Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy

Following a review of such broad policy issues, this report treats specific human rights issues of current interest. Discussions of controversy over the selection of an Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and of human rights policy at the international financial institutions are followed by reviews of U.S. human rights policy toward Argentina, El Salvador, Nicaragua, South Africa, and the Soviet Union.

ZiJXAN RIGHTS AND U.S. FOREIGN P O L I C Y ISSUE E R I E F - N U N B E R IB81125 AUTHOR: B i t e , Vita F o r e i g n Affairs a n d Kational Affairs D i v i s i o n THE LIBRARY OF COKGRESS CONGRESSIOKAL R E S E A R C E S E R V I C E MAJOR ISSUES SYSTEM D A T Z ORIGINATED 08/19/81 CATS U?CATEC 11/24/82 FOR ADCITIONAL INFORMATION ChiL 2 8 7 - 5 7 0 0 1124 CRS- 1 ISSUE D E F I N I T I O N A c e n t r a l i s s u e i n U.S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y i s how m u c h a t t e z t i o n we s h o u l d p a y i n our d e a l i n g s with foreign governments t o their treatment of their own citizens. This i s s u e has provoked controversy during t h e p a s t decade d e s p i t e a wide range of incremental l e g i s l a t i v e and p o l i c y initiatives by Congress A t one extreme a r e those who feel that the U.S. and t h e Executive. Government s h o u l d d e f i n e t h e human rights conditions of individuals in t h a t foreign countries a s being essentialiy within the internal affairs of country and t h e r e f o r e o u t s i a e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of U.S. foreign A t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e a r e t h o s e who f a v o r strict sanctions against policy. g o v e r n m e n t s t h a t v i o l a t e t h e b a s i c human r i g h t s o f t h e i r c i t i z e n s . For t h o s e wno tajre intermediary positions, several questions shape current controversies: -- S h o u l d human r i g h t s p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s f o c u s o n U.S. adversaries? S u p p o r t e r s of t h i s approach a r g u e t h a t violations i n "totalitarian" Comnunist regimes are e s p e c i a l l y p e r v a s i v e and s e v e r e because t h o s e regimes attempt t o c o n t r o l a wide range of t h e i r c i t i z e n s ' l i v e s . -- S h o u l d U.S. human r i g h t s i n i t i a t i v e s b e f o c u s e d o n U.S. f r i e n d s ? T h o s e who s u p p o r t t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a r g u e t h a t we a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r v i o l a t i o n s of o u r f r i e n d s and have more e f f e c t i v e l e v e r a g e w i t h them. -- I n w h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s d o e s U.S. i n t e r e s t i n t h e humane t r e a t m e n t o f f o r e i g n c i t i z e n s b y t h e i r g o v e r . n m e n t s t a k e p r i o r i t y o v e r o t h e r U.S. f o r e i g n policy interests? -- Is a " q u i e t diplomacy" human r i g h t s p o l i c y l i k e l y t o be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n p u b l i c a c t i o n s i n r e d u c i n g v i o l a t i o n s , o r i s i t simply a subterfuge f o r a "do nothing" approach? Following a review of such broad policy i s s u e s , t h i s b r i e f t r e a t s s p e c i f i c human r i g h t s i s s u e s o f c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t . Discussions of controversy over t h e Secretary of State for Human Rights and selection of an Assistant Humanitarian Affairs and of human rights policy a t che international f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e f o l l o w e d b y r e v i e w s o f U.S. human rights policy toward Argentina, E l Salvador, Nicaragua, South A f r i c a , and t h e S o v i e t Union. BACKGROUNG AND G E N E R A L POLICY POLICY ANALYSIS ISSUES I n t e r n a t i o n a l human r i g h t s h a s b e e n a pervasive theme in congressional debate and action i n recent years. Congress has used hearings t o draw attention to the violation of human rights in other c o u n t r i e s and has that human rights are i n s t i t u t e d l e g i s l a t i v e mechanisms airnee a t a s s u r i n g CRS- 2 IB81125 UPDATE-11/24/62 decisions. Legislation established an C o n s i d e r e d i n U.S. f o r e i g n p o l i c y A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y f o r Human R i q h t s a n d H u n a n i t a r i a n A f f a i r s , a p p o i n t e d w i t h t h e a d v i c e a n d c o n s e n t o f t h e S e n a t e , a n d a s e p a r a t e B u r e a u f o r Human Rights within t h e Department of State. C o n g r e s s h a s w r i t t e n human r i g h t s p r o v i s i o n s into bilateral and multilateral economic and s e c u r i t y a s s i s t a n c e laws, i n c l u d i n g r e q u i r e x e n t s f o r a n n a a l r e p o r t s on t h e s t a t u s of human rights i n a l l o t h e r member s t a t e s o f t h e United Nations. Congress has limited or p r o h i b i t e d a s s i s t a n c e t o a n u m b e r o f c o u n t r i e s o n human r i g h t s g r o u n d s . (See e n a c t e d human a r c h i v e d i s s u e ~ r i e fI B 7 7 0 5 6 f o r b a c k g r o u n d a n d a s y n o p s i s o f chart and text of human rights laws r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n through 1980; a c u r r e n t l y i n f o r c e c a n b e f o u n d i n CRS r e p o r t , "U.S. Legislation Relating Human R i g h t s t o U.S. F o r e i g n P o l i c y , C u r r e n t l y i n F o r c e " . ) Congress and t h e executive Branch have f r e q n e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d each other's hnnan r i g h t s actions. Fcllowing the wave of congressional and public Carter unques~ionably gave interest in the early 1 9 7 0 ~ P~ r e s i d e n t Jimmy greater attention to human rights i n foreign poiicy than did his Carter's actions also raised doubts about the wisdom of predecessors. v i g o r o u s l y p r o m o t i n g human r i g h t s a n d w e r e criticized for inconsistent or Carter o f f i c i a l s about harmful policy application. The outspokeness of v i o l a t i o n s o f human r i g h t s i n p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r i e s h a s b e e n v i e w e d by c r i t i c s of s u c h a c t i o n s a s t h r e a t e n i n g U.S. n a t i o n a l security, economic, political and o t h c r i n t e r e s t s . W h i l e t h e p r o m o t i o n o f human r i g h t s i s a c c e p t e d b y many a s a s e r i o u s m o r a l c o n c e r n , Members o f C o n g r e s s e i s a g r e e a s LC w h e t h e r i t i s ieasiSie t o give suEstantiai weight t o these concerns i n U.S. foreign pclicy. :c t h e V i e w o f m a n y c r i t i c s o f t h e C a r t e r a p p r o a c h , U . S . interests were not -c P...-r v e c i b y i n t e r v e n i n g i n t h e d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s o f f r i e n d s a n d a i l i e s . P r e s i d e n t R o n a l d R e a g a n ' s A d m i f i i s t r a t i o n h a s made c l e a r t h a t human rights w i l l r e c e i v e much l o w e r p r i o r i t y i n f o r e i g n p c l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a n under t h e Carter A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and human rights policy w i l l be implementee a through q u i e t diplomacy r a t h e r than through p u b l i c o f f i c i a l actions. In s ~ e e c ht o the Trilateral Commission in Washington on March 31, 1961, S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Halg s t r e s s e d t h e need t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t o t a l i t a r i a n and a u t h o r i t a r i a n regimes i n U.S. human rights policy. He outlined the imperatives o f R e a g a n h u m a n r i g h t s p o l i c y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : T n e f i r s t i m p e r a t i v e i s t o s t r e n g t h e n th.e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t s a l l i e s a n d f r i e n d s , t h e main s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e s p r e a d of t o t a l i t a r i a n aggression. S e C O n 2 , we m u s t i m p r o v e o u r dedicated t o jcstice. OWE example as a s o c i e t y T h i r d , we s h o u l d a d o p t a s e n s e o f p r o p o r t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h v i o l a t o r s -- t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n versus t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n regime. Fourth, and f i n a l l y , it is imperative t h a t we examine t h e c r e d e n t i a l s and program of t h e o p p o s i t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e g o v e r n m e n t -- we m u s t s e e c l e a r l y w h a t c h a n g e p o r t e n d s f o r human rights i n the future.... C r i t i c s of t h i s approach view i t as a cover t o s o l i d i f y ties t o r e p r e s s i v e are U.S. protests over Soviet right-wing governments. How, they ask, the Administration is silent v i o l a t i o n s o f h.umar. r i g h z s t o Se c r e d i b l e i f CRS- 3 IB81125 UPDATE-11/24/82 about violations of rights i n Argentina or the Philippines, for Will outspokeness a b o u t only ~ o h m u n i s tviolations not be seen as rhetoric rather t h a n concern about human rights? instance? cold war Perhaps in response tc such criticisrr, the Reagan Administration began tz downplay tke authoritarian-totalitarian dichotomy, stressing instead its commitment to human rights and the even-handedness of its policy. ~ h u s , in testimoney before the House Foreign Affairs Committee on July 1 4 , 1 9 8 1 , Under Secretary of S t a t e for Political Affairs, Walter Stoessei, Jr. said: Under this Administration, the protection and enhancement of haman rights i s a principal goal of our foreign policy. I n d e e d , it shapes the fundamental purposes and helps define the cGntext of our international relationships .... W e believe that human rights practices a r s a n important factor in our relationship with other c o u n t r i e s , and we Americans believe that when things are wrong, they should be set right -- that is our duty to help. Our law and our policy reflect these deep feelings and draws strength and inspiration from them. As the spokesman for the American people, this Administration opposes the violation ~f human rights whether by ally or a d v e r s a r y , friend or foe: Ours is not a policy of >'selective indignation." Rather it i s o n e of balanced anC even-handed condemnation of human rights violations wherever they occur. Uith the nomination of Elliott Abrams a s Assistant Secretary of Scate for Hunan Rights and Hunanitarians Affairs, the Reagan Administration appears te 3 e ~ o d i f y i n gits public statements o n human rights