Proposals for Revision of the Communications Act of 1934: Telecommunications Issues

F R O P O S b i S F O R BEVISIO?: OF T9Z COXMUNICAT:3GS ACT OF 1 S 3 4 : TELECOMMUNICATIONS ISSUES I S S U S E R I S F NUMBZR I B 8 1 1 5 0 AUTHOR: A n g e l f A. G i l r c y Econornlcs D i v i s i o n THZ LIBRARY O F CONGRESS CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCB SERVICE MbJ3R ISSUES SYSTEF SATE O R I G I N A T E D 0 9 / l - / E i 3 A T S UPDRTSC 11/19/82 FOR ADaITIDNAL INFORMATION CALL 2 8 7 - 5 7 C 0 ;1 2 4 CRS- I ISSUE DEFINITION T n e r e v r s l c c o f < h e C o r n r n u ~ . ~ c a t l o nAc: s o f 1 9 3 4 - - t h e law t h a t glves the . - e c e r a l Z ~ r r n u c l c a = i c i n s Zorcmlsslcn (FCC) t n e a 1 ~ t h c r l t ) 7 ts regclate the 2 srgnliicant congresslona: z o n n l ~ ? . l c a ~ ~ o~n ns d u s z r y -- n a s ~ s e za s s c ; e c t c o n c e r n s ; z c e =Pie 9 4 t h Z o n g r e s s . W h ~ l ea n u n s e r o f l e g l s ; a t ; v e a;:ernatives t o amend t h e Cornmunicazlons g e t h a v e S e e n p r o p o s e d , d u e z o t n e c o r n p l e x l t y of :he l s s u e s i a c l n g t e l e c o m r n u n ~ c a c ~ . o nrse f c r r n a n d c o n i l ; c t over the numerocs Act has been passe<. a v a i 1 a S ; e o p t i o n s , n c ma:or i e g l s i a ~ i ~t no a m e n d :ne 3 n l 2 k e ~ n p r e v l o u s C o n g r e s s e s when r e v l s l o n s w e r e i Z Z r c 9 u c e 5 p r l n a r r ; y rr. = h e f o r x o f o m n l ~ u s x e a s ~ r o s , l e g r s l a z ~ v e~ n l t l a t l v e sr n t n e S T = ? , C s n g r e s s nave 2 s?ec~frc facers : a ~ e r . t?.e fo-m sf ~ l l l s 5ealrr-,: separately 0f 23nnnn~ca:;sns ( e . g . , :elephcne, t e l e v r s l o n , raE~3, t e l e g r a ~ k ) . .J w . - 3 z r 2 r e a r e cumero2s p-eces c f l e g ~ s l a : i o ? p e n c l n g , a l l c o c t a z n i n q srgcriica~= nzst far-reachlzg r a a ~ f i c a z l o c s f o r :he c c n n ~ n ~ c a t i o ni sn i u s t -r y , o r e o i z k e a n d c 3 n : r c v e r s ~ a l a r e a s 2 n 5 e r r o v ~ e w r s = h a t o f c o n z ~ r c a t r o r , c3rnrnon ~ e a r r ~ e r s telephones) . In Aprrl 1981, S e n a ~ z r 'ac~woad -. .- --,--oC:cec! h e r e , wneT - - - ~ c ~ ~ T I u P . ~ Compe:lt;3n c ~ ~ ~ o z s a ~ 3c e r e g u l a : ~ o ? A c = o f 19e1," S. 698, ts deregclate an9 r e s = r 1 ~ c t c r e :he z e l e c ~ ~ m u n i c a t l c n s~ n c n s t r y . Y.e Senaze S. Z o a n e r c e Ccmml:tee r e p o r t s 6 t 2 e 2111 rn J u l y , 222 a - anended v e r s ~ o n of '2' was p a s s e d 9C-4 by t h e S e n a t e : e x . - , 1 9 8 1 a?.d r e f e r r e e t c t h e Hcuse zc " c t . 2 0 , 1961. c0zpa~.lonki;l, 3 . R . 5156, t n e "Teleco~,o:rrcailons cf 1 5 6 1 , " i i a s i n t r o d u c e d B y 2 e p . W l r t h on 3 e c . 1 G , 1 5 8 1 a n d a s ~ S s t r t u : e v e r s ~ o n , . k, 2 " T e l e c o m n ~ n l ~ a i ~Ac= o ~ ~o f 1982", was ~ ~ a r ~ ~ o u rse p; oyr c e d by the S ~ 3 c s ~ ~ ; c z e~en X a r c k 1932. ?ili C3mmi:=se "ark-? of - 3 5158 was ter~;ca:?d, h o x e v e r , w9.er. r t was Setern~zeC that r e ~ a i n ~ r g controvers~es me r e m a ~ ~ ~~ nr g. =?.is s e s s ~ c ~ . . SGC?. c o c l d nc: Sf r e s s l v s e I?. z 2 e 1zir.1:eC a s z ; a n a a ~ e a r st o h a v e d e r a l l e e a z y m a l o r l e g ~ s l a z ~ va e= = s n p t s t o r e v i s e tne C o n g r e s s t h e r e ~ yf o c c s ~ n gf x r t k e r a ~ t e n t i c no n C o n 7 u n i c a : ~ z n s A c t 12 z n e S7:h 7 - n and C e s c l c e 3 e p a r t a e n t a c : ~ v i t ~ e s . - 1F 'A & & - L d L - . b b A t t e m p c s t o r e v r s e t h e l a w s c o v n r n ~ n p= h e r e g b l a : ~ o n o f c o m ~ z n l c a t r o n s c a n S e a a a s s r v e a n C c c n t r o v e r s r a l u n d e r t a ~ ~ n qa f f e c t l n q net only =he telephone elsctrsn:zs i n Z ~ s = r y ,3 d : :ke c r o a c c a s t , n e w s p a p e r , c o m p u ~ s r , s a t e l l ~ z e a n C 1 r L C ~ s t f 1 2 as s d e l i . Due t o z n e a d v e ~ to f c c r n a u t e r s a n d ;=her :ecnnclogreal d e v ? l o p n e n c s , :ne S a r r i e r s S e t w e e n b a s ~ ct e l e c z m n u n : e a ~ ~ o ! - . s , C a t a p r o c e s s l n q , a n d m a s s a e c i a s e r v ~ c e sa r e j e c o m r n p ~ n C ~ s t i n g c r s n a s l e . CRS- 2 T h e restructuring of AT&T h a s been a d d r e s s e d b y the Justice Department, w n l c h i n a 7 - y e a r - o l d s u i t c h a r g e d AT&T w i t h u s l n g i t s m o n o p o l y posltlon to Unlike provisions in S . :nhlbit competition l n t h e c o m m u n l c a t l o n s m a r k e t . e5E t h a t c a l l f c r s e p a r a t e s ~ b s ~ d ~ a r i ea ss a conC1t:on fcr furt9er n 5:vers~ficat:on, L J , ~ Jastice Ceparcmenz sougkz d ~ v e s t r z c r e a f ex;st~ng c=mponents cf A T L T . Thelr reasor-~ng was 2ased on cne p r e ~ i s e that d l v e s t l t u r e 1 s t h e besc K a y t o a s s u r e t h a t t h e c o m p a n y c a n n o t u s e r e v e n u e s f r o m i t s m o n o p o l y s e r v r c e s to s n b s r d r z e a d v c n c e d c o m m u n ~ c a t i o n s s e r v r c e s i n the c o m p e t l t ~ v e marketplace, or ase lzs monopoly control over =he c o m n U n l c a t ~ o n s n e c w o r i tc n l n a e r c o m p e t r t i v e a c c e s s . i A l t h o ~ ~ g tP.e h J u s t i c e 3 e p c . d i C cons:Zer s e e k ~ n ga l e g r s l a t r v e s o l c t ~ o n ,or. AT&? a g r e e d zc an. 8 , 1 3 E 2 , a n e g o t l a t e d s e t c l e ~ ~ e n wza s r e a c h e d w i t t A T L T . compan:es kP.ich a c c o s n t f o r :vest i t s e l f of ~ t s 22 l o c a l o p e r a t i n g z W o - - h l r d s of 1:s a s s e z s ($80 b l l l l o n ) i n r e t n r n f o r a r o d ; f ~ c a t l o n of a i 9 5 5 consert decree. T h i s c o n s e n t d e c r e e , a c a g r e e m e n t A T h T e n t e r e d i n t o w ~ t ht h e A%&T from Z ~ s t ~ c3 e p t . z o s e z t l e a p r e v i o u s an=;zrusc salt, rescricced services. rn i h e modifizatron sst2r;ng a n y t h l n g C u t r e g u i a t e c c o m n u n l c a t l o n s r s n o v e d r e s c r l c t l o n s s o c h a t AT&? c c n 1 6 e n t e r i n z o u n r e g c l a t e d f ~ e l d s . - unregulated c a r ~ e z s = h e parep: ' .. - a d d ~ c l o r tc 1 5 s a b i l ~ t y co e z t e r (AT&?) ~ 1 1 1=ontlr,de c c k e e p ;zs iong lines (~ncerexcharge) ccrpora:lon d~r ~ r q a r ~ ) , n c 3 e l l i a ~ s (1:s retwork, Jester? E l e c z r ~ c ( i t s ~ . a n lua; i-L -+ . n - -c r s s e a r c h a n d develc?mer.c arm). ,-a, w:ll als3 galn control 3 5 che incras=aze equipment iang ciszazce network as we11 as tpe ~ c s t a l l e d custoner premlses presently p r o v l d e d S y c h e l o c a l o p e r a t ~ n g c3mpan;es. Althongh n o d i f l e d :n t n e flna!. s e t t i e n e ~ t l o c a l o p e r a c l n g c o m p a n l e s w e r e r e s t r ~ c z e d 'to or,ly While t?.e t e r m s of che p r o v l e ~ c c jl o c a l , r e g u l a t e d , t e l e p h o n e services. ir.itlai s e t t l e m e n t h a v e s i n c e r e c e i v e d a d c z t ~ o n a l m0d:flcatrons ane are stril suS]ectto ciariflcac-on s o m e of t h e m a l o r p r o v ~ s i o n s ln the i n ~ t i a l negotiated s e z t l e m e n t a p p e a r t o r e q s l r e - - - -- h%T t o t r a n s f e r t o t h e l o c a l 3pera::ng companres szaff, syszems, and rig3ts to operace ~ n d e p e n d e n t i y ; -- l a c a l o p e r a z l n g c o n p a n ~ e sc c s e p a r a t e o a t a ~ n t r a s t a t e l o n g d l s c a n c e s w l t c ? . ~ n g a n S tracsm:ssioc c u s t o m e r prem;ses e q a l p m e c t ; enough facrlltles, transfer t o AT;: c a c a c ~ t y a s we;: a:; as - - n o ;ornt o w n e r s h i p o f a n y p r o p e r t y b e t w e e n A%&T a ~ . d t 9 e ;ocal c p e r a t l n g c o m p a n r e s 1 s a i l o w e d , ?lcwever shared ~ s e r s perrcrtted a s l o n g a s ;ccal o p e r a t i n g c o r n p a n ~ e sk e e p c o n t r c l o v e r a i l l o c a l e x c h a n g e f u n c t ~ o n s ; -- a l l l l c e n s e c o n t r a c t s a n d s t a n C a r d s ~ p p l yc o n t r a c z s ~ e t w e e nh T & T , Labs and Weszern Electric, a n d :he l c c a i o p e r a c ~ n g c0rnpan;es w terminated; 3e;l 3s -- l o c a l o p e r a t i c 5 c o m p a n l e s may s e z u p a c e n t r a l l z e e o r g a n r z a z l o n f o r managemenc a n C adnlniszrative servlces. T n e r e a r e n o p r o h ~ S ~ t l o c sr e g a r e ~ n q structural reorgan1zat:on; -- local o p e r a t ~ n g compan;es are required to sez up a centralized o r g a r . i z a t l o n a n d s ~ n g l ep o l n t o f emergency ? r e p a r e d n e s s ; contac: zo d e a l w l t h n a t l o n a l security 226 -- l o c a l operating companies m u s t p r o v l d e a l l carriers and rnforrnation p r o v i d e r s a c c e s s , ~ n f o r m a t i o n arid r n t e r c o z n e c t ~ o n , :ha: i s equal in type, q u a l ~ t y ,a n d prize t o t h a t 7 r o v ; a e d c o AT&? a r A d r t s a f f l l r a t e s . -- 1 3 c a l o p e r a z ~ n gc c ~ p a r l e sw i l l c x a r ~ et a r r f i s t n a : a r e e q u a l :n pr:ce =z a l l f s r e q u a l l e v e l s o f s e r v l z e s f o r :he p r o v ~ s i o n o f exchafige access ~ n t e r e x c h a n g ec a r r r e r s . -- l o c a l operating c o m p a n ~ e s may n o t C r s c r ; m ~ n a = e : z s e r v r z e s an& eqx-pment; :ke:r prccuremenc cf - - -&". . e J u s t ~ c eD s p t . w r l l re:&;: v ~ s ~ t r : . g r:ghzs =a l o c a l zperacing c c e p a ~ . ; e s a n d may o b c a l n a c c e s s t c n e z e s s a r y records zs assure compl;arce wlz?. t r . 