REFUGEE ACT REAUTHORIZATION:
ADMISSIONS AND RESETTLEMENT ISSUES
ISSUE BRIEF NUMBER IB83060
Joyce C. Vialet
Education and Public Welfare Division
THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE
MAJOR ISSUES SYSTEM
DATE ORIGINATED 03/11/83
DATE UPDATED 11/22/83
FSR A3DzTI3NAL INFORMATZON CALL 287-5700
T h e authorization for Federal refugee resettlement assistance provided
the Refugee Act of 1 9 8 0 expires Sept.
3 0 , 1983.
T h e 9 7 t h Congress had
extended this assistance authority for o n e y e a r only pending a more
r e v i e w of the e n t i r e Refugee Act including i t s admissions provisions.
Admissions issues t h a t have been o f interest to Congress i n c l u d e the r o l e of
Congress and t h e executive branch i n establishing a n n u a l numerical l i m i t s o n
refugee a d m i s s i o n s , a n d the interpretation o f the definition of refugee.
new block grant refugee assistance program
i n hearings on
resettlement assistance; other continuing concerns a r e refugee dependency o n
cash assistance and t h e geographic distriSution of refugees in the United
3 7 2 9 , t h e "Refugee Assistance Extension Act of
authorizing the extension of refugee resettlement assistance through F Y 8 5 ,
was reported with amendments by the House Judiciary Committee on Oct. 5 , 1 9 8 3
(H.Rept. 98-404), a n d passed the House by a roll call vote of 300 to 99 on
Nov. 1 4 , 1983.
T h e refugee resettlement assistance program i s currently
operating under rhe authority of P.L. 9 6 - 1 5 1 ,
the F Y 8 4 further continuing
BACKGROUND AND POLICY ANALYSIS
T h e Refugee Act o f 1980 (P.L. 96-212; 94 Stat. 102) w a s enacted Mar.
immigration l a w , the
1 9 8 0 , a s a major amendment to t h e basic U.S.
Immigration and Nationality A c t , a s amended (8 U.S.C. 1 1 0 1 , e t seq.).
iiefugee Act has t w o basic purposes: (1) to provide a procedure for the a n n u a l
admission of refugees into t h e Unitec? S t a t e s , and for their admission
emergency situations; and (2) to authorize Federal a s s i s t a n c e to r e s e t t l e
refugees admitted to the UniteC States and to promote their self-sufficiency.
The i n t e n t of the legislation was to end a n ad hoc approach to r e f u g e e
admissions and resettlement that had characterized U.S. refugee policy
World War ;I.
Under the Refugee Act's definition, a r e f u g e e i s a person who i s o u t s i d e
his n a t i v e country or country of habitual residence and w h o f e a r s return to
the country because of persection or a well-founded f e a r of persecution on
account of r a c e , r e l i g i o n , nationality, membership in a partizuiar
group or political opinion.
In certain circumstances designated by
?resident after consultation with C o n g r e s s , persons within their native
countries may qualify a s refugees if persecuted.
status i s not
available to persons who have been involved in the persecution of others.
T h e Refugee Act establishes a procedure under which a n annual numerical
and its allocation among r e f u g e e
lirit on refugee admissions to t h e U.S.
groups a r e established S y the President after consultation with Congress.
The Act a i s o authorizes the President to designate a n additional number of
refugee entries in emergency situations a f t e r consultation with Congress.
The consultation process i s f o r m a l , and i t s specific procedures a r e s e t forth
in the refugee statute.
Primarily due to the refugee crisis i n Indochina and U.S.
i n t e r e s t s in
that region, this country has admitted l a r g e numbers of refugees s i n c e the
Table 1 indicates admissions l e v e l s for
enactment of t h e Refugee A C E .
FY80-FY84 t h a t were established pcrsuant to the A c t .
Ceilings on Refugee Admissions to the United States
under Provisions of the Refugee Act of 1980
1 ,5 0 0
Presidential Determination No. 80-17, May 1 , 1980.
Presidential Determination No. 80-28, Sept. 3 0 , 1980.
Presidential Determination No. 82-1, Oct. 1 0 , 1981.
Allocations for Asia, Eastern Europe, and Near East
and Africa reflect changes approved by the Judiciary
Committees in mid-1982.
Presidential Determination No. 83-2, Oct. 1 1 , 1982.
Presidential Determination No. 83-11, Oct. 7 , 1983.
Includes Eastern Europe.
T h e reductions i n refugee admissions since 1980 prrmarily
reductions in Indochinese refugee admissions a s influenced by
factors. The situation in Indochina has become somewhat l e s s critical; t h e
f l o w of refugees o u t of Vietnam, Laos and Kampuchea (Cambodia) has l o w e r e d ,
in part due to a deterrence policy adopted by ThailanC; and third country
resettlement h a s resulted i n reduced refugee camp populations.
T h e domestic
impact of t h e large-scale
Indochinese admissions program was a l s o a n
important i n f l u e n c e on reductions in annual admissions.
Other notable changes in admissions levels have been reductions for Latin
America and t h e S o v i e t Union.
I n the case of Latin America, reduced l e v e l s
resulted from t h e virtual termination of a Cuban refugee program
1 9 8 0 boatlift from Cuba (see below); in the case of the Soviet Union, t h e
reductions r e f l e c t t h e increasingly restrictive emigration policies of
T h e F Y 8 4 r e f u g e e level proposed by the Administration
and agreed to
rhrough the Congressional consultation process i s 72,000.
This number i s
divided a s follows:
Africa, 3 , 0 0 0 ; East A s i a , 50,000; Eastern Europe and t h e
Soviet Union, 1 2 , 0 0 0 ; Latin America and the CariSbean, 1 , 0 0 0 ; and t h e Near
East and South ~ s i a ,6 , 3 0 C .
U.S. refugee admissions levels a r e ceilings, and actual arrivals of
refugees to t h e U.S. from various parts of the world
have been s o m e w h a t
In F Y 8 0 a r r i v a l s totalled a b o u t 207,000; in F Y 8 1 , arrivals were a b o u t
1 5 9 , 0 0 0 , including 1 3 1 , 0 0 0 Indochinese; and in F Y 8 2 arrivals were a b o u t
9 7 , 0 0 0 , 7 4 , 0 0 0 of which were Indochinese.
t o the recent S t a t e
Department t e s t i m o n y , FY83 a r r i v a l s a r e expected to number between 6 0 , 0 0 0 a n d
In g e n e r a l , it i s the policy of the Reagan Administration to manage
the refugee a d m i s s i o n s program at a s low a level a s possible to contain c o s t s
a n 2 other domestic consequences of high admissions.
