Terrorism: U.S. Policy Options

Order Code IB81141 TERRORISl4: POLICY OPTIONS U.S. Updated J u n e 8, 1 9 8 7 NORTHERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSI'W LIBRARY GQVERNMENT DOCUMENTS COLLECTION by J a m e s P. W o o t t e n F o r e i g n A f f a i r s and National D e f e n s e D i v i s i o n Congressional Research Service CONTENTS SUMMARY ISSUE DEFINITION BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS Current U.S. Policy Against Terrorism Organization for Combatting Terrorism U.S. Government Organization Against Terrorism Specific Programs Against Terrorism States Sponsoring Terrorism Libya South Yemen Syria Iran Cuba North Korea Nicaragua Options for Combating International Terrorism Diplomacy Economic Sanctions Media Self-Restraint Cooperation in Law Enforcement International Conventions Covert and Paramilitary Operat ions The Use of Military Force LEG1 SLATION TERRORISM: U.S. POLICY OPTIONS SUMMARY The U n i t e d S t a t e s m a i n t a i n s t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e r r o r i s m i s a g l o b a l p r o b l e m and t h a t t h e c o u n t r i e s t h r e a t e n e d by i t s h o u l d j o i n t o g e t h e r t o combat i t . Most o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , however, i n c l u d i n g U.S. a l l i e s i n t h e as European Community ( E C ) , a r e opposed t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a n c t i o n s s u g g e s t e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and would p r e f e r t o t r e a t t e r r o r i s m a s a d o m e s t i c problem and h a n d l e i t w i t h t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . -- -- U.S. e f f o r t s t o g e t o t h e r s t o c o o p e r a t e i n t h i s r e g a r d were s e t b a c k by r e c e n t d i s c l o s u r e s a b o u t s e c r e t U.S. n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h I r a n . P r e s i d e n t Reagan had t a k e n a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g s t a n d a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s m and t h e I r a n a f f a i r h a s a p p a r e n t l y damaged h i s c r e d i t a b i l i t y and r a i s e d d o u b t s among t h e a l l i e s a b o u t f u t u r e U.S. p o l i c y a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s m . Allies p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s e n t e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y had been u n d e r p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t a k e a h a r d e r l i n e a g a i n s t I r a n and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s e v e n w h i l e t h e s e c r e t n e g o t i a t i o n s were g o i n g o n f o r t h e r e l e a s e of American h o s t a g e s i n Lebanon. T h i s i s s u e b r i e f d e s c r i b e s U.S. p o l i c y a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s m , how i t h a s e v o l v e d , and t h e r a n g e o f d i p l o m a t i c , p o l i t i c a l , and m i l i t a r y o p t i o n s Reasons a r e s u g g e s t e d f o r t a k i n g t h e a v a i l a b l e t o help carry it out. m u l t i n a t i o n a l s t a n d a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s t c o u n t r i e s and a r e a s o f p o s s i b l e c o o p e r a t i o n a r e suggested. The a n a l y s i s a l s o t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e r o l e o f C o n g r e s s i n t h e o v e r a l l f o r m u l a t i o n and c o n d u c t o f U.S. p o l i c y a g a i n s t international terrorism. ISSUE DEFINITION U.S. p o l i c y a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s m h a s remained r e l a t i v e l y unchanged s i n c e 1972 when i t was s e t f o r t h and a c o u n t e r t e r r o r i s m o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h e d by P r e s i d e n t Nixon a f t e r t h e m a s s a c r e of I s r a e l i a t h l e t e s a t t h e Munich Olympics. The p o l i c y was t h e n and c o n t i n u e s t o be marked by i t s u n e q u i v o c a l s t a n d a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s m and d e t e r m i n a t i o n n o t t o b a r g a i n w i t h t e r r o r i s t s . S u b s e q u e n t P r e s i d e n t s h a v e r e i t e r a t e d t h e p o l i c y and s t e a d i l y improved t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e f o r c a r r y i n g i t o u t . P r e s i d e n t Reagan t o o k a p a r t i c u l a r l y h a r d s t a n d a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s m and t h e s t a t e s t h a t s u p p o r t i t , s o t h a t , when i t was r e v e a l e d i n November 1987 t h a t t h e Administ r a t i o n had been s e l l i n g arms t o I r a n , a l l e g e d l y i n exchange f o r U.S. h o s t a g e s i n Lebanon, t h e a c t i o n a p p e a r e d t o c o n t r a d i c t o f f i c i a l policy. T h i s i s s u e b r i e f examines U.S. p o l i c y a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s m , t h e s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r implementing i t and o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e United S t a t e s f o r enforcing i t . C u r r e n t U.S. Policy Against Terrorism -- The U .S. Government i s opposed t o d o m e s t i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e r r o r i s m and i s p r e p a r e d t o a c t i n c o n c e r t w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n s o r u n i l a t e r a l l y when n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t o r r e s p o n d t o t e r r o r i s t a c t s . -- The U.S. Government c o n s i d e r s t h e p r a c t i c e of t e r r o r i s m by a n y p e r s o n o r g r o u p a t h r e a t t o i t s n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and w i l l r e s i s t t h e u s e of t e r r o r i s m by a l l l e g a l means a v a i l a b l e . -- S t a t e s t h a t practice terrorism o r a c t i v e l y support i t w i l l not do s o without consequence. I f t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t a s t a t e i s mounting o r i n t e n d s t o c o n d u c t an a c t o f t e r r o r i s m a g a i n s t t h i s c o u n t r y , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l t a k e measures t o p r o t e c t i t s c i t i z e n s , p r o p e r t y , a n d interests. -- The U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l make no c o n c e s s i o n s t o t e r r o r i s t s . It w i l l n o t pay ransoms, r e l e a s e p r i s o n e r s , change i t s p o l i c i e s , o r a g r e e t o o t h e r A t t h e same t i m e , t h e a c t s t h a t might e n c o u r a g e a d d i t i o n a l t e r r o r i s m . United S t a t e s w i l l use every a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e t o g a i n t h e s a f e r e t u r n of American c i t i z e n s who a r e h e l d h o s t a g e by t e r r o r i s t s . -- The U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l a c t i n a s t r o n g manner a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s t s w i t h o u t s u r r e n d e r i n g - b a s i c freedoms o r e n d a n g e r i n g d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s , a n d e n c o u r a g e s o t h e r governments t o t a k e t h e same s t a n d s . (Quoted from page 7 o f t h e p u b l i c r e p o r t of t h e V i c e P r e s i d e n t ' s t a s k f o r c e on c o m b a t t i n g t e r r o r i s m , F e b r u a r y 1986, h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e Vice P r e s i d e n t ' s r e p o r t ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Combatting T e r r o r i s m T h e p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r implementing U.S. policy against t e r r o r i s m g o t i t s s t a r t when P r e s i d e n t Nixon e s t a b l i s h e d a C a b i n e t - l e v e l cormnittee, c h a i r e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e i n 1972. President Carter transferred the responsibility t o t h e National S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l and e s t a b l i s h e d a s u p p o r t i n g 10-member s e n i o r - l e v e l I n t e r a g e n c y E x e c u t i v e Cormnittee on T e r r o r i s m which e v e n t u a l l y e v o l v e d i n t o a g r o u p o f more t h a n 30 governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r c r i s i s management was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a g r o u p c h a i r e d by t h e V i c e P r e s i d e n t and s u p p o r t e d by a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r a g e n c y working g r o u p s . R e s p o n s i b i 1i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e F e d e r a l r e s p o n s e t o t e r r o r i s t i n c i d e n t s i s d e l e g a t e d a l o n g t h e Lead Agency c o n c e p t : -- --- Department o f S t a t e territory. -- Department o f J u s t i c e territory. i n c i d e n t s t h a t t a k e p l a c e o u t s i d e U.S. -- i n c i d e n t s t h a t t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n U.S. -- F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (FAA) incidents aboard a i r c r a f t t h a t t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( a c c o r d i n g t o a S t a t e Department o f f i c i a l , t h e FAA t a k e s o v e r from S t a t e when t h e d o o r c l o s e s on t h e a i r c r a f t ) . Not a l l c o u n t r i e s a g r e e w i t h t h e U.S. a s s e s s m e n t , however, and t h e y h a v e b e e n s l o w t o a c t on r e q u e s t s t h a t t h e y j o i n w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e on c o u n t r i e s s u s p e c t e d of h a r b o r i n g a n d a b e t t i n g terrorists. P r e s i d e n t Reagan s e t t h e t o n e f o r a s t r o n g e r s t a n d a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s t s soon a f t e r t a k i n g o f f i c e when he welcomed home r e l e a s e d American h o s t a g e s from I r a n on J a n . 28, 1981. The P r e s i d e n t s a i d , "Let t e r r o r i s t s b e a w a r e t h a t when t h e r u l e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r a r e v i o l a t e d , o u r p o l i c y w i l l b e o n e of s w i f t and e f f e c t i v e r e t r i b u t i o n . " In reference t o g o v e r n m e n t s t h a t e n g a g e i n , o r a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t , a c t s of t e r r o r i s m a g a i n s t t h e United S t a t e s , t h e President threatened t h a t they could expect a 'I r a p i d and c e r t a i n response." A c c o r d i n g t o p r e s s r e p o r t s , t h e r e have been s h a r p d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e p r e s i d e n t ' s c l o s e s t a d v i s o r s a b o u t how t o r e s p o n d t o t e r r o r i s t s o n c e t h e c r i m e h a s been committed, r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t c l e a r knowledge of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i d e n t i t y and s t a t e s u p p o r t a r e o f t e n a b s e n t . S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e S h u l t z , f o r example, a d v o c a t e d s t r o n g r e t a l i a t i o n a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s t s and a n y c o u n t r y t h a t s u p p o r t e d them, w h i l e S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e W e i n b e r g e r h a s u s u a l l y urged r e s t r a i n t . From 1976 t h r o u g h 1986, more t h a n 6 , 0 0 0 t e r r o r i s t i n c i d e n t s o c c u r r e d w o r l d w i d e , l e a v i n g n e a r l y 5,000 p e o p l e d e a d and 8,000 wounded; American c a s u a l t i e s t o t a l e d 391 d e a d and 552 i n j u r e d . I n 1986, t h e t o t a l number of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e r r o r i s t incidents levelled off s l i g h t l y following increases of 30% in 1984 and 45% in 1985. The State Department released data showing more than 800 incidents of international terrorism in 1985, resulting in 2,223 casualties, of which 23 of the killed and 139 of the injured were Americans, the worst year thus far for the United States. Terrorists singled out Americans for death in four of the most dramatic attacks: the prolonged TWA 847 hijacking in June 1985, the Achille Lauro hijacking in October, the November hijacking of the Egyptian airliner in Malta, and the December massacres at the Rome and Vienna airports by the Abu Nidal group; supported recently by Libya. In the hijacking of the Egyptian airliner, American women were singled out for killing for the first time. (See Issue Brief 86096 for a chronology of reported incidents against U.S. citizens and property during the period 1981-1986.) The President's decision to take stronger action against terrorists who harm the United States or its citizens was reported to be contained in the secret national Security Decision Directive 138 which the President signed on Apr. 3, 1984. It signaled a transition to a more active response to terrorism. U.S. Government Organization Against Terrorism The chain of command on antiterrorism planning runs from the President through the National Security Council and a Senior Interdepartmental Group (IG) on Terrorism. This group is chaired by the State Department, (the Director of the Office for Counterterrorism and Emergency Planning), with representatives from Justice, Defense, Energy, Treasury, Transportation, CIA, National Security Council, FBI, and the Office of the Vice President. The IG meets regularly to discuss policy formulation and operations coordination in such matters as airport security, contingency planning and exercises, incident management, training, and international initiatives. Intelligence information among the various agencies is coordinated by an Intelligence Committee, chaired by the CIA with representatives from DOD, NSC, FBI, the Secret Service, and the National Security Agency. There is also a top level Special Situation Group, headed by the Vice President, which has been established to handle crisis management. Other members of this group are the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Counselor to the President, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Chief and Deputy Chief to the President, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and other