pclicy. In announcing that "the ASrams nomination o n Oct. 3 0 , 1 9 8 1 , P r e s i d e n t Reagan acknowledged promotion of liberty has always been a central element of our .Nation's foreign policy. In my administration, human rights consid2rations a r e important in a l l aspects of our foreign policy." Excerpts from a n internal State Department memorandum published in the New York Times on Nov. 5 , 1 9 6 1 (and whose contents were described by Elliott Abrams on Nov. 1 7 , 1981, before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee a s congressional "authenticated b y the White House") indicate that public and dissatisfaction with past Reagan human rights policy may have induced the Admistration to enunciate a stronger human rights stand. Congressional belief that we have no consistent human rights policy threatens to disrupt important foreign policy initiatives. Human rights has been one of the main a v e n u e s for domestic attack o n the Administration's foreign policy. T h e memorandum describes human rights a s "not something we tack on foreign policy but is its very purpose." It continues by describing difficulty and a l s o the necessity for pursuing a n even-handed policy: our the CRS- 4 IE81125 UPDATE-11/24/82 A human r i g h t s p o l i c y m e a n s t r o u b l e , f o r i t m e a n s h a r d c h o i c e s w h i c h may a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t c e r t a i n bilateral r e l a t i o n s . A t t h e v e r y l e a s t , we w i l l h a v e t o s p e a k h o n e s t l y a b o u t o u r f r i e n d s ' human r i g h t s violations azd j u s t i f y any decisions wherein o t h e r considerations economic, m i l i t a r y etc., are d e t e r m i n a t i v e . There is no escaping t h i s without destroying the c r e d i b i l i t y of our policy, f o r o t h e r w i s e w e would simply c o d d l i n g f r i e n d s and c r i t i c i z i n g foes. Despit-e t h e c o s t s o f such a human r i g h t s ? o l i c y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l . A t c h e same t i m e , t h e m e m o r a n d u m i n 5 i c a t e d a n a r r o w i n g i n the scope of employed by the Reagan Administration. The human r i g h t s as i t i s t o be memorandum d o e s n o t s p e a k o f " i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d human rights," but "meaning political rights and civil rather d e f i n e - s human r i g h t s as liberties." E l l i o t t Abrams d u r i n g h i s n o m i n a t i o n hearings repeatedly used "liberties" rather than human rights. He expressed serious the term Civil r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t economic " r i g h t s " which h e viewed as a s p i r a t i o n s . the state a n d p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s w e r e , however, d e s c r i b e d as f r e e d o m s f r o m which were immediately realizable i n a l l states. Views of U.S. decision-makers on human rights policy cover a wide spectrnm, ranging from advocacy of complete non-intervention i n t h e internal a f f & i r s o f o t h e r countries t o t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e o f S e l i e f in the strictest Sanctions against governments that v i o l a t e the r i g h t s of their citizens. Thcse a d v o c a t i n g i h e latter p o s i t i o n b e l i e v e t h a t betterment of the human governments a n d a basis f o r U.S. condition i s a fundame,ntal concern of use of all possible means t o international activity. They s u p p o r t t h e i m p l e m e n t human r i g h t s p o l i c y i n c l u d i n g w i t h h o l d i n g o f C i p l o m a t i c r s l a t i o n s , trade, and all forms of international economic and m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e , cooperation with t h e offen'ding government. seem, however, t o l i e between these two extremes -Most views acknowledging the im,portance of human rights considerations, but also important U.S. security and acknowledging t h a t there are sometimes more economic i n t e r e s t s . The problem w i t h t h i s middle-ground approach is that there is s e r i o u s disagreement o v e r t h e specific implementation of such. a policy. Some f e e l t h a t U . S . h u m a n rights advocacy f r o m 1977-80 was too t o t h e United States often selective; t h a t r i g h t i s t governments f r i e n d l y r e c e i v e d a a i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e s h a r e o f c r i t i c i s m , w h i l e human r i g h t s v i o l a t i o n s i n Communist c o u n t r i e s w e r e h a r d l y m e n t i o n e d . I n t h i s v i e w U . S . human r i g h t s minor abridgements of certain p o l i c y has b e e n p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h r e l a t i v e l y rights i n authoritarian states while overlooking massive violations in COmmLini~t s t a t e s . concern f o r human rights in particular O t h e r s a r e t r o u b l e d t h a t U.S. c o u n t r i e s r e c e n t l y a p p e a r s most v o c i f e r o u s toward "adversaryw c o u n t r i e s with w h i c h U.S. r e l a t i o n s a r e t e n u o u s a n d o v e r w h o s e i n t e r n a l p o l i c i e s t h e U n i t e d Thus, i n this V i e w , it is S t a t e s has v i r t u a l l y n o i n f l u e n c e o r l e v e r a g e . e a s y t o e x p r e s s c o n c e r n f o r t h e human r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i s s i d e n t s a n d of J e w i s h a n d o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s i n s u c h a t r a d i t i o n a l "enemyw s t a t e as t h e S o v i e t situtions U n i o n , w h i l e l i t t l e p u b l i c c o n c e r n i s e x p r e s s e d a b o u t human r i g h t s i n friendly c l i e n t o r allied states. T h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t as w e l l o n how much leeway t h e executive branch the human rights policy legislated by s h o u l d be a l l o w e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g Congress should give the Executive no Congress. S o m e Members f e e l t h a t CRS- 5 IB81125 UPDATE-11/24/82 o p t i o n i n i n p l e m e n t i n g i t s i n t e n t i o n s by r e q u i r i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , a m a n d a t o r y I1 I1 v o t e in t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s on l o a n s to c o u n t r i e s that a r e deemed s e r i o u s human rights violators. Others feel that the e x e c u t i v e branch should be given c o n s i d e r a b l e discretion in i m p l e m e n t i n g human r i g h t s policy. T h e c o n g r e s s i o n a l coalition that enacted strong and encompassing human r i g h t s p r o v i s i o n s was a very disparate g r o u p made up of Members with c o n f l i c t i n g p e r c e p t i o n s and goals. S o m e w e r e interested in cutting back on w h a t they s a w a s e x c e s s i v e and unproductive f o r e i g n aid programs. O t h e r s w e r e concerned p r i m a r i l y a b o u t the condition o f human rights in left-wing or c o m m u n i s t countries. Still o t h e r s wanted to end U.S. association with and aid f o r r i g h t - w i n g repressive regimes. T h e s e various and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y g o a l s may exert i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v i s i v e pressures a s to w h e n and how human r i g h t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ought to b e brought into U.S. foreign policy f o r m u l a t i o n a n d practice. A brief r e v i e w of s p e c i f i c human r i g h t s issues of current interest follows: the a p p o i n t e e to t h e position of Assistant S e c r e t a r y of State for Human R i g h c s and Humanitarian A f f a i r s ; human rights initiatives in the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ; and U - S . policy toward Argentina, El S a l v a d o r , N i c a r a g u a , South A f r i c a , and the S o v i e t Union. F o s i t i o n of A s s i s t a n t Secretary o f S t a t e f o r Euman F-ff a i r s Rights and - Bumanitarian I n 1 9 7 7 C o n g r e s s established, t h e p o s i ~ i . 0of ~ k s s i s t a n t Sezretary cf State for Human R i g h z s a n d Humacitarian A f f a i r s , to be appointed with the a d v i c e the p o s i t i o n and c o n s e n t of t h e S e n a t e (P.L. 95-105). T h i s action Lpgraded of C o o r d i n a t o r f o r Human R i g h t s and Humanitarian A f f a i r s which Congress Section 624(f) of the F o r e i g n Assistance Act of 1961, as created i n 1376. a n e n d e d , r e q u i r e s the Assistant Secretary of S ~ a t e for Human R i g h t s and Hunanitarian A f f a i r s to "maintain continuous observation and review of all m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to human r i g h t s and humanitarian affairs" and to be r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e Secretary o f S t a t e for s u c h matters in :he conduct of f o r e i g n policy. Consistent with the upgrading i n rank of t h e human rights c o o r d i n a t o r , :he S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t established a Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs. The first and to d a t e the only confirmed -- h e a d of t h i s B u r e a u and, f i r s t o c c u p a n t cf the Assistant S e c r e t a r y positlon was P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s a p p o i n t e e , P a t r i c i a Derian. -- P r e s i d e n t R e a g a n ' s first n o m i n e e for that p o s i t i o n , E r n e s t W. ief ever, a r a u s e d S i t t e r controversy. i e f e v e r hae been an outspoken critic of both t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e bureau that he had Seen designated to head a s well a s of t h e human r i g h t s l a w s which he was to implement. H e had been a n o u t s p o k e n c r i t i c of human r i g h t s violations i n "totalitarian" (Communist o r left-wing) s t a t e s , but q u i t e r e s t r a i n e d concerning a b u s e s in a u t h o r i t a r i a n (right-wing) states. C r i t i c s o f h i s n o m i n a t i o n f e a r e d that Lefever would have little credibility a s a h u m a n r i g h t s a d v o c a t e w h o would pursue a balanced human rights policy. in a d d i t i o n , s e r i o u s controversy a r c s e during Lefever's n o m i n a t i o n b e c a u s e o f his p u b l i c policy c e n t e r ' s f i n a n c i a l relationships with U.S. infant formula manufacturers. Q u e s t i o n s were raised a s t o whether his a t t e m p t to i n f l u e n c e U.S. o p i n i o n and policy on marketing infant f o r m u l a in T h i r d World countries was a c o n f l i c t of interest. T h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n Relations Corr,mittee held a n almost a n a s s i s t a n t s e c r