In addition L O r e f u g e e s , the United States also accepted 1 5 3 , 0 0 0 CuSan anC
~ a i,,+
an; entrants for admission into this country in the aftermath cf t h e 1 9 8 0
Soatlift from Mariel harSor
i n Cuba.
Pending)" i s a n administrative designatian, not a legal z e r m , and a p p l i e s to
those Cubans and Haitians who arrived a t U.S. shores seeking asylum, or who
were in exclusion o r deportation hearings, between Apr. 2 0 and Oct. 1 0 , 1980.
These aliens a r e not_refugees and a r e currently residing in the United S t a t e s
on a temporary basis under the Attorney G e n e r a l ' s parole authority pending
the resolutio? of their immigration status.
Refugee and Z n t r a n t Assistance
A comprehensive Federal
for refugees entering the
Unlted States w a s , for che first t z m e , a u t h o r ~ z e d Sy tltle iIi of :he Refugee
Act which e s t a b l ~ s h e d a new t ~ t l eI V of = h e I m m ~ g r a t l o na C C Nazlonaiity
(8 U.S.C. i 5 2 1 , et seq.).
- 3 1 s aut9orlty expireC Sept.
1 9 8 2 , and was
3 C , 1983 by the Refugee A s s ~ s t a n c e
reneweC by the 97th Congress zhrough Sep:.
F.R. 3 7 2 9 , l e q ; s l a t r ~ n Fassed Sy = h e E o u s e , would
ArnerBments (P.L. 9 1 - 3 5 ? ) .
extend ;t through Sept. 3 0 , 1985.
Srr.ce resetclement a s s ~ s t a n c e was not authorized for
entrants under the terms of the Refugee A c t , Congress enacted new l e g ~ s l a t l o n
rn late ;380
~ ~ D ~ ~ ~ - 1 1 / 2 2 / 8
referred to a s t h e Fasceli-Stone a m e n d m e n t , i s title V
of t h e Refugee
Education Assistance Act (P.L. 96-422; 94 Stat.
Fascell-Stone d o e s
n o t contain a n y authorization of appropriations, a n d presumably
assistance program could Continue indefinitely. However, since Fascell-Stone
references Refugee Act programs, t h e continuation of
programs i s implicitly contingent upon the
F Y 8 4 f u n d s for both Fascell-Stone and the r e f u g e e resettlement
assistance program a r e appropriated a t t h e FY83 rate by P . L . 98-151, t h e F Y 8 4
f u r t h e r continuing appropriations resolution.
i n budget authority w a s a v a i l a b l e for
During F Y 8 3 over $600 million
domestic refugee and entrant assistance
(includes reception and placement
grants administered by the State Department
T h e bulk of the assistance budget
(62%) i s devoted to cash and
medical assistance for needy refugees and entrants during the f i r s t 3 years
they a r e in the United States. A continuing high rate of welfare dependency
by recent a r r i v a l s has been, consequently, a contributing factor t o the
program costs, and i s an a r e a of particular concern.
Several different types of Federal refugee resettlement a s s i s t a n c e a r e
available under the authority of the Refugee Act and Fascell-Stone.
the programs a r e administered by the Office of Refugee Resettlement
which was established Sy the Refugee Act and 1 s part of t h e Social Security
Administration a t the Department of Health and Human S e r v i c e s (HHS).
T h e justification for Federal a s s i s t a n c e i s that most refugees a r e
temporarily dependent a n d , regardless of country o f o r i g i n , should be
provided some transitional help to become self-sufficient.
Also, the Refugee
Act recognizes a responsibility of the Federal Government to relieve S t a t e
and local governments of the financial burdens that they incur from refugee
a r r i v a l s which result from Federal policy decisions.
R e f u g e e Act a u t h o r i t y
is purposefully broad to a l l o w for a variety of assistance activities t o meet
T h e following summarizes assistance currently
provlded refugees and entrants.
T h e Department of State's Bureau of R e f u g e e ?rograms
enters i n t o grant
agreements with a number of private voluntary a g e n c i e s to o b t a i a U.S.
sponsors for refugees resettling in the United States.
Under t h e a g r e e m e n t s ,
t h e agencies a l s o must assure that they will provide certain essential c o r e
services for the refugees upon their entry
into this country, including
housing and food for at least a month following their arrival. T h e reception
a n d placement grants a r e made on a per capita basis according to t h e number
of refugees resettled by the agency.
T h e average per
capita g r a n t for
Indochinese refugees is $525; the average grant for Soviets a n d Eastern
Europeans i s $395.
Cash and Medical Assistance
T h e Offlce of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) r e l ~ b u r s e sS t a t e s for up to 100%
of t h e costs of provldrng refugees with cash and medlcal assrscance durlcg
t h e ~ rflrst 36 months zn the Unzted
S t a t e s , a s well as for related
thelr S t a t e Azd
admlnlstracive cos=s. Refugees who otherwise q ~ a i ~ ffor
Families with Dependent C h ~ l d r e n (AFDC) p r o g r a m , = h e Supplemental
;ncome for the Aged, 311nd and D ~ s a b ; e d
13Si) program, or Medical6 may
the Federal refugee program
r e c e ~ v ebenefits under these programs w - t h
reambursing States 10C% for any non-Federal c o s t s , ~ n c l u d ~ n ga n y SSI
supplemental payments, for up to 3 0 months.
Refugees who a r e not eligible for AFDC or SSI because of those programs'
categorical requirements, but who a r e needy by
State AFDC standards may
receive special "refugee cash a s s i s t a n c e w with benefits a t the State's AFDC
levels. Similarly, needy refugees ineligible for Medicaid
" r e f u g e e medical a s s i s c a n c e w with benefits similar to those provided
Medicaid program, or to those otherwise available to needy citizens in the
State. This assistance i s also totally reimaursed by the Federal Government.
Under a regulation effective Apr. 1 , 1 9 8 2 , these special refugee c a s h a n d
medical assistance benefits, which had been available for a full 36 months,
became availaSle for 1 8 months only. After chose 1 8 months, if the r e f u g e e
qualifies for a State or locally financed general assistance p r o g r a m , he or
she could receive benefits under that program for a n additional 1 8 months
that would be 100% federally reimbursed.