1 ~a g r e e m e n : . T e r r r , ~ n a : l s ! - o f he a n t ~ t r u s t s : r t % a s s2c:ec: zc f--2; , ,-,-a,- ' approval C s u r t C ~ d g eA a r z l d G r e e 7 . e . W h r l e Gudge G r e e n s d i C r e c have 3y L . S . 3:str:Ct ' i c e a u -kh. L ~ r ; t yt o m o d ~ f y :he z o r m s of e settiemenz, R an Angus= Ilth C e c i s ~ c ch e a n n o u n c e d t h a t h e w o s l d r e f d s e = o & ? p r o v e z3.e s e z z l e m e n t , ualess & ~ . u c b e rcf n o d r f i = a t : o n s w e r e ~ n c o r p o r a = e d . A l t 5 s u g 3 J d a g e G r e e ~ es u p p o r t e d = > e b a s ~ cf r a n e w o r k o f t h e s e t t l e m e r t , ~ n a t2 s c n e Z ~ v e s t i t c r eo f the local 1r:o 2nreq;la:ed markets, Pe c p e r a t l x g c o r n a a ? . r e s an: t 3 e e n z r a - c e c f AT&T , e q ; ~ r e S = h e : n c o r p o r a k r c n 2 5 1 3 rr,od;f:caz,3r.s z o r e s o l v e k;s concerns over :he s e r t l e m e : : ' ~ zerms. 3 e s e rrod~i:ca~:sr.s larqely enable z?.e divested 1 3 c a ; o ? e r a i l n g c3rnpac;es z c p r o v ~ d e c n s z o m e r prenlses eqzipaent, prodcze " y a l l o w p a g e s , " a n d ?e:rt;on t h e c o u r t t o ?rcv;de long 5is:acce servrce an< ~i = h e y c a r . p r o v e c k a z r t w ~ l l?.oc r m ? e d e coRpet:t;sc. mac:facture eqx:?aent T 3 e ncd:f:ca:;cns a l s o proi-.;tl: A T I X f r o m e n q a g ~ ~i g? " e l e c z r o n , ~ p u S ; ; s k ; n g W a o v e r 1:s own z r a c s ~ . ~ s s ; s . - .f a c ~ l ~ t ~ f oer sa ~;ri;rrxm :f s e r + ' e ~y e a r s ; r e q 2 : r e relatively equal Z ; s t r ~ 3 u t i o r . 3: Cezt cetween ATsT ard zne C;ves=ed clarlfy s?ecif:c 3enav:or;al requ~rements for z ~ e c c m p a n ~ e s ; r e q u ~ r es r ZlvesteC Local o p e r a z i n q z3apazres; and q r a n t t h e cocrz :cris2:ctlon over =he ("r a aorre decalled ~ ~ p l e m e n t a z l oann d e n f c r c e m e n t o f zne se:tlement. d ; s c u s s ~ o n o f t h e n c C ; f s c a t i o n s :nccrpora:ed ~ n t st ? . e f;nal setzlemenz see C.S. L ~ S r a r ysf C c r g r e s s , C c n q r e s s ~ s n a ; Z e s e a r c P , Servrzs. S t a c ~ s 2f :he ;~s::ce 3 e p a r z m e n t j A m e r ~ c a nT e l s p n c n e a r e T e i e g r a p X c . A ? . t : t r ~ s t S e z t l e r n e c z : h 3r:ef 3verv;ew. S z q e l e A . S ; l r n",, -. . i Vb ,.:le t n e J u s t l e e 2 e p z . sca:ee =-at r t d l s a g r e e d w i = n Z ~ d g eG r e e c e ' s m e d : f l c a t ~ s n ~ . ? . ; z R per!?:zs =re d~vesc25 local c~stomer prem~ses e p e r a z r n g e o m p a ~ i e st a ? r o v ; i e 1 2 p a r t l c c l a r p o r e z o m p l e x =>ey wo~;d agree t c e q u ~ p m e r , t , S c z ? , p a r z l e s a n n c u n c e d 3 2 A i g ~ s z 19 :?,at ~ n c o r p o r a t e2 d d q e G r e e n e ' s n0d:f:cazions ~ n t o thelr prczosed se=tlement. g n c e t h e s e r n o d ~ f l c a z ~ o 7w~esr e l c c o r p 3 r a t e d i ~ t h~e cx e w l y ?:lee settlement ;edge G r e e n e ' s a p ? r o v a l q x r c k l y f s l l c w e l o n A u g u s t 2 4 , z h e r S y S ~ s ~ ; s s ; n q t n e antlzrast case. P y . CRS- 4 I381150 UPDATE-11/15/82 A D l a n t h a t d e t a l l s t h e r e s t r u c t n r ~ n g ?recess m u s t now Se presentea by AT&T w l t h ~ n6 m o n t h s f o r J u s t l c e D e p t a n c j u d l c l a l a p p r o v a l , w ; t h d l v e s t ~ t u r e AT&T would like to 3ave the t o De c o m p l e t e d 12 months after. Whlle d l v e s t l t u r e p r o c e s s c o m p l e t e d by J a n u a r y 1 9 8 4 , Judge Greene's declslon t c l ost h o l d h e a r l n g s a n d s e e k t h l r d - p a r t y c o m m e n c s o n t h e d ~ v e s t i t u r ep l a n w ~ l m ; ~ k e l y d e l a y A T s T ' s d i v e s t ~ t u r et a r g e t d a t e . A l ~ r ~ o u gAT&? h h a s n o t f o r m a l l y s d a m ~ t t e da d ~ v e s z i t u r ep l a n , on Febr~ary that would 1 9 , A T h T C l d r e v e a l a tentative "planning m o d e l " f o r d ; v e s t l t u r e operating zompanles lnto seven independent reglonal group the local stock, chlei executive c o r p o r a t ~ o n s , w i t h e a c h corporation having ~ t so w r o f f l c e r , and board. The t e n z a r i v e p l a n c a l l s for a chree-level structure w h e r e e x ~ s t l n gs e r v l c e a r e a s w l ; l remaln i c c a c t keeping the-r current name, c o i d i n g g r o u ~ sw i l l o v e r s e e t h e r e g - o n a i g r o u p s , a n 2 a cenzral organlzarlcn w;ll coordlnacz n a r l o n a l d e f e n s e and ? o s s ~ S l y e t h e r undisclosed fdnztrons. Sy a task force wP.icP. W h l l e t h e s e v e n r e g i o n a l d ~ v i s i o n sd e r e d e s l g n a t e l 19 ~ n c l u a e df o u r Sell u n ~ t presidents, =he paren: c o r p o r a z ~ o n on May a n n o u n c e d t h e a p p o ~ n z m e n t o f t h e c3:ef operacing o f f ~ c e r s for eacn of =ne ;eg;onal opera:~r,q c o z p a n ~ e s . A l t h o u g h :he ~ n t e r p r e t a t ~ oann d t o r a l r a r n i f ~ c a t - o n s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s t 2 1 1 u n c l e a r , t h e r e s t r u c t u r ~ n g o f A T & T ' s commun:cat;ons network, though d l v e s t l t c r e of r h e l o c a l o p e r a r ~ n g companres and szbsequent 3ud1cia; J c s t i c e Dep:. r e q u ~ r e m e n t s , s e e m t o a d d r e s s t h e following c o n c e r n s : h a = f a c ~ n gc o n m u n ~ c a t l o n s l a w revision: are =he anC are -- cgnceri! o v e r a s s u r a z c e s of S c r n e q u a l a c c e s s and procure men^ pclicres = k c l o c a l n e z w o r ~f o r S e l l S y s t e z c 3 n p e : ; c o r s has ~ e e c addressed tP.roxgh o?eratrng compar.;es coup;eC w~ch addit~onal t h e d ~ v e s t l z u r e3 5 :he l o c a l becavloral requlremenzs. 3y -- c c n c e r n s r e g a r l l n g l o c a l o p e r a t l n q c o m p a n y f l n a n c - a l v i a b ~ l l t y a n d e r o s l 2 n s f t 9 e l o c a l r a z e b a s e h a v e S e e n a d d r e s s e d 3 y e n a b l ~ n gt h e m t o e n g a g e z n s e l e c c e d a d d ~ t r o n a la c t l v l z ~ e s i . . , the p u S l ~ s h i n g of yellow pages d r r e c t o r ~ e sa n d t n e s a i e o f new c u s t o m e r p r e m l s e s e q u ~ p m e n t ) a n d r e q n l r ~ n g a relatively e q u a l Z r s t r i b u t l o n o f t h e q u a l l t y a n d q u a n c ~ t y of deSt Setween A T & T a n d z h e l o c a l o p e r a t i n g companies a t d l ~ ~ e s r ~ ~ c r e . -- A T L T ' s 7 - y e a r p r o h i b i z i o n o n :he o f f e r i n g of "electronic puS1ishingw o v e r i z s own t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s r e s o l v e s c o n c e r n s o v e r AThT's potential to :n a newly develop~ng e l i n i n a t e competi:ors and conzro; Informatior. flow izdxstry. -- c o n t l n l l e d c o u r t ~ u r i s C : c t ; o ~ o v e r = h e ~ m p l e r n e n z a t l c n a n d e n f o r e e m e n z :i the seztlemenz addresses concerns over the p r o t e c t ~ o n of the " .D ~ ~ ^ ' - " ~nterest" standard during zhe settlemenz's ~mpiementat:on anc! p o s t - d ~ v e s t ~ c u r ee c f o r c e m e n t o f s e z t l e n e n t p r o v l s l o n s . i Y _ _ i -- :ne r e l e a s s o f h T b V r c m i t s 1 9 5 6 c o n s e n t d e c r e e e s a b l e s ~t z s c s a = h e ro enter lnto addl::cral v a s r p o : e n t ~ a : o f 9 e ; l i a b s a n d Western Electric m a r k e c s f o r :he b e n e f r t s f c o n s u m e r s a n d o u r ; z c e r n a : ; c n a ; :rade 'salafiee. -- c o n c e r n o v e r z h e p o s s ~ b l en e g a t ~ v e e f f e . c : s divestizure could have or, o u r f a v o r a b l e : n t e r n a t l o n a l t e l e c o m m u n l c a t ~ o n sp o s : t r = n seens to have 3eer w ~ l l a l l e v i a z e d s l n c e 9 e l l i a b s ai?a W e s t e r n Electric w l l l r e m a l n ~ r . = a c t , a n d contlnue t o operate ~n con;unctlon w i t h each other under the contrcl of a S i n g l e e n c i t y , ATST. ZRS- 5 - - concern expressed over t h e d r v e s t r t u r e s ' p o s s r k i e n e g a t r v e e f f e c t oc n a t l c n a i s e c ~ r ~ at nyd e m e r g s n z y p r e p a r e d n e s s a r e a d d r e s s e d to some 3egree, and provlslons are s r n c e z h e v r t a l AT&T l o n g l r n e s d l v i s r o n r e m a r n s r n t a c t emergency made t o r e q u i r e t h e l o c a l o p e r a t r n g c o r n p a n l e s t o m a l n t a r n 3 s l n g l e c o n t a c t point z h r o u g h a c e c t r a l o r g a n r z a t ~ o n . " -ontrovers;es S u r r c u n d i n g t?,e I s s u e sult aoes have far I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e e c l e m e n t o f t h e J z s c ~ c eC e p t . r e a c n i n g r m p l ~ c a t l o n sa d d r e s s ~ nmany ~ concerns f a c ~ n q h e restructurlng of wil; cause the reassessmen: cf recent vpm and =he rr.dustry wnrch congressional ~ n l z ~ a c i v e s . FCC Cha~rrnan Fowler nas scated that the c o m m i s s l o ~x i l l S e r e v r e w ~ n gc h e j u s t r c e 3 e p z . a c t r o z 2Pd w i l l undertake =o setcisment u." - .. s z u e : ~ ? Z C a c t l v ~ : r e s t o a s s e s s w h a c ~ m p a c t= h e t e r m s o f c n s k a v e on F C 2 d e c l s ~ o n s . > e C o a m ~ s s ~ o rh ?a s s t a t e d , h o w e v e r , : t a t i z 5 e e s nct s e e