Space Shuttle

SPACE SHUTTLE ISSUE BRIEF NUMBER IBB1175 AUTHOR: KarCia S. Smith Science Pclicy Researck Division THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SEZVICE HAJOR ISSUES SYSTEM DATE ORIGINATED 12/02/81 DATE UPDATED 03/21/83 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CALL 287-5700 CES- 1 The l i a t l o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s a n 6 S p a c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s m a j o r manneC p r o g r a m space t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system of t h e p o s t - A p o l l o e r a i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a (STS) b a s e d on a r e u s a b l e s p a c e s h u t t l e l a u n c h v e h i c l e . Funded s i n c e FY71, t h e s h u t t l e program i s coming t o f r u i t i o n : the space shuttle successfully completed i t s s e r i e s of f o u r test f l i g h t s on J u l y 4 , 1982. The f i r s t 1982. The n e x t o p e r a t i o n a l f 1 i g ; f i t was s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d i n N o v e m b e r s h u t t l e f l i g h t h a s been d e l a y e d b e c a u s e of l e a k s i n one of t h e o r b i t e r ' s main NASA h o p e s t o b e r e a d y f o r l a u n c h o n A p r . 4 , 1 9 6 3 . engines. T o t a l e s t i m a t e d c o s t s f o r r e s e a r c h , development, t e s t , and e v a l u a t i o n of t h e s h u t t l e a r e e x p e c t e d t o b e $ 1 8 . 0 3 0 b i l l i o n i n FY83 d o l l a r s . The o r i g i n a l e s t i m a t e f o r t h e s h u t t l e p r o g r a m was $5.15 billion i n 1971 dollars. If deescalated t o 1971 d o l l a r s , the current estimated cost of the shuttle p r o q r a m i s $ 0 . 7 4 8 b i l l i o ~ ,a n i n c r e a s e o f 3 1 % . t h e Cefense Department A i t h o u g h t h e s h u t t l e i s b e i n g C e v e l o p e d b y NASA, has played a r o l e i n d e s i g n i n g t h e s h u t t l e s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e program because i t w i l l be a prime s h u t t l e u s e r . In addition t o providing input t o t h e s h u t t l e ' s d e s i g n , DOD i s d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n e r t i a l u p p e r stage (IUS) f o r t h e s h u t t l e , a n d c o n s t r u c t i n g s h u t t l e l a u n c h facilities a t V a n e e n b e r g A i r Force Base. Kajor s h u t t l e i s s u e s before t h e Congress include: cost overruns, schedule sl:ppages, a n d KXSA s h u t t l e p r o g r a m m a n a g e m e n t ; t h e C e n t z u r v s . t h e IUS a s a n u p p e r s t a g e ; t r a n s i t ~ o nf r o m e x p e n d a b l e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s t o t h e shuttle; how own a n d o p e r a t e t h e many s h u t t l e o r b l t e r s t o b u i l d ; who s h o u l d u l t i m a t e l y s h u t t l e ; and s h u t t l e pricing policy. B A C K G R O U N D A N D P O L I C Y ANALYSIS T h i s s e c t i o n of t h e i s s u e b r i e f i s d i v i d e d as follows: SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM The S p a c e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S y s t e m D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Space S h u t t l e The O r b i t e r Launch a n e Landing S i t e s Approach and Landing T e s t s Orbital Flight Tests Operational Shuttle Flights M I L I T A R Y IMPLICATIOKS OF SHUTTLE SOVIET REACTION T O SHUTTLE NASA FUNDING FY83 FY84 D O D FUNDING ISSUES FOR CONCERN I N T H E 97TH CONGRESS C o s t O v e r r u n s / S c h e d u l e Slippages/NASA P r o g r a m Management V a n d e n b e r g AFB P r e p a r a t i o n s Number o f S h u t t l e O r b i t e r s Ownership and Operation of t h e Space S h u t t l e , The S p a c e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System The c o n c e p t of a r e n s a b l e s p a c e v e h i c l e h a s e x i s t e d a t least since the 1949s. H o w e v e r , t h i s c o n c e p t was s h e l v e d d u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 s a n d 1 9 6 0 s b e c a u s e t h e e a r l y d e v e l z p m e n t of t h e s p a c e program was c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h e m i l i t a r y b a l l i s t i c r o c k e c proqram and t h e p r e s s u r e of t h e "space r a c e w d i d nor pernit a redirection i n b a s i c concepts. The c l i m a t e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n w i t h regard t o t h e s p a c e p r o g r a m c o o l e d d r a s t i c a l l y a f t e r t h e s u c c e s s f u l moon l a n d i n g in consideration in future iCSS, and s i n c e t h a t time c o s t has been a primary space planning. I n t h i s c h a n g e d c l i m a t e , KASA's l o n g - r a n g e p l a n s have been expeditions s h a r p l y s c a l e d down, a n 8 a n S i t i o c s p r o j e c t s s u c h a s mannee X a r s ar,d p e r m a n e r t s p a c e s t a c i o n s h a v e b e e n i n d e f i n i t e i y postponed. e space s P . s = = l e e r , e r q e C a s tF.e c h i e f h o p e f o r r , a i n t a i n i n q a m e a c i n g f u l s ~ a c e s r o q r a r most S e c a ~ s eo f t h e s a v i n g s i t p r o m i s e e i n t h e c o s t o f s p a c e o p e r a t i o n s a n d future space a c t i v i t i e s a r e preeicated on the availability of a space t r a n s p o r t v e h i c l e which can d e l i v e r p a y l o a d s i n t o E a r t h o r b i t . The term "space rransportation system" (STS) h s s come t o b e used is only i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h t h e r e r m " s p a c e shuttle," a l t h o u g h t h e s h u t t l e A s o r i g i n a l l y e n v i s i o n e d , STS w o u l d h a v e i n v o l v e d o n e e l e m e n t of t h e s y s t e m . a f u l l y r e u s a b l e s p a c e s h ~ t t l e ,u n i t s s u c h a s S p a c e l a b w h i c 2 a r e c a r r i e d iri -+ s h u r t i e c a r g o b a y , a v a r i e c y of r e u s a b l e and expenCaSle upper stages to take payloacs i n t o o r b i t s higher than those wkict the s h u t t l e can access d i r e c t l y , a n d a u x i l i a r y power s u p p l i e s t o p e r m i t t h e s h u t t l e t o remain in orbit for longer periods of t i m e and t o provide e l e c t r i c a l power for experiments. D u r i n g t h e e a r l y p h a s e o f STS d i s c u s s i o n s , p l a n s also existed f o r b u i l d i n g a permanent e a r t h o r b i t i n g s p a c e s t a t i o n which would be s e r v i c e d by t h e s h u t t l e . As b u d g e t c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h i n NASA i n c r e a s e d , h o w e v e r , the scope of STS d i m i n i s h e d t o w h e r e i t i s now o n l y t h e s h u t t l e ( a n d u n i t s l i k e S p a c e l a b w h i c h The fully reusable f i t i n t o i t ) and a v a r i e t y of e x p e n d a b l e u p p e r s t a g e s . in 1971 because of budget concerns, and a s h u t t l e c o n c e p t was d r o p p e d p a r t i a l l y r e u s a b l e s y s t e m ( d e s c r i b e d b e l o w ) was s u b s t i t u t e d . P r e s i d e n t Nixon gave t h e go-ahead f o r t h e c u r r e n t s h u t t l e system i n J a n u a r y 1972. be developee in the future, but this T h e remaining STS e l e m e n t s may d e p e n d s upon b u d g e t s and needs. Without a u x i l i a r y power supplies, the the s h u t t l e can o n l y remair, i n o r b i t f o r 7-10 d a y s , and l i m i t s a r e p l a c e d on number a n d k i n d o f e x p e r i m e c t s t h a t c a n b e conducted (materials processing experiments, f o r example, require large supplies of electrical power). i s now Although space s t a t i o n p l a n s were d e f e r r e d during t h e 1 9 7 0 ~ NASA ~ s t r o n g l y recommending t h a t such a program b e t h e N a t i o n ' s next major space goal. A v a i l a b i l i t y of a space s t a t i o n could d e c r e a s e t h e need f o r a u x i l i a r y s h u t t l e power s o u r c e s . P l a n s have a l s o been d e f e r r e d f o r d e v e l o p i n g r e u s a b l e upper s t a g e s such as t h e S p a c e Tug a n 8 O r b i t a l T r a n s f e r V e h i c l e , a n d f o r u n i t s s u c h as a r e m o t e l y c o n t r o l l e d T e l e o p e r a t o r R e t r i e v a l System. I f a strong nee6 i s perceived for s u c h c a p a b i l i t i e s , NASA, D O D , o r p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y may d e v e l o p t h e m . CBS- 3 D e s c r i p t i o n cf t h e S p a c e S h u t t l e The p a r z i a l l y r e u s a b l e s h ~ z : l e c o n s i s t s of a r ~ a n n e C o r k i c e r v e h i c i e , an expendaSle p r o p e l l a n t tank ( r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e external t a n k ) , anC zwo recoverabie solid-fueied booster rockets. The s h u t t l e i s l a u n c h e d by u s e o f t h e s o l i d - f u e l e d r o c k e t s t o g e t h e r w i t h l i q u i d - f u e l e d e n g i n e s on t h e o r b i t e r , which a r e f e d from t h e e x t e r n a l t a n k . The s o l i d r o c k e t casings are p a r a c h u t e e back t o E a r t h and l a n d i n t h e ocean t o be recovered and reused. T h e e m p t y e x t e r n a l t a n k , when r e l e a s e d , b r e a k s up a n d i s p a r t i a l l y destroyed by h e a t a s i t r e - e n t e r s t h e atmosphere. The r e m a i n i n g p i e c e s f a l l i n t o t h e I n d i a n Ocean (af;ter a l a u n c h from t h e Kennedy Space C e n t e r ) o r t h e South P a c i f i c Ocean ( f o r l a u n c h e s f r o m V a n d e n b e r g A i r F o r c e B a s e ) . The O r b i t e r . The o r b i t e r , w h i c h r e s e m b l e s a n airplane, i s designed t o c a r r y up t o 6 5 , 0 0 0 p o u n d s ( 2 9 , 5 4 5 k i l o g r a m s ) i n t o E a r r h o r b i t ( 1 8 5 - i l l 0 K m o r 100-600 n a u t i c a l m i l e s ) . The s h u t t l e w i l l r o u t i n e l y c a r r y a crew o f t h r e e t o s e v e n p e r s 0 r . s ( a l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t f o u r m i s s i o n s had a c r e w of two), plus a p a y l o a d such a s a s a t e l l i t e t o be p l a c e d i n E a r t h o r b i t . F o r some m i s s i o n s , t h e payload w i l l i n c l u d e a p r e s s c r i z e d space l a b c r a t o r y , " S p a c e l a b t U which h a s Seen d e v e l o p e a b y t e n European n a t i o n s a t t h e i r e x p e n s e and w i l l be used t o conduct experiments i n t h e o r b i t e r payload bay. When t h e m i s s i o n c f che s h u t t l e i s completed, t h e o r b i t e r r e t u r n s t o Earth and lands horizontally l i k e an a i r F l a n e , b r i n g i n g back t o E a r t h t h e S p a c e l a b o r other payloads in i t s c a r g o bay. The s h u t t l e i s d e s i g n e d t o stay in orbit for 7-10 days, a l c h o u q h t h e r e a r e a e e q u a t e s u p p l i e s t o p r o v i d e f o r c o n t i n g e n c i e s which m i g h t f o r c e a r.ission t c be extended. N A S A b a s SeeE a u t h o r i z e d t o C o n s t r u c t four flight-worrhy space shuttle o r b i t e r s ( O r b i t e r 1 0 1 w i l l n o t be u s e d for space f l i g h t s ) . Debate over whether a f i f t h s h u t t l e o r b i t e r w i l l be neeaed co accommodate a l l p o t e n t i a l s h u t t l e u s e r s t h r o u g h t h e r e s t o f t h i s d e c a d e h a s c o n t i n u e d f o r many y e a r s , and h a s y e t t o be r e s o l v e d . The a u t h o r i z e d s h u t t l e o r b i t e r s have both n u m b e r s a n d names a s follows: Orbiter 101 (Enterprise); Orbiter 102 ( C o l u m b i a ) ; O r b i t e r 099 ( C h a l l e n g e r ) ; O r b i t e r 1 0 3 ( D i s c o v e r y ) ; and O r b i t e r 104 ( A t l a n t i s ) . Rockwell I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t h e prime c o n t r a c t o r f o r t h e orbiters. O r b i t e r 1 0 1 was u s e d f o r t h e a p p r o a c h a n d l a n d i n g t e s t s d e s c r i b e d b e l o w , but w i l l n o t be used for space f l i g h t s because it i s overweight; r e c o n f i g u r a t i o n f o r f l i g h t a p p e a r s t o be p r o h i b i t i v e l y expensive. Orbiter 101 i s currently a t Rockwell's Palmdale, California, f a c i l i t y where t h e o r b i t e r s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d , and i t i s being used f o r s p a r e p a r t s for Orbiters 103 and 104. I t may a l s o b e u s e d t o t e s t t h e l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s a n V a n d e n b e r g AFB. O r b i t e r 1 0 2 was u s e d f o r t h e f o u r o r b i t a l test f l i g h t s and t h e f i r s t operational flight. I t i s now b e i n g r e f u r b i s h e d a n d s l i g h t l y modified f o r future flights. was Orbiter 099, formerly designated the Structural Test Article, o r i g i n a l l y designed s o l e l y f o r ground t e s t i n g . 