d u c a t i o n a l E Q u a l i t y P r o j e c t ( A c a d e m i c P r e p a r a t i o n for College). (10) T h e N a t i o n a l C o a l i t i o n of A d v o c a t e s for S t u d e n t s ( B a r r i e r s to Excellence). significant CRS- 3 T h e f i r s t f o u r of t h e s e r e p o r t s a r e t h o s e t h a t probably most a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i c , t h e m e d i a , g o v e r n m e n t , community. have received the and the education M o s t , b u t n o t a l l of these reports, focus almost exclusively on the c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e N a t i o n ' s s e c o n d a r y schools. The educational performance of s c h o o l s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e r e p o r t s , 'is n o t g o o d ; i n d e e d , f o r s o m e of the reports (such a s t h a t from t h e N a t i o n a l Commission on Excellence in Education), the c r i t i c i s m s a p p a r e n t l y so o u t w e i g h z n y of t h e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t s c h o o l s earn c l o s e t o a f a i l i n g grade. Most of t h e r e p o r t s decry l a x a c a d e m i c a n d behavioral standards exhibited by the schools. Most a d d r e s s with p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s the professional l i v e s of t e a c h e r s , c o n c l u d i n g c h a t c h a n g e s i n the way teachers are t r a i n e e , their p a t ~ e r n sof c o m p e n s a t i o n , a n d their w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l . repcrts A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e g e n e r a l a r e a s of a g r e e m e n t a m o n g the varlous (such a s poor academic performance by students, serious teaching d e f i c i e n c i e s , a n d a n e e d for r e f o r m ) , i t i s t h e d i v e r s i t y of the suggested r e f o r m s t h a t may b e a m o n g t h e most s t a r t l i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e p o r t s . As he summaries below suggest, this diversity stems in par= from differen: p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e g o a l s and e n d s of s c h o o l i n g . S o m e of t h e s e r e p o r t s , much x o r e than o t h e r s , a r e concerned with he p r o c e s s c f e d u c a t i o n = h a t o c c u r s in t h e c l a s s r o o m (for e x a m p l e , the r e p o r t s f r o m t h e C a r n e g i e Foundation, A S t u d y of S c h o o l i n g a n d A S t u d y of High Schools). As a result, the suggested r e f o r m s f r o m t h e s e r e p o r t s (ranging from c r e a t i n g smaller schooling units within s c h o o l s , to c r e a t i n g l a r g e r b l o c k s of instructional time, to i n t e g r a t i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a n d work e n v i r o n m e n t s o u t s i d e of t h e s c h o o l i n t o t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m ) a r e more s t r u c t u r a l t h a n a r e t h o s e from s o m e of che o t h e r r e p o r t s ( e - g . , i n c r e a s i n g high s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n a n d c o l l e g e a d m i s s i o n s requirements).. F i n a l l y , s o m e of t h e r e p o r t s a r e m o r e l i k e l y t h a n o c h e r s t o c o n s i d e r t h a t s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y high s c h o o l s , a r e d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l , d e m o g r a p h i c , a n d e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e s (among o t h e r s ) , affecting who g o e s t o s c h o o l and h o w they i n t e r a c t with 'the e x i s t i n g educational system (the r e p o r t f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l C o a l i t i o n of Advocates f o r c h i l d r e n , for example) . W h a t f o l l o w s a r e brief s u m m a r i e s of t h e s e ten r e p o r t s , h i g h l i g h t i n g their assessinent of t h e a p p r o p r i a t e F e d e r a l r o l e i n t h e e f f o r t t o i m p r o v e a c a d e m i c performance. National Commission on Excellence in Education Commission on Excellence in Education, On Apr. 2 6 , 1983, t h e National c h a r t e r e d by S e c r e t a r y of Education Bell i n 1 9 8 1 with t h e task of examining t h e q u a l i t y of A m e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n , i s s u e d A N a t i o n At Risk: The Imperative f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Reform. The Commission concludes that "the educational f o u n d a t i o n s of o u r s o c i e t y a r e p r e s e n t l y being eroded by a rising tide of m e d i o c r i t y that t h r e a t e n s our very f u t u r e a s a N a t i o n a n d a people." The C o m m i s s i o n posits t h a t quality e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l m e m b e r s of the society is e s s e n t i a l f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the c o u n t r y ' s competitive edge in international e c o n o m i c m a r k e t s , a n d f o r s u c c e s s i n t h e s o - c a l l e d " i n f o r m a t i o n age.' F o c u s i n g on s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , the C o m m i s s i o n asserts that t h e high school curriculum is too diffuse and lacks a central purpose; t h a t high school students are excessively found in g e n e r a l track programs and not a c a d e m i c track p r o g r a m s ; that students spend time ineffectively and i n e f f i c i e n t l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o m p a r i s o n with t5eir counterparts in o t h e r CRS- 4 IB83106 UPDATE-07/17/85 countries; and that teaching is attracting too few academically able and offers a professional life that i s "on the whole unacceptable." persons T h e C o m m r s s l o n r e c o m m e n d s t h a t a hlgh s c h o o l d i p i o m a be granted only to s t u d e n t s w h o t a k e , a t a m ~ n ~ m u m4, y e a r s o f E n g l l s h , 3 y e a r s c f m a t h , 3 y e a r s ccrnputer sclence. cf sclence, 3 years of soclal studies, and a half year of T w o y e a r s o f f o r e l g n l a n g u a g e i s r e c o m m e n d e d f o r t h o s e s t z d e n z s in:end;ng to me a s w e l l go to college. T h e C o m m i s s ~ o nc a l l s f o r m o r e e f f e c z i v e c s e 3 : a s an ~ n c r e a s e i n the amount cf in-school tlme. T h e C o n m ~ s s ~ o na l s 3 end zo r e c o m m e n d s m o r e h o m e w o r k , a rigorously e n f o r c e d c o n d u c t c o d e , a n d a n A 7 - p a r t r e c o m m e n d a t ~ o n1 s rrade c o n c e r n i n g student promotion based on age. t e a c h i n g , c a l l i n g f o r h ~ g h e r s a l a r l e s s e n s i t ~ v ez o t h e n a r k e c and teacher perfornance, and career lsdders for teachers. The Commission conclcdes that States and localities are primarily r e s p o n s i b l e f z r f i n a n c i n g a n d g o v e r n i n g sc>oo:s. T h e Federa: r o l e , accordin: to the Commission, i s to identify and support che national interest in -education, a n d , a l s o , t o address the needs of special groups of children gifted, socioeconomically disadvantaged, minority, limited English speaking, and handicapped children. rn -wenrieth Century Fund Task Force The Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Policy issued its report, Making The Grade, shortly after that of the National Commission. The Twentieth Century Fund is an independent research foundation. The Task Force asserts that the "Nations puSlic schools are in trouble." They are failing to educate and motivate students and are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low test scores, high drop out rates, violence, and inadequate teaching. knowledge Schools, according to the Task F o r c e , must impart a common core of to a l l students, consisting of reading, writing, calculating, "technical capacity in computers," science, foreign languages, and civics. The Task Force recommends a federally funded Master Teacher program to provide the country's best teachers with 5-year financial awards ($40,000 a year i s suggested). The Federal Government, it is recommended, should establish English language literacy a s the principal goal for elementary and secondary education; and Federal bilingual education funds should be used only to teach E n g l i s h ' t o non-English speaking children. The Task Force posits that every public school child should Dave an opportunitity to learn a second language. The Task Force recommends certain incentives to increase the number of math, science, and foreign language teachers. Federal categorical grant programs for economically disadvantaged children and the h a n d i c a p p e d s h o u l d b e c o n t i n u e d , an-d t h e " i m p a c t a i d " p r o g r a m s h o u l d b e used to aid school districts with substantial numbers of immigrant children. F e d e r a l r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e T a s k F o r c e , s h o u l d be continued and directed a t collecting data on educational performance and the evaluation of Federal program. compelling national The Task Force states that "educating the young is a i n t e r e s t , a n d t h a t a c t i o n by t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t can be a s a p p r o p r i a t e a s a c t i o n by S t a t e a n d l o c a l governments." The Federal role is to continue assisting the disadvantaged a s well a s to take a primary position i n meeting the need for educational quality. CRS- 5 IB83106 UPDATE-07/17/85 National Task F o r c e o n E d u c a t i o n f o r E c o n o m i c Growth Task