e t a r y level appointment) two f u l l days unprecedented (for of stormy, public CRS- 6 IB81125 UPDATE-11/24/82 h e a r i n g s o n May 1 8 a n d 1 9 , 1 9 8 1 , o n L e f e v e r ' s a p p o i n t m e n t a n d c o n t i n u e d a c l o s e d h e a r i n g on June 4, 1981. On J u n e 5 , 1 9 8 1 , t h e C o m m i t t e e v o t e d a g a i n s t c o n f i r m a t i o n anC l a t e r that day Lefever withdrew his name consideration. with 13-4 from Amid u n e q u i v o c a l a f f i r m a t i o n s o f h u m a n r i g h t s a s a c e n t r a l e l e m e n t o f U . S . Elliott Abrams f o r e i g n p o l i c y , on Oct. 30, 1981, P r e s i d e n t Reagan nominated t o b e A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r Human R i g h t s a n d H u m a n i t a r i a n A f f a i r s . D u r i n g h i s c o n f i r m a t i o n h e a r i n g s o n Nov. 1 7 , 1 9 8 1 , b e f o r e t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Committee h e s t a t e d two r u l e s f o r h i s conduct in that position: (1) t o t e l l t k e t r u t h a n d ( 2 ) t o b e e f f e c t i v e . The h e a r i n g s w e r e amiable a n d h i s n o m i n a t i o n was a p p r o v e d b y t h e C o m m i t t e e b y a 9 t o 0 v o t e . International Financial Institutions W h e t h e r human r i g h t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s h o u l d p l a y a r o l e i n the operations (IBRD) , o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ( I F I s ) -- t h e . W o r l d B a n k International Finance Corporations (IFC), International D e v e l o p m e n t Bank Fund (ADF) ( I D B ) , A s i a n D e v e l o p m e n t Bank ( A D B ) , a n d t h e A f r i c a n D e v e l o p m e n t -- h a s b e e n a c o n t r o v e r s i a l p r o b l e m f o r C o n g r e s s a n d t h e E x e c u t i v e f o r A t p r e s e n t no IF1 makes human rights observance a formal several years. criterion for assistance eligibility. Some C o n g r e s s m e n have advocated a z c a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o U.S. c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o v a r i o u s f i n a n c i a l institutions t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c o n c e r n s o f U.S. h u m a n r i g h t s p o l i c y . C u r r e n t U . S . law ( P . L . 9 5 - 1 1 8 , a s a m e n d e d b y P . L . 96-259) requires U.S. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o c o n s i d e r human r i g h t s c o n d i t i o n s i n v o t i n g f o r o r a g a i n s t .a m u l t i l s ' t e r a l loan. I t also requires the United S t a c e s t o u s e " i t s v o i c e a n d v o t e " t o a d v a n c e r e s p e c t f o r human r i g h t s i n t h e engaging in a consistent I F I s and t o "oppose" a l l a s s i s t a n c e t o c o u n t r i e s p a z t e r n c f g r o s s v i o l a t i o n s o f human r i g h t s u n l e s s s u c h assistance directly s e r v e d t h e human n e e d s o f t h e c i t i z e n s o f s u c h c o u n t r i e s . The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Treasury i s a l s o t o r e p o r t q u a r t e r l y t o t h e chairman and ranking minority Affairs Committee a n d the member of t h e ' H o u s e B a n k i n g , F i n a n c e , a n d U r b a n Senate Foreign R e l a t i o n s Committee, l i s t i n g each i n s t a n c e when t h e U.S. a loan for human rights executive d i r e c t o r of t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s opposes t h e reasons f o r such opposition; policy reasons. The r e p o r t i s t o i n c l u d e : considerations taken i n t o account i n reaching t h e decision t o oppose such a l o a n ; a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e human r i g h t s c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e c o u n t r y i n v o l v e d ; a r e c o r d o f how t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s v o t e d o n a l l other loans to such country t3e decision to d u r i n g t h e p r e c e e i n g t w o y e a r s ; a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o how human rights in such o p p o s e s u c h a l o a n r e l a t e s t o o v e r a l l U.S. p o l i c y on frequently with the country. T h e Secretary o f t h e T r e a s u r y i s t o c o n s u l t designates C o n g r e s s m e n t o i n f o r m t h e m r e g a r d i n g a n y prospective changes i n p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n toward c o u n t r i e s which have o r r e c e n t l y have had poor human rights records. On J u l y 1 , 1 9 8 1 , t h e R e a g a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n n o t i f i e d C o n g r e s s o f i t s i n t e n t t o c h a n g e U.S. v o t i n g p o l i c y on m u l t i l a t e r a l development bank loans t o A r g e n t i n a , C h i l e , Paraguay, and Uruguay. The C a r t e r administration because o f human r i g h t s c o n c e r n s h a d b e e n abstaining or voting against non-basic human n e e d s l o a n s t o these countries. The Reagan Administration notice explained t h a t e x i s t i n g human rights legislation did not r e q u i r e U.S. it i n t e n d e d -to therefore, opposition t o IF1 loans t o these countries and, i n s t r u c t U.S. representatives t o support loans t o those countries. Some M e m b e r s o f C o n g r e s s h a v e b e e n a l a r m e d S y t h i s a c t i o n , v i e w i n g i t not o n l y a s a v i o l a t i o n of t h e s p i r i t i f n o t t h e l e t t e r of t h e IF1 legislation, but certainly a s a total disregard of the legislative requirement for f r e q u e n t and t i m e l y c o n g r e s s i o n a l C o n s u l t a t i o n b e f o r e implementing changes i n p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n t o w a r d c o u n t r i e s w i t h r e c e n t l y p o o r human r i g h t s r e c o r d s . Argentina Concerned about s e r i o u s human rights violations, especially the " d i s a p p e a r a n c e s " o f t h o u s a n d s of p e o p l e i n A r g e n t i n a a f t e r the 1976 coup, C o n g r e s s i n 1 9 7 7 a d d e d s e c t i o n 620B t o t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e A c t o f 1 9 6 1 , a s amended. This p r o v i s i o n p r o h i b i t e d s e c u r i t y a s s i s t a n c e and arms sales to Argentina a f t e r 1978. More r e c e n t l y , o b s e r v e r s h a v e n o t e d i m p r o v e n e n t i n t h e In e a r l y 1980, t h e m i l i t a r y junta, under A r g e n t i n e human r i g h t s situation. p r e s s c r e from c i v i l i a n s , announced g u i d e l i n e s f o r a graCual r e t u r n t c e l e c t e d government i n t h e mid-1980s. R e p o r t s of disappearances have dropped from 44 during 1979 and 28 d u r i n g 1980* No thousands during 1976-7E tc d i s a p p e a r a n c e s have been r e p o r t e d irk 1981. The number of prisoners held u n d e r t h e s t a t e of s i e g e has dropped f r o m many thousands to some 900 p r i s o n e r s acknowledged by t h e government t o b e u n d e r d e t e n t i o n . W h i l e n e a r l y a 1 1 human r i g h t s o b s e r v e r s a c k n o w l e d g e t h e s e i m p r o v e m e n t s in A r g e n t i n a s i n c e t h e e n d of 1 9 7 9 , t h e y a i s o argue that serions violations continue t o exist. A c t i a n s c o n t i n u e t o b e t a k e c a g a i n s z d i s s e n t anC p e a c e f c l assernS1y. The s t a t e of s i e g e i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t , as i s the machinery of police, and r e p r e s s i o n -- t h e e x t e n s i v e p o w e r s c f t h e e x e c c t i v e , t h e s e c r e t the controlled judiciary. Trade unions are under government contrci and s c r i k e s a r e not allowed. Despite domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l pre'ssure (such an a s t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Hurnari R i q h t s Coinmission for a c c o u n t i n g of t h e d i s a p p e a r e d ) , t h e A r g e n t i n e gcvernment continue< t o deny any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . G e n e r a l V i o l a , who S e c a m e p r e s i d e n t o f A r g e n t i n a i n M a r c h , i s v i e w e d a s a moderate f a v o r i n g acconmcdatioc with p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l f o r c e s a g a i n s t the more h a r d l i n e f a c t i o n which f a v o r s more e x t e n s i v e military intervention to c l e a n s e t h e c o u n t r y of i t s p a s t i l l s . He w a s w a r m l y r e c e i v e d by the Reagan A e m i n i s t r a t i o n d u r i n g h i s v i s i t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n March. The Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s k e d C o n g r e s s t o r e p e a l t h e p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t t h i s m i l i t a r y s a l e s and a s s i s t a n c e to Argentina. Congress dia repeal p r o h i b i t i o n ( P . L . 97-113, s e c . 7 2 5 ( a ) ) , however, b e f o r e any sucli sales 3b a s s i s t a n c e may b e p r o v i d e d t h e P r e s i d e n t i s t o s ' ~ S m i t t o C o n g r e s s a detailed has made report. The r e p o r t i s t o c e r t i f y t h a t t h e g o v e r r ~ m e n t of A r g e n t i n a principles s i g n i f i c a n t p r o g r e s s i n complying w i t h i n t e r r i a t i o n a l l y recognized the o f h u n a n r i g h t s a n d t h a t he p r o v i s i o n o f s u c h s a i e s o r a s s i s t a n c e i s i n U.S. n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . The P r e s i d e n t i s t o consider (i) e f f o r t s by the as government of A r g e n t i n a t o p r o v i d e information on citizens identified "Cisappeared" and ( 2 ) e f f o r t s b y t h e Argentine government t o r e l e a s e o r b r i n g Executive t o j u s t i c e t h o s e p r i s o n e r s h e l d a t t h e d i s p o s i t i o n of t h e N a t i c n a l ( S e e 1381098, F o r e i g n A i d ; Budget and P o l i c y i s s u e s f o r FV82.) Power ( P E N ) . E l Salvador I n t h e 1 9 7 0 s E l S a l v a d o r e x p e r i e n c e d i n c r e a s e d demands f o r r e f o r m s a g a i n s t a n e n t r e n c h e d o l i g a r c h y , and a r i s i n g c y c l e of f a c t i o n a l violence t h a t has killed thousands. Since October 1g79 both the Carter and Reagan it A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h a v e s u p p o r t e d t h e S a l v a d o r a n go17ernment in hopes that CRS- 8 would i n s t i t u t e needed p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic changes and control both leftist g u e r i l l a s and right-wing extremists. Many human rights a d v o c a t e s c o n d e m n t h i s p o s i t i o n , a r g u i n g t h a t t h s human r i g h t s r e c s r d o f the regime i s n o t good and t h a t t h e United S t a t e s should a p p l y greater pressure f o r reform. Others praise o r grudgingly support the position as the best They a r g u e that abandoninp t h e available choice i n a d i f f i c u l t situation. r e g i m e would l i k e l y r e s u l t , n o t i n a s u c c e s s o r regime t h a t better respected the left or human r i g h t s , b u t i n a much m o r e r e p r e s s i v e r e g i m e , w h e t h e r o f i s not t h e most important right. O t h e r s a r g u e t h a t human r i g h t s policy f o r e i g n p o l i c y C o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g U.S. p o l i c y toward El Salvador. An o n - g o i n g i s s u e b e f o r e C o n g r e s s i s w h e t h e r U . S . e c o n o m i c a n d / o r m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e s h o u l d be provided t o t h e Salvadoran government, t h e s i z e of such During a i d , and w h a t c o n d i t i o n s , i f a n y , s h o u l d be p l a c e d on i t s p r o v i s i c n . 