personnel as required. As the lead agency within the Government in the campaign against terrorism the State Department established a Bureau for Diplomatic Security under an Assistant Secretary that has overall responsibility for security of U.S. citizens and facilities overseas. The Bureau includes the Diplomatic Security Service which has initiated a massive, multiyear program to strengthen the security of embassies and foreign service personnel worldwide. The new Bureau will be largely responsible for overseeing a massive diplomatic security enhancement program overseas with funds approved under the "Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Anti-Terrorism Act of 1986" (P.L. 99-399). Specific Programs Against Terrorism Developed by several State Department-sponsored advisory panels, a program is in place to ascertain that all Foreign Service posts now have adequate contingency plans for dealing with terrorist incidents, including hostage and hijack attempts. Ambassadors have been instructed to review their internal defense plans, particularly command and control procedures for the use of lethal force, and to work out special coordination and mutual help procedures with our closest allies. All missions have been authorized to inform host governments of U.S. policy in hostage events and to urge them to adopt similar stances. The State Department has also instituted an expanded course on "Coping with Violence Abroad." This course includes segments on hostage survival, bomb recognition, and residential security, among other topics. It is required for all State, Agency for International Development, and U.S. Information Agency personnel assigned overseas. The Department has also conducted a number of domestic and international incident-management exercises designed to test its ability to respond to terrorist attacks. The State Department has also negotiated several international convent ions designed to increase international cooperation against terrorism. These are to punish crimes against internationally protected persons (defined essentially as heads of state and diplomats); punishment of aircraft hijacking and sabotage; the prosecution of hostage takers and the physical protection of nuclear material. The Senate has given its advice and consent for the ratification of two conventions already signed by the United States: the International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Congress also has passed legislation implementing the Montreal Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation and the International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages. States Sponsoring Terrorism The Secretary of Comnerce in consultation with the Secretary of State has compiled a list of countries that support international terrorism under the provisions of section 6(i) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended. There are five countries on the list: Libya, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY), Syria, Iran, and Cuba. Another list is contained in a speech by President Reagan before the American Bar Association on July 8, 1985. The President also listed Iran and Libya and Cuba, but added two others: North Korea and Nicaragua. Libya The State Department has singled out Libya as the most flagrant sponsor of terrorists and user of terrorism as government policy. (See IB 86040, Libya: U.S. Relations.) Despite Libyan leader Qadhafi's repeated denials that his government resorts to terrorism as an official practice, i t is generally accepted that he has done so on a rather wide scale. Libya is believed to have provided aid to almost every major international t e r r o r i s t g r o u p , from t h e P r o v i s i o n a l I r i s h R e p u b l i c a n P o p u l a r F r o n t f o r t h e L i b e r a t i o n o f P a l e s t i n e (PFLP). a l s o l i n k e d L i b y a t o t h e Basque ETA, J a p a n ' s Red B r i g a d e , and Moslem i n s u r g e n t s i n T h a i l a n d , I n d o n e s i a , Philippines. In Qadhafi i n many some o f Army (PIRA) t o t h e Press r e p o r t s have Army, I t a l y ' s Red M a l a y s i a , and t h e t h i s r e g a r d , t h e C I A h a s l o n g h e l d t h a t i t had e v i d e n c e t h a t was p r o v i d i n g money, weapons, and t r a i n i n g t o t e r r o r i s t s o p e r a t i n g c o u n t r i e s and h a s been a haven f o r f l e e i n g t e r r o r i s t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s l a y e r s of t h e I s r a e l i Olympic a t h l e t e s a t Munich i n 1972. The p r i n c i p a l t a r g e t s o f Libyan-supported terrorism a r e Israel, t r a d i t i o n a l and m o d e r a t e Arab r e g i m e s , Libyan e x i l e s c r i t i c a l o f t h e Q a d h a f i r e g i m e , and more r e c e n t l y , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n J u l y 1984, Egypt a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y was t h e t a r g e t of mines l a i d i n t h e Red Sea n e a r t h e e n t r a n c e t o t h e Suez C a n a l . Most a g r e e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l l y h e l d c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a L i b y a n s h i p p l a n t e d t h e d e v i c e s , which damaged 1 8 v e s s e l s r e g i s t e r e d t o many n a t i o n s . Libyan c o m p l i c i t y i n t e r r o r i s t a t t a c k s was f u r t h e r e x p o s e d when t h e E g y p t i a n s a r r e s t e d f o u r c o n s p i r a t o r s b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d c a r r y o u t a p l o t t o murder a f o r m e r Libyan Prime M i n i s t e r l i v i n g i n Egypt, and t h e n t r i c k e d t h e Libyan government i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n had s u c c e e d e d and c l a i m i n g c r e d i t f o r t h e a c t i o n . I n 1984, Libyan s u p p o r t e r s of t h e government f i r e d upon a n t i - Q a d h a f i d e m o n s t r a t o r s from w i t h i n t h e Libyan Embassy i n London, k i l l i n g a B r i t i s h policewoman on duty outside. A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t e Department r e c o r d s , t h e r e w e r e 17 s e p a r a t e t e r r o r i s t i n c i d e n t s i n 1985 and 1986 d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o L i b y a i n Europe and t h e Middle E a s t i n which 14 Americans w e r e k i l l e d . When P r e s i d e n t Reagan d e c i d e d t o t a k e m i l i t a r y a c t i o n s a g a i n s t L i b y a i n March and A p r i l 1986, t h e P r e s i d e n t r e p o r t e d l y r e v e a l e d e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e t o f r i e n d l y European l e a d e r s d e t a i l i n g L i b y a ' s I t i s n o t c l e a r from c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t e r r o r i s t a t t a c k s on Americans. p u b l i c s o u r c e s w h e t h e r t h e a l l i e s were c o n v i n c e d by t h e e v i d e n c e , b u t Deputy S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e John Whitehead t o l d t h e House Committee on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s on Apr. 22, 1986, t h a t h e b e l i e