T h e new rule eliminated the
applicability of a $ 3 0 plus one-third income disregard in effect f o r t h e AFDC
program t h a t also had applied for purposes of determicing need to establish
eligibility for refugee cash and medical assistance.
Refugee Social Services
ORR provldes f u n d s = o States for refugee
soclal servlces of
auzhorlzed by Tltle XX of the Soclal Securlty A c c , but w ~ t h particular
emphasls o n EngllsE language and v o c a t ~ o n a l t r a r n ~ n g ,employment counseling,
and case management.
T h e s o c ~ a lservlces funds a r e deslgned to help refugees
become s e l f - s u f f i c ~ e n t ,and avord long-term we;fare dependency. On Aug.
1 9 8 3 , ORR lssued i t s f ~ n a lnotlce for the allocation of $ 8 0 mrllion
f u n C s for refugee and entrant s o c ~ a ls e r v ~ c e s (Federai R e g ~ s t e r ,v. 48, Aug.
1 , 1983:
34809). Under the proposal, a p p r o x ~ m a t e l y $54 m ~ l l l o n would
allocated among the Stazes for refugee social s e r v ~ c e s under a f o r m u l a
p r l m a r ~ i y based on the number of refugees ~n the 3.S. three years or l e s s ; $ 9
mlillon would be drstrlbuced on a per cap-ta baszs among t h o s e States
p a r = ~ c r p a t ~ n ln
g the Ccban/Saltian entract ~ r o g r a m for s o c ~ a l servlzes
Selow); and the r e m a i n ~ c g f u n d s would
S e ava-laPle p r ~ n a r l l y on
d ~ s c r e t l o n a r y Sasls to neet t3e nnmet neees of ear;;er
refugees, for case
management, and for other ?urposes.
Refugee Education Assistance
T h e refugee program has provlded grants to sc3oo:
d l s t r ~ c t s with
numbers of refugee children for educational servlces t o
needs. Althougk the assistance IS budgeted
through O R R , the
3epartmect cf Educa:lon
has been r e s p o n s ~ b l e for a d m ~ n i s t e r r n g the grants
chrough a n interagency agreement.
Voluctary Agency Programs
Since 1979, a voluntary agency a s s ~ s t a n c eprogram has Seen a v a i l a S l e for
the resettlement of S ~ v l e t Zews and ocher n o c - I n d o c 3 ~ n e s e and ncn-CuEan
refsgees. Popularly k c o w n a s the " s o v ~ e car.d ct%rr" program, c h ~ sasslstance
rs a v a ~ l a b l eto certain vclcntary agencies ldnder contracc wrtl O Z R , and acts
a s a n alternative to the ; r e v ~ o u s l y mentlsned cash and madlcal a s s l s t a n c e aT.e
s o e ~ a ls e r v ~ c e sprograns.
The progran prcvrees
$ 1 , C 3 3 per
resettied to parzicrpatlng voluctary agenzres which 2s matched S y tr,e agency
on a d0;lar-for-dollar basic.
T h e Center f o r Disease Control administers a small g r a n t program
to h e l p
support S t a t e and l o c a l health a g e n c i e s which conduct health assessments and
provide immediate followup care f o r refugees suffering from such c o n d i t i o n s
a s skin infections, intestinal parasites, malnutrition and anemia.
Refugee Assistance Amendments of 1 9 8 2 specifically authorized
such a g r a n t
program, and earmarked $ 1 4 million for these purposes (see below).
Cuban and Haitian Entrant Domestic Assistance
Under provisions o f t h e Fascell-Stone a m e n d m e n t (Sec 501(a) (111, Cuban and
Haitian entrants a r e eligible f o r t h e same t y p e s of a s s i s t a n c e that a r e being
made available f o r refugees.
T h i s has included placement
grants, cash and
medical assistance a n e reimbursement for S t a t e administrative costs, social
services funding, a n d education assistance.
D u r i n g P Y 8 2 , H H S announced a
discretionary grant p r o g r a m ,
financed from previously unobligated f u n d s , to
resources to a r e a s with high concentrations of Cuban and Haitian
This program was designed to partially offset t h e impact of the c h a n g e i n
cash and medical assistance policy.
For F Y 8 3 , the program has been extended
to i n c l u d e areas with large numbers of refugees. Notices of availability o f
targeted a s s i s t a n c e for areas w i t h refugees a n d for a r e a s with entrants h a v e
Seen issued in t h e Federal Register.
(For r e f u g e e s , v. 4 8 , no. 1 0 8 , J u n e 3 ,
1983: 24986; f o r entrants v. 4 8 , no. 1 4 5 , J u l y 2 7 , 1983:
Refugee Program Budget
T h e Office of Refugee Resettiement
(ORR) is t h e agency
r e s p o ~ s i S i e for domestic refugee assistance programs a n C entrant assistance.
Actually, the ORR budget comprises only a b o u t half of t h e total estimated
annual costs to t h e Federal Government relating to che movement
Cf r e f u g e e s
to the United S t a t e s and their resettlement here.
the continuing r e s o l u t i o n
T h e FY83 ORR budget level established under
(P.L. 97-377) w a s $ 5 8 5 million, significantly lower than i t s high of
million in FY81. Reductions w e r e possible because of t h e lower number of
the entrant p o p u l a t ~ o n , and
refugee a r r i v a l s , the diminishing impact of
changes i n cash and medical a s s i s t a n c e policies that have effectively
the number of refugees and entrants eligible for assistance. A l s o , the F Y 8 1
budget included $157 million f o r t h e processing and i n i t i a i c a r e of e n t r a n t s ,
a n account that h a s since been reduced considerably, and transferred to t h e
Department of Justice.
T a b l e 2 summarizes ORRIS budget authority for
allocation of fundlng among various program areas.
T A B L E 2. O f f i c e o f R e f u g e e R e s e t t l e m e n t
Fiscal Year 1983 Budget Authority
(in m i l l i o n o f d o l l a r s )
Cash and medical assistance,
Voluntary agency grants
Refugee education grants
U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s ,
Office of Refugee Resettlement.