1t h a s been converted t o f l i g h t c o n f i g u r a t i o n , and w i l l be t h e second o r b i t e r i n t o space. Challenger was d e l i v e r e d t o NASA's K e n n e d y S p a c e C e n t e r on J u l y 5 , 1 9 8 2 , a n d w i l l make i t s f i r s t s p a c e f l i g h t i n 1983. P r o d u c t i o n of l o n g l e a d i t e m s f o r O r b i t e r s 1 0 3 a n d 1 0 4 h a s with started, p l a n s c u r r e n t l y c a l l i n g f o r t h e s e o r b i t e r s t o be ready in 1984 and i985, L a u n c h a n d L a n c i n g S i z e s . Two l a u n c h a n d l a n d i n g s i t e s a r e p l a r . n e d f o r t h e Cape C a n a v e r a l , space t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system: K e n n e d y S p a c e C e n t e r (KSC) a t Force F l o r i d a , f o r l a u n c h e s i n t o an e a s t e r l y o r b i t and t h e Vandenberg A i r B a s e (VAFB) i n C a l i f o r n i a f o r l a u n c h e s i n t o p o l a r o r s u n - s y n c h r o n o u s orSits. KSC h a s b e e n r s e d f o r a 1 1 l a u n c h e s t o d a t e , and l a n d i n g s a r e expected to b e g i n a t KSC i n 1 9 8 3 ( i n s t e a d o f at E d w a r d s AFB, California). VAFB i s scheduled t o begin s h u t t l e o p e r a t i o n s i n October 1985. Approach and Landing T e s t s T h e f l r s t s e r l e s o f suborbital f l l g h t t e s t s ( k n o w n a s t h e A L T o r A p p r o a c h a n d L a n C l n g T e s z s ) f o r t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e c r S ~ t e r1 0 1 (the Ecterprlse) were h e l d Z n r ~ n gF e b r u a r y a n C X a r c h ; 3 7 7 a: E d w a r d s A l r F c r c e E a s e (AFE), C a l l f . -.. *, ,*. e s e z e s t s , t 5 e c r b ; t e r was u n ~ a ~ n e dw:t,k t h e s y s t e ~ si n e r t , ar,d c c ~ n t e d c ~ .a S c e l n p 7 4 7 w h l c h was s p e c ~ a l l y moC2fied t c be the s~c:t;e carrier aircraft. T n e s e c o n d s e r l e s o f f l l g h t t e s t s , d u r ~ n gw h l c h the orblter was R a n n e d a n d ~ t ssy s t e m s w e r e a c t i v e (while a t t a c h e d t o t h e B o e l n g 7 4 7 ) , took p L a c e ~n June and Zuly 1377. The t h i r d s e r l e s of f l l g h t r e s t s kas s u c c e s s f u l l y ~ n l t l a t e d:n A u g u s t 1 9 7 7 w l t h t h e f i r s t i r e e f l l g h t a c d landlng of t h e o r b l t e r Z n t e r p r l s e . F l v e s u c c e s s f u l i r e e f l i g h t s w e r e c a r r ~ e do u t ~n t k l s l a s t s e r l e s o f a p p r o a z h a n d 1ana:ng t e s c s , w i t h t h e l a s t t e s t ~ n C c t o b e r - n LC-7. Orbital Flight Tests Tests The f i r s t f o u r s h u t t l e f l i g h t s , referred t o as Orbital F l i g h t ( O F T S ) , were d e s i g n e d t o t e s t s h u t t l e c a p a b i l i t i e s and systems. A i l OFTs w e r e c a r r i e d o u t by O r b i t e r 1 0 2 ( t h e C o l u m b i a ) , w e r e l a u n c h e d f r o n NASA's Kennedy S p a c e C e n t e r a t Cape C a n a v e r a l , F l o r i d a , a n d l a n d e d a t E d w a r d s A i r F o r c e B a s e , C a l i f o r n i a ( e x c e p t f o r STS-3 w h i c h l a n d e d a t W h i t e S a n B s , N.K. because of weather problems). orbital test flight, d e s i g n a t e d STS-1 ( f o r Space STS 1. T h e f i r s t T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S y s t e m l ) , w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y l a u n c h e d a t 0 7 0 0 EST o n A p r . 12, 1981. Launch had b e e n d e l a y e d f o r two d a y s b e c a u s e of proSlems w i t h c o m p u t e r software. S T S - 1 w a s commanded by J o h n Y o u n g , a veteran of four previous s p a c e f l i g h t s , a n d p i l o t e d b y R o b e r t C r i p p e n , or, h i s f i r s t s p a c e f l i g h t . A l l t e s t o b j e c t i v e s w e r e met oc t h e 54 h o u r 21 minute mission, and Columbia A f t e r l a n d i n g a t E d w a r d s AFB a t 132; E S T o n A p r . 14, p e r f o r m e d as p l a n n e d . t h e Columbia was f l o w n a t o p t h e s h u t t l e c a r r i e r a i r c r a f t back t o Kennedy Space Center f o r refurbishment f o r t h e next s h u t t l e mission. STS 2 . T h e s e c o n d s h u t t l e t e s t f l i g h t , S T S - 2 , was successfully launched o n Nov. 1 2 , 1 9 8 1 . Commanded b y J o e E n g l e a n d p i l o t e d b y D i c k T r u l y , the f l i g h t was o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d t o l a s t f o r 5 d a y s a n d 4 h o u r s , b u t was c u r t a i l e d when p r o b l e m s d e v e l o p e d w i t h o n e o f the three f u e l c e l l s which provide e l e c t r i c i t y f o r the spacecraft. T h e s h u t t l e l a n d e d a t E d v a r d s AFB, Although t h e C a l i f o r n i a o n Nov. 1 4 a f t e r 2 d a y s a n d 6 h o u r s i n s p a c e . 9 0 % of the mission m i s s i o n was s h o r t e n e d C O n S i d e r a b l y , NASA s t a t e s t h a t o b j e c t i v e s were met, i n c l u d i n g testing of t h e Remote M a n i p u l a t o r System ( b u i l t b y C a n a d a ) w h i c h w i l l b e u s e d on subsequent f l i g h t s t o deploy and CRS- 5 IEEl175 UPDATE-C3/21/63 designated OSTA-1 (for r e t r i e v e s a ~ e l l i t e s . STS-2 a l s o c a r r i e c a p a y l o a d KASAis C f f i c e o f S p a c e anC T e r r e s t r i a l A z p l i c a t i o n s ) . The e x p e r i m e n t s i n t h e p s y l o a 5 c c n c e r z e e r e m o t e s e 2 s i r . g of l a n d reso:rces, atmospheric pheno~~er~a, a n d o c e a r . c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l 2 C : n g 1) a S h c t x l e I r , a g i n g R a d a r (SIR-A) tc zest ~ e c h r ~ i c c ef so r m a p p i ~ 5 g e o l o g i c a l structures important in o i l and g a s e x p l o r a t i o n ; 2 ) a K u l t i s p e c t r a l I n f r a r e d R a d i o m e t e r (SKIRR) t o m e a s u r e solar Feature Identification r e f l e c t a n c e of minerai-bearing rock f o r m a t i o n s ; 3 ) a a n d L o c a t i o n E x p e r i m e n t (FILE) t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between w a t e r , bare ground, 4) a to c o l l e c t only wanted d a t a ; v e g e t a t i o n , snow, o r c l o u e s i n o r d e r M e a s u r e m e n t o f A l r P o l l u t i o n f r o m S a t e l l i t e s (HAPS) e x p e r i m e n t t o m e a s u r e t h e 5) a n Ocean C o l o r d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a r b o n monoxide in the troposphere; E x p e r i m e n t ( O C E ) ~ ~ nOa p a l g a e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ; 6 ) a night and day o p t i c a l s u r v e y o f l i g h t n i n g s c c r m s (NOSL); a n d 7 ) a H e f l e x B i o e n g i n e e r i n g T e s t (HBT) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p l a n t gr0wt.h a n d moisture content i n the space environme~t. Two a t t e m p t s t o l a u n c h STS-2 o n Nov. 4 f a i l e d b e c a u s e o f p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e l u b r i c a n t f o r two of the t h r e e a u x i l i a r y power units (APUs) u s e d for launching and l a n d i n g t h e s h u t t l e . T k e APUs p r o v i d e power for hydraclic s y s t e n s w?.ich r o c a t e t h e s h u ~ t l en a i n e n g i n e s d u r i n g l a u n c h a n C C r i v e t h e l a n c i n g q o a r and aerodyr,arr,ic c o r i t r o l s u r f a c e s ( r u d d e r , e l e v o n s , e x c . ) dnring reentry. T h e p r o b l e m was C a u s e d b y dirty f i l t e r s which prevented the l u b r i c a t i n g o i l from reaching t h e h y d r a u l i c l i n e s . at 1100 STS 3 . The t h i r d OFT R i s s i o n , STS-3, was s u c c e s s f u l l y l a u n c h e d EST o n K a r . 2 2 , 1 9 8 2 , a n d l a n d e d a t 1 1 0 5 EST o n a 30. B e c a u s e of inClemen: w e a t h e r a t t h e prime l a n c i n g s i t e (Edwards AFB, California), the s h u t t l e l a r d e d a t t h e V l - ~ i t e S a n d s X i s s i l e R a n g e i n New M e x i c o . Launch was d e l a y e d by one h o u r b e c a u s e of d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o c ~ t e r e d d u r i n g f u e l i n g the external tank. L a n d i n g was d e l a y e d b y o n e d a y b e c a u s e o f h i g h w i n d s a t the landing site. spaceflight, and T h e m i s s i o n was commanded b y J a c k L o u s m a , o n h i s s e c o n d p i l o t e d by G o r d o n F u l l e r t o n , o n h i s f i r s t . The crew s p e n t e i g h t days i n o r b i t performing a wide v a r i e t y of e n g i n e e r i n g and s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s . O n e m a j o r g o a l o f STS-3 was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e h e a t i n g e f f e c t s o n t h e shuttle f r o m t h e Sun w h i l e i n o r b i t . The S h u t t l e p a s s e d a l l t h e s e tests, although t h e p a y l o a d b a y d o o r s w ~ u l dn o t c l o s e a f t e r p r o l o n g e d e x p o s u r e t o t h e c o l d , a n d h a d t o b e warmed i n o r d e r t o s h u t . I n a d d i t i o n , STS-3 c a r r i e d t h e OSS-1 p a y l o a d ( O f f i c e of Space S c i e n c e 1 1 , which i n c l u d e d e x p e r i m e n t s related to astronomy and s p a c e plasma p h y s i c s . The c r e w c o n t i n u e d t e s t s o f t h e Remote M a n i p u l a t o r S y s t e m b e g u n on STS-2, but two of the cameras required for o p e r a t i n g t h e RKS f a i l e d ( o n e o n t h e RMS i t s e l f , t h e o t h e r in the shuttle c a r g o b a y ) , s o one of the two t e s t s had t o be cancelled. Among the s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s on STS-3 w a s a s m a l l g r e e n h o u s e , a b o u t t h e s l z e o f a f i l e cabinet drawer. T h e g r e e n h o u s e C o n t a i n e d 9 6 p l a n t s ( o a t a n d mung b e a n s e e d s a n d young s l a s h p i n e s e e d l i n g s ) t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t s of weightlessness on t h e f o r m a t i o n of l i g n i n i n t h e s e p l a n t s . L i g n i n a l l o w s p l a n t s on E a r t h t o grow upward a g a i n s t t h e p u l l of gravity, g i v e s them their characteristic s h a p e s , a n d s u p p o r t s t h e o r g a n s Which c a r r y food and chemicals. Another experiment t e s t e d t h e processing of t h e drug urokinase, which i s used <o dissolve bloodclots. On E a r t h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r o d u c e t h e drug because of t h e f o r c e of g r a v i t y ; i t i s hoped t h a t by producing i t i n s p a c e , t h e cost o f t h e d r u g c a n b e r e d u c e d ( a s i n g l e d o s e now c o s t s $ 3 , 0 0 0 ) . STS 4 . T h e l a s t s h u t t l e t e s t f l i g h t , STS-4, was s u c