Force on Education for E c o n o m i c On J u n e 2 2 , 1 3 8 3 , the National G r o w t h , e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e E d u c a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n of the States in December 1 9 5 2 , released a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d Action f o r Excellence: A C o m p r e h e n s i v e Plai? to I m p r o v e Our N a t i o n ' s Schools. T h e Task F o r c e h i g h l i g h t s what i t l a b e l s d e f i c i e n c i e s i n p u b i i c e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . D e s p i t e g a i n s i n b a s i c s k i l l s a c h i e v e m e n t r e c o r d e d by black students a n d o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n , the T a s k Force finds a 5 e c l i n e i n higher o r d e r s k i l l s , such a s proklem solving. Teaching positiocs in s o m e a r e a s , s u c h a s m a t h , a r e f i l l e d by i n d i v i d u a l s u n c e r t i f i e C to t e a c h those s u b j e c t s ; a n d l;ttle time is s p e n t weekly oc s c i e n c e and math in the t y p i c a l e l e m e n t a r y school. P r i n c i p a l s , i d e n t i f i e d a s important leaders in the q u e s t f o r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i t y , a r e u n d u l y eiverted f r o m their a p p r o p r i a t e tasks. T h e Task F o r c e a s s e r t s t h a t i m p r o v e d e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g a r e for e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , the n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e , and soclal s t a a i l i t y . essential F o c u s i n g p r i m a r i l y o n t h e roles that S t a t e s and business might p;ay in a d d r e s s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , t h e Task F o r c e c a l l s u p o n each G o v e r n o r to a d c p t a n T v a c t i o n "plan for improving public education. Business and school partnerships a r e advocated. It i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t S t a t e s a n d local s c h o o l boards i m p r o v e t h e ways teachers are recruited, trained, and c o m p e n s a t e d ; a n d t h a t salary . s c h e d u l e s should be m a d e c o m p e t i t i v e , with f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s provided for g o o d p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e T a s k F o r c e c a l l s f o r more e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t i m e in s c h o o l a n d that consideration be g i v e n to l e n g t h e n i n g t h a t time. In a d d i t i o n , r e q u i r e m e n t s for d i s c i p l i n e , a t t e n d a n c e , h o m e w o r k , and g r a d i n g should b e strengthened. F i n a l l y , t h e Task Force recommends special education efforts for different groups of students, i n c l u d i n g w o m e n a n d minority s t u d e n t s , g i f t e d s t u d e n t s , d r o p o u t s , and the handicapped. T h e Task F o r c e b e l i e v e s that the F e d e r a l r o l e l n e d u c a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t , reflecting that education is a national priority. The Federal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e a s s i s t a n c e to t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d , f i n a n c i a l a i d for postsecondary s t u d e n t s , r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s u p p o r t , a n d e f f o r t s to meet. t h e c o u n t r y ' s l a b o r needs. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancsment of Teaching On Sept. 1 5 , 1 9 5 3 , t h e C a r n e g i e F o u n d a t i o n for the A d v a n c e m e n t of T e a c h i n g A Report on S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n in issued a study e n t i t l e d High School: A m e r i c a , based o n over 2 y e a r s of o b s e r v a t i o n s a t 1 5 h i g h schools. The Boyer, president of the report was principally authored by E r n e s t L. Foundation. clear and Vital T h e C a r n e g i e r e p o r t c o n c l u d e s that high s c h o o l s " l a c k a mission." Many s t u d e n k s f a i l to master t h e English l a n g u a g e ; t e a c h e r s work under c o n d i t i o n s p r e c l u d i n g e f f e c t i v e o r s u s t a i n e d t e a c h i n g ; p r i n c i p a l s a r e poorly prepared t o lead. T h e r e p o r t s a y s t h a t high s c h o o l s s h o u l d teach critically and communicate effectively; should s t u d e n t s how to teach students think about CRS- 6 IB83106 UPDATE-07/17/85 themselves, their heritage, and other cultures and nations; should prepare students for work and further education; and should help students meet their social and civic obligations. The repcrt provides "an agenda for actionw that begins with each high school clarifying its goals. Mastery of the English language is the next priority after goal-setting, with ea.ch h i g h school student completing a year-long basic English course and a s e ~ ~ e s t e r - l o n g speech course. These courses would be part of a single track core curriculum in which a l l students would take 1 year of literature, a semester of a r t s , 2 years of foreign l a n g u a g e s , 2-1/2 y e a r s o f h i s t o r y , 1 y e a r o f c i v i c s , 2 y e a r s of science, 2 y e a r s o f m a t h , semester-long courses in technology a n d h e a l t h , a seminar on w o r k a n d a s e n i o r independent p r o j e c t . A11 studer~ts would conple~e a nek? service unlt of volunteer work i z thelr schools or c o n m u n ~ t i e s . Por teachers, the report calls for reduction in teachicg loads, a 255 increase in current compensazion over the next 3 years, rewards for teaching excellence, and a new career path with three stages. Full tuition s c h o l a r s h i p s s h o u l d b e o f f e r e d by c o l l e g e s t o t h e t o p 5% o f t h e i r j u n i o r s w h s p l a n t o t e a c h i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s ; a n d t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d establisl-. a National Teacher Service offering scholarships to those graduating in the top one-third of their high school class. The report calls for flexibility in structuring high schools, including larger blocks of instructional time and smaller within-school units. The report cautions against unplanned purchases of computer hardware. With regard to governmental roles in education, the report admonishes S t a t e s " t o e s t a b l i s h g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d s a n d p r o v i d e f i s c a l s u p p o r t , b u t n o t tc meddle." The Federal Government i s to be a partner in renewing educatianal excellence. Three broad purposes for Federal action in edncation are identified -- providing informarion on the condition of education, assisting disadvantaged and handicapped students, and working to meet emergency national needs. A Study of High Schools Horace's Compromise: T h e D i l e m m a of t h e America High S c h o o l , by Theodore R. S i z e r , i s t h e f i r s t r e p o r t f r o m A S t u d y o f H i g h Schols, a 5-year study s p o n s o r e d by t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s a n d t h e Commission on Educational Issues of the National Association of Independent Schools. This first report posits that high schools are not serving the country well f o r many reasons. High schools fail to use appropriately adolescents' d e s i r e s f o r a h i g h s c h o o l dip-loma a n d r e s p e c t ; t h e y have an outdated and unduly comprehensive set of educational and social gooals; they attempt to convey information, rather than instill the skills needed to use information; they fail to grant teachers the independence they need to teach effectively; a n d t h e y pay t e a c h e r s too l i t t l e a n d f a i l to reward excellence. Educational policymakers, according to the report, confuse standardization with standards, thereby making the educational system unduly structured and inflexible. The report advocates that, once students have mastered literacy, numeracy, (the task of junior high and a n understanding of c ~ v i c responsibrlities cornpe1;ed to attend school. school and lower levels), they should not be CRS- 7 iB83106 UPDATE-07/17/85 High school attendance, a s result, would be voluntary. High schools, the report, should have three objectives: development of according K O i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s ( t a u g h t by " c o a c h i n g " ) , a c q u i s i t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e (taught by "telling") , and understanding of ideas and values (taught by "questioning"). T h e r e p o r t s u g g e s t s that h i g h s c h o o l s f o c u s o n f o u r s u b j e c t areas: i n q u i r y and e x p r e s s i o n , m a t h e m a t i c s a n d s c i e n c e , l i t e r a t c r e a n d a r t s , a n d p h i l o s o p h y a n d history. I m p r o v e m e n t o f t e a c h e r s ' w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s i s t h e .solution to i x p r o v i n g high school e d u c a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e p o r t . It r e c o m m e n d s , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t t e a c h e r s be g i v e c m o r e a u t o n o m y ; be held a c c o u n t a b l e for tPLeir s t u d e n t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e ; be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f e w e r s t u d e n t s ; h a v e s t e e p e r s a l a r y s c h e C u 1 e s ; a n d h a v e a s a f e p l a c e