Solar Energy: The Federal Program and Congressional Interest

SOLAR ENERGY: T H E F E D E R A L P R O G R A M AND C O N G R E S S I O N A L I N T E R E S T ISSUE BRIEF NUMBER IB83027 UPDATED 02/16/84 AUTHOR: J. Glen Moore Science Policy Research Division T H E L I B R A R Y OF C O N G R E S S CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE MAJOR I S S U E S SYSTEM DATE ORIGINATED 02/08/83 FOR A D D I T I O N A L I N F O R M A T I O N C A L L 287-5700 0224 CRS- 1 ISSUE DEFINITION Following the oil embargo of 1973-74, the Federal Government began an aggressive solar energy development program which grew steadily through the Carter Administration to become a n important component of the Federal energy effort. Under the Reagan Administration, however, a n energy policy has been introduced which places greater reliance on private enterprise for energy development. As a result, Federal solar R&D has been sharply reduced, and Federal support for solar demonstrations and commercialization activities is being phased out. At issue is the effect that the pace and timing of the reduction in the Federal solar program will have on solar development and commercialization efforts in this country. BACKGROUND AND POLICY ANALYSIS SOLAR POWER DEFINED There are many ways in which solar energy can be used. Some applications make use of "direct" solar energy received o n the Earth each day a s heat or light. Others tap "indirect" solar resources that have been collected through natural processes. Natural collection of solar energy gives rise to wine, plant growth, the hydrologic cycle, and warm surface waters in the ocean. These "indirectgt solar resources can be &further converted into thermal energy, electricity, or clean burning fuels'. Much of the confusion about s o l a r g s potential, its present contribution, even its Federal budget, is attributable to how the term i s defined. In the narrowest sense, the term means only direct applications. These include passive applications, direct heating and cooling, .swimming pool heaters, domestic hot water heaters, agriculture and industrial process heat systems, photovoltaics (solar cells), and high-temperature electric power generators. In the broadest sense it means both direct and indirect applications. The indirect applications include wind .conv'ersion systems, ocean thermal energy conversion systems, high- and low-head hydropower plants, and a wide variety of bioconversion processes, including direct wood burning and alcohol fuels derived from biomass. Currently, the U.S. meets about 5% of its energy needs from indirect solar sources 3% from hydropower and about 2% from wood burning. The contribution from direct sources i s negligble. -- -- Other issue briefs on solar-related topics are IB78012 Solar Energy from Space: Satellite Power Stations; IB74058 -- Ocean-Generated Power Ocean The Alcohol Fuels; and Thermal Energy Conversion; IB74087 -- Gasohol: IB80091 Wind Energy. -- THE FEDERAL PROGRAM AND CONGRESSIONAL INTEREST The Arab oil embargo of 1973 sparked the establishment of a comprehensive, coordinated Federal energy program to deal with the Nation's immediate and long-term energy needs. The modest Federal effort in solar energy development that existed prior to the embargo was made part of the overall ~ Federal. solar program and was greatly accelerated. During the 1 9 7 0 ~ the program grew rapidly to include not only basic and applied R&D,' but also joint participation with the private sector in demonstration projects, CRS- 2 IB83027 UPDATE-02/16/84 commercialization, and information dissemination. Solar funding grew commensurately. In the 1960s and early 1970s funding for solar R&D was only a few hundred thousand dollars annually; by FY8l tbe peak funding year for solar R&D it had grown to $599 million (1a.ter . reduced to $472 million by rescission and deferrals with $549 million finally expended). In addition to direct support for R&D and demonstrations, the Federal Government adopted market incentives such as the business and residential tax credits, and further supported solar technologies through regulatory reform in such legislation as the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA). The Internal Revenue Service estimates that the indirect support provided by the solar residential and business tax credits alone will amount to $4.5 billion during the period FY79-86. -- -- Congress has played a key role in shaping Federal programs and policies in solar energy. It took the initiative in 1974 in the absence of a coherent, long-range policy from the Administration and has led ever since through legislative initiatives and close reviews of annual budget submissions. Solar legislation enacted by the 9 3 6 Congress and succeeding Congresses forms the basis of the current Federal effort. Among these guiding statutes are -. the following. o The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-438), which consolidated functions relating to solar and other renewable energy research into the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA); o The Solar Hearing an-d Cooling Demonstration Act of 1 9 7 4 (P.L. 93-409), which established a program to demonstrate experimental prototypes of solar heating -and cooling technologies for residential and commercial buildings applications and to determine their economic and technical feasibility; o - T h e Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-473), which cBarged ERDA with coordinating research, development, and demonstration activities of several Federal agencies (including the Atomic Energy Commission, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the House and Urban Development Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the Federal Power Commission); . o ' T h e Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-577), which established a comprehensive national program of research and development for potential alternatives to conventional energy sources, including solar, geothermal, and other renewables; o The Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, .Development and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590), which established an aggressive research, development, and demonstration program for photovoltaic systems to produce electricity that is cost-competitive with utility-generated