1 9 8 1 C o n g r e s s e n a c t e d s e c . 727 o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y a n d Development Congress C o o p e r a t i o n Act o f 1 9 8 1 ( P . L . 97-113) which e x p r e s s e d t h e s e n s e of Salvador s h o u l d be used to t h a t economic and m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t c E l t h a t same e n c o u r a g e p r o g r e s s i n b r o a d human rights areas. Sec. 728 of Salvador ' o n l y if the President measure allows m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o E l E l Salvador i s : making concerted and c e r t i f i e s t h a t t h e government of significant e f f o r t t o c o m p l y w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d human r i g h t s ; i s a c a i e v i n g s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e armed forces to Sring an end to i n d i s c r i m i n a t e t o r t u r e and murder; i s c o n t i n u i n g implementation of economic a?d p c l i t i c a i r s f o r m s ; 1 s committed t o f r e e e l e c t i o n s a t a n e a r l y d a t e ; and Las d e m o n s t r a t e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o negotiate with opposition groups for an e q u i t a b l e p o i i t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t . C e r t i f i c a t i o n must be submitted wFtkFn 33 d a y s a f t e r e n a c t m e n t a n d e v e r y 180 d a y s t h e r e a f t e r . On J a n . 28, 1 9 8 2 , and a g a i n on J u l y 2 7 , 1 9 8 2 , P r e s i d e n t 2eagan f o r m a l l y t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f E l S a l v a d o r was m a k i n g p r o g r e s s i n a l l the a r e 2 5 r e q u i r ~ n gc e r t i f i c a t i o n . Some M e m b e r s of Congress felt that the ASmlnistration c e r t i f i c a t i o n did not seriously address congressional concerns aboct t h e s i t u a t i o n i n El Salvador. L e g i s l a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d d e c l a r i n g t h e and vold. [See Pres2der!c1s c e r t i f i c a t i o r . w i t h r e s p e c t t o E l Salvador n u l l U.S. I n t e r e s t s a n d P o l i c y O p t i o n s . ] 1580064, E l Salvador: certified t h a t Nicaragua N i c a r a g u a ' s c i v i l w a r o f 1 9 7 9 d e e p l y a f f e c t e d a l l a s p e c t s o f human r i g h t s . S i n c s s e i z i n g power on J u l y 1 9 , 1 9 7 9 , t h e l a r g e l y S a n d i n i s t a government has Seen faced with enormous tasks of social, political, and economic r e c c n s t r ~ c t i o n . C o n c e r n e d a b o u t human rights ConditiORS there and a b o u t p o i i t i c a l f a l l o u t elsewhere i n L a t i n America, t h e United S t a t e s has closely as a foliowed developments i n Nicaragua. Some f e e l t h a t t h e U n i c e d S t a t e s , longzime supporter of the Somoza d y n a s t y , should seek t o heal past resent.ment.5 by p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e new regime. Such a i d , it is a r g u e d , would s e r v e t o moderate t h e country's future political direction. Others, pointing t o reports of continuing human r i g h t s abuses and the aid could regime's f a i l u r e t o s e t a firm date for free elections, f e e l t h a t be a t r a g i c m i s t a k e . Many a i d o p p o n e n t s r e g a r d Nicaragua's ties t o Fidel a desire to spread revolution throughout Central Castro a s evidence of a i d m i g h t be u s e d in support of that America and a r e concerned t h a t U . S . purpose. (P.L. 96-257) The S p e c i a l C e n t r a l American A s s i s t a n c e Act of 1979 Nicaragua. Under that a u t h o r i z e d $75 m i l l i o n i n emergency a s s i s t a n c e f o r l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e P r e s i d e n t c o u l d t e r m i n a t e s u c h a s s i s t a n c e i f he b e l i e v e d a n y CRS- Q IB81125 UPDATE-11/24/82 (1) h u m a n rights of t h r e e considerations provided cause for doing so: support for acts of v i o l a t i o n s within Nicaragua, (2) i f Nicaraguan a i d o r s t a t i o n i n g of Soviet, violence o r terrorism i n ocher countries, o r (3) the i, 1981 the Cuban o r o t h e r f o r e i g n comSat f o r c e s i n N i c a r a g u a . On April Administration formally suspended a s s i s t a n c e , c i t i n g Nicaragua's a i d to the I t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e hard evidence of Salvadoran guerillas. c o n t i n u i n g N i c a r a g u a n a i d t o t h e g u e r r i l l a s a n d t h a t U.S. a s s i s t a n c e m i g h t b e resuned shortly. which During 1981, Congress e n a c t e d l e g i s l a t i o n f s e c . 724 of P.L. 97-113) take into required t h a t i n furnishing a s s i s t a n c e t o Nicaragua t h e President t h e government of Nicaragua has engaged in a c c o u n t t h e e x t e n t t o which and has encouraged v i o l a t i o n s of interr,ationally recognized human - r i g h t s take into account the respect for those rights. The P r e s i d e n t i s a l s o t o f u l f i l l m e n t o f N i c a r a g u a ' s p l e d g e t o t h e OAS i n J u i y 1 9 7 9 : (1) t o e s t a b l i s h f u l l r e s p e c t f o r h u m a ~ ?r i g h t s ; (2) t o a l l o w f r e e movement i n K i c a r a g u a o f t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n on human r i g h t s ; a n d (3) t o e s t a b l i s h t h e framework f o r f r e e and d e m o c r a t i c e l e c t i o n s giving f u l l and complete opportunity f o r politics; a c t i v i t y o f t h e N i c a r a g u a n p e o ? i e . (See IB81156, Nicaragua: U.S. I n t e r e s t s a n d p o l i c y options.) South Africa A s t a t e d g o a l o f U.S. p o l i c y t o w a r d S o u t h A f r i c a ( u n d e r both the Carter leaders t o move a n e R e a g a n A d ~ ~ i n i s t r a t i o n si) s t o e n c o u r a g e t h a t c o u n t r y ' s tcward ending i t s apartheid system and g r a n t i n g f u i l p o l i t i c a l , economic, and However, South A f r i c a n o p p o s i t i o n a n d Y-S. social r i g h t s t o all its people. economic and stra~egic interests have tempered the emphasis placed on The United States presently complies with the actalnment of t h i s goal. efforts to m a n d a t o r y U N arms e m b a r g o a g a i n s t S o u t h A f r i c a , b u t h a s r e s i s t e d i n s t i t u t e mandatory economic s a n c t i o n s . The C a r t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n encouraged American f i r m s i n South A f r i c a t o comply v o l u n t a r i l y with such "codes" of c o r p o r a t e c o n d u c t a s t h e " S u l l i v a n P r i n c i p l e s . " Some f e e : t h a t t h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e inadequate, and t h a t t h e United States should completely disassoziate i t s e l f i r o n t h e Soach A f r i c a n government, impose f c l l s a n c t i o n s , and withdraw a l l American b u s i n e s s from t h e c o u n t r y . O t h e r s a r g u e t h a t he U n i t e d States h a s a L u m b e r o f v i t a l interests i n S o u t h A f r i c a t h a t w o u l d b e i n j u r e d b y s u c h pclicies. They a r e concerned a b o u t p o s s i b l e S o v i e t e x p a n s i o n in that area of American business might and f e e l , moreover, t h a t a complete withdrawai h a v e a d e t r i m e n t a l i m p a c t on t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e n o n - w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n . T h e Eieagan Administration, while maintaining' t h a t its policy is to society," encourage "evolutionary change i n South A f r i c a toward a non-racial has a l s o emphasized t h e p r i o r i t y of o t h e r s t r a t e g i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and thus f a r h a s p u r s u e d more c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n government t h a n claim existed during the Carcer Presidency. Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n spokesmen t h a t t h e p o l i c y of " c o n s t r u c t i v e engagement" w i t h South A f r i c a i s more l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n domestic political reform i n South Africa. Critics feel, the opposite effect. Black however, c h a t c o n s t r u c t i v e engagement h a s had A f r i c a n n a t i o n s a n d many A m e r i c a n s h a v e v i e w e d w i t h alarm t h e 1 9 8 1 v i s i t o f a U.S. Ambassador tc t h e UN Jeane S o u t h A f r i z a n r ~ i l i t a r yd e l e g a t i o n with K i r k p a t r i c k , t h e 1961 v i s i t t o Washington of the minister, relaxation of certain exports to South c o n s u l a t e s , a n d i n c r e a s e s i n t h e number of military t h a t t h e s e a c t i o n s show a d e c i d e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t i l t white Scuth Africa w i t h i t s apartheid policies. (See Issues for U.S. Policy; I579073, Namibia: I n d e p e n d e n c e / U . S . I n t e r e s t s ; I B 8 0 0 7 2 , Zimbabwe: U.S. A n g o l a a n d t h e C l a r k Amendment.) South African foreign Africa, expansion of attaches. They a r g u e toward alignment with IB80032, South Africa: UN N~gotiations for R e l a t i o n s ; and IB71063, S o v i e t Union Although c f t e n overshadowed i n t h e U.S.-Scviet r e l a t i o n s h i p by national s e c u r i t y c o n c e r n s , human r i g h t s i s s u e s h a v e b e e n constant elements on the b i l a t e r a l agenda i n r e c e n t years. The U.S. h a s b e e n c o n c e r n e d about Soviet t r e a t m e n t o f d i s s i d e n t s , f a i l u r e t o a b i d e by t h e H e l s i n k i F i n a l A c t , . c o e r c i v e and punitive use of psychiatric hospitals, a n d r e s t r i c t i o r ~ s on free emigration. Aware of the 1,imited e f f e c t i v e n e s s of certain Ciplomatic ~ n i t i a t i v e sa n d economic countermeasures and mindful of the overriding i m p o r t a n c e of perserving world peace, both Congress and the Executive n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n t i n u e t o c r i t i c i z e S o v i e t human r i g h t s v i o l a t i o n s a n d t o make p r o t e s t s o c b e h a l f of o p p r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s . 