v e d t h a t o u r s t r i k e o n L i b y a may have h e l p e d open a new c h a p t e r i n m u l t i l a t e r a l c o o p e r a t i o n between European s t a t e s and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Whitehead s a i d t h a t t h e s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e of t h e information prevented h i s t e l l i n g t h e comnittee i n open s e s s i o n o f t h e e x t e n t o f c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e European a l l i e s a n d t h e United S t a t e s i n sharing information regarding t e r r o r i s m . The number of t e r r o r i s t i n c i d e n t s c o n n e c t e d w i t h L i b y a h a s d r o p p e d n o t i c e a b l y s i n c e t h e bombing by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b u t t h e d r o p may a l s o b e t h e r e s u l t o f s a n c t i o n s imposed by t h e European Comnunity (EC) a f t e r the raids. S o u t h Yemen The P e o p l e s Democratic R e p u b l i c of Yemen (PDRY), a l s o known a s S o u t h Yemen, h a s a p p a r e n t l y c u t back on c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e r r o r i s t s , b u t Yemen c o n t i n u e s t o p r o v i d e camps and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r "the Popular Front f o r a number o f l e f t i s t g r o u p s . According t o t h e C I A : t h e L i b e r a t i o n o f P a l e s t i n e (PFLP) m a i n t a i n s a m a j o r t e r r o r i s t t r a i n i n g camp t h e r e , and members of many d i f f e r e n t t e r r o r i s t g r o u p s - have a l l b e n e f i t e d f r o m t h e PFLP t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s " P a t t e r n s o f G l o b a l T e r r o r i s m : 1985, p. 6 ) (U.S. Department o f S t a t e . Syria I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d w i t h i n t h e w e s t e r n community t h a t S y r i a h a s u s e d t e r r o r i s t s t o a d v a n c e i t s own i n t e r e s t s . The Assad government i n Damascus i s w i d e l y b e l i e v e d t o h a v e been b e h i n d t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i n Lebanon and a t l e a s t i m p l i c a t e d i n t h e t e r r o r i s t a t t a c k s on Americans t h e r e . S y r i a h a s a l s o been an a c t i v e s u p p o r t e r o f r a d i c a l e l e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e PLO, i n c l u d i n g t h e P o p u l a r F r o n t f o r t h e L i b e r a t i o n o f P a l e s t i n e (PFLP), which o c c a s i o n a l l y e n g a g e s i n t e r r o r i s t activity. S y r i a n i n t e l l i g e n c e a g e n t s and d i p l o m a t s h a v e been l i n k e d t o t e r r o r i s t a t t a c k s on J o r d a n i a n o f f i c i a l s a s w e l l a s S y r i a n d i s s i d e n t s l i v i n g abroad. Abu N i d a l , l e a d e r of a r a d i c a l P a l e s t i n i a n t e r r o r i s t g r o u p , h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d t o have been s p o n s o r e d by S y r i a b e f o r e s w i t c h i n g t o an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Libya. The media a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t I t a l i a n i n v e s t i g a t o r s found e v i d e n c e of d i r e c t S y r i a n i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a t t a c k s on t h e Rome and Vienna a i r p o r t s i n December 1985 and G r e a t B r i t a i n d e t e r m i n e d i n a c o u r t a c t i o n t h a t t h e S y r i a n government w a s b e h i n d t h e p l o t t o p u t a bomb a b o a r d a n El-A1 ( I s r a e l i ) p a s s e n g e r p l a n e l e a v i n g a Lenden a i r p o r t i n J a n u a r y 1986. Iran P r i o r t o t h e r e c e n t u p s u r g e i n Libyan t e r r o r i s t a c t i v i t i e s , t h e Department o f S t a t e c o n s i d e r e d I r a n " t h e l e a d i n g s u p p o r t e r o f t e r r o r i s m . " The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c l a i m s t o h a v e e v i d e n c e t h a t I r a n i a n government o f f i c i a l s h a v e d i r e c t l y c a r r i e d o u t armed a t t a c k s o n I r a q i E m b a s s i e s a n d assassinated I r a q i c i t i z e n s i n various countries. Media r e p o r t s a l s o c o n n e c t t h e bombings o f t h e U.S. Embassy i n B e i r u t , Apr. 18, 1983, a n d t h e M a r i n e h e a d q u a r t e r s b u i l d i n g n e a r t h e B e i r u t a i r p o r t O c t . 23, 1 9 8 3 , t o I r a n i a n o f f i c i a l s . There a r e r e p o r t s i n t h e p r e s s t h a t I r a n i s b u i l d i n g a t e r r o r i s t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n t h e r e g i o n by p r o v i d i n g p o l i t i c a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g , and f i n a n c i a l h e l p t o d i s s i d e n t S h i a g r o u p s i n n e i g h b o r i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Kuwait, B a h r a i n , and S a u d i Arabia. Cuba F i d e l C a s t r o ' s government h a s l o n g been s u s p e c t e d of p r o v i d i n g arms and t r a i n i n g t o t e r r o r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A s a r e s u l t of C a s t r o ' s s u p p o r t f o r t h e Colombian M-19 g u e r r i l l a g r o u p , which r o u t i n e l y u s e s t e r r o r i s t t a c t i c s , Cuba was added t o t h e U.S. l i s t of c o u n t r i e s s u p p o r t i n g international terrorism. N o r t h Korea P r e s i d e n t Reagan i n h i s J u l y s p e e c h a c c u s e d N o r t h Korea o f v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and S o u t h Korea. He s a i d t h a t American p l a n e s h a v e been s h o t down and U.S. s e r v i c e m e n murdered by N o r t h Korean f o r c e s . He a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t f o u r members of t h e S o u t h Korean n a t i o n a l c a b i n e t w e r e blown u p i n a bombing i n Burma by N o r t h Korean t e r r o r i s t s i n O c t o b e r 1983 i n a f a i l e d a t t e m p t t o a s s a s s i n a t e S o u t h Korean P r e s i d e n t Chun. P r e s i d e n t Reagan a l s o d e s c r i b e d N o r t h K o r e a ' s t e r r o r i s t a c t i v i t i e s i n S r i Lanka and i t s s e c r e t arms agreement w i t h t h e f o r m e r Communist government i n Grenada. Nicaragua P r e s i d e n t Reagan a l s o i n c l u d e d N i c a r a g u a on h i s l i s t f o r i t s a l l e g e d t e r r o r i s t a c t i v i t i e s i n El S a l v a d o r , C o s t a R i c a , and Honduras and t h e k i l l i n g of f o u r U.S. s e r v i c e m e n i n E l S a l v a d o r i n 1985. The P r e s i d e n t a l s o s a i d t h a t N i c a r a g u a was p r o v i d i n g r e f u g e f o r known t e r r o r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e I t a l i a n Red B r i g a d e s , t h e Baader-Meinhoff g a n g from West Germany, t h e IRA ( I r i s h R e p u b l i c a n Army), t h e PLO, and o t h e r s . O p t i o n s f o r Combating I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e r r o r i s m There i s a range of d i p l o m a t i c a c t i o n s t h a t can be taken a g a i n s t a government s u s p e c t