c e s s f u l l y l a u n c h e d a t 1 1 0 0 EDT f r o m C a p e C a n a v e r a l o n J u n e 2 7 , 1 9 6 2 . T h i s was the first on-time launch of t h e s h u t t l e . Commanded by T h o m a s ( K e n ) M a t t i n g l y a n d p i l o t e d by CRS- 6 E e r . r y E a r t s f i e l d , t h e rr,;ssion e n d e d a t 1 2 1 C E C T or. Z u l y 4 a t ECwarCs AFB or, a ccr.crete rcnway. T?.;s w a s t h e f i r s t s h c t t l e l a n C l n g or, a h a r d s c r f a c e . STS-4 c a r r i e d a v a r i e t y o f c i v l l a n 6 c;;;=ary exper~mencs. Ir.c;ueed ~n c~v:: c a t e q o r y were a n e l e c t r o p h o r e s i s e x p e r ~ m e n t s p o n s o r e d Sy the KcConnell-Doug;as C o r p o r a t ~ o~~n c o l l a b o r a t l c n w ~ t hJ o h n s o n a n d J o h n s o n , and by college t h e f i r s t "get-away s p e c l a l " involving experiments d e v e l o p e d ~t 1 s s t u d e n t s ~n Utah. A l t h o u g h t h e m l l ~ t a r ye x p e r i m e n t s w e r e c l a s s l f l e d , known t h a t o n e e x p e r i m e n t i n V O l v e C t e s t i n g a new s p a c e s e x t a n c , w h ~ l ea n o t h e r (Cryogenic Infrared t e s t e Z an a d v a n c e d s u r v e i l l a n c e sensor called CIRRIS R a d i a n c e i n ~ t r u m e n t a t l c nS e n s o r ) . the Operaticnal Shuttle Flights The f i r s t o p e r a t l o n a l f l i g h t o f t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e , STS-5, was s u c c e s s f u l l y 16, 1982. l a u n c h e C a t 0 7 1 9 EST on Nov. 11 a n d l a n d e d a t 0 9 3 3 EST on Nov. T h i s w a s t h e first s h n t t l e m i s s l o r t o c a r r y a c r e w o f four -- t w o p i l o t s (i'znce EranC a n 8 Rober: 3verrneyer) and two r r i s s i c n s p e c ; a l : s t s (Zoseph Allen anE W i l l l a m Lenoir) . Yhe a n:ss;o~ f o r STS-5 was tc i e p l o y two ~ o r r ~ ~ c n ~ c a t sl ao=r e. l l i t e s : T e l e s a t - E f o r C a r i a i a a n d SBS-C fcr t h e hmerlcan c o c p a n y S a t e l l i t e B u s ~ n e s sS y s t e m s . In a d d i r l o n , Allen and Lenoir planned t o perform e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v l t y ~ n t h e c a r g o bay of the shuttle, but the e x e r c i s e w a s c a n c e l l e d when 3 0 t h s p a c e s u ~ t sm a l f u n c t ~ o n e d . b 7 i l l Next S h u t t l e Launch. The n e x t l a u n c h o f = h e s p a c e shuttle, STS-6, use the o r b i t e r Challenger rather t h a ~ C o l u R S ~ z . Launch was orlglnally s c h e d ~ l e df o r J a n u a r y 2 3 , S c t a l e a k w a s d e c e c : e c i n o ~ oe f C h a l l e n g e r ' s m a i n e n g i ~ e s . KbSk C e c i i e C t o r e p l a c e t h e f a u l t y engine w i z h a s p a r e , b ~ c d a r ~ ~ g t e s t l n g , a l e a k was C l s c o v e r e d ~ n t h e s p a r e a s w e l l . Subsequectly, a storm a t C a p e C a n a v e r a l S l e w d u s t l n t o t h e s a t e l l i t e installed inslbe Challenger, which t h e n h a d t o be removed, c l e a n e d , and r e i n s t a l l e d . Launch 1 s s c h e d u l e d T h e STS-6 c r e w ( P a u l W e i t z , K a r o l B o b k o , D o n a l d Peterson, and f o r Aprll 4. S t o r y Ifusgrave) w i l l deploy t h e f l r s t of t h r e e Tracking and Data Relay Satell~tes. HILITARY IMPLICATIONS OF T E E SHUTTLE Once i t i s f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l , t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e w i l l b e t h e n a t i o n a l s p a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system and w i l l be used f o r both c i v i l i a n and m i l i t a r y missions. The Department of D e f e n s e (DOD) h a s been intimately involved in d e s i g n i n g t h e s h u t t l e s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e program t o e n s u r e t h a t it would meet r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m i l i t a r y p a y l o a d s . DOD i s expected t o be the s i n g l e l a r g e s t u s e r o f t h e s h u t t l e a n d may r e q u i r e a s many a s a t h i r d o f all s h u t t l e launches during the 1980s. Of t h e 3 1 1 m i s s i o n s l i s t e d o n zhe most r e c e n t s h u t t l e m a n i f e s t f o r t h e y e a r s FY83-FY94, 1 1 4 ( 3 7 % ) w i l l b e f o r D O D , c o m p a r e d t o 9 3 ( 3 0 % ) f o r NASA, 3 8 ( 1 2 % ) f o r U.S. c o m m e r c i a l u s e r s , 38 (12%) f o r f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , 18 (6%) f o r r e f l i g h t o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and 1 0 (3%) f o r V . S . c i v i l g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s o t h e r t h a n NASA. A l t h o u g h NASA i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f u n d i n g s h u t t l e r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d p r o d u c t i o n , DOD h a s a g r e e d to f u n d t h e f o l l o w i n g s h u t t l e - r e l a t e d i t e m s : (1) d e v e l o p m e n t a n e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e i n e r t i a l u p p e r S t a g e (IUS) which w i l l be u s e d t o t a k e p a y l o a d s from t h e r e l a t i v e l y low E a r t h o r b i t a c c e s s i b l e d i r e c t l y by t h e shuttle t o higher o r b i t s or i n t o d e e p s p a c e t r a j e c t o r i e s ; ( 2 ) development a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n of s ~ h u t t l e - r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s a t Vandenberg A i r Force Base, California, which w i l l serve a s t h e west coast launch s i t e f o r t h e s h u t t l e ; (3) operation of CRS- 7 IB61175 UPDATE-G?/2i/63 t h e Vandenberg f a c l l i t ; e s f c r a l l u s e r s ( r r , i l i t a r y and Civilian); and (4) f n n C ~ n go f w h a t e v e r s h u t = ; e f a c ~ l l t l e sa r e n e c e s s a r y f o r D3D c p e r a t l o n s a t Ker,?.eey S p a c e c e n t e r a n d J o h n s o n S p a c e C e n t e r ( l r . c l u C i r . g s e c . ~ r eo p e r a t l c n s o r " c c r . z r c l ; e C m o d e w ) . IF. r e t c r r , D C D w l l l b e c p ~ a r g e ca l o w e r r a t e p e r f l ~ g h t t h a n o ~ h e ru s e r s . DOD involvement i n t h e s h u t t l e program has prompted a p e r c e p t i o n of the shuttle a s primarily a military vehicle rather than both military and civiiian. The m i l i t a r y i s e x p e c t e d t o u s e t h e shuttle to launch payloads into space an6 p o s s i b l y f o r other purposes such as photographic r e c o n n a i s s a n c e , though such a l t e r n a t i v e s have n o t been o p e n l y d i s c u s s e d by DOD. I t shouldwbe n o t e d t h a t Western e x p e r t s have r e p o r t e d t h a t the Soviet U n i o n u s e s i t s manned Salycz space stations f o r military reconnaissance purposes. The s h u z t l e i s n o t , i n i t s e l f , a w e a p o n . During t a l k s between t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s on limiting the development of antisatellite fievices ( s e e i s s u e b r i e f 61123, Antisatellites (Killer Satellites)), the - e t s r e p o r t e d l y c l a i m e C t h a t z h e s h u t t l e was r e l a t e d t o weapons systems s p a c e weapons; t h e Unitec? a n d = h e r e f o r e s h o u l d b e SanneC a l o n g w i t h o c h e r ,C,L=- ,Ce s r e j e c t e a t h i s conrentior.. H o w e v e r , t h e s h n z ~ l emay c a r r y experiments which might e v e n t u a l l y have a p p l i c a t i o n t o s p a c e weapons ( s u c h as s p a c e - b a s e d lasers). ~~~2 SOVIET REACTION T O T E E SHUTTLE The S o v i e t U n i o n h a s an a c t i v e manned s p a c e p r o g r a m a n d t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e s p e c u l a t i o n f o r many y e a r s t h a t t h e Soviets a r e developing a reusable spacecraft. Currently, t h e y r e l y on t h e S o y u z a n d P r o g r e s s s p a c e c r a f t , which c a n o n l y be u s e d o n c e , f o r f e r r y i n g c r e w s a n d supplies to the orbiting Salyut space stations. The S a l y u t 6 s p a c e s t a t i o n h o s t e d 18 c r e w s d u r i n g i t s f o u r a n d a h a l f y e a r s of l i f e ( f r o m 1 9 7 7 t o 1 9 8 2 ) , a n d the crews. Thus, a Salyut 7 s t a t i o n , launched i n A p r i l 1982, has hosted t h r e e r e u s a b l e S p a c e c r a f t would o b v i o u s l y be of g r e a t u t i l i t y i n t h e S o v i e t space program. The q u e s t i o n i s i n what t i m e f r a m e s u c h a v e h i c l e would b e introduced. Department I n i t s March 1 9 8 3 e d i t i o n o f S o v i e t M i l i t a r y P o w e r , t h e U.S. of D e f e n s e s t a t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t s a r e d e v e l o p i n g two r e u s a b l e spacecraft: o n e s i m i l a r t o t h e U.S. s h u t t l e , and a second, smaller wspaceplane.v A d r a w i n g o f t h e S o v i e t s h u t t l e was i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e p o r t . The r e p o r t stated t h a t o r b i t a l t e s t s of t h e s m a l l e r s p a c e p l a n e have a l r e a d y been conducted, a possible reference to the 1 9 8 2 Kosmos 1 3 7 4 m i s s i o n which was w i d e l y S p e c u l a t e d a s h a v i n g been a t e s t f l i g h t of a prototype scale-model Soviet A similar mission was flown i n March 1983 (Kosmos reusable spacecraft. 1 4 4 5 1 , a n d w a s i d e n t i f i e d i n h e a r i n g s b e f o r e C o n g r e s s by D r . Robert Cooper, h e a d of D A R P A , a s b e i n g a t e s t f l i g h t of a s o v i e t s p a c e p l a n e . .The S o v i e t Union h a s e x p r e s s e d g r e a t c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e p o t e n t i a l m i l i t a r y i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e U.S. s p a c e s h u t t l e . As n o t e d a b o v e , f o r e x a m p l e , during d i s c u s s i o n s between t h e United S t a t e s and t h e S o v i e t Union c o n c e r n i n g l i m i t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of weapons i n s p a c e t h e S o v i e t s claimed t h a t the s h u t t l e i s a weapons s y s t e m . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e S o v i e t Union s u b m i t t e d a d r a f t t r e a t y t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n t h e f a l l of 1 9 8 1 which i s d e s i g n e d o s t e n s i b l y t o ban t h e s t a t i o n i n g of weapons i n s p a c e . Included i n t h e d r a f t t r e a t y i s language obviously r e f e r r i n g t o t h e space s h u t t l e : " T h e member states c r i d e r t a k e n o t tc ~ r n c ,c c z t c ~ r i u e a p c r s i r ~O L t e r v e s s e l s ef r r ~ 1 Fur l ~ t s ~ a sl l~ c space LE t ~ ~L S1E .e. co r b ~ ta r o L n C = h e e a r t h o b ~ e c c sW i Z h w e a p o n s o f any kw e a p o n s o c c e ; e s t i a l S o C ~ e sa n d r . c t t o d e p l o y sucr any c t h e r way, i n c l u 5 L n S a i s o 0' pl:cted scace ( e r p l - . a s ~ sa c c e e ) . - . ' I report (see The U.S. I n t e r n a t i o 3 a l Ccmrcunicatior. A g e n c y has lssued a REFERENCES) c o n c e r n i n g how t h e S o v l e t U n l o n v ~ e w s U.S. technology, an8 according t o t h e r e p o r t , the S o v i e t s were Overwhelmed w i t h the shuttle launch. "T3e U.S. s p a c e s h u t t l e , ~ n p a r t i c u l a r , seems t o h a v e l e f t Sov~ets, ~ n c l u d i n g some a: t h e h l g h e s t l e v e l s , a ; m o s t s p e e c h l e s s Xany b e l l e v e t h a t t h e y a r e i n c a p a b l e o f d o l n g w h a t t h e U.S. h a s d o n e w i t h the shuttle" (page 3 17). .... KASA FUNDING KhSk a p p r c p r i a t ~ o ~f os r t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e p r o g r a r r , g r e w f r o r r $ 7 8 . 5 rn~llicn F Y Y l ( c s e d e x c l u s ~ v e l yi c r s h c t t l f R h C ) t o a p D r c x l m a t e i y $ 3 . 