to work. ,he repcrt calls for t e a c h e r s and p r i n c ~ p a l s z o S e given g r e a z e r authority. S m a l l e r c n l t s a r e n e c e s s a r y , a c c o r z l n g to t h e r e p o r t , so tPLat teachers can come to know thelr students and develop the teaching strategies n e c e s s a r y f o r each. rn The Paideia Group T h e P a i d ~ i aP r o p o s a l : An E d u c a t i o n a l M a n i f e s t o , ~ r i t c e n by Mortimer J. A d l e r o n behalf o f t h e P a i d e i a G r o u p , w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 8 2 . The Proposal calls for a n extensive reform in the structure, content, and methods of A l l s t u d e n t s would be in a - s i n g l e track with no electives save schooling. f o r the c h o i c e o f f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e . Schools would have t h r e e goals: to p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s with a base of o r g a n i z e d k n o w l e d g e i n a r e a s suc?, a s l a n g u a g e , m a t h e m a t i c s , a n d s c i e n c e (the t e a c h i n g method w o u l d be lectufing); to d e v e l o p s t u d e n t s ' i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s i n t h e u s e of t o o l s s u c h a s r e a d i n g , -dri* Ling, s p e a k i n g , and problem-salving (the teaching methods woule include coaching, exercises, and supervised practice); and to enlarge students' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i d e a s a n d v a l u e s ( t h e t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s w o u l d be "Socratic" q u e s t i o n i n g a n d a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n in d i s c u s s i o n s of b o o k s a n d p e r f o r m a n c e s o f a r t i s t i c works). ' T h e C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n Board T h e C o l l e g e Board h a s u n d e r t a k e n a 1 0 - y e a r p r o j e c t c a l l e d t h e E d u c a t i o n a l E Q u a l i t y P r o j e c t to i m p r o v e s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a n d e n s u r e e q u a l opportunity for postsecondary education. One product of this effort, "Academic Preparation for College: What S t u d e n t s Need to K n o w a n d B e ASie to D o , " reading, r e l e a s e d i n 1 9 8 3 , i d e n t i f i e s s i x " b a s i c academic. competencies1' - writing, speaking and listening, mathematics, reasoning, and studying. An "emerging" competency is knowledge about computers. The "basic academic subjects'' a r e E n g l i s h , t h e a r t s , m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , a n d foreign languages. F o r each s u b j e c t a n d c o m p e t e n c y , t h e r e p o r t d e f i n e s what a s t u d e n t n e e d s to k n o w i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c o l l e g e entrance. N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e Board C o m m i s s i o n on S c i e n c e , and T e c h n o l o g y Precollege Education in Mathematics, entitled On Sept. 1 3 , 1 9 8 3 , t h e C o m m i s s i o n l s s u e d i t s r e p o r t to t h e Board " E d u c a t i n g A m e r i c a n s f o r t h e 2 1 s t Century." The Commission concludes that tools t h e U.S. " i s f a i l i n g t o p r o v i d e i t s o w n c h i l d r e n with t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l needed for t h e 21st century." T o build a "national commitment" to CRS- 8 IB83106 UPDATE-07/17/85 educational excellence, the Commission recommends that the President form a National Educational Council. R e c o m m e n d e d efforts in a 5-year program to upgrade teaching include higher standards for new teachers and Federal support for State teacher training programs. It is also recommended that highly qualified math, science, and technology teachers receive competitive salaries. T h e r e p o r r calls f o r m o r e time in school on math and science, beginning a t the kindergarten level. It is recommended that a l l high school graduates should take 3 years each of math and science, and that colleges of math and should raise admissions standards to require 4 years each science. To increase instruction time on these subjects, the Commission recommends increasing the school d a y , week, or year. The Kational Science educat~onal Foundation i s called upon to take a lead r o l e in assessirig technology. T h e C o m ~ . i s s i o n r e c o m m e n d s c h a z zP.e P r e s l d e n c escaSlis" Col~ncil o n E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o s t s of i ~ s recomrnerdatlor~s a c d w h a t l e v e l s of g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d p r o v i d e f u n d i n g . T h e Coinmission es~imates t h a t i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F e d e r a l a c t i o n w i l l c o s t $1.51 billion in the f i r s t y e a r of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c h i s 12-year plan. A Study of Schooling T h e m u l t i - y e a r p r o j e c c c a l l e d A S t u d y o f S c h o o l i n g w a s d i r e c t e d by j o h n I. Goodlad. That project has resulted in many products, che most recent Seinq a book entitled A Place Called School: P r o s p e c t s f o r t h e Future. Among the book's findings a r e the following: although very high and very broad goals are often set for schools, what goes on in classrooms is often a t odds with t h o s e g o a l s ; s c h o o l s o n a v e r a g e g i v e p r i o r i t y t o r e a d i n g , writing,. ar.d b a s i c math s k i l l s ; v o c a t i o n a l education o c c u p i e s a l a r g e space in t h e junior high curriculum and a larger space in the senior high curriculum; uneven attention i s given to sciences and social studies in the curriculum and relatively little is given to foreign languages and arts; and resources (teachers and time) a r e inconsistently given to specific suSject areas across schools. The research apparently shows that schools concentrate on basic skills, failing to develop higher intellectual skills and interests. It w a s found that teachers rely almost exclusively on lecturing; students remain largely passive in the schooling process. Reports from the project have suggested t h a t c e r t a i n c h a n g e s a r e n e e d e d , s u c h as: improvements in the instructional modes now in use; better selection procedures f o r , and Setter preparation o f , principals; improved teacher education programs; a single track curriculum; and some restructuring of schools to create small within-school units with a group of teachers responsible for not more than 100 students for 4-year periods. National Coalition of Advocates for Students I n J a n u a r y 1 9 8 5 , t h e ?lational C o a l i t i o n of A d v o c a t e s fors'tucients issued a report entitled "Barriers to Excellence: Our Children a t Risk." In this report, the Coalition, whose member organizations are child advocacy groups, Concluded that "The creation of learning communities requires basic changes in the curriculum, teaching practices, organization, and structure of our schools. Yet, current proposals for reform assume that it i s doses of old-fashioned medicines involving only minor changes in the policies and structure of schools which will realize the goal of educational excellence." or The primary concern for the Coalition i s the child "at risk" and his her diversity with regard to class, race, ethnicity, culture, sex, and h a n d i c a p p i n g c o n d i t i o n . T h e C o a l i t i o n f o u n d t h a t much of elementary and CRS- 9 IB83106 UPDATE-07/17/85 secondary schooling for "at risk" children i s characterized by: subtle d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; b a r r i e r s to i m p r o v e m e n t (such a s i n f l e x i b l e s c h e d u l i n g and curriculum, tracking, rigid ability grouping, standardized testing misuses, c u r r i c u l u m a n d t e a c h i n g t h a t a r e i n s e n s i t i v e to t h e d i v e r s i t y of s t u d e n t s t a n d a l a c k of s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s for c h i l d r e n a n d youth); and declining economic s u p p o r t f o r s c h o o l s , s t u d e n t s , and t h e i r f a m i l i e s r e f l e c t e d i n or a c c o m p a n i e d by i n e q u i t a b l e a n d i n s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i n g for s c h o o l s , and an absence of m i d d l e i n c o m e jobs. T h e r e p o r t c a l l s f o r , a m o n g o t h e r things: greater responsibility accorded school officials and staff for educational outcomes; greater to local i n v o l v e m e n t of p a r e n t s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ; a n end to t r a c k i n g and f i x e d g r o u p i n g ; i n s e r v i c e training for t e a c h e r s to e n a b l e them to a d d r e s s che n e e d s of their s t u d e n t s ; and high e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e p e r f o r m a c c e of ail participants in the educational process (frcn; p a r e n t s to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) . A m o n g the F e d e r a l a c t i o n s a d v o c a t e d by t h e C o a l i t i o n a r e : s u p p o r t f o r and of Chapter 1 (Education C c n s o l i d a t i o n and Improvement Act) expansion s e r v i c e s ; protection of s t u d e n t s ' c i v i l r i g h t s ; p r o v i s i o n o f a d e q u a t e f u n d s ( d e s e g r e g a t i o n t r a i n i n g and advisory f o r T i t l e I V of the C i v i l R i g h t s Act s e r v i c e s to education); e x p a n s i o n of r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n Federal education programs; and support for comprehensive school-to-work transition programs servlng 211 school districts. S e l e c t e d Q u e s t i o n s P r o m p t e d by t h e R e p o r t s T h e f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t e d q u e s t i o n s a r i s e from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s " r e f o r m " r e p o r t s . E x a m p l e s a r e o f f e r e d of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d in a n s w e r i n g these questions. 