e d o f s p o n s o r i n g t e r r o r i s t a c t i o n s . Certainly, the s t r o n g e s t a c t i o n would b e t o w i t h d r a w r e c o g n i t i o n from t h e c o u n t r y o r i t s government. Withdrawal of r e c o g n i t i o n would mean, i n e f f e c t , t h a t t h e government i n q u e s t i o n h a s no l e g a l s t a n d i n g i n t h e e y e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h u s n o t e n t i t l e d t o c e r t a i n r i g h t s u n d e r U.S. law. A l e s s s e v e r e a c t i o n would be t o b r e a k r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e government C l o s u r e of i t s and c a u s e i t t o c l o s e i t s Embassy i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Embassy a n d c o n s u l a r p o s t s i s o f t e n f o l l o w e d by t h e s e v e r a n c e o f t r a d e w i t h t h e United S t a t e s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d a l s o e x p e l a number of d i p l o m a t s f r o m a c o u n t r y ' s d e l e g a t i o n i n t h i s c o u n t r y . Libyan d i p l o m a t s were e x p e l l e d from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n December 1985, p r i o r t o t h e u s e o f f o r c e by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n A p r i l 1986. S i n c e t h e r a i d , o u r west European a l l i e s h a v e e x p e l l e d a number o f L i b y a n d i p l o m a t s from t h e i r c o u n t r i e s a n d h a v e s e r v e d n o t i c e on L i b y a t h a t i t s d i s r u p t i v e b e h a v i o r w i l l n o t b e t o l e r a t e d in the future. The U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d a l s o c u r t a i l o r s u s p e n d t h e t r a i n i n g of t h a t c o u n t r y ' s s t u d e n t s i n t h e United S t a t e s o r d e p o r t t h e s t u d e n t s a s l o n g a s t h e a c t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h U.S. law and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s were p r o t e c t e d . A g a i n , a s l o n g a s i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o u r own law, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d t h r e a t e n t o deny e n t r y t o t h e c i t i z e n s a n d / o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s of a n y c o u n t r y t h a t u s e s t e r r o r i s t t a c t i c s . I t could, f o r example, r e s t r i c t a i r l a n d i n g r i g h t s and p o r t a c c e s s t o t h o s e c o u n t r i e s w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t s and r e g u l a t i o n s . I n 1978, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s j o i n e d w i t h West Germany, Canada, B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , I t a l y , and J a p a n i n d e c l a r i n g a w i l l i n g n e s s t o suspend commercial a i r l i n e s e r v i c e between a n y o f t h o s e c o u n t r i e s and a n y c o u n t r y h a r b o r i n g hijackers. I n 1981, some c o u n t r i e s gave n o t i c e t o A f g h a n i s t a n t h a t i t f a c e d s a n c t i o n s due t o t h e h a r b o r i n g of t h e h i j a c k e r s o f a P a k i s t a n i I n t e r n a t i o n a l Airlines plane. The U n i t e d S t a t e s might a l s o u s e i t s f o r e i g n broadcasting c a p a b i l i t i e s t o p r e s s u r e t h e o t h e r c o u n t r y d i r e c t l y o r i n an e f f o r t t o a r o u s e world o p i n i o n a g a i n s t t h e c o u n t r y u s i n g t e r r o r i s t t a c t i c s . These b r o a d c a s t s c o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o t h e people i n s i d e t h e c o u n t r y , warning t h a t c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e pro-terrorist p o l i c i e s might r e s u l t i n r e t a l i a t i o n by t h e United S t a t e s , o r perhaps t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o u r g e i s o l a t i o n of t h e o f f e n d i n g government. I n c e r t a i n c a s e s an a p p e a l t o t h e United Nations might be e f f e c t i v e , b u t t h e members have been r e l u c t a n t t o t a k e s i d e s i n t h e s e m a t t e r s b e c a u s e of p o l i t i c a l o r economic c o n n e c t i o n s o r because t h e y f e a r r e p r i s a l s . T h e r e i s a l s o a b i a s h e l d by many l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s a g a i n s t t h e United S t a t e s and o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s who a r e most t a r g e t e d by terrorists. Whether a c e r t a i n p o l i c y w i l l work a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s m w i l l o f t e n depend on t h e c a s e - s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Some a r g u e t h a t diplomacy h o l d s l i t t l e hope of s u c c e s s a g a i n s t determined t e r r o r i s t s o r t h e c o u n t r i e s t h a t s u p p o r t them, but d i p l o m a t i c measures a r e u s u a l l y t h e l e a s t dangerous i n terms of widening t h e c o n f l i c t , and t h e r e f o r e a r e u s u a l l y tried first. Economic S a n c t i o n s Economic s a n c t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o e x e r t p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e on a n o t h e r c o u n t r y a l m o s t always r e q u i r e t h e c o o p e r a t i o n of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o make them e f f e c t i v e . With t h a t l i m i t a t i o n , t h e United S t a t e s h a s a wide r a n g e of economic s a n c t i o n s t h a t can be used a g a i n s t a c o u n t r y s u p p o r t i n g Broadly s p e a k i n g , t e r r o r i s m o r n o t t a k i n g a d e q u a t e measures a g a i n s t i t . these f a l l into s i x categories: r e s t r i c t i o n s on t r a d i n g , t e c h n o l o g y t r a n s f e r , f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e , e x p o r t c r e d i t s and g u a r a n t e e s , f o r e i g n exchange and c a p i t a l t r a n s a c t i o n s , and economic a c c e s s . The United S t a t e s might put any o r a l l of t h e s e i n t o e f f e c t by means of a t o t a l o r p a r t i a l t r a d e embargo, embargo on f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s , s u s p e n s i o n of f o r e i g n a i d , r e s t r i c t i o n s on a i r c r a f t o r s h i p t r a f f i c , o r a b r o g a t i o n of a f r i e n d s h i p , comnerce, and n a v i g a t i o n t r e a t y , a s was done a g a i n s t Nicaragua e f f e c t i v e May 1, 1986. Though n o t a m a t t e r of government p o l i c y , t h e s h a r p d e c l i n e of American t o u r i s m i n Europe owing t o t e r r o r i s t t h r e a t c l e a r l y e x e r t e d p r e s s u r e on governments i n Europe t o c u r t a i l t e r r o r i s t a c t i v i t y more effectively. The P r e s i d e n t has a v a r i e t y of laws a t h i s d i s p o s a l t o put t h e s e a c t i o n s i n e f f e c t , but t h e b r o a d e s t i n i t s p o t e n t i a l scope i s t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Emergency Economic Powers Act. Under t h e terms of t h e A c t , r e s t r i c t i o n s a f f e