2 g e n e r a l i s s u e i n ~ u r s u i n ghuman r i g h t s p c l i c i e s t o w a r d t h e S o v i e t Union h a s 5een t h e - e f f e c t i v e n e s s and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of p o l i c i e s of linkage. The 33 other states signed the S o v i e t Union a l o n g w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d (CSCE) in F i n a i A c t o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e on S e c u r i t y a n C C o o p e r a t i o n i i ? E u r o p e E e l s i n k i i n 1 9 7 5 p l e d g i n g ' t o r e s p e c t human r i g h t s a n d t o a l l o w f r e e r m o v e m e n t of people and i n f o r m a t i o n a c r o s s international borders. Dnring the CSCE the still on-going meeting in review meeting a t Belgrade i n 1977-78, and Ka8rid of 1980-81, t h e Soviets have stressed the security and economic while the Western p r o v i s i o n s ( B a s k e t s I a n d 11) c f t h e H e l s i n k i F i n a l A c t , I and 111 provisions n 2 t i o n s have emphasized t h e importance of t h e Basket and ' W e s t . c z n c e r n i n g hunan r i g h t s and t h e l o w e r i n g of b a r r i e r s between E a s t T h e U.S. p o s i t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o b e t h a t movement in Baskets I and I1 i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o m o v e m e n t o n B a s k e t 111 i s s u e s . Another l i n k a g e t h a t Congress attempted t o use with the Soviets in i t s human r i g h t s c o n c e r n s was e c o n o m i c l e v e r a g e t o p r e s s the Soviets on their emigration policies. T h e J a c k s o n - V a n i k Amendment t o t h e T r a d e Act of 1974 (MFN) trade status b a r s t h e S o v i e t Union from r e c e i v i n g m o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t i o n Soviet emigration practices. a n d c r e d i t c o n c e s s i o n s b e c a u s e o f restrictive need economic P r o p o n e n t s of s u c h l i n k a g e a r g u e t h a t s i n c e t h e S o v i e t s b a d i y it c o o p e r a t i o n from t h e c a p i t a l i s t West, e s p e c i a l l y from t h e United States, i s n a i v e a n d f o o l i s h n o t t o e x t r a c c human r i g h t s c o n c e s s i o n s . Opponents of important t h i s p o l i c y r e p l y t h a t t h e Soviet U n i o n i s n o m o r e l i k e l y t o a l t e r domestic p o l i t i c a l p o l i c y i n response t o o v e r t economic blackmail than i s t h e encouraged or United S t a t e s . I t i s a m a t t e r of d e b a t e w h e t h e r t h i s m e a s u r e C i s c o u r a g e d S o v i e t l i b e r a l i z a t i o n of e m i g r a t i o n p o l i c i e s . The constriction of 3 . S . - S o v i e t t r a d e f o l l o w i n g t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n and recent d e v e l o p m e n t s i n P o l a n d may h a v e made t h e i s s u e o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of this p a r t i c u l a r l i n k a g e moot a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . T h e human r i g h t s c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p i p e l i n e have been a r e c e n t concern t h e S o v i e t U n i o n i s t o make m a s s i v e of t h e p i p e l i n e h a v e been r a i s e d by i n congressional hearings. 3n S e p t . t h e proposed trans-Siberian natural gas i n Soviet-U.S. relations. Charges that u s e of f o r c e d l a b o r i n the construction E u r o p e a n human r i g h t s organizations and 2 i , 1982, Secretary of Defense Caspar W e l n b e r g e r stated t h a t "the e v i d e n c e h a s b e e n m o u n t i n g t h a t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n may b e u s i n g s l a v e l a b o r f v in b u i l d i n g t h € p i p e l i n e . He described the human r i g h t s i s s u e a s "a c o m p e l l i n g " r e a s o n f o r R e a g a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o p p o s i t i o n to t h e S o v i e c pipeline. Another matter of controversy within the United States is that of the p r o p e r b a l a n c e i n p u r s u i n g U.S. human r i g h t s p o l i c y in communist countries. The Reagan Administration h a s been especially outspoken about the s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a n d o t h e r "totalitarian" states in the o b s e r v a n c e of t h e h u m a n r i g h t s of their c i t i z e n s , w h i l e p l a c i n g l e s s e m p h a s i s on t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of right-wing a u t h o r i t a r i a n states. Secretary Haig an March 3 1 , 1 9 E i , d e c l a r e d t h e f i r s t i m p e r a t i v e f o r a d v a n c i n g h u m a n rights to be " t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e United States, its allies and friends, the main s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e spread of t o t a l i t a r i a n a g g r e s s i o n . " C r i t i c s of this a p p r o a c h v i e w i t a s an unbalanced policy - - o r e v e n a s i m p l e r e t u r n to Cold W a r , a n t i c o m n u n i s t rhetoric a l l o w i n 2 t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n o r d e e p e n t i e s t o right-wing g c v e r n m e n t s i n t h e name of the common struggle against totalitarianism. (See I B 8 0 0 8 0 , U.S.-Soviet Relations After Afghanistan; I B 8 0 0 9 2 , T h e Madrid C o n f e r e n c e on S e c u r i t y a n d Cooperation i n Europe; and Archived I B 7 7 0 3 1 , H u n a n R i g h t s in S o v i e t - A m e r i c a n Relations.) LEGISLATION 2 . - ~ 97-54 . (S.J.Res. 05) P r o c l a i m s R a o u l Wailenberg a n honorary U.S. citizen. Requescs the P r e s i d e n t L O a s c e r t a i n his w h e r e a b o c t s a n d s e c u r e h i s freedom. Introduced Apr. 8 , 1 9 8 1 ; reported to' the S e n a t e (S.Rept. 9 7 - 1 6 9 ) f r o m t h e C o m m i t t e e on Sept. Fo-eigfi R e l a t i o n s J u l y 27. P a s s e d the S ~ n a t ek u g . 3 ; p a s s e d t h e H o u s e L L , i n l i e u of H.J.Res. 220. S i g n e d i n t o l a w Oct. 5 , i981. -- R e q u e s t s t h e P r e s i d e n t to d e s i g n a t e Oct. 2 3 , 1 9 8 1 , a s "Hungarian Freedom F i g h t e r s Day." I n t r o d u c e d May 2 8 , 1 9 8 1 ; r e f e r r e d t o t h e C o m m i t t e e on Post O f f i c e a n d C i v i l Service. P a s s e d t h e H o u s e Oct. 1 4 ; passed t h e Senate Oct. 20. S i g n e d i n t o l a w Oct. 2 6 , 1981. E x p a n d s t h e m e m b e r s h i p of t h e United States S i g n e d into l a w Nov. 2 0 , 1981. frcm 60 tc 0 5 . l-iolocaust Memorial Cooncii P.L. 9 7 - 1 1 3 , S. 1 1 9 6 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Security a n d D e v e l o p m e n t C o o p e r a t i o n A c t c f 1 9 6 1 , c o n t a i n s t h e f o l l o w i n g human r i g h t s p r o v i s i o n s : Sec. 1 1 5 a d d s t o c h a p t e r 1 of t h e A r m s E x p o r t C o n t r o l A c t a n e w sec. 6 which a l l o w s i s s u a n c e of l e t t e r s of offer, extension of credits and g u a r a n t e e s a n d i s s u a n c e of e x p o r t l i c e n s e s t o a f o r e l g n c o u n t r y o n l y if the President certifies to Congress that country's authorities " a r e not engaged in a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of a c t s of intimidation or harassment directed a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l s in the U n i t e d States." Sec. 305 a d d s to sec. i13 of t h e F o r e i g n Assistance Act a n e w subsection c which support t h e original goals of the UN Decade f o r Women. Sec. 3 0 6 a m e n d s sec. 1 1 6 (e) of the F o r e i g n Assistance A c t , a s a m e n d e d , authorizing and encouraging the President t o use not l e s s than $1.5 million of funds available for F Y 8 2 a n d F Y 8 3 for s t u d i e s to identify and carry out programs to encourage increased adherence to civil and poiitical rights. Sec. 7 1 0 expresses t h e congressional- finding t h a t the Nation's understanding of global and national security must be broad enough t o include the global problems of hunger, disease a n d extreme poverty and that adequate protection of U.S. security requires effective a c t i o n on t h e s e global problems. Sec. 7 1 2 expresses the congressional finding that the elimination of hunger and its c a u s e s i s of fundamental moral significance a n d i n the poiitical, e c o n o m i c , and security i n t e r e s t s of the United S t a t e s , declares the elimination of hunger and its c a u s e s a primary objective of U.S. relations with t h e developing countries. Sec. 7 1 3 reaffirms congressional support for various statutory provisions which have been enacted to promote international recognized human rights and expresses the sense of Congress that a strong commitment to the be a central feature of U.S. defense of human 1 - i ~ h t sshsli continue L O foreign policy. Sec. 716 condemns that use of chemical agents and toxin weapons the p e o ~ i eof L a o s , Kampochea, and Afghanistan. against Sec. 7 2 1 stipulates that n o n i l i t a r y assistance or development assistance may b e proviaed or military S a l e s , credits or guarantees approved uriless the President determines among o t h e r criteria that the government of Eaiti i s not engaged in a consistent pattern of g r o s s violations of internationally recognized human rights, a n d within six months o f enactment of this A c t , the President i s to report o n the Haitian government's actions i n these areas. Sec. 724 (a) requires the P r e s i d e n t i n furnishing assistance to Kicaragua under this Act to take i n t o a c c o u n t the e x t e n t to which the government o f Nicaragua has engaged i n vioiations of internationally recognized human rights (including the r i g h t to organize and operate iabor unions f r e e from political c p p r e s s i o n , the riqht to freedom of the p r e s s , and the right to f r e e d o m of religion) and tc eneourage respect f o r those rights; (b) the President i s a l s o t o take i n t o a c c o u n t the fulfillment of Nicaragua's piedge to the O A S i n July 1 9 7 9 ; (1) to establish full respect f o r human in Nicaragua of the Inter-American rights; ( 2 ) t o a l l o w free movement Commission on Human Rights; and ( 3 ) to establish the framework f o r f r e e and democratic elections giving f u l l and c o m p l e t e opportunity for political activity of the