5 billloc iF. FYSZ f o r R h P , p r o c n r e r e c : , ~~d o p e r a t l c : ~ . I n r e z e r , : y e a r s , t h e n a ~ o rp o i z t s cf c c ~ t r o v e r s y 1- s k u : t l e f ~ n C ; n c h a v e b e e r . : how Kany shutzle orbiters LO p r o c u r e , how much D O D s h o u l c b e c h a r g e d f o r ~ t ssh u t t l e l a u n c h e s , and what t y p e o f u p p e r s t a g e t o d e v e l o p f o r placing Satellites i n t o h l g h e r o r b ~ t st h a n car. b e r e a c h e d b y t h e s h c r t l e a l o n e . 12 T k e ~ o t a lKASA FY63 a p p r o p r i a t l o r l e v e l i s $ 6 . 6 0 7 b ~ l l i o n ,a n i n c r e a s e of S 1 9 E m ~ l l ~ co v n e r t h e r e q u e s t , a n d $ 3 6 rrl:;lon more than was a u t h o r i z e d . k d a i t l o n a l l n f o r m a t l o c o n t h e NASA b u d g e t is contained i n IB62118, Space Funding and Policy: XASA a n d C l v l l l a n S p a c e P r o g r a m s . $85 m i l l i o n for T h e F Y 8 3 NASA a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l ( P . L . 3 7 - 3 2 4 ) p r o v i d e d procurement of a f i f t h s h u t t l e o r b i t e r . The S e n a t e had recommended $90 m i l l i o n f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , w h i l e t h e House h a d n o t i n c l u d e d a n y f u n d i n g . The a p p r o p r i a t i o n b i l l (P.L. 97-252) does n o t provide funding for a fifth o r b i t e r , however. Eoth t h e House and S e n a t e v e r s i o n s of the appropriation b i l l i n c l u d e d l a n g u a g e s t a t i n g t h a t NASA m u s t o b t a i n their approval before i n i t i a t i n g procurement of a f i f t h o r b i t e r . the R e g a r d i n g how much D O D s h o u l d b e c h a r g e d f o r i t s s h u t t l e l a u n c h e s , p r o b l e m c e n t e r s on a d e c i s i o n made i n t h e 1 9 7 0 s t h a t D O D w o u l d b e charged aboct two-thirds of t h e p r i c e o t h e r u s e r s a r e charged f o r t h e f i r s t 6 years of s h u t t l e o p e r a t i o n s b e c a u s e DOD woulC b e p r o v i d i n g a w e s t c o a s t l a u n c h s i t e f o r t h e s h u t t l e and t h e i n e r t i a l upper s t a g e . During consideration of the PY63 f u n d i n g b i l l s , h o w e v e r , t h e S e n a t e e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t D O D s h o u l d p a y t h e s a m e p r i c e a s o t h e r u s e r s b e g i n n i n g i n FY83. bills The S e n a t e - p a s s e d v e r s i o n s of t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n a n d a p p r o p r i a t i o n t h e r e f o r e r e d u c e d NASA's f u n d i n g f o r s h u t t l e o p e r a t i o n s b y $ 4 0 9 m l l l i o n (the a d d i t i o n a l a m o u n t t h e S e n a t e f e l t s h o u l d b e r e i m b u r s e d t o NASA f o r FY83 b y DOD) a n d m o s t o f i t w a s r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o o t h e r NASA p r o g r a m s . The House d i d bill, n o t make a s i m i l a r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n . I n C o n f e r e n c e on t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n t h e t w o H o u s e s a g r e e d t o d i r e c t NASA t o c h a r g e D O D " s u c h p r i c e s a s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o v e r t h e f a i r v a l u e w o f l a u n c h e s b e g i n n i n g i n FY84. No d o l l a r amount w a s s t i p u l a t e d , b u t NASA's b u d g e t f o r s h u t t l e o p e r a t i o n s was r e d u c e d b y $128 r ~ ~ l l i o n .I n t h e a p p r c p r l a t l o n s b l l l , t h e O n l y language relating to this CES- 9 IBEll75 UFDATE-03/21/63 : s s u e s t a t e d t h a t XASAts a p s r o p r i a t l o n l e v e l w : l l be reduced ln subsequent y s a r s Sy w h a t e v e r a m o n n t i s t r a r , s f e r r e d t o KASb a s p a y m e n t for shcctle laur,cnes. 2 p a r t i c ~ i a r l yt r o u b l e s o m e i s s u e d u r l n g t h e FYS3 b u d g e t d e l i b e r a t i o n s was d e c i d i n g whecher t o s u p p o r t t h e continued deveiopment of t h e i n e r t i a l cpper s t a g e (IUS) o r C e n t a u r ( s e e ISSUES). The Eouse Science and Technology C o m m i t t e e s u p p o r t e d t h e IUS i n i t s r e p o r t on t h e NASA a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l ( H . R e p t . 9 7 - 5 0 2 ) , a n d t h e H o u s e a g r e e d when i t p a s s e e t h e b i l l on May 5 , bill supported Centaur, 1982. The S e n a t e v e r s i o n of the authorization however (S.Rept. 97-449, p a s s e d S e n a t e J u n e 9 ) . C o n f e r e n c e a c t i o n on t h e S i l l was d e l a y e 8 f o r s e v e r a l m o n t h s , d u r i n g which time Congress took two a c t i o n s which a f f e c t e d t h e outcome of t h i s i s s u e . First, t h e FY62 U r g e n t S u p p l e m e n t a l b i l l w a s p a s s e d (P.L. 9 7 - 2 1 6 ) w h i c h d i r e c t e d KASA t o p r o c u r e t w o C e n t a u r s t a g e s f o r u p c o m i n g NASA p l a n e t a r y m i s s i o n s . Then t h e House a n d S e n a t e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s c o m m i t t e e s c o m p l e t e d w o r k o n t h e FY63 H U D - I n d e p e n d e n t Agencies b i l l , vhich i n c l u d e s NASA, and i n consonance with t h e Urgent Supplemental, supported Centaur. D u r i n g House floor debate on the a p p r o p r i a t i o ~ sb i l l , C o n g r e s s m a c P l i p p o ( c h a i r m a n o f t h e H o u s e Science an5 - e c h n o l ~ g y S u b c o m ~ i t t e eo n S p a c e S c i e n c e a n d A p p l i c a t i o n s ) i n t r c e u c e d ar. a c e n d m e n t t o s u p p o r t . i U S i n s t e a d o f C e n t a u r , b u t t h e amendment was e e f e a t e d . Thus, the final version of the appropriation bill supported Centaur. S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e c o n f e r e n c e on t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l was h e l d a n d t h e Senate position, i n s u p p o r t of Centaur, was a d o p t e d . As enacted, the a c t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l p r o v i d e s $120 m i l l i o n f o r C e n t a u r w h i l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n b i l l p r o v i d e s $140 m i l l i o n . 7 F o r F Y 8 4 , NASA i s r e q u e s t i n g a t o t a l o f $ 7 , 1 0 6 . 5 m i l l i o n , o f w h i c h $3,446 million (48.5%) i s f o r t h e space transportation system. This includes s h u t t l e production and o p e r a t i o n s , development of upper stages, advanced programs, S p a c e l a b , and development of a T e t h e r e d S a t e l l i t e which w i l l be suspended from t h e s h u t t l e i n t o t h e upper atmosphere by a long (60-mile) tether l i n e i n order t o make s c i e n t i f i c m e a s u r e m e n t s . No f u n d i n g i s requested f o r a procurement of a f i f t h o r b i t e r , a l t h o u g h $100 m i l l i o n i s designated f o r buying s t r u c t u r a l s p a r e s t o enable r e p a i r of any o r b i t e r that m i g h t b r e a k down. NASA h a s n o t made a d e c i s i o n o n w h e t h e r t o accept the S p a c e T r a n o f f e r t o b u y t h e f i f t h o r b i t e r f o r NASA i n e x c h a n g e f o r m a r k e t i n g rights. D 3 D FUNDING T h r o u g h F Y 8 2 , t h e D O D h a d s p e n t a t o t a l o f a b o u t $ 2 . 6 b i l l i o n o n t h e STS program. T h i s i n c l u d e s f u n d i n g f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e IUS, c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s h u t t l e l a u n c h f a c i l i t y a t V a n d e n b e r g AFB, a n 8 m o d i f i c a t i o n s n e e d e d t o l a u n c h DOD p a y l o a d s v i a s h u t t l e i n s t e a d o f c o n v e n t i o n a l l a u n c h v e h i c l e s . F o r FY83, DOD requested $581 m i l l i o n for FY83 D O D A u t h o r i z a t i o n . -shuttle-related activities, i n c l u d i n g Vandenberg o p e r a t i o n s , two s h u t t l e f l i g h t s , a n d p r o c u r e m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e I n e r t i a l Upper Stage. N e i t h e r t h e H o u s e n o r S e n a t e Armed S e r v i c e s C o m m i t t e e s m a d e c h a n g e s i n t h e r e q u e s t e d amount f o r t h e procurement, research, development, t e s t i n g and evaluation-(H.Rept. 9 7 - 4 8 2 a n d S . R e p t . 9 7 - 3 3 0 , b o t h i s s u e d on A p r i l 1 3 ) . The S e n a t e p a s s e d t h e D O D a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l on May 1 3 . The House p a s s e d the "11 o r J u l y 2 9 a f z e r a c c ~ r i ga n a m e n d m e n t t P . a t L l m ~ t st h e f u n d s t h a t can be -,--. . A c , . s f e r r e 8 i r c r ; D C D z o NbSh f o r s k u r t l e a c t : v l t l e s t o .amounts reqclred by l a w s L E e f f e c z a s cf Z x l y 1 , i 9 E 2 . Tne c o z i e r e n c e repcrt R e . P7-75C) - cG L F - c l r . e C = h e w o r d ~ ~ gar.C , w a s p a s s e t by z k e S e f i a t e or. A;g. i 7 an2 tr.e Hcuse 0: b ~ q .1 8 . T h e 5:;: was s l g r . e C l r . t o l a w on S e p t . 6 . FY63 D O 3 A p p r o p r i a t i o n . The S e n a t e A p p r o p r i a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e r e p o r t e d out 97-580). The c o m m i t t e e h e FY63 D O D a p p r o p r i a t i o n b i l l o n S e p t . 2 3 ( S . R e p t . dded $ 5 G m i l l i o n t o t h e A i r F o r c e b u d g e t " t o p e r m i t t h e A i r f o r c e t o pay a c r e a t e r s h a r e o f t h e c o s t of o p e r a t i n g t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e , " adding that the Air F o r c e i s " c a p a b l e o f a b s o r b i n g a g r e a t e r share of these costs." The H o u s e A p p r ~ p r i a ~ i o nCso m m i t t e e r e p o r t o n t h e b i l l ( H . . R e p t . 97-843, Dec. 2) C i C not include t h i s fcnding increase. A c t i o n on t h e D O 3 a p p r o p r i a t i o n b l i i was n o t c o m p l e t e d by t h e e n d cf tPe 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , s o f u n d i n g was p r o v i a e d : t r o u g h t h e continuing appropriation The additional $50 m i l l i o n was not b i l l s (P.L. 9 7 - 2 7 6 a n d P . L . 9 7 - 3 7 7 ) . i r c l u d e d i n t h e c c ~ c i c u i n ga p F r o p r i a t l o n B i l l . ?YE3 Ylirtary Cc!-,struct;o? huzhor;zat~on. FEe Hccse ArreC Serv~ces mzi~zary constructlor 5111 Comr;t:ee d e c r e a s e C t h e r e q u e s z e d a m o u r ~ t 12 t h e ( E . 2 e p t . 97-525) f o r f a c l l l t ~ e s m O 8 ~ f l C a t i O n s a t Vanaenberg AFB f o r the s h u t t l e from $26.5 millLon t o $14.8 m l l i l o n . The S e n a t e Committee followed The Senate passed t h e E c u s e ' s a c t l o n w h e n ~t r e p o r t e d t h e b ~ l oi n May 2 7 . vas f ~ l e d t h e b l l i o n j u n e 3 0 ; t h e E o u s e o n A a g . 11. T h e c o n f e r e n c e r e p c r z or, S e p t . 2 8 ( H . 2 e r t . 5 7 - 6 6 0 ) a n d p a s s e e t h e S e n a t e t h a t day anC rhe Iiouse S e p t . 26. T h e k 2 1 l w a s s ~ g n e dl c t o l a w O c t . 1 5 (T.L. 9 7 - 3 2 1 ) . FYE3 Kliitary Co~structior, Appropriation. The Eouse Lppropriations C o m ~ . i r t e e r e p o r z e d o u t :he FYE3 r n i ; i t a r y c o n s t r u c t i o n a p p r o p r i a t i o n bill on The c o m m i t t e e e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a b o u t c o n s t r u c t i o n h u g . 11 ( H . R e p t . 