1 . W h a t i s the c o n d i t i o n of s c h o o l i n g i n t h i s c o u n t r y ? inadequately T h e v a r l o u s r e p o r t s e m e r g i n g n o w f i n d our s c h o o l s to b e preparing s t u d e n t s f o r their futures. T h e i n d i c a t o r s of that poor p e r f o r m a n c e i n c l u d e d e c l i n i n g test s c o r e s ; the e x t e n t t o w h i c h institutions t h a t r e c e i v e o u r high school g r a d u a t e s (colleges and businesses) have to i m p l e m e n t r e m e d i a l e d u c a t i o n and training programs; the hlgh d e g r e e of functional illiteracy in the population; and the Nation's poor s h o w i n g in i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n s of s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . This is not an uncontested r e a d i n g of how w e l l our schools are functioning. S o m e w o u l d contend t h a t o u r s c h o o l s a r e s u c c e e d i n g in meeting A far larger c e r t a i n c h a l l e n g e s p o s e d by t h e p r e c e d i n g several decades. p o r t i o n o f o u r y o u t h , they a s s e r t , r e c e i v e a f u l l 1 2 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g than did in t h e not s o d i s t a n t past i n t h i s c o u n t r y , a n d t h a n d o a t p r e s e n t in s o m e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s . A c c e s s t o high 'schooi 'has. been . .expan'ded to many m i n o r i t y g r o u p s a n d to t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d . I n d e e d , s o m e of t h e s e o b s e r v e r s would a r g u e , t h e p r o b l e m s i d e n t i f i e d t o d a y a r e the r e s u l t of that very success in expanding access to secondary education. Still others a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s of our schools but believe minority and e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s , a m o n g o t h e r s , to b e t h e primary victims of these shortcomings. T h e q u e s t i o n of g a u g i n g h o w w e l l a s c h o o l system i s f u n c t i o n i n g may pose serious technical problems. The indicators cited above are not unambiguous i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y provide. To some, the statistics purporting to m e a s u r e p e r f o r m a n c e i n s c h o o l s a r e o f t e n suspect. T h e y would posit t h a t the d e c l l n e l n Scholastic A p t l t u d e T e s t ( S A T ) s c o r e s , f r e q u e n t l y clted as an l n d l c a t l o n o f educational f a l l u r e , r e f l e c t s t h e expansion o f h l g h s c h o o l a n d college education to embrace many of the s o c ~ o e c o n o m ~ c a l l yd r s a d v a n t a g e d chlldren ~n our councry. It 1 s not the same group of c h ~ l d r e n , they would argue, taking the test today a s a decade and a half ago. I n a d d l t ~ o n ,~ t 1s argued =hat the SAT scores and ochers reflect other socletal changes octslde of the schools. Slgnlflcantly, the SAT scores have stabrllzed and even rlsec l n r e c e n t y e a r s . A s a n i n d i c a t o r o f p r o g r e s s r a t h e r t h a n decline, s o m e c i t e r m p r o v e m e n t l n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of s o c ~ o e c o n o r e l c a l l y disadvantaged c h r l d r e ~~ n tne elementary schools over tQe past decade a s measured by t?.e N a t l o n a l Further, i t 1s poslted that uslng test A s s e s s m e n t o f Educational P r o g r e s s . s c o r e s t o c o m p a r e n a t l o n a l e d u c a t i o n s y s t e n s o f t e n r e s u l t s 1 ~ .~ n a p p r o ~ r i a t e l y the greater retentron of c o n p a r l n g d l s s l m r l a r s y s t e m s , particularly g l v e n s c h o o l - a g e d y o ~ t hr n s c h o o l s l n t h e U n l t e d S t a t e s . Average scores of s t ~ d e ~ . c s a m p l e s r e p o r t e d l y r e f l e c t n o w o p e c a s y s t e m I S , n o t h o w w e l l i~ e z u c a z e s i c s academlc e l ~ t e . In c o n t r a s t , o t h e r s a r g u e that t h e sheer w e i q h t of t h e n u m b e r of negative indicators clearly indicts the performance of our schools. With regard to specific measures, they assert, ambiguity may be in t3e eye of the beholder, reflecting a predetermined position. Although a portion of the decline in to c h a n g e s in S A T s c o r e s o v e r t h e p a s t d e c a d e a n d a PLalf c a r S e a t t r i S c t e C t h e characteristics o f t h e g r o u p c a k i n g t h e rests, SAT results reportecly show a n aSsolute decline in the number of high performers on the tests. of Further, it is argued that the improvements in the National Assessmenc Educational Progress scores are largely limited to the iowest grades, a g e groups, and achievement quartiles; decline continues to S e the watchword for secondary school students. Indeed, critics point to a decline in the higher order cognitive skills, even a s some basic skills improve. 'inally, they counter the position described a b o v e with regard LG international comparisons by p o i n t i n g t o t h e m e d i o c r e p o s i t i o n a t t a i n e d b y t h e LJnited S t a t e s e v e n w h e n scores are adjusted to reflect retention in school systems. W h a t a r e t h e c a u s e s of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s i n o u r s c h o o l s ? Most of the recent reports largely restrict their consideration of educational problems to the outcomes of our schools -low test scores, remedial courses increasingly offered in colleges, inadequately prepared labor f o r c e e n t r a n t s , etc. In turn, they largely' restrict their consideration of causes to what reportedly goes on within the school -teachers do not teach and have no incentive to do so, standards are l a x , the curriculum i s diluted with non-academic electives, homework is not assignee frequently e n o u g h , etc. To critics, such reports subordinate the role that forces i n =he general society play in influencing the way schools function. Educational changes, according to this perspective, must consider the significant changes that have occurred i n the American family, the educational impact of television (both actual and potential), and the changes in the nature and availability of work. Recommended educational changes that ignore these various forces, some Fcr argue, would be inadequate to their task o r , indeed, counterproductive. core curriculum have on example, what impact might a rigorous, mandated School retention rates in light of the heterogeneous school population a f f e c t e d by t h e s e v a r i o u s c h a n g e s ? For example, the National Commission on Secondary Schooling for Hispanics in its report "Make Something Happen" draws a t t e n t i o n to t h e " d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t " of high H i s p a n i c d r o p o u t r a t e s . In r e s p o n s e , i t m i g h t be a r g u e d that f o c u s i n g on the schools recognizes t h e c e n t r a l r o l e t h e y play i n molding t h e society in general. To direct r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r c h a n g e beyond t h e s c h o o l s might lessen the chances of i m p l e m e n t a t i c n f o r a n y p a r t i c u l a r p a c k a g e o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ; and a l s o m i g h t divert attention from the r e a l p r o b l e m s w i t h i n the schools that a r e s u s c e p t i b l e to c h a n g e . It might be a s s e r t e d t h a t the s c h o o i s a r e o n e of the s o c i a l institutior.s i n which c h a c g e n i g h t b e f r u i t f u l l y s o u g h t . I n d e e d , tP,e various reports do r e c o g n i z e t h e i n f l u e n c e of society on the schools, particularly as other institutions reportedly abdicate their traditionai r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and thrust them upon t h e schools. It m i g h t be a r g u e d :hat e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e w i t h i n the s c h o o i s i s a heaithy s t e p t o w a r d r e s t o r i n g the s e n s e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in t h o s e other s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d restricting t h e s c h o o l s to the r o l e s they were i n t e c d e d t o , and a r e a 9 l e t o , lay. 3. A r e t h e r e c o m m e n d e d c h a n g e s a p p r o p r i a t e ? the effectiveness of speclfic T h e r e a r e t w o f a c e t s to this q u e s t i o n - p r o p o s a l s a n d t h e k i n d s of c o m p r o m i s e s t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m i g h t r e q u i r e . D e b a t e o v e r s o m e of the s p e c i f i c r e c o m m e n d e d c h a n g e s i n t h e s e reports is a l r e a d y u n d e r w a y , a t t h e same t i m e that many States and localities have implemented or are considering i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of similar recommendations. T h e d e b a t e f o c u s e s o n whether t h e p r o p o s e d changes would a c c o m p l i s h their