c t i n g e v e r y t y p e of economic r e l a t i o n s can be imposed once t h e P r e s i d e n t has d e c l a r e d a n a t i o n a l emergency because of a t h r e a t t o t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , f o r e i g n p o l i c y , o r economy o f t h e United S t a t e s . While t h e s a n c t i o n s imposed must d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e t h r e a t which was t h e r e a s o n f o r d e c l a r i n g t h e emergency, t h e P r e s i d e n t can r e g u l a t e i m p o r t s and e x p o r t s and a l l t y p e s of f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s , such a s t h e t r a n s f e r o f f u n d s , f o r e i g n exchange, c r e d i t , S t a t e s and t h e c o u n t r y i n q u e s t i o n . and s e c u r i t i e s between t h e United Embargoes on v i r t u a l l y a l l t r a d e and many o t h e r economic t r a n s a c t i o n s h a v e been i n f o r c e , p r i m a r i l y u n d e r t h i s law, a g a i n s t N i c a r a g u a s i n c e May A c o m p r e h e n s i v e embargo i n 7 , 1985, and L i b y a s i n c e J a n . 7, 1986. v i r t u a l l y a l l economic t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h I r a n , i n c l u d i n g b l o c k i n g o f I r a n i a n p r o p e r t y , was p u t i n t o f o r c e i n s t a g e s between November 1979 a n d A p r i l 1980, b u t l i f t e d on J a n . 1 9 , 1981. S p e c i f i c a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e Libyan t r a d e embargo i s c o n t a i n e d i n s e c . 503 o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e and S e c u r i t y Act of 1985, w h i l e s e c . 505 o f t h e same Act a u t h o r i z e s t h e b a n n i n g of i m p o r t s o f goods and s e r v i c e s f r o m any country supporting terrorism. Two o t h e r m a j o r laws t h a t c a n b e u s e d a g a i n s t c o u n t r i e s s p o n s o r i n g t e r r o r i s m a r e t h e E x p o r t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Act and t h e A r m s C o n t r o l E x p o r t Act. The E x p o r t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Act p r o v i d e s b a s i c a u t h o r i t y t o t h e P r e s i d e n t t o p r o h i b i t e x p o r t s of a n y o r a l l c o m n o d i t i e s , i f t h e d e n i a l o f t h e i r e x p o r t would f u r t h e r U.S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y . It also authorizes the P r e s i d e n t t o p r o h i b i t o r c u r t a i l t h e e x p o r t of c r i t i c a l t e c h n o l o g y o r o t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l d a t a i f s u c h a c t i o n would f u r t h e r U.S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y . U.S. s a l e s of technology, p a r t i c u l a r l y very high technology processes, h a v e been c o n s i d e r a b l e , and r e s t r i c t i o n s o r p r o h i b i t i o n s o f s u c h s a l e s a r e known t o h a v e p u t p r e s s u r e on s t a t e s r e l u c t a n t t o c o n t r o l t e r r o r i s m . Under t h i s A c t , e x p o r t s of v a r i o u s s e n s i t i v e a r t i c l e s t o I r a n , L i b y a , S o u t h Yemen, and S y r i a a r e s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d o r p r o h i b i t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s u p p o r t of t e r r o r i s m . The o t h e r m a j o r A c t , t h e A r m s E x p o r t C o n t r o l Act of 1976, a u t h o r i z e s t h e P r e s i d e n t t o r e s t r i c t t h e s a l e o f d e f e n s e a r t i c l e s and r e s t r i c t o r suspend s e r v i c e s t o s t a t e s f o s t e r i n g t e r r o r i s m . O t h e r economic laws a l l o w more s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s a g a i n s t c o u n t r i e s supporting terrorism. The F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e Act o f 1961, which i n s e c . 6 ( i ) p r o h i b i t s t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n from g i v i n g a i d t o c o u n t r i e s t h a t employ t e r r o r i s m , would d e n y development a s s i s t a n c e f u n d s , f o o d a i d , and o f t e n economic o r m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o s u c h c o u n t r i e s . T h e r e i s a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f working t h r o u g h m u l t i n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s u c h a s t h e World Bank o r t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Monetary Fund (IMF). The U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n n o t , on i t s own, v o t e down a n y s p e c i f i c a c t i o n u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e s e b o d i e s , b u t i t c a n i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s i n o t h e r ways a g a i n s t c o u n t r i e s s u p p o r t i n g t e r r o r i s m . Administrative a c t i o n s a l o n e c a n deny t e r r o r i s t - s u p p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s a c c e s s t o t h e e x p o r t c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s of t h e Export-Import Bank and t h e Comnodity C r e d i t Corporation. Viewed a s a w h o l e , t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f economic s a n c t i o n s h i n g e on a number of r e l a t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : F i r s t , economic a c t i o n s d o n o t t a k e p l a c e i n a vacuum; p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , b o t h d o m e s t i c a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . they have Second, a n y program o f economic s a n c t i o n s i s g o i n g t o h a v e t h r e e c o s t s t o t h e w o r l d economic s y s t e m , t o t h e t a r g e t types of costs I n some p a s t c o u n t r y , and t o t h e c o u n t r y t h a t i s a p p l y i n g t h e s a n c t i o n s . i n s t a n c e s , U.S. p r o d u c e r s were s e e m i n g l y h u r t more t h a n t h e t a r g e t c o u n t r y or its citizens. -- T h i r d , i t m a t t e r s whether t h e r e i s a ready s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e i t e m ( s ) b e i n g embargoed. I f t h e goods o r s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e b e i n g w i t h h e l d c a n b e t h e n economic m e a s u r e s s e e k i n g o r new s o u r c e s found r e a d i l y replaced t o i n f l u e n c e b e h a v i o r a r e n o t l i k e l y t o be s u c c e s s f u l . -- -- Fourth, a n y p r o g r a m o f s a n c t i o n s t a k e s c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and Market f o r c e s e x e c u t i o n , w h e t h e r i t i s t o be u n i l a t e r a l o r m u l t i l a t e r a l . w i l l t e n d t o g r e a t l y e n h a n c e t h e r e w a r d s of embargo e v a s i o n . A strong d o m e s t i c c o n s e n s u s i n f a v o r of such a program i s d e s i r a b l e i f t h e r e a r e g o i n g t o b e c o n s i d e r a b l e economic c o s t s . Media S e l f - R e s t r a i n t P u b l i c i t y i s o f t e n o n e o f t h e main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o I t d o e s l i t t l e