9 7 - 7 2 6 ) . o f t h e s h u t t l e l a u n c h s i t e a t V a n d e n b e r g AFB, n o t i n g t h a t c o s t s may r i s e f r o m it The c o m m i t t e e s a i d t h e i n i t i a l e s t i m a t e of $252 m i l l i o n t o $882 m i l l i o n . w a s " p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w t h a t t h e money a l r e a d y s p e n t w o u l d n o t r e s u l t i n a " u s a b l e f a c i l i t y , " b u t t h a t t h e r e was p r o b a b l y no a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o m p l e t i n g to monitor more closely t h e p r o j e c t , a n d t h u s a d v o c a t e d a number of s t e p s c o s t s and construction. The c o m m i t t e e r e d u c e d t h e r e q u e s t f o r STS f a c i l i t y m o d i f i c a t i o n s from $26.5 m i l l i c n t o $10.5 m i l l i o n ($4.3 m i l l i o n l e s s than had the b e e c r e c o m m e n d e d by t h e a u t h o r i z i n g c o m m i t t e e ) , a n d a l t h o u g h i t a p p r o v e d STS V e r t i c a l Assembly Environmental Shelter a t f u l l $40 m i l l i o n f o r t h e a review of Vandenberg, t h e c o m m i t t e e n o t e d t h a t i t d i d s o C o n t i n g e n t upon t h e f i n a l p l a n s and c o s t s f o r t h e p r o j e c t . T h e H o u s e p a s s e d t h e b i l l on Aug. 10. T h e S e n a t e A p p r o p r i a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e r e p o r t e d t h e b i l l o n S e p t . 22 ( S . R e p t . 97-572). T h e c o m m i t t e e r e d u c e d t h e r e q u e s t f o r STS f a c i l i t y m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o $14.8 m i l l i o n , b u t a p p r o v e d t h e f u l l $40 m i l l i o n f o r the STS e n v i r o n m e n t a l The c o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t was f i l e d o n S e p t . 30 (H-Rept. s h e l t e r a t Vandenberg. for STS f a c i l i t y modifications of 97-913) a n d a d o p t e d a compromise l e v e l $12.65 m i l l i o n . T h e r e p o r t was a p p r o v e d b y t h e H o u s e a n d S e n a t e on Oct. 1 a n d s i g n e d i n t o law o n O c t . 1 5 (P.L. 9 7 - 3 2 3 ) . ISSUES FOR CONCERN I N THE 98TH CONGRESS program w i l l A l a r g e number of i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e this and subsequent sessions. for discussion in before Congress come The f c l l o w ; n g i s a l i s t ci s e i e c t e d i s s c e s w n l c h a p p e a r m o s t l i k e l y t o be o f z n t e r e s t t o t h e 96zh Congress spec;fical;y. Other l s s c e s a r e drsccssed ~r. =I-.€ r e p o r t ";r:=ed States C i v i l ; a r S c a c e P r o g r a m s : 1 9 5 6 - l f 7 E " p r e p a r e d by t h e cf t h e C o n g r e s s r c n a l Researck Sfrvrce for S c l e r . c e P c ; i c y 2 e s e a r c P C:v;sion t n e H o u s e C o m ~ l t t e eo c S c ; e ~ c e a n d T e c h n o l o g y . 1. . C o s t O v e r r u n s / S c h e d u l e Slippaaes/NASA Program Management slippages, The s p a c e s h u t t l e program h a s e n c o u n t e r e d a number o f s c h e d u l e r e s u l t i n g i n c o s t o v e r r u n s a n d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t NASA's a b i l i t y t o m a n a g e t h e project. The o y b i t a l t e s t f l i g h t s began more t h a n two y e a r s l a t e r than o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d , a n d t h e s h u t t l e p r o g r a m i s now e x p e c t e d t o cost $9.91 r e a l y e a r d o l l a r s ( t h r o u g h t h e end of the four test flights). This i s e q u i v a l e n t t o $ 6 . 6 5 b i l l i o n I n T Y 7 1 d o l l a r s , a c o s t i n c r e a s e o f 29% o v e r the i n i t i a l 1 9 7 1 e s t i m a t e of $ 5 . 1 5 b i l l i o n . to the I n F e b r u a r y and Karch 1 9 7 5 , N A S A t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e t h e Congress a s necessity f c r a supplene~tal appropriation of $1E5 million t o keep t h e s h u t t l e development procrarc c c s c h e d u l e . NbSh s t s t e t t h a t t h e cosc increases i? t h e FY79 S u e g e t r e s c l t e e f r o r , d e f e r r e d w o r k l e f t uncompleted on Orbiter 1 0 2 , w h i c h h a d t o b e c o m p l e t e d a t KSC, a n d on a d d i t i o n a l engineering and m a n u f a c t u r i n g e f f o r t s i n a l l e l e m e n t s of t h e s h u t t l e program, e s p e c i a l l y main engine t e s t i n g , installaticn of thermal protection on the orbiter and e x t e r n a l t a n k , a n d q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t i n g of o r b i t e r systems. The C o n g r e s s agreed t c the adCitioLal funding. I n A p r i l a n d May 1 9 7 9 , i t b e c a m e e v i d e n t t h a t despite the $185 m i l l i o n s u p p l e m e n t a i , t h e r e was g o i n g t o b e a c o s t o v e r r u n of perhaps up t o $500 m i l l i o n i n t h e s h u t t l e program. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f i r s t o r b i t a l f l i g h t wcuid from t h e o r i g i n a l l y s l i p i n t o l a t e 1 9 8 0 , a s c h e d u l e l a g of over a year p l a n n e d t a r g e t l a u n c h d a t e i n March 1979. In t h e s p r i n g of 1 9 7 9 NASA s u b m i t t e d , and t h e Congress approved, a $220 m i l l i o n budget amendment f o r FY80 i n o r d e r t h a t t h e s c h e d u l e f o r O r b i t e r s 1 0 3 a n d 1 0 4 ; essential for priority national defense missions, not s l i p further. In January 1980, NASA r e q u e s t e d a $ 3 0 0 m i l l i o n s u p p l e m e n t a l f o r FY8O f o r s h u t t l e development. A s u p p l e m e n t a l o f $ 2 8 5 m i l l i o n was a p p r o v e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e FY81 r e q u e s t , a t $ 1 . 8 7 3 b i l l i o n , was a b o u t $800 m i l l i o n more t h a n NASA h a d a n t i c i p a t e d i t w o u l d n e e d f o r FY81. T h u s i n FY80 a n d F Y 8 1 , a s well a s FY79, shuttle development e f f o r t s r e q u i r e d a higher r a t e of expenditure than earlier anticipated. T h i s was due p r i m a r i l y t o p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e t h e r m a l p r o t e c t i o n system and t h e main engine. T h e c o s t o v e r r u n s f o r t h e s h u t t l e h a v e l e d many K e m b e r s t o q u e s t i o n NASA's management of t h e s h u t t l e program. I n 1 9 7 3 t h e S e n a t e Commerce C o m m i t t e e r e q u e s t e d t h a t NASA p r e p a r e a t h o r o u g h r e v i e w o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d s u b m i t a r e p o r t t o t h e Committee. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e House Committee on S c i e n c e a n d management of T e c h n o l o g y , NASA, a n d i n d e p e n d e n t c o n s u l t a n t s s t u d i e d NASA's t h e s h u t t l e p r o g r a m a n d made a n u m b e r o f recommendations. NASA c o n s i d e r e d a l l t h e recommendations of t h e d i f f e r e n t reviewers and implemented a number o f c h a n g e s t o e x p e d i t e e f f i c i e n t s h u t t l e program management a n d k e e p c o s t s under control. V a n d e n b e r g AFB P r e p a r a t i o n s . The l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s c o n s t r u c t i o n a t VAFB h a s a l s o shown cost overruns c a u s e d by i n f l a t i o n a n d by t h e r a p i d l y increasing costs for certain construction materials. The i n i t i a l operational c a p a b i l i t y d a t e has a l r e a d y s l i p p e d t o October 1985 (from August 1984). launch f a c i l i t y include: F a c t o r s i m p a c t i n g on t h e r e a d i n e s s of the (1) C e s ~ g np r o b i e r , s r e l a t ~ n g t o t k e b u l l d u ~c f ~ c or. e =he excerr.al tazk ln tke r . x ; r ~ dc l l r n a t e a = Y A F E ; ( 2 ) lnab2l;ty of Karclr X a r ~ e t t a (the A Force t o r o v e rc t h e s k ~ t t l ec o n t r a c t c r ) z o l r . d a c e a s u f f l c ~ e r tc ~ i ~ S eo fr e r q : r . e e r s a r e a L O w o r k a t V A F S ; ( 3 ) c o n s = r u c t : o n p r o b ; e r , s ; 4 ) c ~ n c ~ r r e ~o fc y w o r k at V A F E a n e K e ~ n e d y S p a c e C e n t e r ( o r l g ~ n a l l yoperations a = KSC w e r e c o h a v e b e e n p r c v e c S y this t l m e , t ~ u sm a k l n q V k F S preparations e a s ~ e r ) ;a n d ( 5 ) r n c r e a s e d f u n d l n g r e q u ~ r e m e n t sc a u s e d b y t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d p r o b l e m s . I n reporting o u t t h e F P 8 3 m l i l t a r y c o n s t r u c t l o n appropriation b l l l , t h e H o u s e A p p r o p r l a t ~ o n s Committee n o t e d t h a t c o s t s may r l s e f r o m c h e ~ ~ ~ t e sr t lam al t e o f $ 2 5 2 million t o $ 8 8 2 m l l l l o n , a n d t h a t ~t w a s " p a r t ~ c u l a r l y concernedw t h a t c h e money a l r e a d y s p e n t w o u l d n o t r e s u l t i n t h e " u s a b l e fatality." -z 2. Ncmber o f O r b i t e r s When t h e s h u c t l e p r o g r a m w a s i n ~ t i a t e d , NASh p l a n n e e f o r a 5 - o r b l t e r f l e e t t o c a r r y o u t an estimated 560 m i s s l o n s d u r ~ n g t h e 12-year p e r l o d from 1980-;991. 3 u r r n c t h e p a s t d e c a d e , t h e e x p e c t e a nLmber o f shuttle r ~ s s l o c s ~ n t h e 1 2 - y e a r ~ 3 u t t i ec ? e r a t l c c a l p e r l o 5 h a s d e c r e a s e d -- f l r s t t c 4E7 r - s s l c n s , t h e n t o 211 m l s s l o s s ( t h e c ~ r r e n te s t l n a t e ) . As a result, CeSaze d e v e l o p e d o v e r w n e t h e r i ~ v eo r 5 ; t e r s K G L : ~ b e r e q c i r e d o r l i f o u r v c u l c S e sufficient ( t h l s d o e s n o t l n c l u d e o r b i t e r 1 0 1 , t h e f n t e r p r i s e , w h ~ c h 1 s not spaceflight-worthy). I n 1976, President Carter decided that production of a fifth orbiter shoclc not be i n i t i a t e d . S u b s e q u e n t NASA b u d g e t r e q u e s t s t o Congress have n o t included funCing f o r production of a f i f t h o r S i t e r , although funding has S e e n p r o v i d e d ( s o m e t i m e s a t t h e i n i c i a ~ i o no f t h e A e m i r i s t r a t i o n , o c h e r t i ~ e s b e c a a s e o f c o n g r e s s i o n a l i ~ s i s t e n c e )f o r l o n g - l e a C i t e n s a s s o c i a t e c w i t h a f i f t h o r b i t e r i n case a decision i s na5e a t a later time t o procnre it. Proponents of a 5 - o r b i t e r f l e e t a r g u e that even though t h e need for 5 o r b i t e r s may n o t b e a p p a r e n t n o w , i t may d e v e l o p i n t h e f u t u r e ( e s p e c i a l l y i f NASA i s g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o b u i l d a s p a c e s t a t i o n ) , a n d t h e o r b i t e r w o u l d b e m o r e c o s t l y t o p r o c u r e i f t h e p r o d u c t i o n l i n e s s h u t down after the fourth o r b i t e r i s completed. expressed the opinion in congressional NASA a n d D O D h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y h e a r i n g s (most r e c e n t l y i n June 1982) that at least 5 orbiters w i l l be needed. T h e p r o b l e m now i s t h a t s u b c o n t r a c t o r s a r e a l r e a d y r u n n i n g o u t of work, s o a d e c i s i o n on w h e t h e r o r n o t t o p r o c e e d w i t h a f i f t h o r b i t e r must be made s o o n i f p r o d u c t i o n l i n e s a r e t o r e m a i n o p e n . No f u n d i n g f o r a f i f t h o r b i t e r was i n c l u d e d i n NASA's FY84 b u d g e t r e q u e s t , a l t h o u g h $ 1 0 0 m i l l i o n h a s been requested f o r s t r u c t u r a l s p a r e s t o r e p a i r t h e other four orbiters as needed. NASA s t a t e d t h a t a r e a s s e s s m e n t o f p r o j e c t e d l a u n c h d e m a n d s i n l i g h t of competition from o t h e r iaunch servlces such a s ESA9s Ariane l e d t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o c o n c l u d e t h a t a f i f t h o r b i t e r may n o t b e r e q u i r e d after all. firm, Space T r a n s p o r t a t i o n One o p t i o n h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d b y a p r i v a t e Company ( S p a c e T r a n ) , w h i c h h a s o f f e r e d t o p u r c h a s e t h e f i f t h o r b i t e r a n 8 g i v e i t t o NASA i n r e t u r n f o r e x c l u s i v e m a r k e t i n g r i g h t s t o p a y l o a d s f l o w n o n t h a t orbiter. NASA h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o p o s a l s i n c e t h e s p r i n g of 1982, b u t n o d e c i s i o n h a s b e e n m a d e a n d 8 0 % o f S p a c e T r a n was r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d b y F e d e r a l E x p r e s s s o t h e o f f e r i s now b e i n g r e v i e w e d b y t h e new m a n a g e m e n t . 