Nicaraguan people. Sec. 725 (a) repeals sec. 6 2 0 B of the Foreign Assistance A c t , as a m e n d e d , which prohibited security a s s i s t a n c e and sales o f military equipment sales may be t o Argentina; (b) such assistance, c r e d i t s , guarantees, and extended to Argentina only if the P r e s i d e n t submits to Congress i n a d v a n c e a detailed report certifying that the government of Argentina has made significant progress in complying with internationally recognized principles of human r i g h t s , a n d that such assistance, credits, guarantees or sales are in the U.S. i n t e r e s t ; and (c) particclar at:ention is to be paid to whether the government of Argentina has made efforts to account for the "disappeare8" and released or brought to justice those prisoners held a t the disposition of che National Executive Pcwer (PEN). Sec. 726 repeals limitations c n a s s i s t a n c e , s a l e s , and sales credits f o r C h i l e , but before these can be provided requires Presidential certification that the Government of Chile has made significant progress in complying with internationally recognized principles of human rights; that provision of such a s s i s t a n c e , articles or services is in the U.S. national i n t e r e s t a n d t h a t the Government of Chile is not aiding ora abetting international terrorism. Sec. 7 2 7 (a) expresses the sense of assistance ta 31 Salvador should be used internationally recognized human righcs; political reforms; complete and timely citizens i n El Salvador; free, f a i r , a n C increased professional capability of the C o n g r e s s that economic and military to encourage full observance of continueC progress ;n economic and investigation of deaths of U.S. open elections a c an early date; a n d Salvadoran armed f o r c e s , Sec. 9 2 8 allo'ws military assistance and s a l e s to El Salvador only if the PreSldent certifies that the government of El Salvador is: maklng concerted and significant effort to comply with internationally recognized human rights; i s achieving substantial control over the armed forces t o bring an end to indiscriminate torture and murder; i s continuing implementation of eCOnO!nic and pgiitical reforms; i s committed to f r e e elections a t an early d a r s ; anC has demonstrated willingness to negotiate wizh opposition groups for ac equitable pclitical resolution of conflict. Requires the first presidential cercificatioc not later than 3 C days after enactment of this A c t and every one hundred eighty d a y s thereafter. T h e first certification is t o certify that the government of El Salvador has made good faith efforts to investigate the murders of six U.S. citizens a n d briny those responsible to jcscice. Sec. 7 3 6 ccntains the provisicn that " i n authorizing assistance tc P a k i s t a n , it is the intent of Congress to promote the expeditious restoration of f u l l civil liberties and representative government in Pakistan." F.L. 97-121 ( H . R . 4559) SeC. 511 prohibits assistance to any country for the purpose the efforts of the government of scch country to repress the rights of the population of such country contrary to the Declaration of Human Rights. Signed into l a w Dec. 29, 1981. of aiding legitimate Universal P.L. 9 7 - 1 5 1 (H.J.Res. 142) Requests the President to Ciesignate Mar. 2 1 , Signed into law Ear. l G , 1982. 1982, as Afghanistan Day. Urges the President t o instruct the U.S. delegation to the United Nations Commission o n Human Rights to raise the i s s u e of human rights violations in the Soviet U n i o n , including harassment of Soviet Jews and prohibitions a g a i n s t religion and emigration. Signed i n t o l a w Kar. 2 2 , 1982. P.L. 97-196 (S.2.Res. 201) Authorizes and r e q u e s t s t h e P r e s i d e n t t o issue a proclamation for observance of " B a l t i c Freedom Day" with appropriate ceremonies activities. Signed i n t o l a w June 1 8 , 1982. the and I m p l o r e s t h a t D r . Semyon G l u z m a n b e r e l e a s e d f r o m p r i s o n in the Soviet Signed i n t o l a w June 30, 1982. U n i o n a n d be a l l o w e d t o e m i g r a t e t o I s r a e l . P.L. 97-233 (H.J.Res. 494) Amends t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y a n d D e v e l o p m e n t C o o p e r a t i o n A c t o f 1981 t o a d d a c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e m u r d e r o f U.S. citizens i E E l S a l v a d o r b y :he G o v e r n m e n t o f E l S a l v a d o r t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t m u s t c e r t i f y t o Congress i n the second p r e s i d e n t i a l certification on conditions in El Salvador. S i g n e d i n t o l a w Aug. 1 0 , 1 9 8 2 . P.L. 97-241 (S. 1193) D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e Authorization A c t , f i s c a l y e a r s 1 9 8 2 a n d 1 9 6 3 . Sec. l G 6 e a r m a r k s $ 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 f o r FYs82-83 for t n e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red C r o s s t c "politicai" s n p p o r t - t h e activities o f p r o t e c t i o n a n d assistance p r o g r a m s f o r detainees. Sec. 108 expresses congressional findings about t h e freedom and t h e f r e e f l c w of i n f o r m a t i o n . Sec. 109 provides that a s s e s s e d c o n t r ~ b u t i o nt o UNESCO f n n d s may b e u s e d f o r p a y m e n t o f t h e U . S . t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n implements p o l i c i e s which would r e s r r i c t t h e f r e e flow l ~ f o r m a t i o nw o r l d w i d e o r i m p o s e c o d e s o f j o u r n a l i s t i c p r a c t i c e o f e t h i c s . information H-Con. R e s . 50 of nc i f of (Brown) E x p r e s s e s t h e s e n s e of Congress that t h e S o v i e t Union should provide m e d i c a l c a r e f o r D r . V i k t o r B r a i l o v s k y a n d p e r m i t him t o e m i g r a t e t o I s r a e l . P a s s e d by t h e House Apr. 7 , l 9 8 i ; r e f e r r e d t o t h e S e n a t e F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Committee Apr. 8. E x p r e s s e s t h e s e n s e of C o n g r e s s t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t s h o u l d take steps t o implement t h e o b j e c t i v e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Year of Disabled Persons (1981). P a s s e d t h e House Apr. 4 , 1961. E x p r e s s e s t h e s e n s e of C o n g r e s s t h a t t h e continued democratic p o l i t i c a l policy d e v e l o p m e n t s i n S p a i n makes a n i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o U . S . f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s and c o n g r a t u l a t e s t h e government and people of S p a i n on their t h e S e n a t e on commitment t o democracy. P a s s e d t h e H o u s e Mar. 4 , 1 9 8 1 , a n d Mar. 2 6 . H.Con.Res, 1 0 8 (Frank) Expresses he s e n s e of Congress regarding the Soviet Union's denial o f religious freedom and refusal of permission to emigrste of two Russian families living i n the U.S. embassy in Yosccw. Passed by the House Mar. 23, 1 9 9 2 , and by the Senate Mar. 25. Expresses t h e sense of C o n g r e s s that t h e Saviet Union should provide proper medical care for Ynriy Snukheych a n d permit him and his family to emigrate. P a s s e d the House Sept. 21; passed the Senate J u n e 2 1 , 1982. Fi.Con.Res. 1 8 3 (Gray) Expresses the sense of Congress that t h e national rugby team of South Africa should not play in the United S t a t e s , because of that government's enforcement of the morally reprehensible policy of apartheid which oppresses the majcrity of the population of South Africa. Introduced Sept. 17, 19E1; referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Rejected by the House Sept. 2 2 by a v o t e of 2 0 0 to 1 9 8 (two-thirds required for acceptance). (1) proclaim Expresses the sense of Congress that the President snould Nov. 9 , 1 9 8 1 , the fifth anniversary of the establishm-ent of the Ukrainian Pnblic Grcup to P r o m o t e the Implementation o f the Helsinki Accores, a s a day honoring that g r o u p ; and (2) ask the Soviet Union to release the incarcerated members of the Ukrainian Helsinki Monitoring Group, and to c e a s e the persecution and the imprisonment of those citizens in the Ukraine askinq for the instizution o f national, c i v i l , and indivlduai rights i n accordance with various d o c u m e n t s - Passed the Bcuse May 4, 1 9 8 2 ; passed the Senate J u n e 21, 9982. H.Con.Res. 2 1 5 (Frank et al.) Expresses the sense of Congress concerning the imprisonment of Alexander Paricsky by the Soviet Union a n d urges the government of the Soviet Unior to release him from prison and a l l o w him and h i s family to emigrate. Passed the Bouse on Gec. 9 , 1 9 6 1 , and t h e Senate Dec. 15. H.Con.Res. 2 1 8 (Derwinski) Expresses the sense of Congress about the imprisonment of Mart Niklus by the government of the Soviet Union. Passed the House May 4, 1 9 8 2 ; passed the Senate June 2 1 , 1982. H.Con.Res. 2 2 5 (Studds) E x t e n d s t h e best wishes of Congress t o the people of Honduras and expresses the d e s i r e and hope that the scheduled presidential elections will S e conducted successfully and i n an atmosphere cf openness and tracquility. Passed t h e House Nov. 2 0 , 198>. Expresses the sense of Congress that the President should press f o r unconditional discussions among the major political factions in El Salvador i n order to guarantee a safe and stable environment f o r demoncratic elections. Passed the House Mar. 2 , 1982. H.Con.Res. 240 (Zablocki) Reaffirms the support o f Congress f o r the people of House Dec. i 5 , 1981. H.Con.Res. Poland. Passed the 299 (Yates) Makes t h e Capitol Rotunda available on Apr. 2 0 , 1 9 8 2 , for a ceremony a s part of the commemoration of the D a y s of Rememberance o f the Victims of the Holocaust. Passed by the House Mar. 3 0 , 1982. Passed by the S e n a t e on Mar. 31. X.Con.Res. 385 (Mikulski) Expresses the sense of the Congress that the Soviet Union should a l l o w Yuri Balovlenkos to emigrate. Passed the House A u g . - 5 , 1 9 8 2 , a n d t h e Senate Aug. 18. 