objectives. C o n s i d e r , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e p r o p o s a l o f merit pay for teachers, o f f e r e d a s o n e s o l u t i o n to t h e t e a c h i n g p r o b l e m s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e s e reports. On the o n e h a n d , i n f o r m a t i o n o n merit pay a s i t has been used in v a r i o u s f i e l d s s u g g e s t s to c r i t i c s t h a t it d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f u n c t i o n a s i n t e n d e d . T h e p r o c e s s r e p o r t e d l y can be s u b j e c t to b i a s e s and favoritism. Objective determination of which teacher competencies should be assessed and d e v e l o p m e n t of o b j e c t i v e ways to a s s e s s them wouid p o s e , a c c o r d i n g to this argument, serious technical and cost barriers to successful implementation. It has been a r g u e d t h a t unless t h e i n c r e a s e in pay f o r m e r i t o r i o u s teaching On the other hand, i s s u b s t a n t i a l , t h e i n c e n t i v e i n v o l v e d w i l l be minimal. a d v o c a t e s of merit pay c o n t e n d t h a t i t need not fall victim to p a s t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n problems. As r e s p o n s e s to past p r o b l e m s , s o m e h a v e suggested i n v o l v i n g t h o s e w h o w i l l be e v a l u a t e d i n t h e process of structuring the assessment system, and drawing evaluators from outside the school or district w h e r e t e a c h e r s u n d e r e v a l u a t i o n a r e c u r r e n t l y working. T h e o t h e r f a c e t to t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the "reform" p r o p o s a l s - - t h e c o m p r o m i s e s t h a t m i g h t b e r e q u i r e d - - i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e t e n s i o n s t h a t may exist i n o u r s c h o o l s b e t w e e n e x c e l l e n c e and e q u i t y , or a s i t i s s o m e t i m e s p h r a s e d , between educational quality and equality of educational opportunity. C o n s i d e r , for example, the important curriculum c h a n g e s being r e c o m m e n d e d by t h e E d u c a t i o n a l EQuality P r o j e c t of t h e C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n B o a r d , a n d by T h e P a i d e i a Group. T h e f i r s t of these focuses on the preparation of secondary school students for college, s p e c i f y i n g t h e b a s i c a c a d e m i c c o m p e t e n c i e s t h a t should be attained i n high s c h o o l a n d t h e c o u r s e s that would p r o v i d e these competencies. The second a d v o c a t e d in T h e P a i d e i a P r o p o s a l by Mortimer J. Adler identifies the a c q u i s i t i o n of basic factual knowledge, the development of intellectual skills, and the improvement of understanding about ideas and values as the appropriate objectives of our schools. The Paideia curriculum would be a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d ; it wouid not c o n t a i n a v o c a t i o n a l c o m p o n e n t . The adaptation of these curricular changes, it has been argued, might of the school curriculum, require a redirection of a substantial portion primarily away from general and vocational education programs. Critics arque that the academic role of schooling would be enhanced a t the expense of other Given the heterogeneity of our i m p o r t a n t r o l e s - - job training a m o n g them. school population, it i s asserted, such a r e d i r e c c i o ~ i c u r r i c ~ l u m denies educational equity t o many students; 'ignores c h e fact that a l l students do T h e y a s k , C a n a l l of the many not learn che same subjects i n the same way. needs of our diverse student popxlation S e s e r v e d throcgP. a r ~ g o r o u s a?,Z required academic curriculum? In response, advocates of these changes argue chat che denla; of educational e q u ~ t yo c c u r s w n e n e d u c a ~ o r sa s s u m e c h a t e x c e l l e n c e a n d rlgorous a c a d e m l c education a r e not a p p r o p r ~ a t ef o r a l l y o u z n . I n d e e d , ,hey posic, t h e m a s t e r r n g o f i n = e l l e c z ~ ~ a slk l l i s 2 s m e r e v a l ~ z r ; f~o r future work ths? training almed at a speclflc klnd of job. Others concend tnac pas^ educational e f f o r t s h a v e b e e n f o c u s e d o n t h e n o n - a c a d e m l c r e s p o n s z b l l i t l e s o f our schools and that ~t 2s now time to address the acadenlc needs cf o ~ r s t u d e n t s ln a m o r e c o h e r e n t fashlon. The settlng of hlgh standards and expectations, t h e y c o n t e n d , 1 s l ~ k e l yt o l m p r o v e t h e q u a l ~ c y of a l l s c h o o l ~ n g activltles, to the beneflt of all students. 4. W h a t h a s beer. h a p p e n i n g i n t h e S t a t e s i n r e s p o n s e t o r e c e n t r e p o r t s ? At the outset, it should be observed that t h e National Commission's report o f A p r i l 1 9 8 3 a n d t h e o t h e r r e p o r t s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e d i d not i n i t i a t e a s c h o o l reform movement. They may have broadened awareness of the educational problems that many States and localities had already recognized in the mid LO l a t e 1970s. T h e y m a y a l s o h a v e h e l p e d c h a n g e t h e f o c u s of some of those Ongoing efforts. Topics such a s merit pay for teachers, career ladders for teachers and the curricular requirements for high school graduation appear to S e j o i n i n g s o m e o f t h e e a r l i e r ref or^ f o c u s e s , s u c h a s b a s i c skills testing requirements for high school graduation and grade promotion. The extent of State and local activity predating the 1983 reports is clear in view of survey data from the National Center for Educationsl Statistics (NCES) showing t h a t , between 1 9 7 9 a n d 1 9 8 1 , 6 9 % of a l l local educational agencies took action to increase daily attendance and 53% increased the At the State level, other number of credits required i n core subject areas. in N C E S d a t a r e v e a l t h a t , b e t w e e n 1 9 7 7 a n d 1 9 8 2 , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 S t a t e s p u t p l a c e competency-based t e a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s ; by 1 9 8 2 , 1 7 S t a t e s had approved minimum competency testing requirements for high school graduation and 13 had approved statewide testing for remediation purposes. The effects of the reports a r e reflected in surveys of State-level reform efforts. Among these surveys i s that of the Department of Education (The Nation Responds) showing that 3 5 States recently changed their high school graduation requirements, 2 9 established academic enrichment programs, 29 2 8 modified their changed their student evaluation/testing procedures, and teacher preparation/ certification procedures. In addition to the D e p a r t m e n t ' s s u r v e y , E d u c a t ~ o nW e e k p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s f r o m a survey in its Conference of State Dec. 7 , 1983, and Feb. 6, 1985, issues; the National Legislatures released a survey of action to improve education in selected States i n November 1983; and the Education Commission of the States issued " A c t i o n in the S t a t e s " in J u l y 1984. C a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n w i t h a n y o f these surveys because a t times they are cryptic in their descriptions, fail to note whether the particular action occurred prior to release of the reform r e p o r t s , o m i t s o m e i n i t i a t i v e , or b e c o m e q u i c k l y o u t d a t e d . A m o n g the i s s u e s r a i s e d by S t a t e a n d l o c a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e following: -- the reports are will t h e i n t e r e s t and a c t i o n c o n t i n u e ? - - how will t h e s e reforms be f i n a n c e d ? - - will t h e e f f e c t s be uneven a c r o s s t h e S t a t e s ? -- how w i l l s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s or h a n d i c a p p e d ) be a f f e c t e d ? -- how c a n t h e results of t h e s e z c t i o r s be b e s t m e a s u r e d ? -- how d o t h e S t a t e e f f o r t s a f f e c t p o s s i b l e F e d e r a l r e s p o n s e s ? (such a s t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d 5. What a r e the p o s s i b l e F e d e r a l r e s p o n s e s to t h e p r o b l e m s h i g h l i g h t e d the recent r e ~ o r t s ? by As t h e preceding d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t s s h o w , t h e p r i m a r y areas of c o n c e r n a r e t e a c h i n g a n d the c u r r i c u l u m , a r e a s w h i c h h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t h e p r o v i n c e of S t a t e s a n d localities. I n d e e d , S t a t e s a r e a c t i n g to a d d r e s s t h e s e concerns. Any m a j o r F e d e r a l i n i t i a t i v e s i n t h e s e a r e a s m i g h t entail m a r k e d s h i f t s in t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s played by the different l e v e l s of g o v e r n m e n t in education. Neverthel'ess, F e d e r a l a c t i o n i n r e s p o n s e to t h e p r o b l e m s being i d e n t i f i e d by the r e p o r t s may be sought for a variety of reasons. Some observers assert that the inexpensive steps to i m p r o v e e d u c a t i o n h a v e a l r e a d y been t a k e n , a n d t h a t , d e s p i t e concern about Federal b u d g e t d e f i c i t s , F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e to m e