HBS had proposed the transfer of $7 m l l l ~ o nfrom
t h ~ sa c c o u n t o n g r o u n d s t h a t l t w o u l d n o t b e n e e d e d :
$6.5 m r ; l ~ o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n m a d e available t o o t h e r BBS
a g e n c ~ e sa n 2 $0.5 m r l i l o n t o O R R ' s " F e d e r a l
a d m ~ n l s t r a t l o n "a c c o u n t .
Both the House and Senate Approprratlons
Commrttees drsapproved the transfer i n therr reports
accompanying H.R. 3 0 6 9 , t h e F Y 9 3 s u p p l e m e n t a l
a p p r o p r l a t l o n s 5 1 1 1 , P.L. 9 8 - 6 3 .
committees ~ n d ~ c a r etdh a t a n y e x c e s s f u n d s a v a l i a b l e
from tae voluntary agency account snould be rransferred
to "targeted a s s ~ s t a n c e . "
F o r F Y 8 4 , t h e R e a g a n A d m l n ~ s t r a t ~ o rne q u e s t e d $485.3 m ~ l l l o n f o r O R R ,
T h e F Y 8 4 fundlng would be avallaSle f o r
1 7 % reduction f r o m t h e F Y 8 3 budqet.
The refugee program ls currently
o b l i g a t l c n t h r o u g h F"5.
t h e f u r t t e r c o n t l n u ~ n gr e s o l u r i o n f o r F Y 8 4 s ~ g n e Z
t h e t e r m s o f ? . L . 38-15:,
f 3 r t h e r c o n z l n u ~ n g resolaclor!
by t h e ? r e s l d e c t
o n Nov.
i 4 , 1983.
provides f o r t h e c ~ e r a t i o ns f t h e p r o g r a m a t t h e F Y 3 3 r a t e z h r c u g h H Y S 4 .
T h e F Y 8 4 b u e g e t req-lest ~ n c l u d e d a p r o p o s a l f o r a $270 m l l l l c n b l o c k cjranz
program rccegratlng funding for refugee cash and medlcal assrstance
r e f u q e e s o n l y , a n d c n i y ? ~ rt h o s e r e f u g e e s n o t s t h e r w l s e q u a i i f y r n g f o r A F 3 C ,
S S I , o r M e C L c a i C ) , s o c ~ a ls e r v ~ l e s ,z a r g e t e d assistance 2 n d e d o e a t l o n
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - 1 1 / 2 2
into a s i n g l e grant to each State. T h e funding for this program would be a
$ 8 4 million decrease from the FY83 budget for the same activities. According
to the administration, the reductions a r e possible because of
anticipated refugee a r r i v a l s (the request i s based o n 8 2 , 0 0 0 refugee entries
in F Y 8 4 1 , further reductions i n the population eligible f o r assistance, and
the "carry over c a p a c i t y n of excess funding for social services and targeted
assistance that had been provided over the President's budget i n FY83.
98-151 Specifically prohibits the distribution of f u n d s made a v a i l a b l e under
it for refugee or entrant assistance through any administratively proposed
block g r a n t or per capita grant program.
T h e House-passed H.R. 3 7 2 9 contains
a similar prohibition.
Other domestic assistance provided zo refugees pursuant to t h e Refugee Act
are reception and placement grants.
During F Y 8 3 , the S u d g e t f o r this
activity w a s $47.8 million; t h e budget request for F Y 8 4 was $33.3 million.
Issues Before the 9 8 t h Congress
T h e impact of recent refugee arrivals on the United States has led some to
question o u r admissions a n d assistance policies and t h e provisions of the
Refugee Act under which
t3ey a r e formulated.
At t h e end of t h e 9 7 t h
C o n g r e s s , the expiring authority for refugee resettlement assistance was
pending a closer examination of
renewed f o r one year only -- through FY83
both assistance and admissions issues by the 98th Congress.
a simple 3-year program reauthorizat.ion was
Representative Romano Kazzoli a s H.R. 3195 on J u n e 2 , 1983. Mr. Mazzoli, who
is chairman of the House Subcommittee on Immigration, R e f u g e e s ,
International L a w , stated that the legislation was a vehicle f o r hearings and
that his f i n a l view on the reauthorization would be developed after t h e
Rep. Mazzoli subsequently
3729, a clean bill
resulting from his subcommittee's markup of H.R.
T h i s legislation
would reauthorize the refugee assistance program f o r two y e a r s , with
The AdministratLon supports a 3-year reauthorization with n o
amendments. H.R. 3729 was reported with amendments by
the full House
Judiciary Committee o n Oct. 5 , 1 9 8 3 , and passed by
the House unamended o n
Hov. 1 4 , 1 9 8 3 by a vote of 300-99.
D u e to concerns that economic migrants rather than bona f i d e politicai
refugees might enter che United States under the refugee admissions p r o g r a m ,
the definition of refugee has developed into an i m p o r t a n t issue.
explored by the House and Senate Judiciary Committees during consideration of
the reauthorization of the Refugee Act this Congress.
T h e Refugee Act definition does not include any reference to t h e a l i e n ' s
initial motive for f l i g h t from his native country, but is confined to a
persons's being outside his native country and fearing return because of
At issue i s whether persons who fled their native countries
primarily for economic reasons but w h o have reason to f e a r return because of
persecution for the a c t of leaving a r e eligible for refugee status.
When t h e U.S. definition of refugee was written i n 1 9 8 0 , it was
to conform to the UniteC Nations' definition of the term. A t that t i m e , the
U N definition was interpreted tc include a s a refugee a n y person outside his
country of nationaiity and fearing returc to his country because of
perseCQti0n on account of r a c e , r e l ~ g i z c , nationaiity, memSership in a
particular social group or politicai c p i n i o ~ . Since that time, some have
questioned this interpretaticn of the 3 N definition a s well a s the Z.S.
d e f i n i c l o n , a r g u i n g t h a t p e r s o n s l e a v i n g t h e i r countries f o r p u r e l y
reasons are not, but should be, clearly excluded from eligibility for refugee
s t a t u s , e v e n r f t h e y h a v e r e a s o n to f e a r r e t u r n t o t h e i r c o u n t r i e s .
Some have suggested an amendment to the Refuqee Act
to narrow the
d e f i n i t i o n of r e f u g e e t o s p e c i f y t h a t p e r s o n s m i g r a t i n g f o r e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s
a r e i n e l i g i S l e f o r r e f u g e e status.