1962. Expresses the sense o f the House of Representatives i n support of "Solidarity Sundaytt (relating t o treatment of J e w s in the S o v i e t Union). Introduced Feb. 2 5 , 1 9 8 1 ; referred to the Committee o n P o s t O f f i c e a n d C i v i l Service. Passed the House Kay 2 8 , 1981. H-Eies. 1 2 4 (Daub) Expresses the sense of the House of Representatives that the United S t a t e s could not remain indifferent to external aggression or internal repression against Poland and that such developments would have serious consequences f o r East-West relations. Supports efforts to work with other n a t i o n s to ease P o l a n d ' s economic difficulties and the U.S. declsion to sell S u r p l u s food to Poland a t concessionary prices and i n Polish currency, provided neither external aggressio.1 nor international repression occurs. Passed the House 2 u l y 3 0 , 1 9 8 1 , by roll call vote of 4 1 0 to 1. Expresses the sense of the House commending the Philippine government f o r lifting martial l a w , a n d urging further progress toward democracy. Passed by House o n Kay 1 9 , 1981. , Expresses the sense of the H o u s e of Sepresentatives that the President convey to the Soviet governnent U.S. opposition to the imprisonment of Anatoly Shcharansky and lirge proper medical treatment and permission to emigrate. Introduced J u n e 9 , 1 9 8 1 ; referred to the C o m m i t ~ e e on Foreign Affairs. Passed the House Sept. 2 1 , i981. H.Res. 193 (Dixon) Expresses concern cf the House of Representatives aSout the well-being, to safety a n e freedom of Ycri Badzyo and his famlly and asks che President Introduced Jxly 23, 1981; convey this concern tc the S o v i e t government. 21, referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Passed the House Sept. 1961. E.Res. 200 (Dougherty) Urges the President to express U.S. opposition to the Soviet of Eeneeict Scott. PasseC the House May 4 , 1982. H.Res. imprisonment 269 (Smith) Expresses the sense of t h e ' House condemning the Soviet g o v e r n m e n t ' s treatment of Yuli Kosharovsky a n d his family. Fassec the House May 4 , i 9 8 2 . Z x p r e s s e s the sense of the H o c s e that the Congress associates itself fully and completely with the hunger strike protest by kndrei Sakharoi7. Passed the House Des. 9 , 1981. 3.Res. 326 (Hertel) Expresses the sense of the House that Jac. 3 0 , 1 9 8 2 , be observed as a national day of solidarify with the people of Poiand. Passed the House J a n . 2 E , 19S2. Expresses the sense of the H o u s e of Representatives supporting "Solidarity S u n d a y , " reaffirming solidarity with Soviet Jews. Passed House Apr. 29, 1982. H.Res. 521 (Dornan) Disapproves the President's recommendation to extend the P r e s i d e n t ' s authority to waive the freedom of emigration requirements under the Trade Act of 1 9 7 4 in order to extend the most-favored-nation status of Romania. Motion ;o indefinitely postpone 'passed Hc-se A u q . 1 8 , 1 9 E 2 . D e c l a r e s t h a t s e v e n members o f t h e V a s h c h e n k o a n d C h m y k h a l o v f a m i l i e s h a v e 1 9 7 8 , i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s E m b a s s y i n Moscow a n d have b e e n l i v i n g t h e r e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h U . S . law. Authorizes t h e granting of a v i s a and admission t o t h e United States for permanent residence t o each individual. Provides t h a t each individual s h a l l be held and considered t o have been l a w f u l l y admicted t o t h e United.States f o r permanent r e s i d e n c e as o f June 2?, 1978, and t o have Seen p h y s i c a l l y p r e s e n t and residing therein Passed by t h e Senate J u l y 13, 1982. c o n t i n u o u s l y sicce s u c h date. resideC s i n c e J u n e 2 7 , - S.Ccn.Res. 4 (Dole) Expresses t h e sense of Congress t h a t t h e President t a k e s t e p s t o implement t h e o S j e c t i v e s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Year o f D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Passed t9e S e n a t e O c t . 7 , 1981. S.Ccn.Res. 5 (Lugar) E x p r e s s e s t h e secse of C o n g r e s s that t h e S o v i e t e Union should msciical c a r e f o r D r . V F k t o r B r a i i o v s k y a n d p e r m i t h i m t o e m i g r a t e t o Passed t h e S e n a t e J u n e 15, i981. provide Israel. Declares t h e s e n s e o f C o n g r e s s t h a t t h e President shall t a k e secure freedom of worship i n t h e Ukraine and bring t o the atte r ~ a t i c n a la n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s councils Soviet violations hlman r i g h t s . Passe3 the Senate June 19, 1981; referred to t Committee on Foreign Affairs. steps t o ntion of of Sasic he House S . Con .Res. 58 (Tsongas) Zxprenses t h e s e n s e of t h e Congress w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o n t i n u e d i n t e r n a l Passed Dec. 16, e x i l e Sy t h e S o v i e t Union o f k n d r e i S a k h a r o v a n d h i s w i f e . 1 9 8 i , by b o t h t h e House a n d t h e S e n a t e . S . Con . R e s . 69 (Tsongas) E x p r e s s e s t h e s e n s e o f t h e S e n a t e t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t s h o u l d : (1) c o n t i n u e Nudel; (2) urge the t o e x p r e s s U . S . o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e f o r c e d e x i l e o f Ida medical care and allow her t o S o v i r t Union t o p r o v i d e h e r w i t h a d e q u a t e w i l l emigrate; and (3) inform the Soviet Union that the United States consider the extent t o which countries honor their commitments under Passed i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w w h e n e v a l u a t i n g U . S . r e l a t i o n s ~ i t hs u c h c o u n t r i e s . by t h e S e n a t e A p r . 1, 1 9 8 2 . Condemns t h e r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n by I r a n o f perscns of the Baha'i faith. Holds I r a n resporisible for uphoiding the rights of Expresses t h e hope t h a t t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n against and Baha'is w i l l cease. Passed t h e S e n a t e June 30, 1982. S-Res. all its executions citizens. of the 1 3 1 (D'A m a t o ) Expresses t h e sense of the Senate about the imprisonment of Anatoly Shcharansky and urges t h a t t h e United States express i t s opposition t o his P a s s e d t h e S e n a t e May 1 2 , 1 9 8 1 . i m p r i s o n m e n t a t t h e M 2 d r i d CSCE m e e t i n g . - Expresses the sense of the Senate that Congress support "Solidarity S u n d a y " o n May 3 1 , 1 9 8 i , t o r e a f f i r m e f f o r t s t o secure freedom for Sovi@t Jews a n d b e l e a g u e r e d p e o p l e e v e r y w h e r e . P a s s e d t h e S e n a t e May 1 9 , 1 9 8 1 . S-Res. 198 (Percy) Expresses t h e s e n s e of t h e Senate t h a t Benedict Scott be released from p r l s o c a c d b e a l l o w e d t o e m ~ g r a z et o t h e U n l t e d S t a t e s ( c o u n t r y o f h l s b l r z h ) l f re s o chooses. Introduced J u l y 30, 1981; r e f e r r e d t o the Committee on Reported t o t h e Senate (wlthout wrltten report) Sept. i 6 0 F c r e l g n Relations. P a s s e d t h e S e n a t e S e p t . 2 2 , 198;. S-Zes. 250 (Kennedy) Bxpresses concern over t h e f a i l u r e of t h e government of El Salvador t o j u s t i c e t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e murders of six Americans i n that csuntry. P a s s e d t h e S e n a t e Dec. 2 , 1 9 8 1 . . Sring t o S.Res. 268 (Percy e t a l . 1 E x p r e s s e s t h e s e n s e of t h e S e n a t e a b o u t t h e i m p o s i t i o n Pcland. P a s s e d t h e S e n a t e Dec. 1 5 , 1 9 8 1 . of martial l a w i n E x p r e s s e s t h e s e n s e o f t h e S e n a t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e i m p o s i t i o n of martial l a w i n Poland and t h e r e l e a s e of Lech Galesa aEd other Solidarity members. P a s s e d t h e S e n a t e Mar. 2 , 1 9 8 2 . HEARINGS U.S. Commission on S e c u r i c y and Cooperation i n Europe. Implementation of t h e Helsinki Accords: Phase I V of t h e M a d r i d CSCE R e v i e w M e e t i n g . Hearing, 97th Congress, 2d session. Mar. 2 3 , 1 9 9 2 . W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1 9 8 2 , 15 p. ----- Implementation of t h e Helsinki Accords: Soviet involvement i n t h e Polish econory. H e a r i n q , 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . Apr. 1 , 1982. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. 2 0 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee o n B a n k i n g , F i n a n c e , a n d Urban Affairs. Subcornmitt.ee on International D e v e l o p m e n t Institutions a n d Finance. Human rights and U.S. policy in the multilateral development banks. Hearings, 97th Congress, 1 s t session. J u l y 2 1 a n d 2 3 , 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. 4 8 5 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee o n F o r e i g n Affairs. Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act o f 1961: nuclear prohibitions and certain human rights matters. Hearings and m a r k u p , 97th Congress, 1 s t s e s s i o n , on H.R. 5015 a n d H.Res. 286. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Nov. 20 and Dec. 6 , 1981. 1982. 8 1 p. ----- - Resolution o f inquiry concerning human rights policies. Hearings, 9 6 t h Congress, 2d session. Feb. 6 , 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 26 p. ----- The Soviet occupation of Afghanistan a n d certain h u m a n rights matters. Hearing a n d markup, 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d session, o n H.Con.Res. 100. Mar. 1 6 , 1982. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., i982. 4 2 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee an Foreign Affairs. Subcommittees on Africa a n d cn International Organizations. Suman rights i n Africa. Hearings, 96th C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Oct. 3 1 , 1979. Washifigton, U.S. Govt. Print. 9 3 p. Off ., 1980. U S . Zongress. Houss. Commitree on F o r e i g n Affairs. Subcommittees on Asian a n d P a c i f i c Affairs and o n international Organizations. Human rights i n Asia: Communist countries. H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h Congress, 2d session. Oct. 1 , 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. 1 S O p. ' ----- Human r i g h t s i n Asia: non-Communist countries. Hearings, 9 6 t h Congress, 2d session. Feb. 4, 6 and 7 , 1980. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 3 3 5 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittees on Asian and P a c i f i c Affairs and o n Human Rights and International Organizations. Taiwan a g e n t s i n America and the death of Professor Wen-Chen Chen. Hearings. 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. July 3 0 and Oct. 6 , 1981.. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 89 p. 1982. ----- U.S. polizy toward the Philippines. Hearing, 9?th C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Nov. 1 8 , 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. 7 9 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee o n Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee o n Human R i g h t s and International Organizations. Human rights -- Soviet Union. Markup, 97th C o n g r e s s , 2d session, on H.Con.Res. 2 0 0 ; H.Con.Res. 218; H.J.Res. 2 3 0 ; H.Con.Res. 205; H.J.Res. 3 7 3 ; H - R e s . 