any ~ n c o n s ~ s t e n c r e sS e z w e e n the i n p l e m e ? ~ a ~ l O Ro f izs Conpczer I: C e c ~ s l c n , t h e FCC p l a n c o r e s c r u c z z r e t h e t e l e c o m r l ~ n ; c a z r o c r n d u s t r y , a n 2 t ? , e 1: t e r m s -5 t h e a n t r t r u s t s e t = l a m e n t . U n d e r z h e FCC p l a n , w h ~ c n w a s a d c p c e d ~ e c e ~ 1~ 9 e5 0r, a n d 1 s t o S f e f f e c z ~ v eE y J a n u a r y I P E 3 , AT&T ; s p e r ~ i z z e d zo p r o v r d e "en:anced" Lnreg~lared servrces and c - ~ s t o m e r ?remises eqc~pmenz through one or nore separareC suSsldraries. Addlcrcnal acesuntrnq and A T 5 h l a contrncrng 1:s plans =o s e ? a r z z l o n s ? r o v ~ s ~ o na sr e a l s o r e q u r r e d . a c o m p l y w l t h c 5 ; s o r d e r , a n d r e c e - v e C FCC a p p r o v a l f o r t h e e s t a b ; r s h m e c c c f seasrate s u ~ s l d ~ a r yt o c -G, Ce l advanced c0rnnunrcac~or.s s e r v ~ c e s and new ,L ,, s t ~ m e r p r e m r s e s e q ~ r p r n e c t . ? h e s c S s r i ; a r y z a l l e e A n e r l c a n 3 e i i I;c. Secame d e e r a z ~ o r ~ aL lL : ~ ; y l 9 B 2 . . i-r - i -- ,-. Kszy f e e l t k a c zne J . ~ s t ; ' e 3 e p t . seztiernenz d o e s 2 3 : pre-en?: z5e nee5 f o r rmperat-ve =?,at l e g r s l a z r o n Se l e g r s l z z ~ o na n d t o t n e c o n t r a r y m a ~ e s r: er.acce2 to aCZress the mar.y ~ s s u e s and conzrovers-es surrour.drng the r e s t r u c t u r r n q of t h e ~ n d u s t r y . They f e e l that a rcnber of rssues s z ~ l l Some r e r . z ~ n o r a r e o n i y s a r = l a l l y a d 2 r e s s e d S y 5F.e J a s t r c e D e p c . s e t t l e m e n t . o f x t e s e l s s ~ e s~ n c l ~ d e : -- w h a t e f f e c c w l l l t h e s e p a r a t i o r . c f l o c g 5 : s z a n c e a n d l o c a l s e r v - c e a s well a s c c h e r f a c t c r s s u c t a s =he renoval of preseztly ~ns:ailed cus=omer pass-cle iTanS~Z13C ? r e f i ~ s e e q ~ ~ ~ p m e n ttl a, v e o n locai razes and wrla: r e q u ~ r e m e n t s may b e p r o v l d e e 15 e e s r r e d , ;o p r o z e c c r a z e F a y e r s f r c r ? o s s : b l e s;gn;Sicant local rate rncreases; - - how t c p r o h i b l t p o s s r b l e c r o s s s u b s r d r z a t i o n S e t x e e n r e g L l a t e d i o n g x?.regulzzed servlzes and 2 l s t a n z e s e r v l c e whrch A T & ? w w l ; l b e o f f e r i n g , a z d e q u r p r n e n t p r o v l d e d by A T & T ; -- how t c a l ; a c a t e , v a l ~ e ,ar.5 t r a - s f e r ~ l a n t , e q ~ i p m e n t and explcyees a whc w ~ l l aversee and S e r w e e n AT&? a n d = h e l o c a l o ~ e r a t l n gc o m p a n ; e s , 2ecerrn~net h e process; -- now z 2 a s s d r e that t h e ~ i ~ ~ i l ol f z =yh e l 9 c a l c p e r a c l ? , g c o m p a n ~ e s an: c h e i r ! = e g r i t y o f t n e n e z u o r k w i i 1 b e n a l n z a ~ n a d d e s p r t e divestiture a n d t?,e e f f e c t t h e c e n t a t l v e r e o r g a n l z a t - o n o f :he l o c a l o ? e r a t l n g c o m p a n i e s ir.zc r e g - o n a l f ~ r r n sw i l l h a v e o n z h s n e t w o r k a n d c o m ? e z ~ t i v e m a r k e r s . CRS- 6 iB811JO UP3ATE-ll/l9/62 -- should patents developed from r e s e a r c h f ~ n a n c e d primarily through r e g u l a t e d t e l e p h o n e r a t e s b e made a v a i l a b l e z o t h e p n S l l c w r t h o u t c h a r g e -- w h a t e f f e c t t h e d i v e s t i t u r e anC r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e local operating w i l l have cn employee wages, pensions and other negotiated companies Senef i t s . - - how c o r e m e d y r e m a i n ~ n g n a ~ r o n a ; d e f e n s e a n d e m e r g e n c y i s s x e s s c c k a s t h e t r a n s f e r of equr?me?t and perS9nnel among unrelsced encizies durrng e m e r g e n z z e s and t h e payment f o r s u c h s e r v ~ c e s . -- how will ~ n t e r - e x c h a n g e e q u l p r n e n t m a n ~ f a c t u r e s zorrpete w;tP Western cot E l e c t r l c ~ f A X T , t h e ma;or p u r c h a s e r of inter-exchange eq~rpment LS r e q u i r e d t o p r o v ~ d ee q u a l a c c e s s t o z e c h n i c a l ~ n f o r m a t i c r . f o r c h e n e z w o r ~ t o a l l com~etrtors. - - w h a t e f f e c t t e r m s o f t h e s e t c l e x e n t w i l l h a v e on t h e r e g L l a c c r y r o l e o f t h e FCC a n d t h e S t a t e Pcbllc 3t2i2zy Zommisslo?s and whaz w ~ 1 1 Se tne r a m ~ f i t a t ~ o cf so r = h 2 ~ n d l ~ s t r y . -- t?.e e f f e c t of tne ectrance of AT&T 3 9 oz3.er inC3s:ries in the comm:r.lzatlo~s and l ~ f o r m a t l o n f i e l d (e.g., cable, da:a erocessrng, azd c o ~ ~ p ~ ~ t aenrCs )w h e t h e r a c r a n s m l t t e r s h o u l d a l s o b e a p r o v ~ d e r o f ~ z f o r m a t l o n services. Many f e e i t h a t t h e J u s t i c e D e p a r t m e n t s e t z l e m e ~ td o e s n o t n e g a c e t h e neeC f o r l e g ~ s l a t ~ o n .A d d i t ~ o n a l m e a s u r e s a C d r e s s ; n q some o f t h e s e c o n c e r n s have d X e m b e r s o f C o c g r e s s a n d ? e a r ~ n g so c t h e rarcificaticns of b e e n ~ n t r o d l ~ c eSy t h e z c s t i z e S e p t . s e t z l e m e ~ tw e r e h e l d t h ~ ss e s s ; o c 2 y 5 c t k c ? . a n o e r s . As: and set t?e Althougn t h e neee t o r e v r s e tke 1 3 3 4 Communicac:ons framework for a new natlonai =elecommun~cat~ons policy ~ncorporatlng t e c h n o l o g ~ c a ic h a n g e a n d t h e e n z r a n c e of c o r n p e c i t i o n 1s not disputed, the m a n n e r l n w h r c h : h i s s h o u l C b e a c e o m p l ~ s h e dh a s S e e n a s u b ? e c t o f s l g n r f l c a n z ccrtroversy. The c o n t r o v e r s r e s p r e s e n t l y s u r r o u n c l n g s d c h a revision focus a t o n t w o m a ~ o r~ s s u e s : (1) t h e s c o p e a n d e x t e n z o f c h e l e g ~ s l a c i o n n g e d e d c h ~ st ~ m e ; a n C ( 2 ) t l l e necessity f ~ r a, n d t h e c o n t e r t c f , s p e c 1 f ; c s t r u c t u r a l the 3 r d b e h a v l c r a l p r o v ~ s i z n sa n d z h e l r i X ? a c t o ~ .t h e s ~ p p l l e r sa?.d z s o r s i n ~ n d u s ~ r y . I n t h e p a s t t h e r e h a s been l i z c l e d i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r z h e neeC f o r Conqress t o d e v e ; o p s o m e for^ c f c o m p r e h e n s r v e l e g i s i a c ~ 3 nt o revise t h e o u t d a z e d 1 9 3 4 Communlcat:ons Act. The r e c e n t l y a n n o u n c e d s e z t l e m e ~ c o f tce AT&T/J~stice quest:^^. :ne resect Gepartment a n c r t r u s t s u i t , however, has brocgnt rnto n e c e s s ~ t yf o r t h e e n a c t m e c t o f a m a l o r i e g l s l a t ; v e ~ n r t i a t l v e . 3 ~ et o t?e restructuring of the 3ell Syscem and ~ t s settlement's required ma;or p o t e n c ~ a i l a p a c t o n t h e ~ e l e c o m m u n l c a t r c n s ~ n d u s z r y ' ss t r u c t u r e , some s e e m z o q u e s t ~ o nt h e d e s r r a S 1 1 ; c y o f t k e e n a c t m e n t of a m a l o r l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l a t z h r s c ~ r n e ,w h l l e o t ? e r s f e e l c h a t such a r e s = r ~ c z r c : n g r a k e s = h e e n a c t m e n t of a c i r n m e d ~ a t e i e g ~ s l a t r v ev e ~ i c l em o r e i n p e r a t i v e . I c a d d i z ~ o r t o z h e k a s l c c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e s z o p e z f :he l e q ; s l a t i o n , s c o n s i d e r a b ; e a a o n n t o f c o n t r o v e r s y h a s S e e n g e n e r a z e d r e g a r d i n g :he n e e e f o r , H . . 5;59. Rlthouq?. and t n e rm3acc o f , s p e c r f l c p r o v r s r o n s con~alned i t h e r e a r e many p r o v ~ s r o n sc o n t a i n e d i n t n e l e g i s l a t r o n t h a t address various telecommunrcations concerns, perhaps =nose t n a t seek t o modify t h e terms of t h e proposed 4T&T-J2st:ce Departent settlement have attracted the most a- .d a attentron. Althouch t3e setclement's terms have Seen sa5:ecz - fi s i g c i f l c a n t a m o u n t c f c r l t l c i s ~ ,a ~ r e e m e n t o n t h e x a n n e r l n w h ~ c h t h e cerms s h o n l e ~ e m o d ; f ~ e c a n d t c e C e s l r e d g o a l s t o b e a c c o ~ p l l s n e dh a v e b e e r o p e n c c debate. ( ? o r a d e t a l l e e d l s c 2 s s r o r of p r o p o n e n ~ s a n c opponenzs vlewpcrnts regarding t h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s surrounding t h e s e rssues see U.S. L ~ b r a r y of Congress. Congresslona; Research Serv-ce. The Telecommurlcations Act of i 9 9 2 (E.2. 5 1 5 8 , 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s ) : 2 r o v ; s l o n s and Ccltroversles. Angele A. G~Lr3y. 0" ' The cocsersus i s cnaz = h e i ? . c c r p o r a t ~ c n of conpetitror into t e l e c o m m u n l c a ~ ~ c n lsr d u s z r y s ~ r ~ c t a~ s r we e l l a s = h e melding of information technological advances have necessitated the and communlcacions due to Acz and tne f 3 r m u l a t ~ o n of a new, r e v ~ s l o no f t h e 1 9 3 4 C o r n m c n l c a t i o n s lr ~ 5 i c h ~l-.is shoull Se n a c l o n a l celecornmcc:cat;sns pc;;cy. h e manner a c c o m ~ l l s h e d a n 3 c h e f r a a e w c r k a r o u n d w c l c h ;c;s p c l i c : ~ sho,lc? Se Sevelopee, ?,e c o r p l e x i ~ yo f h o w e v e r , c c r ~ t l n i e s 5 3 a e a s u z - e c = c f = ~ r s r a e r a S l e2 e c a z e . c h e ~ s s ~ e as s, d e l l a s z n e s ; r ~ l ~ a n e o a~c =s l c r . s = y :?,e c s , r t s , :?