electricity; CRS- 3 IB83027 UPDATE-02/16/84 o The Energy Security Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-294), which created the Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank to provide financial assistance to a number of renewable technologies in order to encourage their commercialization; o The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-310), which established specific national development goals for what considered the most promising of the ocean energy systems, OTEC; o The Wind Energy Systems Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-345), which established specific program objectives for the wind energy program. Appendix I 1 at the end of this issue brief provides a more complete solar enactments. list of Congress has consistently supported a broader, more aggressive solar program than any Administration in office since the Federal program took off in 1974. Every R&D, regulatory reform, tax, or other incentive bill to promote solar originated in Congress. In every year since 1974, Congress has added funds to the Administration's solar budget request. The net result of Congress's interest has been a higher priority for solar in the Federal energy R&D effort and a larger Federal role in solar commercialization than would have been expected from the Administration. SUMMARY: REAGAN ADMINISTRATION AND 97TH CONGRESS During the 1 9 7 0 ~as ~ the Federal solar program took shape, Congress and the Administration in office were frequently a t odds over program details and level of Federal support for solar. When the Reagan Administration took office in 1 9 8 1 , however, the gap between the two widened appreciably. The new ABministration .redefined the Federal role in energy R&D. Instead of concentrating on near-term product development and commercialization, the potentially Federal- ef5or.t would n o w focus on long-range, high-risk , high-payoff- pro3ects. Demonstration and commercialization phases necessary for bringing new technologies to market would be left solely to the private sector. The Administration's new energy policy ended the long-standing trend of expanding solar budgets and expanding Federal involvement in solar commercialization. During the two years of the 97th Congress, the Reagan Administration succeeded in dismantling much of the existing Federal solar program. Among other actions, it (1) reduced the R&D budget of every solar subprogram; (2) eliminated many demonstration and commercialization projects; (3) eliminated the four regional solar energy centers; (4) reduced the staff of the Solar Energy Research Institute by more than half and restricted its work to advanced R&D projects; (5) took actions which resulted i n a substantial reduction i n the scope of operation of the Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank; and ( 6 ) reduced the information dissemination effort. It would have gone further had Congress not intervened'to restore R&D funds to many subprograms targeted for elimination and to protect certain tax incentive programs from repeal. The Administration used the authority available to it in the annual budget review process to effect the reduction afid redirection of the solar program. Although there was some question that CRS- 4 IB83027 UPDATE-02/16/84 the Administration's actions were i n conflict with congressionally mandated programs particularly in the photovoltaic, wind, and ocean energy program areas its authority to reduce programs. through the budget process was never seriously challenged. -- -- Budget History The following table summarizes the final action taken on the two budgets submitted to the 97th Congress by the Reagan Administration. figures are for comparison. solar FY81 CRS- 5 IB83027 UPDATE-02/16/84 SOLAR R&D BUDGET HISTORY DURING 97TH CONGRESS (in millions) FY81 Actual FY82 Request FY82 FY83 FY83 Actual Request Appropriatio Solar Building Energy Research Photovoltaic Energy Systems 151.6 62.9 74.0 27.0 57.9 Thermal Energy Systems 138.3 44.0 56.0 18.0 49.4 Biomass Energy Systems 31.7 20.5 20.5 6.6 15.9 Wind Energy Systems 77.5 19.4 34.4 5.5 31.4 Ocean Energy Systems 34.6 0.0 20.8 0.0 10.5 Solar International 10.8 4.0 4.0 9.5 10.0 Solar Energy Research Institute (construction 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Solar Technology Transfer 1.4 6.7 6.7 -- 3.0 18.0 10.0 10.0 2.9 5.0 Program Direction 6.8 4.0 4.0 2.2 5.9 Program support 0.0 0.0 3.5 0.5 1.0 Solar Reserve 0.0 0.0 12.3 0.0 0.0 549.0 193.3 268.-3 72.2 201.6 Alcohol Fuels TOTAL NEW BUDGET AUTHORITY- CRS- 6 IB83027 UPDATE-02/16/84 In the absence of an FY83 appropriation bill for the Department of Energy and other agencies, an omnibus budget resolution (P.L. 97-377) was enacted at the close of the 97th Congress providing for the continuation of solar funding in FY83 at .the F Y 8 2 level. This was perceived a s a boon for the solar program since the FY82 appropriation ($268 million) was substantially more than the Administration's request ($72 million) and more than the budget levels recommended by either House Appropriations ($180.4 mallion) or Senate Appropriations ($187.9 million). The budget resolution gave the Administration great latitude in setting anywhere from the Administration's request to the the final FY83 level FY82 level. The Administration's FY84 budget request, submitted to Congress on Jan. 3 1 , 1983, indicates an estimated solar budget of $201.935 million. Later budget sources indicate that the amount available in FY83 appropriations totals $201.6 million. -- Solar Bank Action The Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank (the Bank) was established (P.L. 96-294). The Reagan by Title V of the Energy Security Act of 1980 Administration found the Bank inconsistent with other energy policies, possibly duplicative of existing tax and loan subsidies, and a potential windfall for some eligible recipients. The Administration sought to kill the Bank before it could be implemented by requesting z e r o funding for FY82 and FY83. Congress was unwilling to accede to the Administration on this and appropriated $22 million and $20 million, respectively, for the two fiscal years. Congress did, however, agree to a reauthorization of the Bank through the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981. The reauthorization reduced the operating budget from $3.025 billion over 4 years to just $150 million over 3 years. (See section entitled 98TH CONGRESS for further action.) 