e t the high p r i c e tag of remaining i m p r o v e m e n t s may be necessary. In a d d i t i o n , a c t i o n a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l may be s o u g h t b e c a u s e t h e 5 0 S t a t e s , t h e D i s t r i c t of C o l u m b i a , a n d 16,000 local s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e very unlikeiy to a c h i e v e c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s i n their q u e s t f o r e d u c a t i o n a l quality. Finally, the resources at the Federal level may b e needed f o r g a t h e r i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i n g t h e d a t a n e c e s s a r y to i n f o r m c h e o n - g o i n g reform p r o c e s s , f o r d e v e l o p i n g c e r t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , a n d for c o n t i n u i n g to d i r e c t w i d e s p r e a d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e problems. Despite t h e s e r e a s o n s f a v o r i n g F e d e r a l a c t i o n , t h e a c t i v i t y by S t a t e s a n d localities i n t h e past s e v e r a l y e a r s may l i m i t t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h F e d e r a l s t e p s need to be taken. In g e n e r a l , t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t six broad c a t e g o r i e s of possible Federal and r e s p o n s e s to t h e r e p o r t s - - f u n d i n g a n d m a n d a t e s , i n c e n t i v e s , r e s e a r c h m o d e l s , d i a l o g u e a n d c o n s e n s u s b u i l d i n g , c o n t i n u a t i o n of the c u r r e n t r o l e , a n d r e d u c t i o n i n t h e c u r r e n t role. A t o n e end of t h e spectrum of r e s p o n s e s would be a new major Federal i n v o l v e m e n t , either i n terms of t h e a m o u n t of funiling d e v o t e d to t h e p r o b l e m s o r t h e a m o u n t of F e d e r a l d i r e c t i o n i m p o s e d on s c h o o l systems, or both. k major i n v o l v e m e n t n e e d n o t r e q u i r e n e w F e d e r a l s p e n d i n g . For example, new existing Federal m a n d a t e s could be a d d e d a s a c o n d i t i o n of tke r e c e i p t o f e d u c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e , such a s t h e e d u c a t i o n block g r a n t . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s k i n d of r e s p o n s e f o r t h e F e d e r a l r o l e in e d u c a t i o n a r e i m p o r t a n t , g i v e n toward t h e t r a d i t i o n a l limit's o n that r o l e , and would reverse a trend increased State and local flexibility i n ~ h e c a s e of Federal aid, as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e 1 9 8 1 E d u c a t i o n C o n s o l i d a t i o n a n d I m p r o v e m e n t Act. A second kind of response might be o n a nodest s c a l e , involving incentives f o r a c t i o n , o r limited conditions (such a s n e e d s assessment o r planning) for t h e receipt of Federal funding that might, in t u r n , serve t o encourage more significant changes. T h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n 3 f t h e p r o b l e m s a n d t h e s e l e c t i o n of responses could remain a t the State and local levels. A zh1r.d k l n d of r e s p o n s e , d e c ~ d e d i ym o r e l l m ~ t e dt h a n t h o s e a b o v e , w o ~ l C focus on generating and d ~ s s e m l n a t i n g lnformatlon relevant to educational ~ m p r o v e m e n t . The Federal Government might support research on toplcs related to academlc excellence, or fund some models showing how c e r t a ~ n reform r e c o m m e n d a t l ~ n sc o u l d b e ~ m p l e m e n t e d . A n o t h e r k i n d of r e s p a n s e m i g h t be l i m i t e d s t i l l f c r t h e r t o t h a t o f d r a w i ~ q attention to the proalems in education and encouraging dsbate on possible solutions. One goal might be that of building a consensus about the a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s t o S e p u r s u e d a t e a c 5 l e v e l of g o v e r n m e n t . F e d e r a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s a n d responsibilities m i g h t r e m a i n d i r e c t e d , a s t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y a t p r e s e n t , to p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s w i t h special educationally and econonically d i s a d v a c ~ a g e d , the needs - - primarily the handicapped, ethnic minorities, and women. As educational changes are considered and made in States and localities, the Federal role could S e to ensure that those changes were equitable for a l l students. Finally, the President and others have attributed the educational problems i n p a r t to t h e c u r r e n t l e v e l o f F e d e r a l i n v o l v e m e n t . They poslt that the appropriate Federal response is to reduce that involvement. It should be noted that none of t h e reports reviewed i n this brief calls for a reduced Federal role in education. S i n c e t h e r e l e a s e o f A N a t i o n a t R i s k by t h e N a t i o n a l C o m m i s s i o n , F e d e r a l action in both the executive and legislative branches has consisted of education and to certain of the drawing attention to the problems in recommended changes, and initiating relatively small incentive programs. The Department of Education sponsored a series of regional conferences on the Commission's report that culminated in a "National Forum o n Excellence in Education" a t the beginning of December 1983. The Secretary of Education has awarded some of his discretionary funds to a number of projects for work related to the Commission's various recommendations. T h e Secretary has also sponsored efforts to identify outstanding secondary schools, in part to acknowledge their achievements and also to encourage other schools to follow their lead. charts comparing I n J a n u a r y 1984 a n d D e c e m b e r 19.84, t h e S e c r e t a r y i s s u e d the States on a number of educationally related factors ( c h a n g e i n collecje entrance test scores, graduation rates, teachers' salaries, current e x p e n d i t l ~ r e sf o r e d u c a t i o n p e r p u p i l , etc.). The Department also issued "Indicators of Education Status and Trends" in January 1985 intended to describe the "health" of American education. I t provides data on educational o u t c o m e s ( t e s t s c o r e s , g r a d u a t i o n r a t e s , a c t i v i t i e s of g r a d u a t e s during the f i r s t y e a r a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l , etc.), r e s o u r c e s (expenditures per pupil, a f i s c a l e f f o r t i n d e x by S t a t e , c l a s s s i z e s , v e r b a l SAT scores of teachers, etc.), a n d c o n t e x t ( p u b l i c o p i n i o n , a need index for s t u d e n t s by Stat@, S t a t e - r e q u i r e d C a r n e g i e u n i t s i n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s , etc.). T h e P r e s i d e n t h a s e n d o r s e d t h e c o n c e p t o f m e r i t pay for t e a c h e r s a s an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e t o s o m e of t h e n a t i o n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d h a s d r a w n a t t e n t i o n to t h e p o s s i b l e i m p a c t of student discipline problems on academic excellence. T h e 9 8 t h C o n g r e s s took a n u m b e r of a c t i o n s with regard to t h i s c u r r e n t reform effort. It a p p r o v e d l e g i s l a t i c n a u t h o r i z i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g : math and 98-377), s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n a i d (Education f o r E c o n o m i c S e c u r i t y A c t , P . L . a n E x c e l l e n c e i n E d u c a t i o n program (P.L. 98-377) providing f u n d s to l o c a l educational agencies for reform activities, higher education scholarships with a t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r o u t s t a n d i n g high school graduates (Carl 9. P e r k i n s S c h o l a r s h i p p r o g r a m , B u m a n Services Reauthorization Act, P.L. 9 8 - 5 5 8 ) , o n e - ~ i m ef i n a n c i a l a w a r d s tc e x c e p t i o n a l l y a S l e 2 i g h schocl graduates attending postsecondary education (Federal M e r i c ~chclas rh i p p r o g r a m , P . L . 9 8 - 5 5 8 ) , f e l l o w s h i p s to o u t s c a n d i n g c e a c h e r s ( N a t i o n a l T a l e n t e d T e a c h e r F e l l o w s h i p p r o g r a m , P . L . 