I n contrast, o t h e r s w o u l d
U.S. d e f i n i z i o n t o e x t e n d r e f u g e e s t a t u s t o p e r s o n s f o r c e d t o l e a v e t h e i r
country during civil war or foreign occupation.
However, most appear
s u p p o r t t h e r e t e n t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t l a n g u a g e o f t h e U.S.
b e l i e v i n g t h a t i t c o n f o r m s t o t h e U.N.
definition and i s sufficient to
e x c l u d e s o - c a l l e d e c o n o m i c m i g r a n t s f r o m r e f u g e e status.
Supporters of the
existing language argue that flexibility concerning economic motivations
necessary because economics and politics are often intertwined; and that w e
d o not want to permanently exclude some persons from eligibility for refugee
s t a t u s w h o m a y h a v e l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m s t o s u c h status.
In hearings this
Congress on the definition of "refugee," Administration
t h e existing statutory language.
The Administration believes that a change
i s not Warranted in the definition because of the confusion that has arisen
c v e r i t s application, and that any alteration would
u n c o u c l e t h e U.S.
H.R. 3 7 2 9 , t h e b i l l r e p o r t e d b y t h e H o u s e
d e f i n i t i o n f r o m t h a t o f t h e U.N.
J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t r e e a n d p a s s e d by t h e H o u s e , w o u i e n o t m a k e a n y c h a n g e s i n
C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o c h e a S o v e i s s u e h a s b e e n :he
question of presumptive
eligibility for refugee status applied t o aliens fleeing certain nations.
U n t i l t h e f a l l o f 1 9 8 1 , t h e U.S. f o l l o w e d a p o l i c y o f p r e s u m p t i v e r e f u g e e
eligijility for persons fleeing Vietnam, Laos, and Kampuchea.
the Immigration and
identified a number of emigres from these countries as economic migrants and
deferred their approval for refugee status.
In accord with a
i s s u e d S y t h e O f f i c e o f L e g a l C o u n s e l (OLC) a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e , t h e
Attorney General concluded that case-by-case
e l i g i b i l i t y f o r r e f u g e e s t a t u s w e r e a p p r o p r i a t e , a c C ir.itiaced p r z c e s s i n g o n
%owever, che C L C opinion Ci5 not preclude
the use of
t h i s b a s i s i7. F-2.
e l i g i b i l i ty i n t h e f y z z r e i n c e r t a i n si:uations
Afzer case-Sy-case prccessrng was lnltlated, ccntroversy developed over
t h e n u m S e r o f C ~ s a p p r o v a l s of r e f u g e e a p p l l c a t l o n s
f r o m Cambodians S y
f ~ e l d personnel
t3az INS declslons
u n r e a s o n a b l y r e s t r ~ c t l v ea n d a r S l t r a r y c o c c e r n l n g C a m D o C l a n e m l g r e s , a n d t h a t
a n u m b e r of b o n a f l e e r e f c g e e s w h o n e t U.S.
g u ~ d e l l n e s for a d m z s s ~ o n were
Selng turned away.
In r e s p o n s e , I N S s e n t a t e a m f r o m i h e U n ~ t e d S t a t e s t o
T h a l l a n d t o review c a s e s t h a t nad b e e n r e z e c t e d a n d a S o ~ t 1 8 0 o u t of
cases that were revlewed were overcurnee.
I n May 1983, P r e s i d e n t R e a g a n i s s u e d a C l r e c t l v e t e t n e A t t o r n e y
(1) t o Z e t e r m r n e w h e t h e r
c e r t a i n c a t e g c r l e s of p e r s o n s s h a r e
rdentrfyrn; t h e m a s t a r g e t s o f persecution; a n d
lr,prcve c a s e C e c ~ s i o n n o n ~ t o r l n g s y s t e m s .
I N S Csmnissloner
t e s t ~ f ~ etdh a t t h e D ~ r e c t ~ v ea c 5 = h e r e s u l t ~ ~ gI N S g ' l ~ d e ; l ~ e s a r e no:
~ n c o n s l s t e n t w ~ t ht 3 e pr:nc~ple ?f
3 r 3 c e s s r r 7 W ~ L C ? . will 3 0
m a ~ n t a l n e d 19 t h e ~ m p l e m e r i t a t l z n z i t h e C l r e c t i v e .
X e f c ~ e er e s e t t l e n e ~ t ~ s s u e sh a v e beer. r e c e l v r c g c o n s ~ C e r a S l e atten:;on
C c n q r e s s s;zce t h e Ftefugee A c t w a s
T n e p r - p o s a l of t k e Z e a g a n
A Z a l n : s = r a z 1 ~ ~ = a zcnsol~da:? fu?.C~ng f s r s ~ c er s f 2 q e e ass;staEce
i n t o a block
g r a n t has been a focus of concern during
consideration of the reauthorizing legislation t h i s year.
As previously mentioned,
the block grant
program, which it has designated the "per capita grant program," i n i t s 1 9 8 4
budget request for ORR.
The program would replace separate f u n d i n g currently
provided States f o r refugee cash assistance and refugee medical assistance,
social services, targeted assistance, and educational assistance f o r refugee
T h e Administration believes that the proposal will g i v e States
flexibility to direct resources s o that refugees may
self-sufficiency a s soon a s possible, and to respond t o t h e needs of refugees
according t o l o c a l conditions.
T h e Administration proposed
to initiate t h e block
A n o t i c e of proposed rule-making to implement the consolidated
g r a n t program was published i n the Federal Register on Sept.
41187-41199), with public comments due by Oct. 3 1 , 1983.
In hearings before the House and Senate Judiciary Committees, there was
virtually no s u p p o r t for the Administration's
per capita g r a n t program.
Witnesses included representatives of the National Governors Association, the
National Association of Countries and voluntary a g e n c i e s , a m o n g others.
major argument against the proposal is that States would have to bear
f u l l ccst of any assistance exceeding the block g r a n t allocation.
T h i s would
represent a shift i n responsibility from the Federal Government to S t a t e a n d
l o c a l governments because the Federal Government currently provides 1 0 0 % of
the funding f o r refugee cash assistance and refugee medical a s s i s t a n c e o n a n
Other arguments presented a g a i n s t the proposal
t h e reallocation of resources f o r refugees i n various States might
secondary migration; that there may be insufficient funding f o r unexpected
migrations of refugees into a State; and that there would b e disruptive
Competition a m o n g S t a t e s , localities, VOLAGS, and private service providers
In. s u m m a r y , witnesses argued for stability in the
f o r lirited funds.