~e :, a-5 = n e C ~ z g r e s s t o r e v l s e o.!r :e;ecocnur.rcacions ~ z l ~ c y c, a v e adSeC f,rzker eoncrcversy t o the task. ii - - n SIGNI'ZCbNT LZCISLATIVE ACTI3N I N T E E 9'TH COKGRESS -ne passage of any signrf-cant c e ; e c o r n n u n ~ c a c ~ o n s i e c ~ s l a z ; o 7 . 1- t h ~ s C o n g r e s s 1 s now e x t r e m e l y x n l r k e l y . W h a t e f '- e c t A T & T " s $ 2 m-llicc loSSylng as a d d r c l c r ~ a l o 2 p o s ~ t i o n :c speclflc z a m p a ~ g n a g a ~ n s c3 . 2 . 5 1 5 8 , a s w e l l P.ad ox tne termination cf Eocse p r c v i s l s n s e x p r e s s e d by cz?.er groups, C s ! ~ a i = = e ea c c i o n r e r n a ~ n s a s ; g r . : f r c a n z quesclon. The f a r - r e a z h ~ n g i ~ p a c t s f s c c K ; e g : s l a t i v e r e f o r p , a s w e l l a s c?.e : n a r l l : ~ y = c g a l - a c o ? s e ~ s ~ sa m s n g r a r ,d., - - - z n e b e s t l e c ~ s l a t i v ea p p r o a c ? , , rlsclted c o m m 1 ~ : l c a t ~ e r . ss ? e c ; a l i s t s r a-, leqislat~ve i n f ~ r z t e rz o r t r s v e r s y . The ; c s s ~ ' s l e seq,er::al r e f e r r a l sf a n y tc 3 . . 515s expressed Sy Senace l n l c r a t ~ ~ , - e ,t h e strong o?pcs1::c~. Ccnmur.~cacicns S~SccrnrnizteeC2airxar. Gsldwazer, a ~ A 5 d m i r i s c r a t r o ? oppos1::on any leglslaz;on = h a = v o n l d a t L ~ L I S zlme a z ~ e m p zc c modify the szr>ictural provisro?s eonta~ned r =he prcposed a n z i z r ~ s t seztlenent remained as a d c l t ~ o n a l h u r d l e s l n a C c ~ . g r e s sf a c i n g s l g r ~ f i c a s t= ~ a el ~ r ; t a = l c n s . rn rpl L u CRS- E.2. 8 5 1 5 3 a s p a s s e d by t h e S u b c o m m i t t s e On Kar. 2 5 , 1 9 8 2 , t h e House S u b c o m m i t t e e on Telecommunrcatlons, Consumer u n a n i ~ o u s l yp a s s e d a s u b s t i t u t e v e r s i o n o f H . R . 5158 t h a t r e v l s e s t n e common c a r r i e r p r c v l s i o n s o f t h e C o a n u n l c a t ~ o n s A c t o f 1 9 3 4 . rn L h e l e g i s l a c l o n , w h l c h w a s s u b s t ~ t ~ d t et dn r e e d a y s r r e v i o u s l y f o r tP,e o r l g l n a l w o r ~ z n g d r a f c i n t r o d u z e d 12 3 e c e m b e r 1 9 8 1 , r e c e z v e d f t r t 3 e r r e v l s l o ~ during s u o c c m m l t t e e n a r k u p 2 n d was unaninously referred co tne ful; committee. A l t h o u g h f ~ i ci o m m l t c e e m a r k u p c o m m e n c e d i n J u n e , t h e inabll~ty to resolve calendar s l g n ~ f r c a n tc o n c r o v e r s i e s i n c o n ] u n c t i o n w i z h a l l m i t e a l e g i s l a t i v e consideration. p r o m p t e d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e W ~ r c ht o w ~ t h d r a w t h e measure from W ? . i l e a n u m b e r o f 1 i x ; t e d c e l e c o m m c n i c a t i o ~ sn e a s - r e s a r e p e c d i c q 3 e f o r e the suSco~?ml:tee ( s e e i e g l s l a t i v e and chronology s e c t i o n s ) t h e enactmect of anv Protection a n 9 F i n a n c e , the s ~ 3 c o m n i t z e e approved verslor, -: H.R. 5155, ,-.&. ,,ed i e l e c o m ~ : r . ~ c a ~ ~ oAc: n s of 1 9 8 2 , " not o n l y =snt~nues to address = h e many 2 fsrmularion of a csmprehens-ve naz;ona; issdes necessary for ~ e 1 s c 3 m m u n i c a c ; o ~ sp o l i c y , bu: i s a l s o n o d i f i e d to reflee: the terms and rssues r a ~ s e d Sy the recently proposed AT&T/:ustzce Dept. antltrlist set=;ement. Azcording t o SuScommittee Ckalrman Mirth, wno introduced the 5lSE alcrq wrzh s ~ xo t h e r subcommrttee memaers, :he suzst~tus 5 . . l consumer protection; (21 l e 7 l s l a t ; o z i n C c r p o r 2 t e s i ~ v emazer t h e m e s : v i z l b r l i t y sf t n e divested l c c a l o p e r a t i n g companres; (3) compet~tion; (4) i r . f o r n a = ~ c ?f~l 3 w ; a n d ( 5 ) r e g c i a t a r y r e f a r m a c d employee ~ r o t e z t ~ o c whic?. , a ol l l e y aC5ressicg our aresen: anC fnture czrn5::e cc fcrmulate a n a t ~ o ~ p te;ec3rrLmurrcacions needs. m . & P.e IT i &, m from =he > . l : h o l ~ g h muck o f t h e c c n t r o v e r s y s u r r c u n d ~ n gB . R . 5 1 5 8 results a r o - ~ r a ~ o 2c sh a t modify t e r m s o f t h e A T & T - Z u s t i c e 2 e p a r c m e n t s e t t l e r ~ e n : , t h e r e a r e many p r o v i s ~ o n s t h a c n o t o n l y ~ n c o r p o r a t em o s t o f t h e s e t c l e m e n t ' s t e r m s , S U L g s beyond i t s s c o p e . The o v e r a l l o b y e c t i v s o f the l e g ~ s 1 a ~ ; o ni s to m o e ~ f yc u r o u t d a t e d c o m m u c i c a t i o n s l a w a n d d e v e ; o p a franework for a new, 1s n a c i o n a ; t e l e c o m n u n ~ c a c ~ o npsc l l c y . T h e n a ~ o rg u ~ d e l l n ef o r ti-,is policy t o r e l y " t o t h e maxlmum e x t e n t p o s s r b l e M o n :ne f o r c e s o f c o r p e t l t i o n rather and Civerse than rogalatlon tc pr3vice r e l ~ a b i e , e r- :- ~ c i e r . t , teiecommur.~cations servrces azd f a c ~ l i t r e s at an aficrdacle prlce. The l e g i s l a t i o n d i r e c t s c h e FC>cz only t o d e r e g ~ i a z e m a r ~ e t s wnere they are 1s not C o m p P t l t l V e , b u t a l s o :o t a ~ ea c t i o n s t o p r o m o t e c o n p e c l t ~ o nw h e r e A: present. The m a ~ o r framewcrk of the l e g r s i a t ~ o n , accsrdlng :o the suScor~.mittee, addresses z h eneeds of users and razepayers as our telecommunicat~ons industry ctanqes fron a ~snopoly z a cornpetiz~ve structure. ( ? o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t n e p r o v z s ; o r . s c o n c a ~ n e d 1r. 2 . 5158 see U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Eiesearcn v +he Serv~ce. 3 e l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s A c t o i i982 (8.9. 5 1 5 6 , 97zh Congress); P r o v ~ s r o n s 2-6 Z o n t r c v e r s ~ e s . Angeie A . C i l r o y ) . fcr in tne A l c h o u g n E.3. 5 1 5 3 ~ n c o r p c r a t e s mar.y o f c h e c h a n g e s s r o c i 5 e C p r s p 3 s e c ar.z;crusz s e t t l e m e n t , r e f l e c t i r c z n e r e & - i c y of a r e s t r ~ c t a r e d B e l l S y s t e ~ , t n e l e g z s l a t ~ oa ~l s s s e e k s t o r o e i f y s e l e c t e d s s t c l e o e n t t e r ~ sl n a ~ . a z z e m ? : t o a l l e v i a t e c o c c e r n s e v e r ~ t ?so t e n : ~ a l n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s sr. ~ o t nt h e industry's s u p p l ~ e r s and ~ s e r s . S u ~ c o m m ~ c t e or n e m ~ e r s f e e l =hat :he s e t t l e m e n t ' s provisions f a r 1 t o a d d r e s s s o m e Razor issues surrc~nding rts enactment and t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n 3 . 3 . 5158 which modify ;ts terms are necessary for the formulation cf a sound an8 viable telecommunrcations i n d t s t r y . Some o f t h e d e f i c l e n z i e s t h a t = h e s c ~ c o m r r ~ t t ef ee e l s a r e c o n t a i n e d ~ n t h e of set:lemer,t b u - w h i c h t c e r r l e g i s l a z l a n a d d r e s s e s r n c l ~ d e : :he prevention position in the long l ~ n e s A T & T ' s p o t e n t i a l ability t o u s e ~ t sd o r n r n a n t t r a n s r n ~ s s l s nm a r k e t t o c r o s s - s u b s l d l z e proCucts and services and ;nhlSit competltrve access an2 ~nfcrrnationflow; =he prozectron of che f-nancral h e a l z n a n 6 v l a S r 1 i z y c f :ce l o c a l e x c L a 2 g e n e c w o r k ; ar.d t h e n ~ n l ~ ~ z a t c~f o c r u r a l an5 ? o s s ; S l e l . l g h ~ n c r e d s e s 1; l o c a l z e l e p n c n s r a t e s , ? a r z ~ c : l a r l y :n small excLange a r e a s . - E . R . 5 1 5 8 p r o p o s e s t o a d d r e s s t 9 e a b o v e i s s u e s b y , amcng o t h e r p r c v i s l o n s , i ~ p o s r n gf u r t h e r s t r u c t u r a l a n d S e h a v i o r a i requlrevenzs oc AFbT, a s s u r l n g e q J ~ t a b l ea s s e z valua=;cn ar.d debt a l l c z a c i o ~ , exzas5:ng zke range of a c c ~ v i t i e so f = h e S l v e s t e 5 l o c a l opera:~ng c o m p a z ~ e s , a n < z r s v ~ d ~ n gf o r add:zional cransizio:.al a n d s u b s ~ d ym e c s a r ~ a n s z o 3elc ease the ?CSSIS;E n e g a t ~ v e~ m p a c t c f : z e 5 r v s s = i = u r e c r lcca; telepnoce razes. Wr,;ie 2 e ~ . :LC:--- - a l l y approve5 W - r t r , f e l : t h a t c h e n o d ~ f i c a = r o n s: n c o r s o r a : e d L - z c :he L: over zne c ~ r r q l n a l ;acxaz-y 3 s e t c l e n e n z had " s r g 5 i f i c a n z L y " inproved p r o p o s a l , h e st::: f e e l s 5F.a: many ~ s s c s s rust >e addressed =r.rcuqn the i z r m ~ l a = r o c ,3 y C a n g r e s s , sf a new c a z l c n a l = e l e c o r r , u n ; = a : ~ c n s s a l r c y . Afzer hclding t e a r ~ r . 3 ~a n d gair;nq -r.pzt frsm tie Senaze 2dcilciary Zcr,r;=tee he l e g l s i a : ~ o r w a s 3 r o u q F . z t o a 5 . . - - o r voze and an a~ended 3 -*-- . i.se;. v e r s i o r * o f S . 8 5 8 p a s s e d t h e S e n a t e z y a v o c e c f 9 S t o 4 , on LlEncugh ch;s ~ n i z ; a t ~ - ~wea s gassed p r e v i s ~ s zo = ~ ep r o z c s e d Justice Cepartrnen;/AThT s e t c l e a e ; : , che Senate has esamined t h e concerns ralsed cp + -.,e s s t z l e n e n : d u r i n g a s e r : e s cf k e a r ~ n g s a?.C had ~lanne? to a a ~ e any r c s 5 ~ f i c a t l o n s t o t c e ~ rm e a s ~ r ed u r r n q c s z f e r e z c e . - n -A c c m p r s m r s e w a s r e a c h e d w i t 2 Senator Fic;;lr,gs 33 cP.az a '- .