9 8 - 5 5 8 ) , a p r o g r a m to e n h a n c e t h e l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s of e l e m e n t a r y and secondary school administrators (Leadership in of 1984, a s authorized E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t Act in P.L. on education (National Summit 9 8 - 5 5 8 ) , a n d t h e c o n v e n i n g of a C o n f e r e n c e C o n f e r e n c e on E d u c a t i o n Act of 1 9 8 4 , a s a u t h o r i z e d in P.L. 98-524). Before i t s a d j o u r n m e n t , t h e 9 8 t h C o n g r e s s had o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e d f u n d s f o r math and s c i e n c e a i d ($100 m i l l i o n ) and f u n d s f o r a n E x c e l l e n c e i n E d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m (55million). (It s h o u l d be noted that the FY86 budget proposes the r e s c i n d i n g of t n e s e f u n d s b e c a u s e , ' a c c o r d i n g t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , they d u p l i c a t e o t h e r o n g o i n g F e d e r a l e d u c a t i o n programs.) S e v e r a l s e t s of h e a r i n g s by House and Senate committees and subcommittees on t h e q u e s t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l e x c e l l e n c e a l s o h a v e been held. In a d d i t i o n , t h e H o u s e E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r C o m m i t t e e ' s Merit P a y T a s k F o r c e r e l e a s e 2 a report recommending e x p e r i m e n t s i n merit pay p r o g r a m s f o r t e a c h e r s a l o n g w i t h increases in all teachers' base salaries. LEGISLATION to The bills listed below a r e among those introduced i n the 99th Congress establish or continue programs addressing elementary and secondary school reform. H.R. 6 5 0 (Hawkins) A m e r i c a n D e f e n s e E d u c a t i o n Act. Authorizes funding for local educational a g e n c i e s to u n d e r t a k e a n a s s e s s m e n t of i n s t r u c t i o n a n d student achievement, and to c a r r y o u t p l a n s to i m p r o v e i n s t r u c t i o n a n d achievement in math, science, communication skills, foreign languages, technology, .and, where necessary, guidance and counseling. Local agencies would be eligible for pupil F e d e r a l p a y m e n t s based o n a f o r m u l a using t h e S t a t e w i d e a v e r a g e per expenditure. Authorizes grants to i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education for a c t i v i t i e s to i m p r o v e s c i e n c e a n d math education. Among the approved a c t i v i t i e s would b e s u m m e r i n s t i t u t e s a n d w o r k s h o p s i n math a n d science for teachers and s u p e r v i s o r s from local educational agencies, projects to i n c r e a s e t h e c a p a c i t y to a d d r e s s t h e p r o f e s s i o n 2 1 n e e d s of n e w a n d p r a c t i c i n g teachers, and assistance for exemplary projects to a t t r a c t , r e t a i n , a n d m o t i v a t e t e a c h e r s to p u r s u e c a r e e r s i n p r e c o l l e g e math a n d s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . A u t h o r i z e s s u r v e y s a n d 'a joint r e p o r t by the S e c r e t a r i e s o f D e f e n s e and Education concerning educational needs to meet military manpower requirements. Introduced Jan. 2 4 , 1985; referred to Committee on Education a n d Labor. H.R. 7 4 7 ( H a w k i n s ) Effective Schools Development in Education A C E of 1985. Amends the E l e m e n t a r y a n d S e c o n d a r y Education Act by i n s e r t i n g a n e w title authorizing funding for State and local educational agencies to support effective schools have an effective programs. A p p l i c a n t s f o r t h e s e 1- t o 3 - y e a r g r a n t s m u s c schools improvement program in operation, and must meet at least half the cost of any activity conducted with Federal funds. In selecting applicants f o r f u n d i n g , t h e Secretary o f E d u c a t i o n i s t o c o n s i d e r t h e extent to which funds would be used t o improve schools in districts with the greatest numbers or highest percentage of educationally 5eprived children. An effective schools program is defined a s a program to promote school-level planning, instructional iaprovenent a n 2 staff development; and to increase acadenic educationally depr;ved c k i i d r e n tproug!l e a r l y children achievement of education programs and the use of factors distinguishing effective from ineffective schools. These factors are defined as strong and effective leadership; emphasis o n basic and higher order skills; safe and orderly environment; belief that virtually all children can learn; and continuous a s s e s s m e n t Of s t u d e n t s a n d p r o g r a m s . A u t h o r i z e s $i@O million f o r F Y 8 6 , $ 1 1 0 million for FY87, $120 million for FY88, and such sums 2 s may be necessary for F Y 8 9 and FY90. Introduced Jan. 28, 1985; referred to Committee, c n Education and Labor. [Similar Sill: S. 1 2 3 7 ( s e e b e l o w ) . ] H.R. 9 0 1 ( W i l l i a m s e t al.) Secondary School Basic S k i l l s Act. Authorizes grants to local educational agencies with especially high concentrations of low-income youth for more effective instruction in basic skills for economically disadvantaged s e c o n d a r y scP.009 s t u d e n t s . Secondary s c h o o l s a r e eligible f o r f u n d i n g if 20% Or more of their students are considered low-income under provisions of T i t l e I (compensatory education for disadvantaged students) of t h e Elementary and S e c o n d a r y Education A c t , or a r e eligible for a f r e e lunch u n d e r t h e N a t i o n a l School Lunch Act. I f , after two years of funding, the recipient does not. demonstrate improved academic performance Sy the tarqeted secondary school students or meaningfully decrease its drop out rate, no additional funds can be granted. A one-year waiver is possible. Authorizes $900 million annually for FY86 through FY91. Introduced Jan. 31, 1985; referred to Committee on Education and Labor. H.R. 9 3 7 ( W y d e n ) Teacher Warranty Act of 1985. Amends the Higher Education Act to provide that institutions participating in the Title IV student assistance programs a u t h o r i z e d by t h e H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n A c t m u s t r e t r a i n a n y g r a d u a t e of their education schools who receives a n unsatisfactory evaluation in his or her first or second year of teaching. T h e g r a d u a t e w i l l S e r e q c i r e d to pay only IV t h e a m o u n t by w h i c h s u c h r e t r a i n i n g c o s t s e x c e e d the amount of Title assistance the graduate received while in attendance at the i n s t i t. u. t i o n . I n t r o d u c e d Feb: 4 , 1 9 8 5 ; ref-erred t o C s m m i t t e e o r - E d u c a t i o ~ f -and i La~or. H.R. 1 3 5 2 (Will.iam F o r d ) Professional Development Resource Center Act of 1985. Authorizes grants the t o local educational agencies or consortia of such agencies t o assist in planning, establishing, and operating of professional development resource Centers for teachers. Such centers are to improve teaching skills through activities such a s developing and disseminating curricula, training teachers, and disseminating information. T h e S e c r e t a r y o f E d u c a t i o n c a n g r a n t 10% o f the funding to institutions of higher education to operate such centers. The Secretary is to ensure that a t least one center in each State will be funded each year. Such sums as may be necessary are authorized for FY86 and the succeeding four years. E d u c a t i o n a n d Labor. I n t r o d u c e d Feb. 2 8 , 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d to Committee on H.R. 2 3 6 4 (Rahall) A m e n d s t h e E l e m e n t a r y a n d S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n Act of 1 9 6 5 by i n s e r t i n g i n T i t l e I X a n e w P a r t A entitled G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n ' s E d u c a t i o n Act. A l t h o u g h s i m i l a r to S. 452 (see be'low), t h e bill d o e s d i f f e r in some important respects. For example, its annual authorization level i s lower, $ 4 0 m i l l i o n f o r each y e a r i n t h e F Y 8 5 - ~ Y 9 0p e r i o d . I n t r o d u c e d May 6 , 1985; r e f e r r e d to C o m m i t t e e o n E d u c a t i o n a n d Labor. H.R. 2 5 3 5 ( G o o d l i n g ) education E v e n S t a r c Act. Authorizes s u p p o r ~ f o r model a d u l t b a s i c t o p r e p a re their p r o g r a m s t h a c i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s e n h a n c i n g p a r e n t s ' a b i ll'L+y s u p p o r t i v e home aE educationally children for s c h o o l and to p r o v i d e environment. To fund these programs, the Secretary of Education i s to r e s e r v e a n n u a l l y $ 1 m i l l i o n from t h e Adult E d u c a t i o n Act a n d $ 2 m i l l i o n from Chapter 1 (compensatory education for disadvantaged children) of the E d u c a t i o n C o n s o l i d a t i o n and I m p r o v e m e n t A c t of 1981 for t h e period FY87 G r a n t e e s must p r o v i d e 25% of program c o s t s i n t h e third year through FY91. of a n y p r o g r a m , 5 0 % i n the f o u r t h y e a r a n d c o n t i n u e to o p e r a t e a n y effective the Committee on program thereafter. I n t r o d u c e d M z y 1 6 , 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d to E d u c a t i o n a n d Labor. H.R. 2 5 5 7 (Dymally) Adds a n e w t i t l e t o t h e H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n A c t to f o s t e r s c h o o l year a n d summertime partnership Setween higher education institutions and secondary s c h o o l s s e r v i n g l o w - i n c o m e s t u d e n t s . Among the kinds of activities such p a r t n e r s h i p s c a n u n d e r t a k e a r e p r o g r a m s i n w h i c h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t u t o r high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n b a s i c s k i l l s ; p r o g r a m s to i m p r o v e s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r understanding by high school students; and programs to enhance the o p p o r t u n i t y of high school students to continue their education after g r a d u a t i o n o r to s e c u r e P O S E - g r a d u a t i o n e m p l o y ~ . e n t . T h e b i l l a u t h o r i z e s $40 m i l l i o n f o r F Y 8 6 a n d s u c h s u m s a s may be n e c e s s a r y for FY87 through FY90. F e d e r a l f u n d s c a n m e e t only a p o r t i o n of a n y program costs (70% in f i r s t y e a r , 6 0 % i n s e c o n d , 5 0 % i n t h e t h i r d a n d s u a s e q u e n t years). I n t r o d u c e d May 2 1 , 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d to C o m m i t t e e o n E d u c a t i o n a n d Labor. [ S i m i l a r bill: S. 1 2 3 7 ( s e e below). ] H.R. 2 8 4 0 (Hawkins) s c h o o l E x c e l l e n c e a n d Reform Act. Authorizes general improvement and excellence payments and reform a n d e q u i t y payments to State and local General educational agencies under specified allocation - formulas. i m p r o v e m e n t a n d e x c e l l e n c e p a y m e n t s a r e t o b e used for a t t a i n i n g educational excellence and for improving math, science, communication, foreign language and t e c h n o l o g y i n s t r u c t i o n . R e f o r m and . e. q u i t y payments a r e to b e used for e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n , day c a r e , i n - s e r v i c e teacher training, dropout prevention, effective schools and i m p r o v e m e n t of secondary school basic skills instruction. Authorized f u n d i n g l e v e l f o r F Y 8 7 i s $ 2 b i l l i o n to be d i v i d e d e v e n l y b e t w e e n the t w o k i n d s o f payments. Such s u m s a s may be necessary are authorized for the following four fiscal years. Introduced J u n e 2 1 , 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d to C o m m i t t e e o n E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r . S. 1 7 7 (Hart et al.) A m e r i c a n D e f e n s e E d u c a t i o n Act. S i m i l a r to H.R. 650. 