.existing refugee assistance program.
T h e House-passed H.R.
3 7 2 9 woule
prohibit tne initiation of a block grant structure for the refugee assistance
T h e refugee assistance program is currently operating under
authority of P.L.
98-151, the cY84 further continuing
r e ~ ~ l ~ t i owhich
a l s o prohibits the use of funds appropriated under i t " t o
implement a n y administratively propcsed block g r a n t , per capita g r a n t , or
similar C O n S ~ l i d a t i O nof the Refugee Resettlement Program."
Other resettlement issues that have been
continuing concerns a r e the
dependency of refugees on cash assistance and the geographic distribution
refugees in the United States.
O R 2 studies indicate that 54% of Indochinese refugees w h o h a v e been in t h e
United States three years or l e s s a r e dependent on cash assistance.
dependency r a t e may be in part a function of the l a r g e number o f relatively
uneducated and unskilled Indochinese who have been arriving i n t h e Unitee
S t a t e s since 1 9 7 9 ; it i s also influeEced by an extremely high dependency r a t e
there is the largest refugee population.
i n California -- 8 3 % -- where
Nevertheless, most a g r e e that the rate is unacceptably high.
concern is thaz the refngee resettlement program
i s Suilding a welfare
mentality in otherwise capable and
indusrrious ?eoples, and
i s actually
hampering their progress towares self-sufficiency.
T h e Refugee Asszstance Amendments made certaln
e l ~ g z 3 ~ l : t y o i refugees for casr! ass~stance:
to r e s t r ~ c t the
a 60-day delay z n
the work registration requirement f o r refugees receiving cash assistance.
They required refugees receiving such assistance to participate i n language
training i f available and appropriate; they prohibited
assistance for full-time students i n higher education programs; and they
terminated cash and medical assistance to refugees refnsing a n apprcpriate
T h e 1 9 8 2 legislatron also requires voluntary a g e n c i e s t o
report to local welfare agencies when a refugee under their
receives a job o f f e r , and requires welfare agencies to notify the voluntary
agency when a refugee appiies for cash assistance.
Some h a v e suggested that refugee resettlement assistance be removed from
the public welfare system altogether, and that some alternative form of
interim support be provided new r e f u g e e arrivals.
Others suggest adoption a
case-management approach to refugee resettlement, such a s has Seen used f o r
the Soviec Jewish refugees, to reduce reliance on cash and
Another suggestion h a s been to separate eligibility for medical
assistance from that f o r cash assistance, because
some believe t h a t t h i s
would encourage refugees to take Low-paying jobs that they may be refusing
because those jobs d o not p r o v i d e 1- h e a l t h benefits.
In r e s p o n s e , H.R.
would make several major changes i n cash and medical assistance available to
refugees. An amendment adopted by t h e subcommittee and scbsequently deleted
during f u l l Judiciary Committee markup would have prohibited
receiving a n y federally funded cash a s s i s t a n c e , including AFDC and refugee
cash assistance, during their first 90 days in the United States.
amendment would a l s o have authorized States to disqualify refugees from a
State or locally funded general assistance program.
There could have been
exception t o the prohibition i n c a s e s of extreme hardship.
were apparent during t h e subcommittee and committee consideration of this
One was whether sufficient alternative support would be available
to n e w refugee arrivals from the sponsoring voluntary agencies.
that some States would be precluded by their own constitutions from denying
needy refugees cash benefits, and t h a t these States would not S e reimbursed
for the assistance they would be forced to provide.
F i n a l i y , there were
queszion aSoct the equity cf denying cash assisrance to unemployable
In place of the 93-day ?rohibition, amendments were adopted during
full Committee markup requiring the Secretary of H E S to develop and implement
a l = S r > a t i v e S to cash assistance to encourage refugee self-sufficiency;
providing for specific legal and financial obligations for refugees during
their first 90 d a y s i n the United States i n contracts negotiated
It was noted during the Committee debate that the latter
amendment would require additional funding.
Another amendment proposed in H.R. 3729 would reqnire the Director of 3 R 2 ,
to the extent of available appropriations, to provide medical assistance rc
all refugees during their frrst year after entry i n t o the United States.
the subcommittee there was concern that this presumptive
medical assistance woulC have a d v e r s e political consequences becaLse refugees
WOald be entitled to benefits that citizens coulC not receive.
T h e c o n c e n t r a t ~ o n of refugees and entrants ;n only a irmrted number of
U.S. communrtres has a l s o Seen an ~ s s u e . Bver a thrrd of 6 4 0 , 0 0 0 Indochrnese
whc nave resetrled here res;de r z C a l ~ f o r n r a . Over rwo-thirds of the 1 5 3 , 0 3 C
Cuban a n d Zaltlar. entrants live ~n F l o r ~ c i a ,e s ~ e c ~ a l l yin :he
These concentratrcns have reszlted from l n r t ~ a lplacement decrsrons chat have
stressed f a m ~ l yre+dc~frcat:on, =fie availa3ri:ty
sponsors rn 9 n l y some
areas, arid the seconSary mrgratlon of
r e f l ~ g e e s 20 areas wnere rhere a r e
f a m ~ l y ,f r ~ e n C sor a n estaS;lsheC ethnrc c o m m u ~ r t y .
T h e clustering of refugees can be beneficial to a r e f u g e e ' s adjustment to
l i f e i n the United States because of t h e support of h i s ethnic group.
However, some a r e a s have such large r e f u g e e populations
that they have
apparently overwhelmed community resources.
Such areas point o u t that i n
spite of Federal assistance, they incur tremendous c o s t s i n terms of
providing housing, education, health c a r e , and a variety of community
services to the refugee population.
situations c a n a l s o ill-serve
refugees who must compete among themselves a n d with citizens for limited jobs
S o m e State a n d l o c a l governments argued f o r impact-aid
t y p e of F e d e r a l
assistance to provide them with additional reimbursements f o r community c o s t s
incurred from l a r g e refugee populations.
O t h e r s a r e concerned that s u c h a
program would open a "Pandora's B o x w and would be difficult t o monitor.