- "- --- D U s i e r a g a l n s t considerat:on c i S . 896 =he Senaye r e s t r l : c ~ ~ r l n gp r o p s s a l could Se t e r m l n a z e d w i z h z h e S e ; . a t e C o m n e r c e Z o ~ m i z t e e~ n c c r p o r a t l n g v a r ~ o u s a s p e c t s c z e c t ~ c n ?rcvisror.s offered by and "ratepayer" of s e l e c t e d s a f e g n a r e s Z z l l ~ n g s . S e n a t o r X o l l - r p s was n c t c o n e l e z e l y saz:af:ee however, anu o f f e r e 2 12% a n a r e ~ d r n e n z w h l c h w a s d e f e a t e d , w i l c h wc1.15 r a v e r e q n ~ r e z :?.a: a = leas: c f = h e f d ; l y s e p a r a z e c a f f ~ l ~ a t e s 's t o ~ ~ e~ o w n e 5 Sy outside l~~vestcrs, - . * e r e f o r e ~ n c r e a s ~ nSqZ C a v e r s : g $ t , and =?,a: rne a f f ~ l l a ~ ae c q ~ i r e 1:s f ~ n a n c ~ n" gC r r e c t l y fro^ t h e c a p r t a l : n a r k s = " - = & . , e r :ban f r c r ~ ~ c sp a r e n z c o n p a n y (?.?&TI, a s p e r m l z t e d r n S . 692. S e n a t o r X o l i ~ 2 g sw a s o n e o f t h e f o u r s e n a t o r s wco v o t e d a g a l c s t t h e S i l l ' s f l n a l p a s s a g e . 3tl?er groups suzh as tne bd 2oc Ccmmitzee for C o m p e t i z i v e -m- e l e c o m m u c ~ c a t : o r s , a 53n-proi:t ~ n d u s c r ya s s o c ~ a z i o n r s p r e s e n t - n g n l n e : o r n c a n l e s t h a t c 3 m ~ e t ew i t h e a c h o t h e r 12 offer:?.g a varlrcy oi lccg e~stanze a n d w i t : R X T a n d w e s z e r : ??:on -- ? - p A serv-ces contlnue to express thelr dlssatzsfactlon wlth the leglslatlcn. S t r o c g o p p o s ~ t l o n5 y t 9 e A m e r l c a n N e w s p a p e r P u b l i s h e r s A s s o c r a t ~ o n and the f i r e a n d ~ c t r u s i o na l a r m l n a u s ~ r yw a s m o d e r a t e d ~ y a m e n d m e n t s aaded durrng Committee's July markup w h ~ c h l ~ m l t e d AT&T1s e n t r y lnto the Commerce e l e C t r C ~ l cp u S l i s h l n g , a n d p r o h l b z t e e AT&T's e n t r a n c e into the flre and a system ~ n t r u s l o na l a r m i n s u s t r y u n l e s s alternative d e l l v e r y s y s t e m s ( L . E . , c t h e r tP,an z e l e p h o n e l i n e s ) a r e a v a i l a b l e . Senate T 5 e r n a ~ o r ~ toyf t h e a m e n d m e n t s , s o m e o f w n i c h w e r e a d v a n c e d ~y t h e Zudlclary Comrnrttee and others w h ~ c h were agreed to by the Commerce w l t h Senator H o l l ~ n g s , focus on Committee, a s t h e r e s u l t of a conpromrse AT&T a n d ;ts a d d l t ~ c n a ls a f e g u a r c s t o a s s u r e t n e s t r u c t u r a l s e p a r a t i o r . of i n l l y separated a f f l l l a t e and modlfy o p e r a t ~ o n a l requiremenrs t c prevent m ,he ~ 3 s s ~ z cl oe r n p e t l t ~ v ea S u s e s a n c m o n o p o l y c o n t r o l ci the marketplace. a a z o r p r s v ~ s i c n o f S . 8 9 s a s p a s s e d Sy t h e f u l l S e n a t e w o ~ l d : 3 C 3 n t ~ 2 u e reg:la::on of 3rd-nary telephone serv;ce and regulation waul3 pre-emp: t ~ l e c o m ~ , u n : c a = ~ o ~s .es r v ~ c e s . Federal r e g u l a t l o r ! o f l o n g - e l s t a n c e c e l e ~ k o n e s e r v ~ c ew - t h l n c h e S t a t e . o 2:rect t n e ?CC t c reC3ce o r e l z n - n a t e serv-ces a s competltron develops, unless bas;c Stace regc1at;on of =elecommuc:ca=lons che chacge wouid nurr natlonal security. e 3zrec; t n e FCC t o preven: u n r e a s ~ n a b l e charges for saslc :elepP.one s e y e ?FCC w o t l z Se a;lowed tc set scrcharges ;n long elstance z o r , n e c r . l o n r a t e s t o s c S s r e ~ z et e l e p h o ~ . e s e r v ~ c e . c aar regulated local telephone carr-ers fron dlsconcinulng local service to ecfcrcetne collectlcn of long 5lstance service charges owed Sy a c ~ i ~ o m .e r c 2:rect = h e FCC w l t h i n c a r r l e r s t o Se r e g u l a t e d . 30 d a y s of enactment of t h e b;l1 to r d e n ~ ~ f yt h e e C c Z l a s s ~ f yA T & T a s a dominant-regtlated c a r r i e r a n d a l l o w certa~n condrzlcns :o reclassify any regulated carrler dom~nacz-regulated c a r r ~ e r . c R e q c i r e c a r r l e r s t o i;;e tarrffs, contrae:~ ;niorma=:on w r t k t h e FCC f o r r e g u l a t e 5 s e r v z c e s . and tech~lca; under as a equlpmenr. o ?ron;Sit a c a r r l e r from d l s c o n t - n c l n g o r r e d u c l ~ g a reg~lazed service c n l e s s t h e F C C c e r t i f i e d t h a t t h e p u 2 l ~ cw i l l b e s e r v e d S y :he c h a n g e . o zstablls" care t c de~ernlne the c long-dlstance cost s z e l e c o m m u n i ~ a t 1 o ~zs a r r l e f s ' c o n n e c : ; o n s t o l3ca; The telepkone nezworks. r C C ;n a c c o r d a n c e w r c k t n e SoarC's d e c l s ~ o r i s wouid creace a method for a p p o r t ~ o c l n g= h e c o s t s o f a c c e s s = o l o c a l z e l e p h o n e n e t w o r k s . n ci A 7 7 o A l l o w :he malncenance of t o r e q c ; r e c a r r l e r s =o t n e telephone nezwork. FCC cocrClnate operatlcns z? enscre provlslon of c ?roh:C-t r e g u l a ~ - c nof t h e p r o d n c t ; o n , m a r k e t i n g o r o t n e r c u s t o m e r p r e m - s e s e q u l p m e r t , s u c n a s t e l e p h o n e receivers o r da:a process~ng services. o R e q u l r e a regz;ated c a r r l e r c o g r o v i d e s e r v l c e e x l s t i n g a t t n e t l m e o f e n a c t m e n t u n d e r t a r i f f f o r a t l e a s t t w o y e a r s , by w h l c h t i m e t h e FCC w o u l d nave to determine whicn services snocle be dereguiated, based o n whether A servlce wnizh the FCC Zeregulated would c n e r e rs effective cor,pe=:tion. c o n t ~ n d eu n d e r r e g u l a z i o n f o r 5 n o n t n s . o S a r = h e F C C fror, r e g c l a t r n g c h e r e s a l e of s e r v ~ c e sa n 5 bar any carr-er chat sells regalated servlces to a second company from prohlSrting tnat c o m p a n y f r o m r e s e l l i n g T h a t s e r v i c e to o t n e r customers. o K o d i f y c h e 1956 c o n s e r t S e c r e e s e z t l ~ n ga Justice 5eparzmer.t sz-t cc a:;cw AT&-o enter n e w a n d ur.regula=ed m z r k e t s , s u c h a s 5 a t a p r o c e s s r n g , c9rcugn a separated sdDsi2iary. a f ~ l l y separate5 o S e t requ;rexen=s f o r 4 T & T 1 s e s t l b l r s n n e ~ t :f s l b s i d i a r y . N o m o r e z h a n o n e m e m b e r c f tce suzsl5;ary's q a v e r r ~ i n q b o a r 5 n a y 2 e a m e m S e r of t h e A T S T g o v e r r ~ n g S o a r d c r ar. officer o r e ~ p l e y e eo f A ' s : cr i t s Eifil:a=eS. T h e r e may n c z o e c o a m o z e m p l c y e e s a c e c f f ~ z e r s . of = h e board of d ~ r e c t o r s of o Require thac at least 5 C S s e p a r a t e e a f f ~ l ~ a zZee c o m p o s e a sf o u t s i d e I ~ r e c t o r s e . , n c t h'lcY~ t n e f u l l y s e p a r a z s d a f f l l l a t e o r AT&?). n t h e a s s e t s SVal'i&C:cn Soard c E x c l u d e ATCT f r o m p a r c ~ c i p a t ~ o 13 e m c o w e r e d t o e v a l u a t e a z y a s s e c s t r a n s f e r r e d f r o o AT&? co t 3 e f u l l y - 2 z . 1 =---,late) a n d g i v e :he F C C t h e power to s e l e c t a l i c 9 r e e m e m b e r s , m e m b e r c L o s e n a t tne rezommendat;on o f tce N a t l o n a l Assoc~atrcn Cornm:ssioners. t e fully aff:l:atee (2 Dcard separated w;tn one sf Stace c ? e r m ~ t c o m m o z ; r s t i t c t r o ~ a l a d v e r t i s ~ n gb u t w o ~ l d clar:fy =he allocation o f a 3 v e r t l s l n q c o s t s cc ~ c s c r et r a t = h e f ~ i l ys e 3 a r a t e d affr;La=e 2 s i=s f c l l s9are cf such cests r e g a r d ~ n gits ow? produzts. o Tne subs-erary ? : ~ t n ~ x2 5-year p e r ~ o d w o c l 5 have markecrng, sales, manufacturing, researcn a26 development servlces and produc=s. to dc :ts owr for unreguiazee o G r a n t t h e F C C t!?e a u t n o r l t y t c d e l a y t n e t r a n s f e r of A T L T ' s c'isccmer l e a s e d t e l e p 9 o n e e q u ~ p m e n t t a t h e f u l l y s e p a r a t e d a f f l l l a t e f o r up z 2 five f r o m c f f sr:?.g aervlces x k ~ c c -y e a r s a n d = a n t h e f u l l y s e p a r a t e 5 a f ,G,,;at2 2s e22cted. C u p l l z a t e t h o s e c f A T L T f o r u p t s 4 y e a r s 2f:~r = c s h; Sy AT&Tbefore zne fdlly se?arateI c C l a r r f y =?.at ~ a z e r t s deve;oped af5;l:ace i s esza5l;sned ca?.not 9 e t r a n s f e r r s d tc Z n e a f f i l i a t e z c a v o ~ 5 making t h e m a v a l l a S 1 e to corpet~:ors on a c r o s s - l ~ z e n s ~ r o qr p a y m e n t baszs. 0 Reqclre a complete separation 5etween =he fully separated affillaze h e s t e r n E i e c t r l c in t h e p r o C u c t l c n c f c o m s o n e n t s a n d s u b a s s e m b l i e s . a?.d c C l a r i f y t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t ; o n regarding A T & T q s t e l e p h o n e n e t w o r k g l v e n t o t h e f u l i y s e s a r a t e d a f i ~ l i a = eb e d ~ s c l o s e d ~ n t h o s a m e m a n n e r and basis to a l l n o n - a f f ~ l i a ~ e ed n t i t ~ e s . o Prohibit AT&T f r o m supplying ~ t sa f f i l l a c e w l t h research an8 aeveiopment, administra=lve s e r v i c e s , management or market~ng infcrmatlon e x c e p t on a " f u l l y a u d i t a b l e a n d c o m p e n s a = o r y b a s i s . " Any infornation p a ~ d regu;ated rate-payers s u p ? ; ~ e d Sy AT&? to ~ t sf u l l y separaced fcr Sy a f f i l i a t e ! r u s t a l s c S e C ~ s c l o s e df r e e o f c P . a r g e t o c o m p e t i n g c o m p a n ~ e s . oversight by o Provlde for S e c u r i t i e s and Excnange Commission (SEC) the SZC a l l reports r o q n l r ~ n gt h e f c l l y s e p a r a t e d affiliate t o f ~ l e w1:i-i ., , > u a l l y r e q u ~ r e d c f c o r n p a n l e s o f f e r ~ n gs s c u r l t i e s t o t h e p u b l ~ c . - c Requ~re tte Bell System =o s e l l tkelr equipmen: to unaffil~ated any e c z e r p r l s e s i n t 9 e c o m p e = i t i v e m a r ~ e c p l a c ea s a p r e - c c n d l t ~ 3 n t o s e l i l n g = e i e c c m m ~ c ~ c a t i o re sq u i p m e n t : 3 ; t s r e g u l a t e d a f f ~ l l a t e s . 