good f o r a t e r r o r i s t t o c a r r y o u t commit a t e r r o r i s t a c t . a n o p e r a t i o n and n o t h a v e i t n o t i c e d , and o p e r a t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y p l a n n e d a r o u n d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u c h c o v e r a g e . For t h i s r e a s o n , t e r r o r i s t s g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t a c t i o n s with high v i s i b i l i t y , including: aircraft h i j a c k i n g s , t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n o r kidnapping of diplomats, o r o t h e r s y m b o l i c f i g u r e s , bombings, a n d , more r e c e n t l y , a t t a c k s on e m b a s s i e s a n d b u s i n e s s e s a b r o a d . T e r r o r i s t s i n I r a n p a r a d e d t h e i r American h o s t a g e s a n d s t a g e d a drama f o r worldwide media c o v e r a g e t o e m b a r r a s s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d promote t h e i r c a u s e of I s l a m i c f u n d a m e n t a l i s m ; t h e y f i l m e d t h e h o s t a g e s and s o l d t h e t a p e s t o t e l e v i s i o n n e t w o r k s a n x i o u s t o b r o a d c a s t t h e h o s t a g e drama. T e r r o r i s t s a l s o e x p l o i t e d t h e media's handling of t h e c r i s i s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s e i z u r e o f TWA f l i g h t 847 i n J u n e 1985. The r o l e of t h e media i n s u c h c a s e s i s a m a t t e r o f judgment and b a l a n c e between F i r s t Amendment r i g h t s , t h e m e d i a ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c , and t h e a v o i d a n c e o f g i v i n g t h e t e r r o r i s t i m p o r t a n t I t might b e p o s s i b l e f o r t h e p r e s s t o a g r e e o n b e n e f i t s and a d v a n t a g e s . g u i d e l i n e s t h a t would g o v e r n i t s b e h a v i o r w h i l e a c r i s i s i s g o i n g on. The p u b l i c h a s a r i g h t t o know, b u t what i f t h e s a f e t y o f h o s t a g e s i s t h e r e b y t h r e a t e n e d ? Can some i n f o r m a t i o n w a i t t i l l t h e emergency i s e n d e d ? What i f i n f o r m a t i o n o n government c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s ( o r l a c k o f them) i s tactically helpful t o the terrorists? C o n g r e s s i s l i m i t e d i n i t s d i r e c t r o l e i n t h e s e m a t t e r s , b u t some h a v e s u g g e s t e d p a s s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would e n c o u r a g e v o l u n t a r y media constraints. S t a n d a r d s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e Chicago .Sun-Times and D a i l y News f o r t h e c o v e r a g e o f t e r r o r i s m i n c l u d e p a r a p h r a s i n g t e r r o r i s t demands t o a v o i d u n b r i d l e d propaganda; b a n n i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of r e p o r t e r s i n n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t e r r o r i s t s ; coordinating coverage through s u p e r v i s i n g e d i t o r s who a r e i n c o n t a c t w i t h p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s ; p r o v i d i n g t h o u g h t f u l , r e s t r a i n e d , and c r e d i b l e c o v e r a g e of s t o r i e s ; and a l l o w i n g o n l y s e n i o r s u p e r v i s o r y e d i t o r s t o d e t e r m i n e what i f any information should be withheld o r deferred. S i m i l a r g u i d e l i n e s a d o p t e d by t h e media i n g e n e r a l m i g h t b e g i n t o d i s c o u r a g e t e r r o r i s t s s e e k i n g a propaganda p l a t f o r m i n t h e -- -- United States. option. Competitive pressures would clearly work against this Cooperation in Law Enforcement It is generally recognized that international cooperation is critical in such areas as: police enforcement, customs control, intelligence activities, etc., and has presumably been going on for some time on a low key basis. (See IB85162: Foreign Airport Security: Diplomatic Framework and U.S. Policy.) However, countries have different definitions of terrorism and different views on how to combat it. Most make exceptions when crimes are comnitted for political motives. This complicates agreements governing extradition of terrorists from one country to another when necessary to bring them to trail. Some have proposed that Congress consider further relaxing laws that prohibit the use of foreign assistance funds to train and equip foreign police forces. It might be possible to do this when the goal is to combat terrorism and there is no substantial threat to civil rights in the other country. Congress made a move in this direction when it appropriated more than $7 million in FY86 to furnish assistance to certain countries to train law enforcement personnel to deter terrorists from engaging in acts such as bombing, kidnapping, assassinations, hostage-taking, and hijacking. The training may include bomb detection and disposal, the management of hostage situations, physical security, and other matters related to detection, deterrence, and prevention of acts of terrorism. International Conventions The International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages was signed in December 1979 and referred to the Senate for advice and consent. The resolution advising ratification was adopted unanimously on July 30, 1981, and implementing legislation was passed in 1984. The convention imposes binding legal obligations on states either to extradite or submit to their competent authorities for prosecution alleged hostage-takers found within their jurisdiction. A state must comply with this obligation without regard to where the alleged hostage-taking was committed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was ratified in 1980 and also implemented in 1984. This convention requires that those who comnit serious offenses involving nuclear material be punished. It also provides for an increased measure of international cooperation in providing security for nuclear material. o nUnlawful Acts Against The Montreal Convention for the ~ u ~ ~ r e s s iof the Safety of Civil Aviation was ratified by the United States in 1972. Implementing legislation was passed only in 1984. The heads of state of the seven economic surmit partners jointly agreed in July 1978 in the "Bonn ~eclaration" that in cases where a country refuses extradition or prosecution of aircraft hijackers, their governments both would cease all flights to that country and would i n i t i a t e a c t i o n t o h a l t a l l incoming f l i g h t s from t h a t c o u n t r y . A l t h o u g h n o t f u l l y t e s t e d through implementation, t h e accord r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t m u l t i l a t e r a l e f f o r t t o develop enforcement measures f o r u s e a g a i n s t The U n i t e d countries t h a t refuse t o ex'tradite o r prosecute hijackers. S t a t e s m i g h t s e e k t o h a v e t h e Bonn D e c l a r a t i o n f o r m a l i z e d u n d e r t h e U n i t e d Nations, allowing o t h e r nations t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Again