1 9 8 2 Refugee Assistance Amendments required t h e Director of ORR to study t h e
feasibility of various impact aid alternatives and report t o t h e Congress by
Jan. 1, 1983. T h i s report was submitted t o Congress o n May 3 ,
t h e targeted assistance program initiated by the Administration i n F Y 8 2 i s in
some respects a response to such a proposition.
H.R. 3 7 2 9 would specifically
authorize targeted assistance f o r refugees a n d provide a n authorization of
$ 5 0 million for the program.
T h e 1 9 8 2 Refugee Assistance Amendments
to implement a
specific policy to place some new refugee a r r i v a l s without family ties a w a y
from areas with high impact.
ORR i s currently operating under a placement
policy i t developed i n 1982. Because family reunification w i l l continue to
be stressed in placements, most believe t h a t t h e n e w policy will have l i m i t e d
Kedical screening of Indochinese refugees a n d follow u p c a r e i n the United
After a n investigation it conducted for the
States have a l s o been a concern.
House Judiciary Committee, t h e General Accounting Office (GAO) concludes t h a t
overseas medical screening of Souteast Asian
refugees i s inadequate.
recommended against the existing policy
t o admit these refugees With
exciudaale medical conditions such a s t u b e r c a l o s i s , particularly because of
the difficulties and costs of providing f o l l o w u p medical c a r e i n the United
3 n Dec.
1 , 1982, the United
S c a t e s instituted n e w procedures
regarding the medical screening of Indochinese refugees.
that d a t e ,
a l l Indochinese o v e r a g e one will receive x-ray examinations, and any with
active noninfectious tuberculosis must complete their TB treatment prior
entry into the U.S.
T h e 1 9 8 2 Xefugee Assistance Amendments required the voluntary agencles to
notify health a g e n c i e s w3en refugees will r e q u i r e followup health care.
legislation a l s o authorized $ 1 4 million for health
screening a c t i v l t ~ e s S y
State and local governments.
In i t s F P 8 4 budget the Administration proposed
a n e w $2.9 million
followup care f o r refugees with
Purtker Continuing Appropriations, FY84.
Includes FY84 a p p r o p r l a t ~ o n a t
f o r ass-stance tc
the current rate :or refugee resectleF.ent assistance 2 x 2
Cuban and Haltian entrants, wlt9 the p r o v ~ s l o n that the f u n d s may
dlscribnted rhrough block cr per capita grants.
Passed House on Nov. 10 and
Senate on Nov. 1 1 , 1983; House and Senate agreed to conference report
( H - R e p t . 98-540) and amendments o n Nov. 1 2 ; signed by the President on Nov.
1 4 , 1983.
H.R. 3729 (Mazzoli et 2.1.)
R e f u g e e Assistance Extension Act of 1983. Reauthorizes refugee assistance
$ 1 0 0 million
programs through F Y 8 5 at the following annual levels:
social Services; $ 1 4 million for health screening activities; $ 5 0 million for
targeted assistance; and such sums a s a r e necessary for other
assistance programs. Requires Secretary of HHS to develop and implement
alternatives to refugee cash assistance.
Provides for specific l e g a l and
financial obligations for refugees during first 9 0 days i n voluntary
contracts. Authorizes appropriations for partial reimbursement of S t a t e s and
counties for certain incarcerated Cuban entrants.
termination of cash assistance for refugees refusing appropriate job o f f e r s ,
refusing to participate in a sociai service or targeted assistance program,
o r refusing to be interviewed for a
To the extent of a v a i l a b l e
appropriations, provides that medical assistance be made a v a i l a b l e to
refugees for t h e first year they are in the United
P r o h i S i = s the
3istriSusion of refugee assistance in block
assistance to a r e a s with high concentrations of refugees.
R e q u i r e s the
General Accounting Office to aocicor reception and placement gran:s
and sets forth certain conditions for the g r a n = s . Zstablishes the O f f i c e of
Refagee Resettlement in the Office of the Secretary a t the D e p a r t m e n t of
Health and Human Services.
Provides for the administration of
edacation assistance by the Department of Education.
1 9 8 3 ; referred to the Committee o n t h e Judiciary. Ordered
reporzed b y
Committee o n t h e Judiciary Sept. 2 7 , 1983. Reported 3ct.
Passed House without amendment o n Yov. 14, 1 9 8 3 by a vote of 300 to
.. o n s e . C o n m ~ t t e eon Foreign Affalrs.
and forelgn policy ~ r n ~ l i c a t ~ oof
n s U . S . rmnzgrazlcn and
refugee resetzlement psl-cy.
B e a r l ~ g sa n C s ~ a f freports,
Washington, U.S. Govt. P r ~ n t .Off., 1982.
2 8 7 p.
Hearings held Oct. 5 , 1 9 8 1 ; ?far. 1 5 , 1982.
U S .
House. Committee on Foreign Affarrs.
SuScommittee on Internatlznai Operazlons.
Act of 1979. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st
s e s s ~ o no n H.R. 2815. Sept. 19 and 2 5 , 1979.
W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Sovt. ? r ~ n t . Cff., 1279. 9 9 p.
House. Cornmlttee on the J u d l c ~ a r y . Refugee
Acz of 1979. Z e a r - n g s , 36th C o n g r e s s , ;s= s e s s l o n ,
on H.2. 2815. Yay 3 , L C , ; 5 , 2 3 - 2 4 , ;9-5.
Govt. Prlnt. Z f f . , 197s. 4 5 3 z .
"SerraL yo. 10"
R e f u g e e a e n l s s ~ o zproposal.
1st sesslon. Seat. 2 9 , 1931.
113 3 .
Prir.5. ~ f f . ,IS$:.
H e a r ~ n g ,5;tn c o n g r e s s ,
Y.s. ~ 3 v t .
Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Program--Fiscal Year
Hearing, 96th Congress, 2 6 session. Sept. 2 4 ,
1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980.
Committee on the Judiciary.
Immigration, Refugees and International Law.
Hearings, 96th Congress, 2d session.
May 1 3 , June 4, 1 7 , 1980. Washington, U.S.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980.
Proposed regulation changes for refugee assistance.
97th Congress, 2d session. Feb. 9 , 1982. Washington, U.S.
Govt. Print. Off., 1983. 125 p.
Reauthorization of Refugee Act of 1980. Hearings, 97th
Congress, 2d session, on H.R. 5879. Apr. 2 2 and 2 8 , 1982.