98TH CONGRESS FY84 R&D Budget Congress received the Administration's FY84 budget request Jan. 31, 1983. It included $86.659 million for solar, which was $14.5 million more than the FY83 request, but $127.5 million less than the FY83 estimate. The F Y 8 4 request offered few substantive changes over the FY83 request. Ocean energy was again zeroed out. Passive and active solar were folded into the broader solar thermal program rather than being zeroed out a s they were in the FY83 request. Solar international, the reserve account, and program support were zeroed out this year. A $3.1 million budget line for technology transfer replaced the solar information systems budget line. The table below shows the Admjnistrationqs FY8G request and the levels appropriated in P.L. 98-50, the Energy and Water Development Appropriation Bill, 1984 (H.R. 3132). The $181.65 million appropriation is slightly above both the $180 million originally approved by the House and the Senate's $176 million. An additional $ 6 million, deferred in FY83, was made available for the solar thermal program and is reflected in the table. Compromise was reached on most of the differences which separated the House and Senate versions. The Senate did prevail, however, on its refusal to fund $1 million for the design of buildings at the Solar Energy Research Institute, a s CRS- 7 contained in the House bill. FY85 R&D Budget The Administration has requested $163.6 million for solar R&D in FY85. While the proposed budget is 10% less than Congress appropriated in FY84, it far surpasses the FY83 ($72 million) afid.FY84 ($87 million) budget requests. Of note in the FY85 request, the Reagan Administration has for the first time $3.5 million for engineering asked for funds for the OTEC subprogram research. Funds ($0.5 million) were also requested for the first time to support international solar programs. With one exception, every subprogram was reduced by varying amounts from FY84 levels. The exception is the technology transfer subprogram which was increased by 85% over FY84. -- CRS- 8 IB83027 UPDATE-02/16/84 FY84 AND FY85 SOLAR BUDGETS (in thousands) FY84 DOE Request Photovoltaic Energy Systems Solar Thermal Energy Systems Solar Building Energy Research Wind Energy Systems Biomass Energy Technology Alcohol Fuels R&D (included under biomass) Ocean Energy Systems Solar International Programs Solar Technology Transfer Program Direction Solar Program Support Solar Energy Research Institute TOTAL, SOLAR ENERGY FY.84 Appropriation ' FY85 DOE Request 32,700 13,575 8,375 8,600 17,300 --0 0 3,100 3,009 0 0 86,659 181,650 163,649 CRS- 9 Solar Bank Action For FY84 the Administration again requested zero funding for the Bank.. Once again Congress rejected the request appropriating $25 million instead (P.L. 98-45), bringing to $67 million the total appropriated for the Bank through FY84. Bank funds were allocated but not released to participating States and territories in June 1983 following publication of interim rules and regulations in the Federal Register (FR May 3 1 , 1983: 24254-24270). By mid-November 1983 all of the FY82 appropriation and $9 million of the FY83 appropriation had been allocated. Under the interim rules the funds are being used to provide loan assistance primar4ly to low-income individuals for eligible energy conservation measures on residential buildings of any size and passive solar energy measures for one-to-four-family residential buildings. The interim rules made active solar energy systems ineligible for assistance. -. At a Jan. 1 1 , 1984 meeting the Bank board voted to approve final publication of the regulation governing operation of the Bank. The board also released a total of $48 million through the first two quarters of FY84 to the 4 5 States, DC, and two territories participating in the Bank program. Another $ 1 8 million will be apportioned during the last two quarters of FY84. States cannot draw on the Bank's funds until they have reached a cooperative agreement with the Bank on the use of the funds. As of the Jan. 1 1 meeting, Only 26 of the participating States and territories had procedures approved by the Bank. P.L. 98-181, the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1984, amended the Energy Security Act to liberalize some of the restrictions imposed on recipients and equipment by the interim rules and regulations. As a result active solar energy systems, energy efficient air conditioners, and home 98-181 energy audits will be eligible for Bank subsidies. In addition, P.L. raised the ceiling on administrative costs which may enable more States t e participate in the program. It also reauthorized the Bank for F Y 8 5 for "such sums as may be necessary." For FY85 the Administration has again requested Bank. a zero budget for the LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITY Several major solar bills were introduced in the first session of the 98th Congress. Some of these are briefly described below. (See legislation section, below, for a more.complete listing.) Act H.R. 1595, the Solar Energy National Security and Employment (SENSE) of 1983. Bipartisen support was lined up in the 97th Congress by the Solar Enfield at 466-6350) and other solar support groups for Lobby (contact introduction of the SENSE Act early in the 98th Congress. In the House the separate titles Act was introduced both as a single bill (H.R. 1595) and by (H.R. 1596-H.R. 1599); i n .the Senate it was introduced just by titles (S. 616-S. 619). The Act is intended'to stimulate small solar businesses, extend and increase renewable energy tax credits, reauthorize the Solar Bank, establish a national strategic alcohol fuels stockpile, %reate jobs in the am renewable energy fields, and improve the Federal Government's renewable energy efforts. Introductory statements appear in the Congressional Records of February 23 (H604-H6061, February 28 (S1741-S1752), and Mar. 9 , 1983 (H1103-H1108) . H - R e s . 