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d to C o m m i t t e e o n L a b o r a n d H u m a n R e s o u r c e s . S. 2 0 4 ( Z u m p e r s et al.) Introduced Jan. 3 , Humanities Excellence and Teacher Training Act of 1985. Authorizes grants to institutions of higher education for summer institutes to enhance the subject matter skills of private and public elementary and secondary school humanities teachers. The humanities are defined as modern an6 classical languages, literature, history, and p h i l o s ~ p h y . Language arts and s o c i a l s t u d i e s a r e i n c l u d e d f o r ~ i e m e n c a r ys c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n . An approved applicant is to receive an amount equal to not more than $3,000, muitiplied by t h e n u m b e r o f t e a c h e r s ( u p t o 2 0 0 ) e n r o l l e d a t s u c h institute. Stipends a r e t o S e p a i d by e a c h i n s t i t u t e t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h - e r s . T h e r e i s ts S e a t least one institute in each State. Introduced Jan. 21, 1985; referred to Committee on Labor and Human Resources. S. 4 5 2 ( B r a d l e y e t al.) A m e n d s t h e E l e m e n t a r y a n d S e c o r ~ a a r y Education A c t o f 1965 by ~ n s e r t l n g 1 3 T l t l e I X a P a r t A entitled ;ace3 u. Jav;ts C ~ f t e d a n d Talented C 3 1 1 d r e n f s Educakron Act. T h l s p a r t authorizes f u n d l n g t o S t a t e educational agencies f o r planning, developing, operating, a n d r m p r o v l n g e d u c a t r o n a l programs for glfted and talented c h ~ l d r e n . A portlon of the annual appropriatlsn 1 s to S e used S y the Secretary for dlscretlonary programs. For most projects, the F e d e r a l s h a r e o f c o s t s IS t o be 90%. T h e a n n u a l a u t h o r r z e d appropriation f o r t h e p e r l o d F Y 8 6 - F Y 9 0 1 s $50 m l l l l o n . Introduced Feb. 7 , 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d to 1 S l ~ , l l a r sill: E.R. 2354 (see Comrnlttee o n L a S o r a n d H u m a ~ . R e s o u r c e s . above) . I S. 5 0 8 ( B r a d l e y e t al.) Secondary School Basic S k i l l s Act. Similar to H.R. 901. Primary differences a r e the authorized funding level ($100 million a year for FY66 secondary and FY87, $800 million a year f o r FP88-FY92); the determination of school eligibility (at least 1 0 poverty-level 'children aged 1 4 to i 7 as defined under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act); and kinds of grants authorized (planning, demonstration, and formula grants). I n t r o d u c e d F e b . 2 6 , 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d t o C o m m i ~ t e eo n L a b o r a n d H u m a n R e s o u r c e s . S . 553 (Domenici) Z d u c a t i o n f o r E c o n o m i c S e c u r i t y R e a u t h o r i z a t i o n Act. Extends the funding authority for the Education for Economic Security Act ( e n a c t e d by 98th elemencary and Congress to improve math and science education at the secondary school level) through FY88. Introduced Feb. 2 8 , 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d to Committee on Labor and Human Resources. S. 1 0 2 2 ( L e v i n e t al.) Intergenerational Education Volunteer Network Act of 1985. Authorizes assistance to programs using senior citizens a s volunteers in schools to i m p r o v e s t u d e n t s ' b a s i c s k i l l s , t o i m p r o v e c ~ m m u ~ i c a t i o bne t w e e n s c h o o l s an^ families with educationally disadvantaged children, and to increase those families' participation in their children's education. The bill authorizes $6 m i l l i o n f o r F Y 8 6 . The annual authorization rises in stages until it reaches $10 million i n FY90. Introduced Apr. 2 6 , 1985; referred to Committee on Labor and Human Resources. S. 1 2 3 7 ( D o d d ) C h i l d r e n ' s S u r v i v a l Act. A u t h o r i z e s p r o g r a m s f o r c h i l d r e n , adolescents, and families in areas such a s child care, health, education, nutrition, I V of the Rct expands the family support, and youth employment. Title authorized funding levels for a number of programs including Chapter 1. (conpensatory education for disadvantaged children) of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 and for the Bilingual Education Act. T i t l e 1.V a l s o a u t h o r i z e s a series of new programs including early childhood i n c e n t i v e g r a n t s ; t h e Dropout Prevention and Recovery Act of 1985 ( e s t a b l i s h e s a nationwide system to report dropout information to State e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s and t h e S e c r e t a r y of E d u c a t i o n ) ; the Effective School a D e v e l o p m e n t i n E d u c a t i o n Acrr, o f 1 9 8 4 ( s l m i l a r t o H . R . 7 4 7 , s e e a b o v e ) ; a n d program t o s u p p o r t u n i v e r s i t y - h i g h s c h o o l p a r t n e r s h i p s ( s i m i l a r t o H.R. 2557, see above). I n t r o d u c e d J u n e 4 , 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d t o Cammitree on F i n a n c e . CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS ADDITIONAL REFE2ENCE S O U R C Z S American School S o a r d J o u r n a l . another try. May 1 9 8 3 . X e r i t pay f o r t e a c h e r s : worth Cohen, David K . and Barbara Neufeld. The f a i l u r e of h i g h schools and t h e progress of education. D a e d a l u s , summer 1981. A c a d e m i c p r e p a r a ~ i o nf o r C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e Examination B o a r d . college: w h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d t o know a n d b e a b l e t o d o . 1983. Conant, James Bryant. The A m e r i c a n h i g h school today. 1959. American e d u c a t i o n i n t h e 1980s: an Cremin, Lawrence A . argument f o r a comprehensive approach. Kettering review, w i n t e r 1983. E d u c a t i o n Commission of t h e S t a t e s . r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e 50 S t a t e s . High s c h o o l (no d a t e . ) The P a i d e i a p r o p o s a l : Hawley, W i i l i s D. f a l s e leads, and symbolic p o l i t i c s . Nov. 2 4 , 1 9 8 2 . graduation course noble ambitions, Education week, H o d g k i n s o n , H a r o l d L. What's s t i l l r i g h t with education. D e l t a Kappan, Dec. 1 9 8 2 . Phi Reading, science and mathematics trends: Hoimes, B a r b a r a 2 . a closer look. Nacional Assessment of E d u c a t i o n a l Progress. E d u c a t i o n Commission of t h e S t a t e s , Dec. 1982. Husen, T o r s t e n . Are s t a n d a r d s i n U.S. behind those i n other countries? Mar. 1 9 8 3 . schools really lagging P h i D e l t a Kappan, J a m e s , Thomas a n d D a v i d T y a c k . Learning from p a s t e f f o r t s t o reform t h e high schooi. P h i D e l t a Kappan, Feb. 1983. Lerner, Barbara. American e d u c a t i o n : Public i n t e r e s t , f a l l 1982. how a r e we d o i n g . Grading teachers. The M a c N e i l - L e h r e r R e p o r t . Mar. 3 0 , 1 9 8 2 . no. 1637. Transcript The N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e of S t a t e L e g i s l a t u r e s . S u r v e y of 1 9 8 3 S t a t e efforts to i m p r o v e education. November 1983. N a t i o n a l journal. C l o u d y e c o n o m i c s , e x p l o s i v e politics. July 9 , 1 9 8 3 . P a s s o w , A. Harry. Once again: reforming secondary education. T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e r e c o r d , Dec. 1 9 7 5 . S t a t e s ' r e f o r m e f f o r t s ~ n c r e a s ea s f o c u s o f i s s u e s shifts. W e e k , D e c . 7 , 1983. A study of schooling. Ed~cation E d u c a t ~ o n a l l e a d e r s h ~ p ,A p r ~ i1983. S y k e s , Gary. I n c e n t i v e s , n o t t e s t s , a r e n e e d e 5 to r e s t r u c t u r e the t e a c h i n g profession. E d u c a t i o n w e e k , May 4 , 1 9 8 3 . U.S. Dept. o f Education. Meeting t h e challenge: recent efforts to i m p r o v e e d u c a t i o n a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n . Nov. 1 5 , 1983. ----- N a t i o n a l C e ~ t e rf o r EducatLon S:atistics. education. 1983 edition. T h e c o n e i t i o n of