3 7 9 p.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982.
"Serial no. 38"
Refugee Act of 1980 amendment.
Hearing, 97th Congress,
1st Session on H.R. 2142. Mar. 2 4 , 1981. Washington, U.S.
Govt. Print. Off., 1981.
1 4 2 p.
"Serial No. 10"
Hearings, 98th Congress, Ist session
on H.R. 3195. June 7 , 9 , and 2 2 , 1983. Washington, U.S.
Govt. Print. Off., 1983. 4 1 4 p.
"Serial no. 13"
U.S. Refugee program.
Oversight hearings, 97th Congress,
1 s t session.
Sept. 16-23, 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt.
Print. Off., 1981.
"Serial No. 23"
Commzttee o n the Judiciary. Annual
refugee consultation for 1982. Hearing, 97th Congress,
Sept. 2 2 , 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt.
Print. Cff., 1982. 538 p.
Senate. Committee on the Judiciary.
Refugee Crisis: Cubans and Haitians.
Congress, 2d session, May 1 2 , 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt.
Print. Off., 1980.
288 p .
The Refugee Act of 1 9 7 9 , S. 643.
Hearing, 9 6 t h Congress,
1st session. Mar. 1 4 , 1979. W a s h i n g ~ o n , U.S. Govc.
Print. Off., 1979. 396 p.
"Serial No. 96-1"
U.S. refugee programs.
Hearing, 96t5 Congress, 2d sessioc.
Apr. 1 7 , 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
1980. 311 p .
"Serial no. 96-55"
U.S. 3efugee Programs, 1981. Hearing, 96th Congress, 2 8
Sept. 1 9 , 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. ?rint.<
Off., 1980. 288 p.
"Serial No. 96-79''
Senate. Committee on the Judiciary.
o n Immigration and Refugee Policy.
Refugee consultation. H e a r i n g , 97th Congress, 2 8 session.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1962.
1 2 4 p.
"Serial no. J-97-iC4"
Refugee resettlenent. Hearing,
Hearing, 9 7 t h Congress, 1 s t session.
Print. Off., 1982.
1 4 0 p.
"Serial no. 5-97-66"
United States a s a country of mass first asylum.
97th C o n g r e s s , 1st session.
July 3 1 , 1981. Washington,
U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. 272 p.
"Serial No. J-97-49"
REPORTS AND CONGRESSIONAL DOCUMENTS
Annual congressional consultations on refugee admissions.
Congressional record [ d a i l y ed.] v. 1 2 9 , Nov. 8 , 1983:
Con.sultation on U.S. refugee programs for fiscal year 1982.
Congressional record [daily ed.] v. 1 2 7 , Sept. 2 5 , 1981:
Consultation o n U.S. refugee programs for 1981.
record [ d a i l y ed.] v. 1 2 6 , ~ e p t .1 9 , 1980:
Consultations o n refugee admissions program, fiscal year 1984.
Congressional recore [ ~ a i l yed.] v. 1 2 9 , Nov. 2 5 , i983:
General assistance for education of CaSan and Haitian refagees.
Congressional record [ d a l l y ee.] v. 1 2 6 , Sept. 2 5 , 1980:
T h e P r e s i d e n t v s proposed refugee admissions program for
fiscal year 1982. Congressional record [ d a i l y ed.]
v. 1 2 7 , Nov. 1 8 , 1981: H8543-H8546.
T h e Refugee admissions program for f s c a l year 1 9 8 2 and the
Presrdent's proposed refugee a d m i s s ~ o n sprogram for fiscal
year 1983. Congressional record [dally ed.] v. 1 2 8 , Dec. 2 ,
Refugee Assistance Extension A c t of 1983. D e S a t e a n 3 voce
House on H.R. 3729. Congressional record :da-iy ed.]
V . 1 2 2 , N O V . 1 4 , 1982:
Congress. Conference C o m m i t t e e s , 1983. Refcgee Act of 1 9 8 0 ;
Conference report to accompany S. 243. Washingcon,
Govt. ?rlnt. Off., 1982. 23 p . (95th Congress, 25
Senate. Report no. 96-530)
Commictee on the Judiciary.
T h e Refugee Act of 1 9 7 9 ; report to accompany H.R. 2816.
9 6 t h Congress, 1st session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print.
Off., 1979. 6 7 p.
(96th Congress, 1st session. House.
Report no. 96-608)
Refugee assistance amendments of 1 9 8 2 ;
report to accompany H.R. 5879.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print.
97th Congress, 2d session.
2 8 p.
(97th Congress, 2 6 session.
Report no. 97-541)
Refugee Assistance Extension Act of 1 9 8 3 ; report to
accompany H.R. 3729.
98th Congress, 1 s t session.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1983.
3 4 p.
C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session.
R e p o r t no. 98-404)
Refugee issues in Southeast Asia a n d Europe and international
issues o n drug enforcement and administrative l a w , based
o n a f a c t finding trip to Southeast Asia and Europe.
August 5-17, 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
1982. 1 0 3 p.
At head of title:
97th Congress, 2d session.
Committee o n the Judiciary.
o n Immigration, Refugees and International Law.
Immigration and refugee issues i n Southern California:
a n investigative trip.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
1981. 4 2 g .
At head of title:
Committee o n t h e Judiciary.
Act of 1 9 7 9 ; report to accompany S. 543.
1 s t session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979.
3 2 p. (96th Congress, 1 s t session.
Refugee assistance amendments of 1 9 8 2 ; report together with
additionai views to accompany 9.R. 5 8 7 9 including cost
estimate of the Congressional Budget Office.
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.] 1982. 23 p.
(97th C o n g r e s s , 2d
session. Senate. Report no. 97-538)
R e v i e w of U.S. Refugee Resettlement Programs and Policies;
by the Congressional Research S e r v i c e , Library of
96th Congress, 2d session. Washington, U.S. Govt.
Print. Off., 1980.
3 4 2 p.
Senate. Committee on t h e J u d i c ~ a r y .
Subcommittee on inmigration and Refugee Policy.
Refugee protiems I n Southeast Asia:
1381. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S.
Govt. Print. 3ff., 1982. 1 0 2 p.
A D D I T I 3 N A S REFERENCE SSURCSS
North, David S., Lawrence S. Lewin, a n C Zennifer 2 .
The resectlernent of refugees :n
States by the voluntary agencies.
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