1 3 9 , to restore balance in the DOE e n e r g y . program. A resolution introduced with 1 3 0 cosponsors. It calls for the Federal Government t o demonstrate a comnitment to energy conservation and renewables by restoring The resolution i s i n response to balance to DOE'S proposed FY84 budget. Administration proposed cuts in conservation and renewables for FYB4. An explanation of H.Res. 1 3 9 appears in the Mar. 1 6 , 1983, Congressional Record (H1360-H1361) . S. 710/H.R. 1883, passive solar tax credits. This bill provides about a 20% tax credit subsidy ($2,500 maximum credit) to encourage builders t o incorporate efficient passive solar energy systems in new construction. Introductory statements appear in the Congressional Records of March 8 (S2300) and Mar. 1 1 , 1983 (E996). Tax Credit Legislation A prime objective of solar backers is the increase and extension of tax credits for solar and other renewable energy property, most of which expire at the end of 1985. Several bills to this effect are under consideration i n the House and Senate. The SENSE Act is a comprehensive bill with several tax provisions. Title I extends the business energy tax credits for all renewable . energy applications through 1990. It also increases the credits for solar, wind, and geothermal applications to 25%, and the credit for hydroelectric projects to 15%. It includes an affirmative commitments provision which allows projects underway but not completed before the 1985 expiration date to remain eligible for the credit beyond 1985. . T i t l e IV extends the residential credit through 1990 and adds passive solar to the list of equipment eligible for the c.rediL -H..R-. 13-75-.(aqua) increases the business energy credit to 25% and it to 1990. It also includes a n affirmative commitments provision. extends H.R. 3358 (Shannon) is limited to an affikmative commitments provision f o r solar, wind, and geothermal systems. It does not increase or extend existing credits. This bill is similar to S. 1396 but does not make synthetic fuels projects eligible for affirmative commitments. S. 1305 (Packwood) is a comprehensive Solar incentives provisions similar to Titles I and IV of the SENSE Act. It affirmative commitments provision. A similar bill (H.R. 3072 been introduced in the House. bill having includes a n Heftel) has S. 1396 (Domenici) is similar to H.R. 3358 except that it affirmative commitment provision to synthetic fuels projects. extends the S. I780 (Bumpers) is a redraft of selected non-tax provisions of the SENSE Act to conform to the jurisdiction of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. H.R. 4 0 7 8 (Heftel)/S. 1939 (Wallop) is a compromise measure to extend the tax credits for renewable energy and synfuels. It pares back the credit levels originally sought by the SENSE Act, but Offers considerably more than the limited-purpose bills (H.R. 3358 and S. 1396). Summary of Action Supporters of solar tax increases/extensions had hoped to ride a major tax bill during the first session of the 98th Congress. Those hopes were dashed when Congress ajourned without acting on an appropriate bill. Congressional and industry support appears to have coalesced around identical bills introduced by Senator Wallop (S. 1939) and Representative Heftel (H.R. 4078). These bills were a compromise between the SENSE Act and limited purpose legislation such as S. 1396 (Domenici). ~ o o k i n g ahead, supporters are expected to continue their efforts in the second session but are concerned that .their compromise position may be further compromised by forces opposed to any measure that can be viewed a s a revenue loser in a time of high budget deficits. FEDERAL SOLAR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Over the past several years the Federal Government has promoted the commercial introduction of solar technologies through various financial, educational and informational programs. Assitance has been made available to State and local organizations, private business and individuals. In addition, State governments and private sector organizations have become increasingly active in providing informational and other forms of assistance. This sectlon identifies some of the major current Federal assistance programs by agency. However, because the Reagan Administration is attempting of the to reduce Federal involvement -in .energy COmmerCialiZatiOn, many programs identified are under active review for either termination or .consolidation into State-administered block grants. Consequently, the long term status of many of these programs is uncertain. For additional infoxamtion-an t h e s e and other Federal programs, as well a s State and private sector programs, contact the Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and The Referral Service identified below. See also, mini brief 83210 Residential Energy Tax Credits. -- Internal Revenue Service (Tax Credits) Limited to 15% of the Residential Conservation Tax Credit. spent, or a maximum of $300. Credit available through 1985. first $2,000 Residential Renewable Energy Tax Credit. Limited to 40% of the first $10,000 spent, or a maximum of $4,000. Credit avdilable through 1985. Eligible equipment includes solar space and water heating systems; solar cooling systems, photovoltaic systems, wind electric generators, and systems Wood or peat burning that use geothermal energy to heat or cool a home. stoves are not eligible. "Passivev solar systems, such a s roof overhangs, greenhouses or extra thick walls have been ruled ineligible for tax credits by the IRS because they serve dual structural functions. Taxpayers use IRS form 5695 to file for conservation and renewable energy'credits as explained in IRS publication 903, "Energy Credits for individual^.^ Business Energy Tax Credits. Solar, wind and geothermal energy equipment eligible for a 15% tax credit through 1985. Small-scale hydroelectric equipment i s eligible for a 10% credit through 1985. A 10% credit . for cogeneration and other specifically defined energy property such as recouperators, heat exchangers and automatic energy control systems expired in 1082. HUD (Grants, Loans, Insurance) Title I: Home Improvement Loan Insurance. HUD insures up to 90% of a conventional home improvement loan made for Structural alterations, repairs or additions, including installation of weatherization measures and solar hearing systems. Solar systems must be approved by HUD in advance of installation. Section 203: Home Mortgate Insurance. Insured loans funded through H U D 1 s Federal Housing Administration (FMA) lending authority. Down payment requirements may be less than with conventionai loans. Solar homes meeting FMA inspection requirements are eligible. Section 312: Rehabilitation Loans: Direct loans at low rates for long terms for the rehabilitation of multi-family housing. Energy conservation and solar heating installations are encouraged. Community Development Block Grants/Entitlements (Large Cities). Cities with populations greater than 50,000 eligible -for grants for use in revitalizing neighborhoods. Energy-related projects, including solar energy measures, wind conversion and district heating are encouraged. Urban Development Action Grants. Similar to community development block grants but av-ailable to any .ci-ty or urban county which meets certain e c o n o m i c distress criteris. Cost sharing required. Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank. Legislation creating the ~ a n k Efforts by the Reagan Administration to block the enacted in--8e80.. imp1ementation:of the Bank during the 97th Congress were not successful. Bank assistance became available through State institutions beginning in early 1983. Interested parties should contact their State energy offices. In its initial startup based phase, the Bank is targeting passive s o l a f energy systems and conservation loans/grants to individuals whose incomes are too l o w . t o use the tax credit. Department of Agriculture Farm Ownership Loans. Farmers1 Home Administration (FmHA) makes insured and guaranteed loans available for the purchase or improvement of farms. Conservation. and renewable energy systems eligible f.or assistance, including alcohol distilleries, windmills, wood burning stoves, solar heaters and greenhouses. Rural Housing Programs. Loans or direct grants to low income borrowers in rural areas to rehabilitate, weatherize or otherwise bring homes above minimum standards. FmHA administers the program and encourages the installation of solar heating systems. Alcohol Fuels Loan Grant Guarantees. FmHA loan guarantees for up of the total cost of large scale facilities for the production of fuels from farm products, residues, or wood. to 90% alcohol ACTION (Federal Agency for Citizen voluntary Service). Demonstration Grants Program. Projects which use volunteer services and focus on the low income community may qualify for direct grants from ACTIONEligible energy-related activities include skill training and disseminating information on energy conservation and low-cost renewable energy technologies. Retired Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP). Provides meaningful volunteer $SVP projects which opportunities for persons 6 0 years. of age or older. focus on energy conservation and renewables are encouraged. Small Business Administration SBA has established a n energy energy ventures a s part of the guaranteed loans available. loan program Section 7(a) to finance small business loan program. Direct a n 8 Other Agency Programs and Information Sources Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service. Formerly called the National Solar Heating and Cooling Information Center, the CAREIRS is an inquiry and referral service for questions about energy conservation a s well as renewable technologies, such as wind, biomass, photovoltaics, solar thermal, ocean theremal, alcohol fuels, and active and passive solar heating a and cooling. CAREIRS will disseminate basic information and provkde referral service for those requiring extensive, detailed information.-- The toll-free.telepBone numbers remain the sa'me as they were for NSHCIC. They L m , . to 6--p.m. Eastern time. -are.npen-fro&9 - - - - (800) 523-2929 continental U.S., Puerto R I C O Virgin Islands (800) 462-4983 Pennsylvania (800) 537-4700 Alaska and Hawaii The Mailing address is: Renewable Energy Information P.O. Box 1607 Rockville, MD. 20850 Solar Energy Information Data Bank. The SEIDB is intended to serve the technical community. It answers technical inquiries, conducts seminars and workships, provides on-site usage of the comprehensive library collection, and conducts computerized information services. Computer services include modeling and simulation capabilities. contact: Solar Energy Research Institute, 1536 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (313-234-7171). A National Solar Energy National solar energy education directory. Eeucation Directory is available from the Government Printing Office at a cost of $7.00 (ask for publications number 061-000-00537-4). Published in May 1981, it lists colleges and unversities, junior colleges and vocatinal/technical schools that offer degrees and courses in solar energy and related fields. The schools are listed by State. A solar Energy Technical Education Directory (based on the SERI directory), listing 9 1 post-secondary institutions offering training programs in technical fields, is available from the Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service. In addition, CAREIRS has available at no charge State-by-State educational program listings. Additional Information Additional information on these and other Federal and State solar energy assistance programs is available from the conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service. Also, a report entitled w E S C Guide to Solar Programsw is available from the Environmental and Energy Study Conference of the House of Representatives (3334 House Annex 1 1 , Washington, D.C. 20515). LEGISLATION P.L. 98-50 (H.R. 3132) Energy and Water Development Appropriation, 1984. Provides $178.65 million for D O E solar energy programs in FY84. Reported May 2 4 , 1983 (H.Rept. 98-217). Passed House June 7 , 1983. Reported in Senate June 1 6 , 1983 (S.Rept. 98-1531. Conference report filed in House June 2 8 , 1983 (H.Rept. 98-272). Final agreement reached June 29, 1983. Signed into law -3u-l~-E&-l9 83P-.-L.