3. Ownership and Operation of t h e Space S h u t t l e k z ~ s s u ewh;cL ~ ~ a s1s c m1e l n c r e a s l n g l r ? c r t a L c e a s t h e s h u z t l e p r o g r e s s e s an8 operate f r c m r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t 1 r . t ~operations 1 s who s h o u l d own t . h A S A 1 s a r e s e a r c h a n C d e v l o p n e c t ager.cy and does no= o p e r a t e space s y s z e r s o ~ c e= h e y ? , a v e c o m ? l e = e d t h e R 6 3 p h a s e . ?or example, weather by the h'atlonal O c e a c ~ c and Atmospheric s a t e l l l t e s are operated A d x l n ~ s t r a t ~ o (nN D A A , p a r t o f t h e G e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e ) , a n a g e n c y w h l c h w a s S l S c g l v e n operational a u t h o r ~ t yo v e r r e m o t e s e n s l n g s a t e l l l t e s l n 1 9 7 9 (See i s s u e b r l e f 82066, LANDSAT--Earth Resources Satellite System). C o m m u n l c a t ~ o n s a t e l l l t e s a r e o p e r a t e d by p r l v a t e ~ n d u s t r y . military The s h u t t l e p r e s e n t s u n i q u e p r o b l e m s b e c a u s e of i t s r o l e i n U.S. programs. As a v r e s u l t , s u g g e s t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e t h a t t w o s h u t t l e f l e e t s b e "blue" developed: a "white" f l e e t f o r c i v i l i a n and commercial u s e r s , and a f l e e t f o r t h e A i r Force. T h u s , DOD c o u l d o p e r a t e i t s owr, s h u t t l e s a s i t d o e s o t h e r m i l i t a r y hardware, and t h e white f l e e t could e v e n t u a l l y be handled by a n e n c i t y o t h e r t h a n NASA. D i s c u s s i o n s o v e r how a n d when t o t r a ~ s f e rt h e s h u t t l e o u t o f KASA a n d i n 2 0 some o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t , q u a s i - g o v e r n m e n t , c r n o n - g o v e r n m e n t e n t i t y h a v e b e e n g c i n q o x f o r many y e a r s w i t L o u t r e s c l u t i o z . The i s s u e s i T . c l u d e whether a p r i v a t e s e c t o r e n t i t y woula be r e q u i r e C t o r e i m b u r s e t h e Government f o r R&D f c n d i n g s p e n t o n t h e s h u t t l e ( w h i c h may reach $15 b i l l i o n ) ; whether NASA would c o n t i n u e t o p e r f o r m R&D r e l a t e d t o t h e e x i s t i n g shuttle system and possible s h u t t l e follow-ons if the private sector takes ovsr shuttle o p e r a t i o n s ; and what r e g u l a t i o n s would need t o be d e v e l o p e d t o c o v e r p r i v a t e The u n d e r l y i n g q ' u e s t i o n i n connection s e c t o r o p e r a t i o n of t h e systerr.. with p r i v a t e s e c t o r o w n e r s h i p o f t h e s h u t t l e i s when a n d i f the shuttle w i l l become p r o f i t a b l e . The S u b c o m m i t t e e on S c i e n c e , T e c h n o l o g y , a n d S p a c e o f t h e S e n a t e Commerce, S c i e n c e , a n d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Committee h e l d h e a r i n g s on Dec. 9 , 1 9 8 1 , t o b e g i n addressing these issues. 4. s h u t t l e Upper S t a g e -- IUS o r C e n t a u r i n e r t i a l upper stage (IUS) program Cost overruns i n t h e A i r Force's p r o m p t e d KASA t o d e c i d e i n J a n u a r y 1 9 8 1 t o c e a s e i t s s u p p o r t f o r d e v e l o p i n g a t h r e e - s t a g e IUS f o r s e n d i n g s p a c e c r a f t i n t o d e e p s p a c e t r a j e c t o r i e s (Air F o r c e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t w o - s t a g e IUS was n o t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d b y this decision). I n s t e a d , NASA d e c i d e d t o p r o c e e d w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t of a high energy upper stage Called Centaur ( i n f a c t , it i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the C e n t a u r u p p e r s t a g e t h a t h a s b e e n u s e d f o r many y e a r s ) . In January 1962, NASA r e v e r s e d i t s e l f a n d s a i d t h a t i t w o u l d s t a y w i t h I U S . NASA's 1981 decision t o develop Centaur rather than IUS led to F i r s t , t h e r e i s Only one c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y f o r two r e a s o n s . a p p r o v e d NASA m i s s i o n w h i c h w o u l d r e q u i r e t h e C e n t a u r c a p a b i l i t y ( t h e G a l i l e o m i s s i o n t o J u p i t e r ) , a n d o n e E u r o p e a n m i s s i o n w h i c h NASA h a s promised to launch (the International Solar Polar Mission). The A i r Force has not i d e n t i f i e d any s p e c i f i c m i s s i o n s f o r which it would need C e n t a u r e i t h e r , a l t h o u g h b o t h NASA a n d D O D h a v e t o l d C o n g r e s s t h a t t h e y w o u l d like t o have t h e C e n t a u r c a p a b i l i t y a v a i l a b l e f o r m i s s i o n s which might d e v e l o p i n t h e future. S e c o n d , NASA d e c i d e d t o u s e s o l e s o u r c e p r o c u r e m e n t for Centaur, rather t h a n a l l o w i n g c o m p a n i e s t o b i d f o r t h e c o n t r a c t (NASA c h o s e G e n e r a l Dynamics w h i c h b u i l d s t h e C e n t a u r u p p e r s t a g e now i n u s e ) . A s a r e s u l t of t h e d i s p u t e o v e r :he n e e d f o r C e ~ ~ z a ua rn 8 tP.e nethod NASA was u s ~ n g t c procnre tne v e P , ; c l e s , S o t L t 9 e B o c s e S c ~ e c c ea n 8 T e c h n o l o g y Ccmrr,;tzee an6 t h e Senate C c r r e r c e , Science, a ~ ,c , c ~ s p c r = a t ~ s Cx o r c m l = t e e t e l a h e a r ~ n g s c c =h;s ~ s s u e -. ,.. E a r ~ ? ,1 5 5 1 . I r r e p o r c ~ r qK b S A ' s FY82 a c t ~ o r ; ~ a z i bo ~~ l 1 ,bG:c commi=tees new upper r e q u e s t e C tfie a g e n c y =c " r e a s s e s s z k e n a = ; o n a l r e q u l r e m e r ' t s f o r a s t a g e , r e v l e w t h e a b i l i t y c i a m o c ~ f l e dC e n t a u r a n d a l t e r n a t e l a u n c h systems t o meet z h e s e requirements, and reconsider the sole source procurement for a p p r o a c h . " T h e b i l l ( P . L . 9 7 - 9 6 ) p r o h i b i t e d NASA f r o m s p e n d i n g a n y m o n e y HASA shou:d make a s o l e s o u r c e p r o c ~ r e m e n to f Centabr and stated that c o m m ~ t m e c t t o t h e G a l ~ l e om i s s i o n b e f o r e m a k i n g a c o m m i t m e n t t o C e n t a u r . NASA'S 1982 8 e c l s i o n t o reverse ltself on t h ~ s ~ s s u e also generated G i ;981 and the controversy. Reports i n rhe tra8e press ~n the fall Force were maklng b e g l r . r . i c g o f 1 3 8 2 h a 6 s u g g e s t e d t h a t NASA and t h e A;r arranqe~.ents t o develop a v e r s ~ o n of Cencaur which wouid meet the would not have the r e q u l r e m e n t s o f b o t h a g e n c ~ e s . Whec ~t a p p e a r e d KASk thought t h a t the f u n d l n g a v a i l a b l e t o p r o c e e d w l t h C e n t a u r ~ n F Y 8 3 , i t was ~ t so w n . The A L ~ F o r c e suSsequently k l r F a r c e r r l g t t d e v e l o p C e n t a u r on it d e c i d e 6 n o r t c d e v e i o p C e n t a u r b e c a u s e i t !-,ad n o m l s s i o n r e q u l r e m e n t s f o r c 3 t ~ l1 9 E 7 . When KASA r e p o r t e d i t s d e c i s i o n n o t t o p r o c e e d w i t h C e n t a u r to Congress, it had argued the t h e a g e n c y Kas s h a r p l y c r i t i c i z e d on the basis chat p r e v i o u s y e a r c h a t C e E t a u r was d e s p e r a t e l y n e e d e d t o support the planetary program. Without C e n t a u r , t h e G a l i l e o m i s s i o n t o Zupizer woul6 have t o have :US, and zhe been placed i n t o a C l f f e r e n t t r a j e c t o r y W i t h t h e l e s s capable t r a x s i t t i m e = o J u p i t e r would h a v e doukied from two to four years. In a s many orSlts of a d b i t i o n , t h e o r k i t e r w o ~ l 6n c t h a v e b e e n a b l e t 9 n a k e J u p i t e r , ar,C = h e s c i e ? . c e a c q u i r e d 'sy t h e m i s s i o n w o c l b h a v e b e e n reduceC by 1 5 - 2 0 % , a c c o r d i n 2 t c KbSb. T h e a g e n c y e x p i a i n e d t h a c w i t h o i ~ l yt w o p l a n e t z r y it simply could not justify the expense of missions t o use Centaur, development. T h e i s s u e w a s . c o m p l i c a t e d f u r t h e r when NASA provided cost f i g u r e s t o C o n g r e s s showing t h a t t h e t o t a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t f o r C e n t a u r woulC i s expected t o be be a p p r o x i m a t e l y $230 m i l l i o n , while IUS development $650-700 m i l l i o n . I n d i v i d u a l C e n t a u r u n i t s would c o s t $35-40 m i l l i o n , while e a c h IUS w o u l d c o s t $ 5 0 - 6 0 n i l l i o n . In addition, Centaur has over twice the low p a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y o f IUS: C e n t a u r c a n t a k e a 1 0 , 6 0 0 pound p a y l o a d from e a r t h o r b i t t o h i g h e r o r b i t s , w h i l e t h e IUS c a n c a r r y o n l y 5 , 0 0 0 p o u n d s . The a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o r o f IUS w e r e t h a t i t i s w e l l a l o n g i n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d w o u l d b e r e a d y b y 1 9 8 5 w h e n t h e G a l i l e o a n d ISPM m i s s i o n s a r e p l a n n e d for launch, a n d m o s t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t money h a s a l r e a d y b e e n s p e n t . (H.Rept. 97-502), the I n i t s r e p o r t o n t h e FY83 NASA a u t h o r i z a t i o n b i l l House S c i e n c e a n d Technology Committee a c c e p t e d t h e position t h a t a high e n e r g y u p p e r s t a g e i s r e q u i r e d , b u t s t a t e d t h a t KASA s h o u l d b e t h e procuring for a g e n c y f o r s u c h a v e h i c l e a n d i t s h o u l d accommodate f u t u r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s r e u s a b i l i t y ; $ 5 m i l l i o n was i n c l u d e d t o c o m p l e t e P h a s e B d e f i n i t i o n studies vehicle in l e a d i n g t o a c o m p e t i t i v e p r o c n r e m e n t o f s u c h an o r b i t a l t r a n s f e r FY84. The S e n a t e Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, source procurement c o n v e r s e l y , s u p p o r t e d development of Centaur v i a a s o l e a w a r d i n i t s m a r k u p o f t h e b i l l o n May 11. The committee a l l o c a t e d $150 m i l l i o n i n FY83 f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h e FY82 U r g e n t S u p p l e m e n t a l A p p r o p r i a t i o n s b i l l ( P . L . 97-216) contained source l a n g u a g e a i r e c t i n g NASA t o p r o c u r e C e n t a u r u p p e r s t a g e s , on a s o l e b a s i s ; - f o r u s e w i t h t h o s e t w o m i s s i o n s , a l t h o u g h NASA may u s e I U S f o r other bill (H.Rept. launches. I n i t s r e p o r t o n t h e FY83 H U D - I n d e p e n d e n t A g e n c i e s 97-7201, t h e A p p r o p r i a t i o n s Committee added $140 million for Centaur in After d e f e a t ~ n g an a c c o r d a n c e with t h e l a n g u a g e i n t h e U r g e n t S u p p i e r c e n t a l . passed a m e n d n e ~ z t h a t w o b l c h a v e s u p p o r t e d I C S 2 n s t e a C cf C e c t a L r , c h e E o n s e r? c h e t ~ l 1o c S e p t . 