1:s a f f ~ l i a t e s tc p u r c h a s e e q ~ ~ p m e n tf r o m outslde o Z e q u i r e AT&.?and qradual phaseour c s m p e t ; = c r s a t 2 3 % p e r y s a r f o r a p e r ~ o 5e f 5 y e a r s w ~ t at over =he succeeZing 5 y e a r s . c C l a r l f y t h e F C C ' s a a t h o r l t y t o p r o h i ~ l c c r o s s - S c b s i d ~ Z a t ~ o ca n d other a n z ~ z o c p e z l t ~ v ep r a c t i c s s anc? a u t h o r i z e the FCC t c retuest h e fully s e p a r a t e d a f f i l l a z e z s produce 503ks and r e c o r d s f o r o v e r s r g h t purposes. access o Require A X T a n d o t 3 e r l o c a l e x c h a n g e c a r r i e r s t o g ~ v ee q u a l t n e ~ rz e t w ~ r k a t t h e same charges to a l l ~rterexchange carriers 12 n c n - ~ ~cs- i- m -~ - z a z c r : 7 m a n n s r s o =?.at c c x p e c ~ t o r s z a y p y a v i d e a s e r v ; c e " t h a t e q u a l -7, t y p e a n d q u a l ~ t y . ~ ' t c a 2s 3 B a r = h e T C C o r a n y s t a t e commission f r o m considering revenues derlved froa cr.requ;ated services when derlvlng rates fcr regulated services. the YOwoVer s t a c e s a r e p e r m i c t e c ? c c c o n c l n u e including r e v e n u e s d e r i v e d f r o m p r r n t e z y f l l 3 w p a g e s wher. c a l c u l a t i n g A T & T 1 s r a t e o f r e t u r n f o r c p t o 4 y e a r s fcllowlng the b l l l ' s enactment. o R e t a l n =r,e ? Z C p o w e r z o s c s p e n d c a r i f f t h o s e ~t f ; n e s may n o t S e ~ u s t i f ~ e d . ~ n c r e a s e sw h i l e ~t ~nvesticjates -o establish polleles and rules to assare that o A u c h o r i z s t h e FCC r e c i p r o c i ~ yo c c t r s S e t w e e n U . S . K a r k e t c o n d i = i o n s :n tslecommun~catlons or formation s e r v ~ c e s , i a c i i i t i e s o r equipment a c d f o r e ~ g r . n a t i o n s ' markets. T n e P r e s i d e n r w ~ l hl a v e v e t o p o w e r o v e r a n y FCC decisions i n t h ~ sr e c j a r d . + o B a r hT&T a n d 1 5 s a f f i l r a t e s f r o m p r o v ~ d l n g c a S l e o r m a s s m e d i a servlces t h e i r o p e r a c ~ n qa r e a . A T & T w o u l d b e a l l o w e d t o l e a s e facilities t o o t 2 e r s to provide :hose serv~ces. Mass media rncludes : e l e v ~ s i o n and rad-o S r o a d c a s t l n g , p r ~ n z e do r e l e c t r o n i c p u b l i c a t ~ o n s , a n d a n y s e r v ~ c es ~ m l l a r t o :he t r a d ~ ~ ~ o in ~a nl c t ~ o no fs a n e w s p a p e r . 17. c o c l d p r c v l d e w e a t k s r , t ~ m e ,s o c e C s ~ r ga f - l l y s e p a r a t e d s u b s ~ d ~ a r yA%&T , s p o r t s a n d e l e c z r c n ~ cd ~ r e c t o r y~ n f o r m a c i c n , i n c l u d i n g g e n e r a l b u s ~ n e s s an? ~ - r l c e s 0r prodzct cazegorles, addresses and phoce numbers Sut nct advertlsrng. T h e s u b s i d ~ a r yc o u l d n o t o f f e r t r a n s m i s s l c n s e r v l c e s . o 3 a r a r e g a i a t e d c a r r l e r f r o m providing c a b l e t e l e v ~ s - o n ~ n i t s o p e r a t i n q s l g n l i ~ c a n : new media a r e a u n l e s s t h e FCC d e t e r m i n e s t h a t i t w o u l d p r o v i d e C i v e r s l t y and c o m p e t i t i o n . w:tn Icw populatlcn d e n s ~ t ~ e ts c o b l i o w c a r r ~ e r sserving r u r a l a r e a s :f s u c h p e r m ~ s s l o n 1 s g r a n t e d the ? r o v ; d e c a S l e t e i e v ~ s l o nr n t h o s e a r e a s . t e l e p h o n e c a r r ~ e rm u s t make a v z i i a x e f c r lease :o n e n a f f ~ l l a t e s whatever n u m S e r o f c h a n n e l s t h e FCC s p e c i f i e s . c S p e s ~ i l c a l l ys t a c e servlce. that caXe telev:s:on 2s o 3 a r ATST f r o m p r o v i d ~ n g f l r e a n d S c r g i a r a l a r m lines. nct a service commc?. over c a r r ~ e r celepnone o Inclzde a ~ o b ~ r o c e c t l o np r s v l s ~ c n f c r A T & ? e m p l o y e e s t r a n s f o r r e d separated aifillaze. ts a Among a d d l t l o n a l a m e n c a e n t s ? a s s e e w e r e a prov:s;sr. ~ n z r o e u c e ch y Senatzr treatrnecz ~n creazing a S t e v e ~ st o g r a n t zF,e U . S . P o s t a l Service s e p a r a c e ~ntroduzee S r z n c h f o r t r a n s m ~ c c 2 n g e l e c z r o c r c n a ~ l ,a s w e l l a s a n a m e n d m e n t S y S e c a t s r 3 r a d l e y wkicP. w o u l d p r o v ~ d ewhen techn~cally feaslSle, fsr tte cf a t leas: one VEF celev~slcn statlcn I?. eat?, Szate. ;?I alloca:lec a m e n d m e n t ~ n = r c C u c e db y S e n a t o r s 5 a r c a n l S l e n n wP.;ch m o d ~ i l e d z n e sower 2f = h e 3 e f e r s e 3 e p a r z r n e c : ar,z a c y o:2er gcvsrnmer.: y tc ?rove-: ?cEl:c c ~ s z l c s ~ ro fe l ~ . f o r m a t z s n a'sou: c e l e p n o n e n e t w o r x ~ n g o n banal5 of ca::2ral s e c u r l t y a l s o r e c e ~ v e da p p r o v a l . A c c ~ o ? . s l n 9 4 ~ ca n 8 9 5 t h C o n g r e s s e s A t z e r r p z s t o m a k e m a l o r r e v r s ~ o n s ~ n t h e 1934 C o r n ~ c n l c a t l o n s A c t begac :r Known t h e 94:h C o n g r e s s w i t h he ~ n c r 3 d u c t l o n o f 9 . 3 . 1 2 3 2 3 a c e 5 . 2 i 9 2 3 0 t h a s t h e "C3nsumer C3mmur:ca~rons Xeform Act of 1 9 - 6 . " T h e A c t was introdccec 13 a v a r z e c y c f f s r m s a n d w a s r e ~ n t r o c u c e dI ? ? t h o 9 5 c h Z o n g r e s s 3 . 2 , S. 53C). m sh. legzslacicn qave a p r e s c m p t ~ c n ;?. favcr of a rn~?.c?o:y c o m m u n ~ c a : i o n s n e t w o r k , d e c ; a r l n g c n a : a n ~ n t e g r a t e d~ r z e r s t a c e a n d f3re:q2 common c a r r ~ e rs e r v l c e s a l n t a i n s r e a s o n a S l e charges zza: are "lower =r.a~ o t h e r t ~ l s ew o u l C S e r e q u ~ r e a "a n t resulzs ~n an e f I= , clgh quallty, un:versal servzze. T h e p r c p c s e d Ace f a v o r e d a s i n g l e ~ R t e g r a t e d s y s t e n free :ri f r o n n a r ~ e c p l a c ec o m p e : ~ t ; c n , f:nC~nq that sxch compe=i::oz resultee ; n e f f l c : e n c ~ e s a n d was " c c n z r a r y t o t h e p u s l l c r n = e r e s : -- ~ c = nt h e X c ~ s e a n e Senaze zntrcducee r e s o l u t z c ~ s rsaz::rr-;.q cez c c r p e t - t l z n a s t h e S e s : n e a n s o f s e r v ~ n gC L T ~ o m a ~ ~ : c a t : c cn e e d s , 1: w a s ~ n t i it n e s e c o n 5 s e s s l o n o f t n e 9 5 t 3 C o n g r e s s = h a = n a : o r ; e g ~ s l a t ~ s fna v c r ; r i g E.2. i3Ci5, "Zne C o r n m u r ~ c a c i o n s Ac: m a r k e t p l a c e coxpe:ic:on was s ; S n : t t e C . leglslatlon prepare5 o f 1978" ~ n t r ~ d u c ei dn J u n e 1379, w a s t n e l o n g a w a l t e ? -. b y = h e i i o ~ s eS u D c o m m ~ t t e e c n Z o m m u n l e a t r o n s =hat attempteG tc r e v ~ s e a,3 a ; o r aspects o f = n e C o n m u n z c a t ~ o n s A c t o f 1 5 3 4 . Among t n e k e y common c a r r ~ e r p r o v ; s 2 o n s w e r e ( a ) t h e r e l ~ a r c eo n c o m p e t ~ t l o n r a t h e r :r,an r e g u l a ~ ~ o r t, z Although k e e p telephone a n d o t h e r r a t e s within l l m l t s ("affordable" telephone rates of a n 5 c a t l o n w l d e b a s i c t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e w e r e a s s u r e ? t h r o u g h t h e formation a " U n i v e r s a l S e r v l c e C o m p e n s a t i c ? . F u n d u ) ; ( 5 ) t h e r e g u ~ r e dd l v e s t l t u r e o f = h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g arms of both Amerlcan Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T! (Western Electric) a n d G e n e r a l T e l e p h o n e and. E:ectron~cs Corporation; and (c) the other establ~shed carrlers from l l f t l n g o f r e s z r ~ c t i o n s b a r r ~ n gA T & T a n d o f i e r l n g r e l a t e d c o m m u ~ i c a t i c n ss e r v i c e s . W!ille e x t e n s i v e hearings on a:; by tce kiozse Ccmmunicat~ons a s p e c z s of ccmmun:cazlo~.s r e f o r m were 9eld S u S c o m m i t t e e , 3 . R . 1 3 3 1 5 d ~ dn o t r e c e l v e f u r t h e r a c t l o n . Actions i n t h e 95th Congress I t was not u n t ~ l the 95th Congress thaz both Konse an? Senate C ! o r ~ n u ~ l c a t l o nSsu b c o m m i t t e e s l n t r o d n c e d n a ; o r l e g r s i a t i v e i n l ~ i a t i v e s (3.3. 3333; S. 511; S. 6 2 2 ) . Allt n r e e l e g ~ s l a t i v e maasures contained ex=ensive broadcasz p r o p o s a l s d e a l i n g w l z h t n e deregulation c f r n e c o m m o ~ . c a r r ~ e r a n d ~n5ustr:es. B e c a ~ s eo f c o n f l ~ c t sc v e r = h e v a r l o u s p r o v i s r o ~ s a n d u n c e r t a ~ n t y a m o n g s u S c o m m l z t e e m e m b e r s o v e r t h e e f f e c t s o f t n e p r o p o s a l s , ma:or r e v r s i c n s occurred i n the ieglslatlon. A s a r e s u l t s f u n r e s o l v e d d ~ f f e r e n c e s2 . 3 . 