- 98--45--wR. 3133) Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriation, 1984. Provides $25 million to HUD for the Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank i n 1984. Reported May 24, 1983 (H.Rept. 98-223). Passed House June 2 , 1983. Reported in Senate June 1 4 , 1983 (S-Rept. 98-152). Passed Senate amended June 21, 1983. Conference report filed June 2 3 , 1983 (H.Rept. 98-264). Final agreement reached June 29, 1983. Signed into law July 1 2 , 1983. Amends the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980 to provide additional authorizations. Introduced Feb. 1 0 , 1983; referred to Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. H.R. 1595 (Wirth) (SENSE) Act of 1983. The Solar Energy National Security and Employment Amends, extends, and enhances the renewable energy and conservation program of the U.S. in order to increase employment, promote renewable energy small business, enhance national security, and displace imported fuels. Introduced Feb. 23, 1983; referred jointly to Committees on Ways and Means; Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs; Energy and Commerce; Small Business; Armed Services; Agriculture; Education and Labor; and Science and Technology. H.R. 1596 ( ~ e d e l l /s. ) 6 1 6 (Durenberger) Renewable Energy Small Business Development Act of 1983. Promote the use of solar and other renebable forms of energy developed by the private sector. Introduced in the House Feb. 2 3 , 1983; referred jointly to Committees on Ways and Means; Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs; Energy and Commerce; and Small Business. Introduced in the Senate Feb. 28, 1983; referred to Committees on Finance. H.R. 1597 (Dickinson)/S. 617 (Stennis) Promotes the use of Renewable energylNationa1 Security Act of 1983. energy-conserving equipment and biofuels by DOD. Introduced in the House Feb. 23, 1983; referred jointly to the Committees on Armed Services, Agriculture, and Energy and Commerce. Introduced i n the Senate Feb. 2 8 , 1983; referred to the Committee on Armed Services. H.R. 1598 (Jeffords) /S. 6 1 8 (Percy) Renewable Energy Employment Act. Revises certain Federal training and economic development programs to create jobs and develop skills in renewable energy and energy conservation industries. Introduced in the House Feb. 23, 1983; referred jointly to Committees on Education and Labor, Banking, Finance Introduced in the and U m a n Affairs, Energy and Commerce, and Agriculture. Senate Feb. 2 8 , 1983; referred to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry. H.R. 1599 (Neal)/S. 6 1 9 (Tsongas) Renewable Energy Consumer Incentives Act of 1983. Reauthorizes the Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank, extends the residential energy tax --credits,- eoorclinates Federal energy informational programs, reinstates automobile and applicance efficiency labelling standards, and standardizes PURPA contracts. Introduced in the House Feb. 23, 1983; referred jointly t o Committees on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs, Ways and Means, Energy and Commerce, Science and Technology, and Small Business. Introduced in the Senate Feb. 2 8 , 1983; referred to the Committee on Finance. Renewable Energy Tax Credjt Act of 1983. Extends the energy tax credit for solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal Introduced Mar. 2, 1983; referred to Committee on Ways and Means. investment property. Establishes eligibility for the energy tax credit for U.S. renewable energy equipment employed in beneficiary developing Referred to Committee on Ways and Means. produced countries. Renewable Energy Industry Development Act of 1983. Gives the Secretary of commerce the responsibility for developing a comprehensive program for identifying strengths and weaknesses in U.S. competitiveness with respect to the renewable energy industry and developing a strategy for improvement. Referred to Committee on Energy and Commerce. H.R. 3358 (Shannon) Energy Security Tax Incentives Act of 1983. Provides an affirmative commitments provision for solar, wind, and geothermal energy property to allow projects underway and for which significant work has been done before the close of 1985 to remain eligible for the tax credits beyond 1985. Referred to Committee on Ways and Means. H.Res. 1 3 9 (Ottinger) A resolution to restore balance in the Federal energy budget. Mar. 2 3 , 1983. S. 710 (Hart)'/H.R. Introduced 1883 (Fowler) To provide a tax credit to homebuilder for the construction of residences incorporating passive solar energy features. Introduced i n the Senate Mar. 8, 1983; referred to the Committee on Finance. Introduced in the House Mar. 3 , 1983; referred to Committee on Ways and Means. S. 1305 (Packwood) Renewable Energy Tax Incentive Act of 1983. Extends the 40% residential solar, wind, and geothermal tax credit to Dec. 31, 1990; increases the business energy investment credit to 25% and extends these credits to Dec. 3 1 , 1990; includes an affirmative commitments provision. Referred to Committee on Finance. Similar to H.R. 3072 (Heftel). S. 1396 (Domenici) -.. - -. r . . . < .- - Energy Security Tax Incentives Act of 1983. Similar to H.R. L h a t the a f f 4 z m U v e commit-ments provision is also- -extended fuels projects. Referred to Committee on Finance. 3358 except to synthetic S. 1780 (Bumpers) Solar Energy National Security and Employment Act of 1983. For committee jurisdictional purposes collects some of the non-tax provisions of the SENSE Act t o . a l l o w for appropriate hearings to be held. Referred to Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. HEARINGS U.S. ----- Congress. House. Committee 0.n Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs. Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy. Hearings .on H.R. 605, to establish a Solar Energy Development Bank. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. May 3 and June 20, 1979. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979. 208.p. SuBcommittee on Housing and Community Development. Hearings on H.R. 605, H.R. 4987, and other bills to establish a solar energy development bank. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. July 3 0 and Aug. 1 , 1979. ----- Subcommittee on the City and Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Joint hearings on renewable energy in the city. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1 s t session. Oct. 1 7 , 1979. U.S. Congress. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power. Hearings on Administration budget cuts in conservation and solar programs. Hearings, 97th Congress, 1st session. Dec. 1 , 2 , and 3 , 1981.' 1 7 4 p. ----- Jointly with the Committees on Small Business and Education and Labor. Hearings on the renewable energy industry. Hearings, 98th Congress, 1 s t session. June 28, 1983. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power. Hearings on solar commercialization. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. Jan. 1 0 , 1979. U.S. Congress. Hou'se. Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. Subcommittee on Oceanography. Hearing on H.R. 1381, to amend the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980 to provide for additional authorizations. Hearings, 98th Congress, 1 s t session. Mar. 7 , 1983. (In press) U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Merchant Marine and Oversight hearing on ocean thermal energy conversions. 96th Congress, 1st session. Sept. 20, 1979. .----- Hearings, U.S.- Congress. House. Committee on Science and Techonoloy. Overs-ighf hearings to review Title V of P.L. 95-619, -#e N . a ~ ~ & -Energyl Conservation Policy Act (relates to the conservation and solar energy in Federal buildings, and the utilization of photovoltaics in Federal facilities). Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. Sept. 26 and 27, 1979. U.S.. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology. Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications. Hearings on tax incentives for new energy technologies. Hearings, 98th Congress, 1st session. July 1983. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology. Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power and Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications; Committee on Small Business. Subcommittee on Genepal Oversight of the Economy; Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities. Committee on Education and Labor. Hearings on the status of the solar energy industry in America. Hearings, 98th Congress, 1st session. June 2 8 , 1983. (In press) ----- Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications. Hearings on H.R. 2335, the Solar Power Satellite Research, Development and Evaluation Program Act of 1979. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. Mar. 28, 29, and 3 0 , 1979. . ----- Hearings on the President's solar goal: one year later. Hearings, 96th Congress, 26 session. June 1 2 , 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 210 p. ----- Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications. Hearings on solar power satellite. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. Mar. 28, 29, 30, 1979. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979. 342 p. ----- Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications. Oversight hearings on the Solar Energy Research Institute and Regional Solar Energy Centers. Vol. XII. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. Oct. 24 and 25, 1979. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 4 6 7 p. ----- Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications. Hearings on the D O E Photovoltaic Program and the FY81 photovoltaic program authorization request. Hearings, 96th Congress, 2 8 session. Feb. 29, 1980. ----- Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications. Oversight hearing on biomass. 96th Congress. 26 session. ~ a r .1 0 , 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 175 p. ----- Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications and the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Joint hearings on national solar energy policy. Vol. VI.. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. June 1 4 and 21, 1979. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979. 944 p. - - - .- - . -Subcommittees on Energy Development and Applications and on la-vpsiigations and Oversight-. Joint hearing on U.S. solar and conservation technologies in international markets. Hearings, 97th Congress, 26 session. June 3 and 1 7 , 1982. . Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications. Hearings on business energy tax incentives for renewable energy resources. Hearings, 97th Congress, 2d session. July 1 3 , 1982. . .U.S. ----U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Small Business. Hearing on the role of small business in solar photovoltaic research and development and the effects of consolidations on the .industry. Hearings, 96th Congress, 26 session.. July 30, 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. Hearing on the SBA Solar Energy Loan Program. 96th Congress, 2d session. Mar. 1 8 , 1980. Hearings, Congress. Senate. Committee.on Energy and Natural Resources. Subcammittee on Energy Conservation and Supply. Hearings on S. 950, the Omnibus Solar Energy Commercialization Act. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. - - June 1 2 and 1 3 , 1979. 1979. 429 p. ----- Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Oversight hearings on the potential impact of international applications of renewable energy resources. Hearings, 96th Congress, 26 session. Aug. 1 9 , 21, and Sept. 9 , 1980. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Finance. Subcommittee on Energy and Agricultural Taxation. Targeted,extension of energy tax credits. Hearings on S. 1396. Hearings, 98th Congress, 1st session. June 20, July 1 8 , 1983. U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Small Business. Hearings on the structure of the solar energy industry. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. Dec. 1 1 and 1 2 , 1979. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 439 p. REPORTS AND CONGRESSIONAL DOCUMENTS U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology. A multi-year framework for Federal solar energy research and development. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1983. 75 p. At head of title: 98th Congress, 1st session. Committee print. A historical review of Federal solar policies. Makes the case for a multi-year, level-funded solar for a multi-year, level-funded solar R&D program of $210 million. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Subcommittee on Ov-ersight and Investigations. Solar energy and today's consumer. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1978. 119 p. 95th Congress; 26 session. Committee At head oY title: . - .