1 5 . - h e f l n i i i v e r s l o n c f K k S b ' s FYe3 a p p r c p r l a t ~ o r , b l l ; (F.L. 97-272) concalns t h l s anount. Under t h e e x i s t i n q a r r a n g e m e n t , two v e r s i o n s of C e n t a u r w i l l be d e v e l o p e d : " s h o r z " v e r s i o n f o r u s e b y KASA a n d D O D f o r e a r t h o r b i t a l m i s s i o n s , and a " l o n g w v e r s i o n f o r u s e b y NASA f o r p l a n e t a r y m i s s i o n s . NASA a n d D O D w i l l s p l i t t h e c o s t s f o r t h e s h o r c v e r s i o n , while HASA w i l l pay f o r the long version. 2 5 . C o n t i n u i n g Need f o r E x p e n d a b l e L a u n c h V e h i c l e s When the s p a c e s h u t t l e was originally approved f o r development by P r e s l c i e n t N l x o n , i t was e x p e c t e d e v e n t u a l l y t o r e p l a c e a l l the expendable l a u n c h v e h i c l e s ( E L V s ) w h i c h a r e now u s e d to place spacecraft ~n o r b i t (Azlas, Delta, Tltac, e t c . ) . Only t h e S c o n t l a u n c h v e h l c l e , useC f o r p l a c i n g v e r y s m a l l s c l e n t i f l c p a y l o a d s l n t o o r b l t , was e x p e c t e d t o b e r e t a l n e d f o r cse eurlng the shuttle era. The p r o d u c t i o n of ELVs a n d t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d upper stages has been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s c a l e d down d u r i n g t h e p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s , b a t r e c e n t l y KASA and 3 0 D h a v e begun t o r e e x a m i n e t h e q u e s t i o n of whether EiVs should be retained. A s NASA h a s b e e n f o r c e d b y b u d g e t c o n s t r a i n t s t o r e d u c e t h e n u K b e r of s h u t i i e f l i g h t s between 1 9 8 1 and 1 9 8 5 , i t h a s n o t been a b l e t o a s s u r e s h u t t l e launches t o a l l potential customers (in the summer of 1981, NASA a n n o u ~ c e d a r e d u c t i o n f r o m 4 8 t o 3 4 s h u t t l e f l i g h t s t h r o u g k 1965, a n d p r e s s r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s c a y soon be reCuceC b y a n o t h e r 1 0 f l i g h t s ) . As a r e s u i t , s o m e p o t e n t i a l s h u t t l e c u s t o m e r s a r e e i t h e r a s k i c g KASA t o p r o v i d e t h e m w i t h a n a s s u r a n c e o f a n ELV l a u n c h i n l i e u o f s h u t t l e , o r a r e s i g n i n g u p w i t h t h e E u r o p e a n S p a c e Agency f o r l a u n c h e s on i t s A r i a n e l a u n c h v e h i c l e . D O D h a s a l w a y s b e e n c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h a v i n g t o r e l y t o t a l l y on one launch s y s t e m i n t h e e v e n t t h e r e i s a sudden n e e d f o r one o r more m i l i t a r y l a u n c h e s , a n d h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t would l i k e t o r e t a i n i t s T i t a n l a u n c h c a p a b i l i t y . I n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 2 , a HASA s t u d y w a s r e l e a s e d s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i f NASA h a s o n l y f o u r s h u t t l e o r b i t e r s , 8 4 ELV l a u n c h e s may b e r e q u i r e d b e t w e e n FY89 a n d FY94 t o m e e t e x p e c t e d d e m a n d . S e v e r a l c o m p a n i e s a r e now b e i n g f o r m e d w h i c h may m a r k e t e x i s t i n g ELVS, s u c h a s D e l t a , A t l a s - C e n t a u r , a n d T i t a n , a s NASA w i t h d r a w s f r o m ELV o p e r a t i o n s , a n d two c o m p a n i e s a r e d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own ELVs. NASA h a s i s s u e d a s t o p - w o r k o r d e r t o c o n t r a c t o r s who m a k e t h e D e l t a l a u n c h v e h i c l e s o t h a t t h e D e l t a c a p a b i l i t y w i l l end i n 1986. Concern h a s been expressed t h a t t h e s h u t t l e system h a s not been proven yet (especially i n l i g h t of r e c e n t problems w i t h t h e s i x t h s h u t t l e l a u n c h which h a s caused at l e a s t a 2-month d e l a y ) , a n d t h e e x p e n d a b l e s s h o u l d n o t be t e r m i n a t e d u n t i l NASA i s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e s h u t t l e c a n p e r f o r m a s p r o m i s e d . 6. Shuttle Pricing Policy I n 1 9 7 7 , NASA e s t a b l i s h e d p r i c e s f o r s h u t t l e launches a s follows: $18 m i l l i o n f o r c o m m e r c i a l , f o r e i g n , a n d U.S. c i v i l a g e n c i e s f o r t h e f i r s t 3 y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n s ; a n d $ 1 2 . 2 m i l l i o n f o r DOD f o r t h e f i r s t -6 y e a r s o f operations (prices are in 1975 d o l l a r s ) . The l o w e r p r i c e f o r DOD was p r e 6 i c a t e C on = h e f a c t t h a t DOC 1s prcv~Slng a shctzle launch site at VanCeLSerq A?E a r C t h e ~ n e r t i a l c ~ p e r s t a g e . hicer t5ese flxeC perlods expire, t L e price i s z o b e a d j ~ s z e 6S n r . ~ a ; l y t o a l l O K XhSA t c fully recover s r . c t t l e program c o s c s have r l s e n , aL6 2:s o p e r a t ~ o c a le x p e n s e s . S l n c e 19'7, KhSA h7::l h a v e t o make u p t h e d i i f e r e c c e b e t w e e n t h e p r i c e ~t c h a r g e s a n d t h e t h e Genera: actual cost ro lacnch the snuttle. In a report prepareC by A c c O u n t l n g O f f l c e l n 1 9 6 2 ( s e e REFERENCES), l t w a s estimated t h a t t h i s w o u l d f o r c e NASA t o p a y 8 0 % o f s h u t t l e c o s t s t h r o u g h 1 9 8 5 , w h l l e i l y l n g o n l y 3 6 % o f t h e mlsslons. G A O r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t NASA r e c o n s ~ d e r ~ t psr l c l n g p o l l c y t o establish more equlzable prlceg LO a l l users. In a d C ~ t l o n , t h e congressional committees w h i c k d e a l w i c k N A S A ' s a u t h o r l z a t l o ~h a v e d i r e c t e d t h a t KASA r e c o u p f u l l c o s t s f o r 3 O D ~ l s s l o n se a r l l e r t h a n t h e s:x p e a r p e r 1 0 3 s p e c l f i e C ~ n t h e 1 9 7 7 prlclng pcllcy. S p e c l f l c a l l y , t h e House S c ~ e n c e a n d Tecnnologp Commlttee l n 1985, whlle the C ~ r e c t e cKASh t o r e c o u p f u l l c o s ~ sf r o m 3 G D b e q l n n l n g S e n a t e C o m m e r c e , S c ~ e n c e ,a n d Transportation C o m m l t t e e d l r e c t e d t h a t full FYE3. T h e S e n a t e committee d e c r e a s e d c o s c s b e p a l e b y D O E b e g ~ n n l n g :n KASb's budge: S4C9 n l i l l o n f o r FY63 or. the assumption t2at D03 woulC re:nS,rse KASb z n a t a n o u 2 t f o r ti-e t w c 3 0 C l a u n c h e s s c h e d u l e 6 f o r FY63. Tke Senate kpproprlatiocs Committee followeC the actlon of the Commerce committee, b u t Eouse Appr0pr:atlons dld not agree. In conference, the a u t h o r l z a t l o n bill w a s a m e n d e d t o r e a d t h a t NASA s h o u l d c h a r g e DOD w h a t e v e r pr;ces were n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o v e r t h e " f a l r v a l u e w of s h u t t l e l a u n c h e s , b u t no c c l l a r a m o u n t was s t ~ p u l a t e d . The a p p r o p r l a r l o n s b i l l was amended t c i n c l u d e l a n g c a g e s t a t l n g o n l y t h a t i n f u t u r e y e a r s , NASA's a p p r o p r i a t ~ o nl e v e l w o u l e b e r e d u c e d b y w h a t e v e r a m o u n t w a s t r a n s f e r r e d t o KASA a s rermbursement for shattie fllghts. Ir. J c n e 1 9 8 2 , X A S B a n E o u n c e d a new p r i c i n g p o l i c y for space shuttle l a u n c h e s which w i l l occur between Oct. 1, 1985, and S e p t . 3 0 , 1988. T h e new compared c o s t of an e n t i r e s h u t t l e cargo bay i s $38 m i l l i o n i n 1975 d o l l a r s , t o t h e p r e v i o u s p r i c e of $18 m i l l i o n 1975 d o l l a r s . When a d j u s t e d f o r i n f l a t i o n , t h e c o s t i n 1965 t o launch t h e s h u t t l e i s expected t o be $90 million. Several s a t e l l i t e s can be c a r r i e d i n t o space a t one time by the s h u t t l e , h o w e v e r , a n 8 NASA a n t i c i p a t e s t h a t t h e c o s t t o p l a c e o n e satellite i n t o o r b i t w i l l be $26 m i l l i o n , i n c l u d i n g requi.red upper stages. NASA e x p e c t s t h i s c o s t t o b e c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h U.S. and f o r e i g n expendable launch vehicles. expected f l i g h t s had S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , NASA a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f d r o p p e d from 487 t o 312, p a r t i a l l y because of longer than expected turn around times f o r refurbishing t h e s h u t t l e . Because of t h e lower launch r a t e , NASA c h a n g e d i t s p h i l o s o p h y r e g a r d i n g s h u t t l e p r i c i n g p o l i c y . I n s t e a d of (1982-1994), attempting t o recover f u l l c o s t s over t h e 1 2 year f l i g h t period KASA w i l l o n l y a t t e m p t t o r e c o v e r o u t - o f - p o c k e t e x p e n s e s f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d f o r which t h e p r i c e s a r e i n e f f e c t . These p r i c e s do not apply t o a t e n t a t i v e a g r e e m e n t on h i g h e r FY84-FY88. I n s t e a d of t h e $12.2 f o r t h e f i r s t 6 y e a r s , DOD w i l l o c c u r r i n g i n FY84 a n d F Y 8 5 , FY66-FY88. DOD. I n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 2 , NASA a n d DOD r e a c h e d prices f o r DOD l a u n c h e s f o r t h e p e r i o d m i l l i o n (FY75 d o l l a r s ) o r i g i n a l l y a g r e e d t o p a y $ 1 6 m i l l i o n (FY75 d o l l a r s ) for launches and $29.6 million (FY75 d o l l a r s ) during H.R. l e 1 5 (Price)/S. 7 2 0 (Thurmond) Authorizes appropriations to NASA for FP84. referred to Committee on Science and Technology. Introduced Kar. 11, H.R. 2055 (Fuqua et al.) Authorizes appropriations for military construction for FY64. ro House and Sensate Armed Services Committees, respectively. 1983; Ref erred EEARINGS U.S. Congress. House. Committee on S c i e n c e and Technology. Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications. 1962 KASA authorization (Program Review). Sept. 1 5 , 1 7 , 1 8 , 1980. I:. 5 € 9 p. [ ~ a s k i n g t o n ,U . S . Govt. Print. Cff., 19601 v c ; . U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technoloqy. 1 9 8 2 NASA authorization, vol. 1 1 1 , I V , V. Jan. 2 8 , Feb. 1 0 , 1 1 , 2 0 , 2 3 , 2 6 , 2 7 , Mar. 2 , 4 , 5 , 1 0 - 1 2 , 1 7 - 2 1 , 2 3 , 2 4 , 1 9 8 1 . [washington, U.S. ~ o v t .~rin:. ~ f f . ,19811 p. 671-2236. U.S. Congress. Senate. Cornrnlttee on Cor,merce, S c i e n c e , and Transportation. KASA authorization f o r F Y 8 2 ; hearings on KASA P a r t s 1 & 11. budaet. Ear. L C , 1 5 , 2 5 , 3 1 , hpr. 7 , 2 7 , 1961. [ ~ a s h i n g t o n ,U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1 9 8 1 ] 7 3 7 p. REPORTS AND CONGRESSIONAL D O C U M E N T S U.S. ----- Congress. Committee of Conference. Authorizing appropriations to %he National Aeronautics and S p a c e Administration; r e p o r t to accompany S. 1098. Nov. 2 1 , 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. (97th Congress, 1 s t session. House. Report no. 97-351) Making appropriations for the D e p a r t m e n t of Housing and Urban Development, and f o r sundry independent a g e n c i e s , boards, commissions, c o r p o r a t i o n s , a n d offices, f o r t h e fiscal year ending September 3 0 , 1 9 8 2 , and for other purposes; report to accompany H.R. 4034. Sept. 1 1 , 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. (97th Congress, 1 s t session. House. Report no. 97-222) U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent A g e n c i e s appropriation bill, 1 9 8 2 ; report to accompany H.R. 4034. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. (97th C o n g r e s s 1 s t session. House. R e p o r t no. 97-162) U.S. Congress. House. Committee on S c i e n c e and Technology. Authorizing appropriations to t h e National Aeronautics and Space Administration f o r fiscal y e a r 1 9 8 2 ; report to accompany H.R. 1257. Kay 8 , 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. 1 . 2eport 5 KC. . 108:. 97-32) (97th Congress, ls: sessior,. Hocse. ----- Space sr.cz=;e, s t a t u s r e p c r t . Z a ~ ~ a r1 9p 6 0 . iwash~ngzo~, (46:h Congress, U.S. G c v z . T r ~ n c .3 f f . , 1 9 6 C ] 7 3 8 p . 5C s e s c l o : , ) A t h e a d o f t ~ t l e : C o m ~ n a t t e eP r l n t . ----- United Scates Jancary 1981. 1339 p. (97rh k t h&ad c f t V.S. Congress. Senate. C o m m ~ t t e eo n A p p r o p r i a t i o n s . . D e p a r t m e n t o i B o u s i n g a r d Urban D e v e l o p m e n t - I n d e p e n d e n t A g e n c i e s a p p r o p r i a t i o n s b i l l , 19S2; r e p o r t t o accoKpany E . R . 4034. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1 9 8 1 . (97th Congress, ist session. Senaze. Report no. 97-16?) . Congress. Senate. C o r c r ~ ~ t eor. e Comr,erce, S c ~ e n c e ,anC ?rar.spor=atlor. K a t i o n a ; h e r o n a c t ~ c sa n d S p a c e k d m l n l s t r a r i o n A c t , 1982; r e p o r t t o accompany S. 1098. Kz.y 1 5 , 1 9 8 1 . k ' a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r l n t . O f f . , 1 9 6 1 . R e p o r t no. 37-iOC) (Q7th Congress, 1st s e s s ~ c n . S e n a t e . C i v i l i a n Space Programs: 1956-1978. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1 9 8 1 . Congress, 1st session) itle: Comr,ittee P r i n t . CKR3NOiOSY CP E V E N T S 11/16/62 -- F ~ f t hf l ~ g k to f t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e l a n d e C a: E C u a r d s b F 3 a: 0 9 3 5 EST. Astronants successfully deployed 2 commercial commucicatlons s a t e l i l t e s , b u t had t o c a n c e l a planned space walk. i1/11/62 -- F i f t h s h u t t l e f l i g h t l a u n c h e d o n - t i m e a t 0 7 1 9 EST. T h i s was t h e f i r s t o p e r a t i o n a l s h u t t l e f l i g h t . 07/04/82 -- T h e f o u r t h s h u t t l e f l i g h t l a n d e d a t 1 2 1 0 EDT a t Edwards AFB. F i r s t l a n d i n g of t h e s h u t t l e on a h a r d runway. 06/27/82 -- Fourth and f i n a l test f l i g h t of t h e space s h u t t l e b e g a n w i t h t h e f i r s t o n - t i m e l a u n c h a t 1 1 0 0 EDT. 06/15/82 -- House S c i e n c e and Technology Committee h e l d h e a r i n g s on t h e neeC f o r t h e f i f t h s p a c e s h u t t l e o r b i t e r . 06/03/82 -- S o v i e t s launched a s p a c e c r a f t t h a t appears t o have been a t e s t r e l a t e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t o f a manned r e u s a b l e vehicle. 03/30/82 -- The t h i r d s h u t t l e f l i g h t l a n d e d a t White Sands, N e w Mexico, one day l a t e r t h a n planned b e c a u s e o f h i g h winds. 03/22/82 --- T h i r d l a u n c h of 12/09/81 t h e space s h u t t l e took place. S e n a t e Commerce, S c i e n c e , a n d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C o m m i t t e e h e l a h e a r i n g s on o p e r a t i o n a l management of t h e s h u t t i e . 11/14/61 -- S e c o n C s h u t t l e z e s t f l ~ g h tl a n d e d a t E d w a r d s AFE a f t e r f u e l c e l l proLlems ca2seC e a r l y t e r m i c a t l o r , of c h e rr.iss:on. 11/:2/81 -- S e c o n d s h u t t l e t e s t f l i g h t was l a u n c h e d s u c c e s s f u l l y . 09/21/81 -- House S c i e n c e a n 8 Technology Committee began t h r e e days of h e a r i n g s on f u t u r e s p a c e programs a n d policy. 04/14/81 -- ~ E l u m b i a l a n d e d a t E d w a r d s AFB i n C a l i f o r n i a a f t e r a neariy perfect mission. 04/12/81 -- F i r s t l a u n c h of accomplished. 06/05/80 -- Total t 8C,OOG assure t o che 02/13/80 -- Successful completion of t h e f i n a l t e s t f i r i n g of t h e s h u t t l e ' s s o i i d rocket booster motor. 03/31/60 -- The s p a c e s h u t t l e m a i n e n g i n e p a s s e d a n i l e s t o n e w i t h t h e f i r s t sustained (6 minute) operation of t h e e n g i n e a t f u l l power l e v e l . C3/00/79 -- O r b i t e r 1 0 2 f e r r i e d f r o m E d w a r d s AFB, C a l i f o r n i a , t o Kennedy S p a c e C e n t e r , F l o r i d a , t o be r e a d i e d for orbital flight. 10/26/77 -- F i f t h and f i n a l o r b i t e r f r e e f l i g h t (tail cone o f f ) was s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d by a s t r o n a u t s H a i s e - a n d Fullerton. 06/12/77 -- T h e f i r s t s h u t t l e o r b i t e r f r e e f l i g h t was s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d by A s t r o n a u t s H a i s e a n d F u l l e r t o n . The o r b i t e r was r e l e a s e d f r o m t h e B o e i n g 7 4 7 a t a n a l t i t u d e of 6,768 meters above ground l e v e l and g l i d e d t o a l a n d i n g f i v e m i n u t e s 23 s e c o n d s l a t e r on t h e d r y l a k e b e d r u n w a y a t NASA's D r y d e n F l i g h t R e s e a r c h C e n t e r a t Edwards A i r F o r c e Base, C a l i f o r n i a . 06/00/77 -- 03/02/77 -- T h e f i r s t f l i g h t t e s t p h a s e o f t h e s h u t t l e o r b i t e r was s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d w i t h t h e f i f t h c a p t i v e unmanned f l i g h t of t h e o r b i t e r . 02/18/77 -- The f i r s t t e s t f l i g h t o f t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e o r b i t e r was s u c c e s s f u l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d a t E d w a r d s A i r F o r c e Base, C a l i f . T h e o r b i t e r was u n m a n n e d , a n d m o u n t e d o n t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e Columbia s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t time f o r t h e s h u t t l e main e n g i n e went o v e r t h e s e c o n d n a r k e s t a b l i s h e d a s t h e rcinimum n e e d e d t o t h e r e l i a a i l i t y 0: t h e s h u t t l e m a i n e n g i n e p r i o r firs: flight. The s e c o n d p h a s e of t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e f l i g h t t e s t was b e g u n . T h i s p h a s e was s u c c e s s f u l l y completed i n J u l y 1977 a f t e r t h r e e f l i g h t s f r o m E d w a r d s AFB, C a l i f . , i n w h i c h t h e o r b i t e r was m a n n e d a n d a t t a c h e d t o t h e B o e i n g 7 4 7 . a B o e r n q 547 C u r i n q t h e e n t i r e f l l g h z . 11/19/73 -- 08/16/73 -- C7/26/72 -- 01/05/72 -- 07/i3/7l -- ll/OG/69 G.S/OO/EC --- NASA s e l e c t e d T h i o k o l C h e m i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n t o d e v e l o p t h e s o l i d rocket motors f o r t h e s h u t t l e (contract w c r t h $106 m i l l i o n ) . KASA s e l e c r e d M a r t i n K a r i e t t a t o d e v e l o p t h e e x t e r n a l Pank f o r t h e s h a t t l e ( c o n t r a c t w o r t h $158 m i l l i o n ) . NASA s e l e c t e d N o r t h A m e r z c a n R o c k w e l l ( n o w R o c k w e l l I n t e r n a t i o n a l ) f o r t h e $3.5 b i l l i o n s h c t t l e o r b ~ t e r development c o n t r a c t . Presidert partially X ~ x c na n n o u n c e d 6 e c i s z o r . t o p r o c e e C w l t h reusable shutt;e s y s t e ~ . KASA a w a r d e d R o c k e z d y n e t h e $45G r i l l l o n engine development c o n t r a c t . s 3 u t t l e rr,a;~ KASA p r o p o s a l submitted. for fully Space Task Croup r e p o r t 1970s an5 1960s. A2GITIOKhL R E F E 4 E K C E reusable shutzle o u t l i n e C a m k ~ t i o u sp r o g r a m for SCURCES Washington, b l l a w a y , Howard. The S p a c e S h u t t l e a t work. N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s a n d S p a c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n [ f o r s a l e by t h e S u p t . o f D o c s . , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . ] 1 9 7 9 . 76 p. "NASA E P - 1 5 6 " Shuttle. Kew P o r k e r , v . 5 6 , F e b . 9 , C o o p e r , Henry S. F . , J r . 43-44, 47-48, 51-52, 5 6 , 6 0 , 65-66, 70, 72-81, 1981: 84-85, 88-89, 92-105; Feb. 1 6 : 65-67, 70-73, 76-79, 82-87, 90, 92, 94-106, 110-113Mathematica, Inc. Economic a n a l y s i s o f t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e s y s t e m , s t u d y p r e p a r e d f o r NASA b y H e i s s a n d H o r g e n s t e r n o f M a t h e m a t i c a , I n c . , J a n . 3 1 , 1 9 7 2 , e x e c u t i v e summary a n d t h r e e v o l u m e s . Space transportation systems: 1 9 8 0 - 2 0 0 0 , a n AIAA a s s e s s m e n t . Edited by J e r r y G r e y , D o n a l d W. P a t t e r s o n , a n d R o b e r t S a l k e l d . Prepared by T e c h n i c a l C o m m i t t e e on S p a c e S y s t e m s o f he A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of Aeronautics and A s t r o n a u t i c s . AIA a e r o s p a c e a s s e s s m e n t s e r i e s , v . 1. N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 8 . 9 1 p. U.S. Department of Defense. S o v i e t M i l i t a r y Power. Washington, U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1 9 8 3 . (Also published as a s p e c i a l i s s u e o f Armed F o r c e s J o u r n a l , March 1 9 8 3 ) U.S. General Accounting O f f i c e . Analysis of c o s t estimates f o r t h e s p a c e s h u t t l e and two a l t e r n a t e p r o g r a m s ; r e p o r t t o t h e C o n g r e s s by the Comptroller General of the United States. [washington] 1973. ----- ----- C c z c - S e r . e f l t a ~ a l y s l sc s e d 17. s u p p o r t of c n e s p a c e s h ~ t t l e proqram. N a t ~ o n a lA e r c n 2 ~ t ; c s a n d S p a c e A d R : n : s t r a t l o n ; r e p o r : b y t h e C o r ~ p t r o l i e r G e n e r a l o f :he U n l t e d S ~ a t e s . [ ~ a s h i n ~ t o nJ u] n e 2 , 1 9 7 2 . 53 p. DCD p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s p a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m : status a n d i s s u e s ; r e p o r t t o t h e C o n g r e s s by c h e C o m p t r o l l e r 46 p . G e n e r a l of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . [Washington] 1961. w ~ ~ ~ ~ % - 8 1F e- b6. , 2 8 , 1 9 8 1 " ----- NASA m u s t r e c o n s i d e r o p e r a t i o n s p r i c i n g p c l i c y t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r c o s t g r o w t h on t h e pace T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System; r e p o r t t o t h e C o n g r e s s by t h e C o m p t r o l l e r G e n e r a l o f t h e United S t a t e s . Feb. 2 3 , 1982. Washington, 1982. 58 p. (KASAD-62-15) ----- S ~ a c et r a n s p o r t a t x o a s y s t e ~ : ~ a s t ,p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e ; r e p o r t t o t h e C o n g r e s s Sy t h e C o m p t r o l l e r G e n e r a l o f t h e United S t a t e s . Kay 2 7 , 1 9 7 7 . Washington, 1977. 75 p. (PSAD-77-113) U.S. International Communication A g e n c y . O f i ~ c eo f R e s e a r c h . S o v i e t e l i t e s : w o r l d v l e w a n d p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e U.S. ICA 40 p. R e p o r t R-18-81. Sept. 29, 1981. U.S. L i j r a r y of Congress. Conqressional Besearch Service. A n z i s a t e i l i t e s ( K i l l e r satellites) [ b y ; X a r c i a S . S r r . i t k . (Continuously updated) I s s u e B r i e f 81123 --------- The s p a c e s h u t t l e : a historical [ ~ a s h i n g t o n ]1 9 7 3 . 1 4 p. M u l t i l i t h 7 3 - 1 2 3 SP o v e r v i e w [ b y ] Higdon S e g a l . Space p o l i c y and funding: RASA a n d D O D . Smith. (Continuously updated) I s s u e Brief 78093 [ b y ] Marcia S.