3 3 3 3 was taSled and a more I ~ m i c e dl e g l s l a t 1 7 ? e i n l t i a t ~ v e ( 3 . R . 6 1 2 i ) , d r o p p l z g a l l b r o a d c a s t p r o v i s l C ? . s a n d s o l e l y addressing commoc c a r r i e r ~ s s u e s , w a s 1 n t r c d u c e 5 13 D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 9 . T h e mazor c o z c e p t p r s m o t e d by t h e House 1 e g l s ; a r ~ o n was tne reliance on m a r k s t f o r t e s a n d c o m ? e t i t ~ o n when posslble as a substrtute for p r e s e ~ t regulatlcn. h o w e v e r t k l s d e r e g ~ l a t i o nw o u l d n o t r e m o v e t h e o b l ~ g a t ~ oonf = ! ~ e r n d c s t r y t c p r o v 1 d . e S a s ~ ct e l e p h o n e s e r v l c e a t "reasonable and affordable" c o - ~ s . T n e i r , a j o r h i g h l ~ g 5 t ss f t 2 e H o u s e :eg:slazicr as approved Sy =re C o L m e r c e Commi:zee ~ c c l u d e e:he f o l l o w i n g : ? - - % G Deregnlatlon of intercity markets and s e r v ~ c e s , while retaining regLlaCloc over Easlc telephone s e r v i c e and s e r v i c e s provided by "dom~nant~' c a r r l e r s ( l . e . , ATST). o M o d i f l c a t r z n of a 1956 consent decree permltt-ng AT&T t5 provide i n v a r i o ~ s c o n ? e t ~ z l v em a r k e t s . A%&T w o u l d S e p r o h i b i t e e , however, i n f o r ~ a t r o n offered Sy f r c m o f f e r i n g m a s s medLa service ( e . g . , t h e t y p e o f newspapers, per:odrcals, radio or teievlsron). AThT was also requlred =o c r e a t e a s e p a r a r e suSs;dlary wizh s e p a r a t e accoun:~ng p r o c e d u r e s f o r o f f e r ~ n g a n y u n r e g u l a t e 5 r e l e c o m m u n ~ c a t i c n ss e r v l c e s s o that no cross-subslSlzatlen c c ~ l do c c u r S e t w e e n m o n o p o l y a n d c o m p e t l r i v e s e r v i c e s . services o ? a y m e r t of an a c c e s s cPLarge S y any ~ncercrzy t a r r l e r f o r u s e o f t h e l o c a l carrier's facilities. carrier to the local o Development of a N a c ~ o n a l Telecommun;cat:ons Pool, funded by =he i n t e r c i t y c a r r ~ e rl o c a l h o o k u p - a c c e s s c h a r g e s , t o heip keep the zssrs of small p r o v r c i ~ q b a s l c z e l e p h o n e service i n l o c a l e x c h a n g e s , p a r t l c ~ i a r l y :?-I c o r n m u n i z ~ e s ,a i z - o r d a ~ l el n a d e r e g u l a t e d m a r k e t . o 3eregc;azion of t h e rnanafacture and s a l e of t e r ~ l n a l eauipmenc (e.?., provision permictlnq telephone recelvers and switcnboards) ~nciucing a c u s t o m e r s t c c o n n e c t t h e r r own t e r m i n a l s . o V a r l o u s p r o p o s a l s t o p r o t e c z a n d p r e v e n t d ~ s c r ~ m l n a t l o na g a l n s t chone s e r v i c e customers. rural . A f t e r l e n g t h y discussion tP.e S o u s e Commerce Cornrnrctee a p p r o v e e 6121 kicwever, l n J ~ l y1 9 8 C a n d h o p e d t c a d yJ =- -, -I ,- ~ t k e p r o p o s a l t o t h e E o u s e f l o o r . t n e b l i l w a s r e f e r r e d c c t h e H o u s e L i u 2 l c l a r y Committee f o r e x a r r i l n a t i o n o f ~ t s e f f e c t s on t h e structure of ATsT and the Justice Department's pendlng antitrust suit a g a l n s t t h o i r r m . A f t e r t 3 e House J l ~ d l c i a r y Subcornmlttee on M o n c p o l ~ e sa n d C o m n e r c l a l Law he12 hearlngs and revlewed the ant~trust f d l l J c d ~ c l a r y Conmrttee fc;;owed zhe a s p e c t s 3f the legislat~or., the SdScomx:tteels r e c o n m e n d a c ~ o ~a repcrzee 2 . c,, "azverseiy wrtncut For a l l ?rac=lcal ~ ' ~ r p o s e s ,rI e Gddlcrary Comr,it:e~'s pre;ud; c e . " " r e c o r n n e n d a t l o n " s t o p p e d f u r t h e r a c t l o n on t h e t ~ 1 1 . -. - i A f t e r m o n t h s c f d l s c u s s ~ o co v e r u n r e s c l v e d d ~ f f e r e ? c e s Setween the two Sena:e l e g l s l a t ~ v e ~ n ~ = ~ a z l v ies s. 5ll, S. 522), the Senaze C o r r m u n l c a t : o n s S d S c o m m ~ t t e e ~ c t r o d u c e da l o g l s l z t ~ v ec o m p r o m ~ s e :n Z z n e 153C. T ? . L ~F e d > o r ? , : l e g l s ; a t r v e e f f o r t , S . 2E2', cor.carned prov~sicns affeczlrq A l t n c ~ g ? =he S r a a c i c a s z a n d c a o i e z o m r n u n ~ c a c l o n s a s w e l l a s c s c z o r , carriers. w.?Lc,-, were z3e p r i ~ a r y fccas n a j c r t h r c s t o f :Pie common c a r r l e r z r c v r s : o n s , of c5.e eeglslazicn, was slrr,~lar to r e "cse c- r o p o s a l , siqzrficant differences e x l s z e c . 3 n e o f :he m a ; c r C r f f e r e ? c e s ccccernec the ~ s s u e 3f r ederal Zommlinicat~ons Z3nrrsslo?. (FZC) a u t 2 3 r l : y . 3 e Senate version w h ~ l e 5.2. 612; barred r e c a r n e d = k e P Z Z ' s p o w e r o v e r t h e s t r u c t u r e of a l ~n A X T . S.2827 alsc z h e K C ffrom mak-n; a n y f u r t h e r ~ z r ~ ~ c z u r c?.anges a f " d o r t : n a c t N c a r r ~ e r sz c ~ n c l ~ d dz.?e e srx largest commcn e x p a n d e d t h e ::st carriers and reqcrrec zne fornatlo?. of separaze s u z s l d ~ a r ~ e sf o r z3e T k e S e 1 , a t e p r o p o s a l d ~ r e c t e dc n e FZC zc p r o v r s ~ o r c f ~ n r e g u l a t e d services. f3r e s t a ' s l ~ s ha b c a r t t c a s s l s t t h e C o m m ~ s s r o n ~ n d e v - s r n g 3 ~ n l f c r r r s y s z e r a s u r z h a r g ~ pocl zo a p p o r t - o n r c j 1 a c a . l t e l e p n o n e s e r v ~ c ec o s t s a n d nana5:r.g s:gn~f:ea?z he:? i n a r z t a ; e r e a s c ~ a b l er n r a l r a z e s . T5.e S e n a t e ' s ~ s c l c s ~ c$ 5r 5roa2casz acC cakle prcv:sisns ~ r e a z ~ da d 2 ; = r c z a l csnzr?versy. SL:?. ,-,~:s:ons icc;cCeC t h e f o l l o w r n g : redrafted - 'T-rr. c Z x t e c s l o n 9 f r a d ~ oa n d t e l e v r s ~ o n l ~ c e n s et e r m s f r o a 3 c o 5 y e a r s ; a loccery, to choose amcng c Use of a random s e l e c c l o n syszern, e . q . , q3a:ri;ed applicants f o r b r o a d c a s t I r c e n s e s ; o E x e m p t ~ o co f p r e s i d e n t - a : 2r.d v r c e - p r e s ; d e ? z ; a l i e b a t e s from cne t i n e r ~ l e~ f t h e d e 5 a t e s a r e n o t organized S y a D r c a d c a s c e r ; e q ~ s l S . 2827 a i s o coctarned p r o v l s ~ o n s a f f e c c ~ n g :ne i e l e v l s ~ o nservices a s f o l l o w s : c a ~ l e regulat;on of provinq narm to ~roqrarnmlnq c T h e l o c a l S r o a d c a s t e r hae t n e b u r 5 e n o f interest o f t h e c a S l e c a r r r a q e S r o a d c a s t s l g n a l s . e z f c r t s a n d t h e ?ubi:c o N o S t a t e o r G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c y c o u l d r e q u l r e o r p r o h i b ~ t ar.y p r o g r a m m i n g o n a c a b l e s y s t e m o r r e g u i a t e S a s l c s u b s c r i b e r or pay c a b l e s u ~ s c r l b e r r a t e s . N o f u r t h e r a c t i o n w a s t a k e n o n S. 2827. T h e l a t e n e s s of t h e s e s s i o n , t h e H o u s e J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e ' s a d v e r s e r e p o r t a n d t 3 e differences b e t w e e n H o u s e a n d Senate proposals a l l ZomDined to Slock once agaln tne passage of any s ~ g n l f i c a n c l e g l s l a z ~ o n to a a e n d t h e Zomr,un:catlsns A c t of 1 5 3 4 . H.R. 5 1 5 6 ( W i r t h ) Arner.2~ t h e C o m m u n i c a z ~ o n s A c t o f 1934 t o r e v l s e p r o v i s i o n s r e i a t ~ n qt o t e l e c o m m u n l c a t ~ o n s , a n 5 f o r o t h e r p c r p a s e s . 3.2. of the Act 5421 (Mottl e= al. fszaSl:shes a p r i v a z e , n c n p r o f l t c o r p c r a c ~ c n zo s e r v e a s a representative f o r t?e ~ n z e r e s t so f r e s i d e n t i a l t e l e p h o n e u s e r s b e f o r e r e q c l a z c r y a g e n c l e s , ar,e o t ~ e rp u e l ~ cb o d ~ e sa n d f o r n m s . H.R. 5463 ( S a i l e y , G. et dl.) of 1934 zo p r s v i d e thac tne American A-ends z 5 e ~ o m m u n ~ c a ~ l s nA sc t ,elephcne a n 8 T e l e g r a p h C o m p a Y ~ y s h a i l n o t be e l v e s t e d o f 1:s o w n e r s h ~ pof a n y of z t s h z l d l n g s ~n any telecommuc~catlons local telepncne compacy, 9 iriarufactdr~?g o r r e s e a r c h o p e r a t i o r s , f o r a p e r l o 5 c f 2 y e a r s . rn 5 . 2 . 5 7 S 7 (Ccrcarar~) e Act cf 1934 t o a s s u r e d ~ v e r s ~ zoyf A m e n d s title 1; o f t ~ Cor.nl:c~ca;~ons rsferree to sourzes of eleztronlc lcfcrmaclon. ;ncroeuced 2 ~ l y 2 C , 1 5 8 2 ; Enerqy a n 2 Commerce. S . S 9 E ( ? a c k w o o C e t ai.) 1334 to granz the Federal bmen2s t h e C o m m c n ~ c a t l o n s A c t of foreign Conrnun~ca=:ons C o m r n ~ s s i c n au:hority over 1cterexc3ange and t e l e c 0 m m u n ; c a t i o n s s e r v - c e s . Z e q u ~ r e sd o m i n a n t - r e g ~ l a z e d c a r r i e r s t o p r o v i d e a l l buc S a s l c r e g u l a t e d t e 1 e c o m n u n ; c a t ~ o n s s e r v ~ c e st h r o u q h a f c l l y s e p a r a z e l Board to asslst ln a f f i l i a z e . Requires t h e F C C z o e s t a b l i s h a ;olrt a s c e r t a i n i n g a n d a ? p o r t i o n l n g t h e c o s t s of pr0v:C:n.q access to excnange f a c i l l t ~ e sf o r i r t e r e x c 3 a n g e s e r v i c e s . S e t s f o r z h cond:t;ons z o n c e r n ~ r g the fully separazed a f f ~ l i a c e x i ;cs dorn~nant-regulazed r e l a t ~ o n s k l pof a carr;er. D;rects t 5 e C o n g r e s s a n d t h e Adrnlnlstratloc to p i a c e 3 r g h pr:or~ty o n t h e po;;cy of universal t e l e p h o n e s e r v l c e a t r e a s c n a b l e r a t e s i n r u r a l a r e a s . C.S. Congress. Xocse. C o m K l t z e e z n t h e ;ud;~lary. Subcomrn:t~ee o c M o n o p o l ~ e s a n d C o m m e r c i a l Law. T e ; e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s A c t of 1 9 6 0 . H e a r ~ n g s ,9 6 t n Washlngtan, C c c g r e s s , 2 5 session. Sept. 9 and 1 6 , 1 9 8 5 . 