a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e economic summit of 1984, t h e l e a d e r s i s s u e d a D e c l a r a t i o n c a l l i n g f o r c l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e r e v i e w o f weapons s a l e s t o c o u n t r i e s s u p p o r t i n g t e r r o r i s m , and t i g h t e r r e g u l a t i o n s a £ f e c t i n g t h e l a s t a r i s i n g from t h e u s e o f s u c h immunity a s a d i p l o m a t i c imnunity c o v e r by t e r r o r i s t s . -- Covert and P a r a m i l i t a r y Operations Some h a v e a d v o c a t e d a more a g g r e s s i v e program of ' c o v e r t p e n e t r a t i o n o f t e r r o r i s t g r o u p s and t h e u s e o f c o u n t e r f o r c e t a c t i c s s u c h a s i n t i m i d a t i o n and a s s a s s i n a t i o n . T h e r e would b e o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e s e k i n d s o f o p e r a t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d l i k e l y e x c e e d t h e l i m i t s p l a c e d on t h e a u t h o r i t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency and o t h e r U.S. i n t e l l i g e n c e agencies. The r o l e , i f a n y , of t h e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s i n p a r a m i l i t a r y programs would remain t o be d e c i d e d and d e s i g n e d . Covert o p e r a t i o n s a r e a l s o dangerous i n t h a t t h e y c o u l d g e t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n v o l v e d more d e e p l y t h a n i n t e n d e d and r i s k a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r government, e v e n a f r i e n d l y one. I t c o u l d a l s o renew c r i t i c i s m o f U.S. i n t e l l i g e n c e a g e n c i e s , j u s t when r e s e n t m e n t o v e r p a s t covert operations i s receding. The U s e of U i l i t a r y F o r c e Arguments f o r t h e u s e of m i l i t a r y f o r c e u s u a l l y e m p h a s i z e t h e m i l i t a r y ' s u n i q u e s k i l l s and s p e c i a l i z e d equipment. If negotiations f a i l and t h e l i v e s o f h o s t a g e s o r o t h e r b y s t a n d e r s would be f u r t h e r e n d a n g e r e d by w a i t i n g , some w i l l a r g u e t h a t a q u i c k s t r i k e by a t r a i n e d m i l i t a r y f o r c e i s a l o g i c a l c o u r s e of a c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e l o c a l government i s i n league with, o r perhaps a f r a i d o f , t h e t e r r o r i s t s . I t might a l s o be t h a t t h e t e r r o r i s t position is too strong f o r local authorities. I n any o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , e x p e r t s b e l i e v e t h a t once t h e d e c i s i o n i s made t o u s e m i l i t a r y f o r c e , i t i s b e s t t o do s o d e c i s i v e l y and w i t h enough power t o r e d u c e t h e c h a n c e of f a i l u r e t o t h e minimum. The number and t y p e o f m i l i t a r y u n i t s u t i l i z e d w i l l depend on t h e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n . However, u s i n g m i l i t a r y f o r c e a g a i n s t t e r r o r i s t s and c o u n t r i e s t h a t s u p p o r t them h a s l i m i t a t i o n s a s w e l l a s h a z a r d s . The most s e r i o u s c o n c e r n i s t h a t r e t a l i a t i o n n o t e s c a l a t e i n t o w i d e r f i g h t i n g and t h a t t h e a c t i o n b e r e a s o n a b l e and p r o p o r t i o n a l . S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Weinberger i n s i s t e d i n a s p e e c h made i n November 1984 t h a t t h e m i l i t a r y s h o u l d n o t be used i n l i e u o f d i p l o m a c y and t h a t , when i t i s u s e d , t h e r e must be a s s u r a n c e o f s u p p o r t from C o n g r e s s and t h e American people. The failure of the Iran rescue mission in April 1980 and the tragic bombing of the Marine headquarters in Beirut in October 1983 raised questions about the adequacy of the training and equipment of military units for use in situations against terrorists when violence must often be limited. Concerns about the terrorist threat prompted an extensive buildup of the military's counter-terrorist organization. A special unit known as "Delta Force" at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, has been organized to perform antiterrorist operations when needed. Details about the unit are secret, but estimates are that it has about 800 assigned personnel. These include Army Special Operations Forces (SOF), a special helicopter unit from the lOlst Air Assault Division, Navy Seals, and Marine reconnaissance teams. Delta Force is supported by Air Force special operations units from the 23rd Air Force at Eglin AFB in Florida. Any decision to use military force 'raises several issues directly involving Congress or for congressional consideration: ( 1 ) Is the President obligated to consult with or obtain authorization from Congress under the War Powers Act before authorizing a counterterrorist operation abroad? While not required by law, how urgent is it that the President consult with allied countries prior to taking military action? Should that consultation be limited to the European Comnunity or should it include other nations such as Japan? ( 2 ) Does the President have the legal authority to use troops against terrorists inside the United States? If not, should Congress consider revising laws associated with such use under title 10 of the U.S. Code or the Posse Comitatus Act (18 U.S.C. 1385)? ( 3 ) What guidelines should the President use in deciding whether the use of armed force is necessary in a particular situation? When hostages are being held, how are the risks of using force to be weighed against the risks of waiting? Or is it more important to take action and avoid setting precedents that might encourage future kidnappings? Under what circumstances should the United States try to rescue hostages against the wishes of the government of the country in which they are being held? Should there be defensive action against the terrorists or the sponsoring country? LEG1 SLATION P.L. 99-399, H.R. 4151 Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Anti-Terrorism Act. Establishes a Bureau of Diplomatic Security in the State Department, to be headed by an Assistant Secretary of State. Establishes a Diplomatic Security Service to perform security functions, including investigatory, warrant, and arrest powers. Authorizes funds for a 5-year program to upgrade or rebuild U.S. facilities abroad for security reasons and compensation for Government employees and members of their families who are victims of terrorism. Calls for strict safeguards, including metal detectors and cargo and baggage screening leaving U.S. ports, and for international c o o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e maintenance o f e f f e c t i v e port s e c u r i t y . Introduced Feb. 6 , 1986; r e f e r r e d t o Committee on Foreign A f f a i r s . Passed House, Passed Senate, amended ( i n s e r t e d t e x t of H . R . 44181, Mar. 1 8 , 1986. amended, June 2 5 , 1986. Signed i n t o law (P.L. 99-399) Aug. 2 7 , 1986.