~ ".pZi&L& -- -- -- Reviews the problems encountered i n residential applications of active solar technology. Examines the issues of standards, warranties, and Federal involvement in consumer affairs. Based in part on an extensive questionnaire survey of solar consumers. CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS 04/12/82 -- 07/0.7/81 -- 06/20/79 -- Startup of the 10-Mw solar one power tower a t Barstow, Ca. C Solar Challenger, the first solar-powered airplane (photovoltaic cells), crossed the English channel. President Carter set forth a national strategy for accelerating the use of solar and renewable resource technologies based upon the results of the Solar Energy Domestic Policy Review, and committed the Nation to a goal of makig 20% of our energy needs by solar resources in the year 2000. 05/03/78 -- 10/01/77 -- 03/24/77 -- 07/22/76 -- 07/08/76 -- -- 01/19/76 - -- .--- - -- lo/-29/75 -- 01/20/75 -- 10/11/74 --- 10/00/74 -- 10/26/74 09/03/74 01/23/73 --- National observance of "Sun Day" as a day to promote public awareness of the potential of solar energy a s a national energy resource. The President called for a Domestic Policy Review of solar energy. Department of Energy activated. Consolidates functions of ERDA, FEA and FPC, plus energy programs from other agencies and departments. The Midwest Research Institute, teamed with t h e State of Colorado, was selected to establish and operate the Solar Energy Research Institute to be located near Golden, Colorado. Construction of a 400-kilowatt (thermal) ERDA Solar Thermal Test Facility began at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. The generation of 32 kilowatts of electricity by the Solar Total Energy Test Facility a t ERDA's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, N M , marked the first significant production of electric power from a solar-driven turbogenerator. Construction of a 5-megawatt, $21-million solar thermal test facility 'began at a location near ERDA's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The project includes a 40-acre field of mirrors and a boiler/test tower 200 ft. hight. HUD announced $1 million in grants for the legis'lation of solar units in 143 new and existing dwelling units in 27 States a s part of the ERDA Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program. This marks- the Nation': 'first large-scale test of solar energy i n housing. A 100-kw wind turbine built for ERDA by NASA's Lewis Research Center was dedicated at Sandusky, Ohio. The machine is the largest wind energy system new in operation and the second largest ever built. ERDA activated; became lead agency for solar R&D. P.L. 93-473 enacted. P.L. 93-438 enacted. FEA Project Independence Report submitted to the President. P.L. 93-409 enacted. The President announced a $ 5 0 million F Y 7 5 budget for solar energy an increase of $36 million or 257% over including R&D on heating and cooling of 1974 buildings and more advanced technologies for central -- -- power stations. 12/01/73 -- 12/00/72 -- 00/00/58 -- 00/00/54 -- 00/00/52 -- 00/00/41 -- 00/00/29 -- 00/00/12 -- The President received a long-range energy R&D program prepared by Chairman Dixy Lee Ray of the AEC. In the proposed program solar energy will receive $200 m2llion over 5 years with an FY75 budget of $35 million. The NSF/NASA Solar Energy Tanel Report wh; published. he report considered every aspect of solar energy an6 made specific funding recommendations. Solar batteries first used for satellite power. Silicon solar cells developed by Bell Telephone Laboratory scientists. President's Materials Commission indicated a potential market of 13 million solar heated homes by 1973. A A 1,250-Kilowatt wind-powered generator began 5 years of intermittent operation near Rutland, Vermont. A 22-kilowatt sea thermal power plant was successfully demonstrated near Cuba. The first solar power plant operated near Cairo, Egypt. The plant had a collector area of 13,000 feet, automatic sun tracking capability, and produced u p ' to 63.0 horsepower. . ADDITIONAL REFERENCE SOURCES Application of solar technology to today's energy needs. Office of Technology Assessment. June 1978. For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., SN 052-003-00539-5. Assesses the technical, economic, legal, regulatory, and institutional implications of large-scale use of on-site solar energy, in the framework of the total U.S. energy problem. The 2-volume report is organized as a reference tool for committees involved in national energy policy. Conservation and Solar Energy Programs of the Department of Energy: a critique. Office of Technology Assessment. June 1980. For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., SN j052-003-00757-6, price $3.75. Evaluates the progress and direction of a number of conservation and solar programs to assess the balance and long-range contribution of these effots, and to discover if the programs are coherently linked to goals set by Congress and the Administration. Council on Environmental ~ual'ity [ ~ x e c u t i v eOffice of the President]. Solar Energy:. progress and promise. Washington, for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1978. SN 041-011-00036-0, price $2.30. April 1978. 5 2 p. Summarizes the technical status of each solar technology, projects ti-ie future impact of solar technologies through 2020, and makes recommendations for accelerating the u s e . o f solar energy. U.S. NSF/NASA Solar Energy Panel. Solar energy as a national energy resource. 1972. 85 p. Xational Technical Information Service, Sales Dept., 5.285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22151. (PB221659) U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Policy Research Division. Handbook of Alternative Energy Technology Development and Policy. March 1983. (Report no. 83-43 SPR) Science APPENDIX I . . FEDERAL SOLAR ENERGY RD&D FUNDING by fiscal year U S (millions of dollars) 1974 and prior years 1975 1976 1977 1978 20.8 48.0 153.8 285.2 408.1 (1 1979 (2) 1980 (3) 1981 (3) 1982 Heating and Cooling Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Biomass Wind Ocean Thermal Alcohol Fuels 0ther* Program Direction TOTAL . * 514.2 542.6 471.8 256.9 Construction, Capital Equipment, International Programs, Commercialization, etc. After FY79, Construction and Capital Equipment are included in the budget.line of each program. (1) RD&D funding figures for FY79 and all prior years were provided by Lloyd Herwig, DOE. (2) Appropriations as shown in FY82 DOE budget request dacuments. (3) Appropriations as shown in FY83 DOE budget request documents.