8 C 3 p. U.S. G o v t . P r l n t . 3 f f . 1981. ----- C a m m l t t e e o n I n t e r s t a t e a n d Foreign C o m m e r c e . Subcomm~tzee V3:. 1 , on C o m m ~ 2 c i c a t ~ o n s . The Comrnunlzatlons Act o f 19'9. Genera; p r o v r s ~ o n s ; P a r t 1 . ' F ~ t l e s I a n d Ii:. telecornrnunrcatlons c a r r r e r r e g u i a t i o n . Xearlngs, 96th Congress, 1 s t sesslon. A p r z l 2 4 - 2 5 , May 1 - 4 a n d 8 , 1 9 7 9 . W a s h i n g t o n , U . S . G c v t . P r ~ n t . Of:., 1566. 1154 p. L.S. Congress. H G U S ~ . Cs~.ni:zee on 3 n e r g y a n d C o r m e r z e . S u b c o m m l ~ t t e o n ? e : s c o n m ~ n l z a t l o n s , C a n s ~ n e r? r o = e c : l o n , S t a t u s o f Competition a n d d e r e g u l a z l o n i n a n d Finance. t h e t e i e c o i c m n n l e a t ~ o n sr n d u s r r y . B e a r ~ n g s ,9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st sesszori. May 2 3 , 2 7 , 2 8 , i 9 e 1 . Wastington, U.S. Govt Print. Off., 1 9 6 1 . 6C: p. ----3 . . m i e l e c o m n u n ~ c a = l c n s A c z cf 1 3 E 2 . -D a y -- -a -- - - - 3 e a r i r . g ~ 2':" Cocgress, i d s e s s ~ o r . ,Febrllary-Xarch 1382. Washlzg:on, C.S. 3 I-. G o v t . P r ~ n t .3 f f . , 1 9 6 2 . - A & . C c ~ n g r t s s . House. C o m m ~ c t e eo n Z n e r g y a n d C c n m e r z e . S s ~ c o m r . ~ t r eoen T e ; e c o m c r i ~ c a : i o n s , C o n s 3 i n e r F r o = e c z ~ 3 no n : ~ n a n c e a n d Cornm:t=ee ar, = h e Z u d i z i a r y . S 1 l S c o m m ~ = t e e2~ mono?clles and commercial law. Prapcsed A r t l z r c s t S e t t l e n e ~ t3 5 U . S . V . A X & " Z o r n t h e a r i n g s , 3 ? = h C o n q . 2C s e s s . ;an. 25 a n 5 26, 1 9 6 2 . Washing=or., 2 . S . ~ o v t .? r l n t . 3 f f . 1 3 6 2 141 c . - ----- ATLT p r o p o s e d S e t c l e m e n z . ? a r t s I a n C I : Hearings, 9':h Ganuary 25, Febr*ay 4 , Karch 25, 1962. C a n g r e s s , 25 sess;on, 16- p . W a s h ~ n g t o n , G.S. G o v t . P r i n t . C f f . , 1 2 6 2 . U.S. C ~ n g r e s s . Senaze. C 3 m n l t z e e o n C o m r e r c e , S c ~ e n c ea n l Transportatlor. T e l e c o m r ~ n : c a t ~ o n sC o m p e z i t ~ c n a n C ., Beregulatlc?. A c t of 1961. R e p o r t No. G - - 1 7 3 . rash~ngton, I -.S. Gosz. ? r ; n ~ . O f f . , 1981. 193 ?. 157:C ~ n g r s s s ,Is: sess~on) C.S. Zocgress. House. Z o m m ~ t : e e o n E n e r g y anC C o m m e r c e . SuBcomm::tee on T e l e c o m m ~ n i c a t l o n s ,C o n s z m e r P r o t e c = l o ~ . ,a n C rlnance. T e l e c o m m u n ~ c a t ~ o nrsn T r a n s i ~ l s n : c h e S t, a-, +u S- - Of C o n ? e t ~ ' - L o n LT. c n e T e l e c o ? , n u n ~ c a z ~ o n: sn d u s c r y . Z e p o r t no. =7-'v'. h a s h i n g t o n , y . 5 . 3 0 ~ : . P ~ L E : . cff., h 2 v . 2 , 19'1. (9?ih Congress, 1 s t sessicn) 435 2 . - 7 P. C H R C N C i 3 G U F EVENTS 11/;2/&2 -- 3 . S . Cccr: of A p p e a l s a f f i r n e d t n e FCC's Computer d e c l s ~ o n c p h o 1 d ; n g t h e F C C ' s r e s t r u c c ' a r ~ n g o f :he t e l e c o n r n a n ~ c a : ~ 3 n si n C u s z r y . II 11/94/82 -- RT&T f l l e d 13/25/E2 -- Varrous groups f i l e d a p p e a l s c n a l l e n g l n q t h e U.S. Jus:lce Departmenc/AT&T antl:rus: sett;ement. 08/24/62 -- Judge Greene a p p r o v e d t h e newly f i l e d s e t t l e m e n t w h i c n i n c o r p o r a t e c h i s 10 m o d i f i c a t i o n s t h e r e b y d ~ s m i s s i n gt h e a n t i t r u s t c a s e . 28/19/E2 -- A X & T a n d t h e J u s t i z e D e p t . a ~ n o x n = e Ct h a c t n e y w o u l c m o d i f y t h e n p r o p o s e d s e z t l t m e n = :o ~ n c o r p o r a t e Zudge G r e e n e ' s c h a n g e s . 3E/i1/S2 -- Cndge G r e e n e a n n o u c c e d t h a t n a would a p p r o v e c h e t e r m s o f t 9 e -AT&? ; u s c ~ z e D e p t . a n c l t r u s : settlement o n l y ..c i h i . i e t w o p a r c l e s a g r e e d z o 5:s l i s t of mod:flca=lons. i n U . S . D l s t r l c t C o u r z , 1:s plan of p r o p o s e d geographic boundaries t o d e f l n e f u t u r e exchange a r e a s ( l o c a i a c c e s s and t r a n s p o r t a r e a s [ L A T A ' s ! ) designating t h e s e r v l c e a r e a s o f t h e d i v e s t e d 22 l o c a l o p e r a t ~ n gc o n p a n l e s . , A 7. - / 2 3 / 8 2 --- 2 e p r a s e n t a : ~ v e C o r c o r a n i n ~ r o d u c e dE . B . 5 7 9 7 , ? h e " A s s u r a n c e o f D l v e r s l t y o f E l e c t r o n ~ ci n f o r m a t i o r . Sources Act." H o u s e C o ~ m ~ = t eo ne E n e r g y a n d Zornmerce m a r k n p c f 2 . 2 . 5 1 5 8 t e r ~ ~ n a c eS de f o r e c o m a l e t l o n . , a-/ 1 7 / S 2 -- c5/19/82 -- AT&? C3/25/82 -- The S u b c o m m i t t e e on T e l e c o m m u n l c a t ~ o n s , C o n s u m e r P r c t e c t l c n anc? ? i n a n c e n n a n i m o u s ; y p a s s e d , a f c e r f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n , :he s c b s t i t u t e B . 2 . 5 1 5 8 . C3/23/E'2 -- R e p r e s e n c a = 1 7 ~ eW i r t h a l o n g w ~ t hs i x o z h e r s u b c o m r n ~ t t e e rnerr,bers l r t r o d z c e d t9.e s c n s z l t a t e v e r s i c n c f H . B . 5 1 5 8 e c z ~ t l e dc n e T e i e c o m n u n i z a t ~ s r . s A c t c f 1 9 8 2 . ~2/19/62 -- A T & T r e l e a s e e ; t s "planning m o d e l " f o r d ~ v e s t ~ t u r e whlch g r o u p s t h e l o c a l o p e r a z l n g c o m p a n ~ e s; n t o 7 ~ n d e p e n d e c t , regional c o r p o r a t ~ o n s . 52/l7/E2 -- The 2 u s : l c e Departmecc's ccmpet;:~ve impact s t a c e r n e ~ t a p p e a r e d i r k :he F e d e r a l R e g ~ s c e r , c ~ m r n e ~ c ~t n eg 5 0 - d a y p u c l r c commenc p e r l o d . C2/13/52 -- T h e J u s t l = e Dep:. f i l e d i t s compe:~:lve lrnpaet s z a t e m e n : r e g a r d ~ n g t h e A T & T s e t t i e m e n t with t h e Uclted Staces D l s t r l c t C o u r t . C2/09/82 -- 2epresen:at:ve fi " ,ne X o u s e Z o m R i t t e e on E n e r g y a n d Cammerce Segar, markup cf 3 . 3 . 5158. a n n o u n c e d the a p p o i n t m e n t o f :he c h i e f executive s f f ~ c e r so f c h e s e v e n t e n t a t r v e r e g ~ o n a i l o c a i operating c o m p a n i e s . Bailey introduced H.R. 5483. -- S e n a t o r s r e s s l e r : n t r o & u c e d amendment c o S . 01/28/62 -- G1/25/82 -- House Cornmitcee on Z n e r g y a n d Commerce, Subc0m:ztee on T e l e c o r n m u n i c a t : o n s , Consumer ? r o = e c : ~ o c a n d 7:nance a n 5 Conm:::ee c c :he ; u c l c l a r y , S u ~ c o ~ s ~ t : or. e e ?!oKc?~::~s an? near~cgs Commerc;al Law, c o r p l e c e d 2 C a y s zf : ; i c e on = h e r 3 m : f : c a t ~ o n s of t n e A T & ~ / ~ u s t i cDee p a r t n e n t settlemen:. S e n a t e Commerce, S c ~ e n c ea n 5 T r a ~ s p o r t a t ~ aCno r n m i t = e e , acc che Senace S u S c o ~ ~ ! r ~ : = t eon e Telezomnunica:lons S u d ~ z ~ a rCyo n n ~ t t e e" l a h e a r l n g s c c t>,e ram:flcac;cns of t 3 e P.T&&T/:usslze Ze?ar:mect se:=le~er=. li/C3/Ei -- Eoose Z3mnrtzee O R Energy a n e c o 3 m e r c f , S ~ 3 c o r n m i t = e e bn T e e l e c o m ~ u r . i c a t i o n s , Z s ~ s u m e r? r o z e c = : c r , a n d ? ; n a n c e n a j o r ~ r ys t a f f r e l e a s e d r e p o r c e n z i z l e d " T e l e c c n m 1 : n r c a t ; 3 n s ~n ?rans:=lon: t h e S t a c u s of C o m p e t : t i a n ;n = h e ~ e l e c o r n c c n i c a t i o n sI n d u s t r y . " C2/24/E1 -- S o u s e C ~ r n ! ~ ? i t : e eon Z n e r g y a n d C o r f m e r c e , S c ~ c c m c : t ~ e e on ? e l e c o m m u n : c a t ~ c n s , Consumer ? r o z e c : i o ? . , and F i n a r . c e , n e l e ~ o l n : cvers:q!it n e a r i c q s on F C C r e g u l a c z o n of t e i e c o m r n - ~ n r c a t l c n sc o n n o n carriers. 0'/15/51 -- S e n a t e Z c ! n n i t t e e on Commerce, S c ~ e n c ea n d T r a z s p c r z a c ; o c reporred S. 538, Ssnaccr Bolilngs c l s s e n t ~ n g . 05/22/S1 -- S e n a c e C c ! r c : t t e e on Z a m x e r c e , 5c:ence a n d T r a r . s p o r = a t : o c c o m p l e t e d s i x c a y s of h e a r r n g s o c S . 895. 1529. 05/28/81 A3L:TICNAL ... - -- B c u s e S u b c o m m ~ t t e e on T e l e c o m m u ? : c a t i o n s , Consumer P r o t e c c l o n a n C F l n a n c e c o m p l e t e d h e a r ~ n g so n t h e s t a t ~ so f c o m p e t i t ~ o na n d d e r e g u i a c l o n l n t h e communlcatrons rndustry. RSFERENCE SOURCSS L ~ b r a r y3f 2 3 r ~ g r e s s . C c n g r e s s r 2 n a l R e s e a r c h Service. i n t e r n a t l o c a l Daca Flow I s s u e s . Zace a o r t n r c k . I38lO4O. Telepncne and S c a t u s o f = ? e J u s z ~ c eD e p a r c m e n c / A m e r i c a ? . T e l e g r a p n Company A n t i t r u s t S e c t l e m e r t : A B r l e i Overview, A n g e l e A G ~ i r o y . Aag. 3 C , 19E2. ----- m - h e T e l e c o m i ~ - ~ r . l c a t l o nAs c t o f 1 9 8 2 ( E . R . 5 ; 5 3 , g 7 t P . Ccngress): ? f o v : s ~ o n s a n d C o n z r ~ v e r s l e s ,A n g e i e A . Gliroy. Msy 2 1 , 1 9 6 2