269. Feb. 3 a n d Apr. 1 , 1982. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1 9 8 2 . 5 2 p. ----- Human rig?its -- U k r a i n e a n d t h e S o v i e t Union. Hearings and m a r k - u p , 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n , o n H.Con.Res. 1 1 1 , H.Res. 1 5 2 , H.Res. 193. J u l y 28, 3 0 , a n d S e p t . i 7 , 1 9 8 1 . W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1982. 5 6 p. U.S. Congress. i-iouse. C o m m i t t e e o n F o r e i g n Affairs. S u b c o m m i t t e e s o n H u m a n R i g h t s a'nd I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d o n I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Affairs. R e v i e w of U n i t e d S t a t e s policy o n m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o Argentina. Hearing, 97th C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Apr. 1 , 1981. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. 1 2 8 p. ----- I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of c o n g r e s s i o n a l l y m a n d a t e d h u m a n r i g h t s p r o v i s i o n s (volume I). H e a r i n g s , 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. J u l y 1 4 , 3 0 ; a n d Sept. 1 7 , 1981. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Cff., 1 9 8 2 , 2 1 6 p. U.S. Congress. House. C o m m i t t e e o n F o r e i g n Affairs. S u b c o m m i t t e e on I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . Human r i g h t s a n d t h e B a l t i c States. H e a r i n g , 96th C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 7 9 . W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . Off., 1979. 6 1 p. ----- H u m a n r i g h t s a n d t h e d e t e n t i o n o f Andrei S a k h a r o v : Update. H e a r i n g , 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 2 8 session. Apr. 2 4 , 1980. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1980. 3 5 p. ----- H u m a n r i g h t s a n d t h e p h e n o m e n o n of d i s a p p e a r a n c e s . H e a r i n g s , 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Sept. 2 0 , 2 5 ; and Oct. 1 8 , 1979. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 6 3 6 p. ----- H u m a n r i g h t s a n d U.S. f o r e i g n policy. Hearings, 9 5 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. May 2 , 1 0 ; J u n e 2 1 ; J u l y 1 2 a n d Aug. 2 , 1979. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 5 0 3 p. ----- R e v i e w of t h e 36th s e s s i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o m m i s s i o n on Human Rights. H e a r i n g , 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d session. A p r i l 2 9 , 1960. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1980. 4 1 p. ----- U N E S C O and f r e e d o m of i n f o r m a t i o n . H e a r i n g , 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. J u l y 1 9 , 1979. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1979. 6 9 p. 7, U S . Congress. House. C o m m i t t e e on F o r e i g n Affairs. Subcommittees on Human Rights and International O r g a n i z a t i o n s and o n I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Affairs. Human Rights in G u a t e m a l a . H e a r i n g s , 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n . July 3 0 , 1 9 8 1 . W a s h i n g t o n , U.3. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1981. 1 7 3 p. U.S. C o n g r e s s . House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittees on International Security and Scientific A f f a i r s , o n Human R i g h t s a n d I n t e r ~ a t i o n a lO r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n 8 o n I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Affairs; P r o p o s e d t r a n s f e r of arms t o U r u g u a y . Sept. 73 p. U.S. U.S. ----- 1 5 , 1981. Hearings, 97th Congress, 1st session. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govc. P r i n t . O f f . , 1 9 8 1 . Congress. Senate. Committee on F o r e i g n R e i a t i o n s . The Genocide Convention. Hearing, 97th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n , E x e c u t i v e O r d e r 8 1 - 1 , t h e C o n v e n t i o n on t h e P r e v e n t i o n and Punishment of t h e C r i m e of Genocide.... Dec. 3 , 1 9 8 1 . W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1 9 8 2 . 1 8 1 p. on Congress. Senate. Committee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l human r i g h t s t r e a t i e s . H e a r i n g s o n Ex. C , C, E a n d F , 95-2--Four T r e a t i e s R e l a t i n g t o Human R i g h t s . Nov. 1 4 , . 1 5 , 1 6 a n d 1 9 , 1 9 7 9 . 96th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . Washington, U . S . Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1980. 554 p. Nomination of Ernest Lefever. session. May 1 8 , 1 9 , J u n e 4 a n d Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , 1981. 577 p. Hearings, 5, 97th 1981. Congess, Washington, 1st U.S. REPORTS A N D CONGRESSIONAL DOCUMENTS . Commission on S e c u r i t y a n d C o o p e r a t i o n i n E u r o p e . I m p l e m e n t a t i o E o f t h e F i r a l A c t of t h e C o n f e r e n c e on S e c u r i t y and Cooperation i n Europe: f i n d i n g s and recommendations f i v e y e a r s a f t e r H e l s i n k i r e p o r t . W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1 9 8 0 . 341 p. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . Expressing t h e s e n s s of Congress w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e B z l t i c S t a t e s a n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o S o v i e t claims of C i t i z e n s h i p o v e r c e r t a i n U.S. c i t i z e n s ; r e p c r t t o a c c o m p a n y H . Con. Res. 2 0 0 . W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . 3ff., 1979. 5 p. (96th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . House. Report no. 96-575) ----- Honaracy c i t i z e n s h i p f o r Raoul Wallenberg; report accompany H.J.Fes. 220. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . (97th Congress, 1 s t session. O f f . , 1 9 8 1 , 4 p. R e p o r t n o . 9 7 - 1 5 2 , p a r t 1) to Print. House. U.S. Congress. House. C o n l m i t t s e on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . / S e n a t e . C o m m i t t e e on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s . C o u n t r y r e p o r t s o n human r i g h t s p r a c t i c e s f o r 1 9 7 9 ; J o i n t R e p o r t s u b m i t t e d by t h e U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a c e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h s e c t i o n s 1 1 6 ( d ) and 5 0 2 E ( b ) of t h e F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e Act o f 1 9 6 1 , as amended. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1 9 8 0 . 854 p. A t head of t i t l e : 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . J o i n t committee print. ----- C o u n t r y r e p o r t s c n human r i g h t s p r a c t i c e s f o r 1 9 8 0 ; J o i n t r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d b y t h e U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e i n accordance with s e c t i o n s 1 1 6 ( d ) and 502B(b) of t h e Washington, F o r e i g n A s s i s t a n c e A c t o f 1 9 6 1 , as amended. U.S. G o v t . P r i n t . O f f . , 1 9 6 1 . 1 1 4 0 p. A t head of t i t l e : 97th Congress, 1st session. Joint committee print. ----- Country reports o n human rights practices for 1 9 8 1 ; joirit report submitted by the U.S. Department of State in accordance with sections 116(d) and 502(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1 9 6 1 , a s amended. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1 9 8 2 , 1 1 4 2 p. 37th Congress, 2d session. Joint committee At head of title: print. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Concurrent resolution with respect to the Baltic States and Soviet claims of citizenship over certain citizens of the United States; report to accompany H. Con. Res. 200. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. 3ff., 1979. 5 p. (96th Congress, 1 s t session. Senate. Report no. 96-485) ----- Expressing the sense of Csngress with respect to the treatment of Christians by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; report to accompany S. Con. Res. 60. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 4 5 p. ----- U.S. Honorary Citizenship f o r Rauoi Wallenberg; report to accompany S.J.Res. 0 5 . Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. (97th Congress, ist session. Senate. Off., 1981. 8. p. Report no. 97-169) Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Honorary citizenship for Raoui Wallenberg; report to accompany H.J.Res. 220. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. O f f . , 1981. 1 2 p. (97th Congress, 1 s t session. House. Report no. 9 7 - 1 5 2 , part 2) CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS 11/G9/82 -- T h e Madrid meeting of the Conference on Security a n C Cooperation in Europe resumed after an eight-month recess. The opening session was marked by sharp East-West confrontation over the situation in Poland. 11/02/82 -- The Waskington P o s t re?orted that some members of Congress had expressed strong opposition co a proposed International Monetary Fund loan t o South Africa or urged that such a loan be conditioned on change i n South Africa's system of apartheid. 09/28/82 -- House Subcommittees on Asian and Pacific Affairs and o n Human Rights and International Organizations continued joint hearings on reconciling strategic interests and human rights i n the Philippines. Hearings were continued the next day on China. 09/23/82 -- House Subcommittee on Human Rights and Internationai Organizations continued a series of hearings o n religious persecution as a violation of human rights. 09/21/82 -- Secretary o f D e f e n s e Caspar Weinberger, speaking s t a conference sponsored by t h e Center f o r S t r a t e g i c and International Sizudies of Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y , referred t o m o u n t i n s e v i d e n c e that the S o v i e t Union may be using " s i s v e l a b o r " i n building t h e trans-Siberian natural g a s pipeline. House Subcommittees o n Asian a n d Pacific Affairs and o n Human R i g h t s and International Organizations continued joint hearings o n reconciling s t r a t e g i c interests and human rights i n Asia. Formal dissclution of the Moscow Helsinki Monitoring Group was announced i n Moscow by Eiena B o n n e r , wife of exiled S o v i e t dissident, Andrei Sakharov. House Subcommittees on Asian and Pacific Affairs and on Human Rights and International Crganizations held a joint hearing o n reconciling strategic i n t e r e s t s and human rights i n Asia. House Subcommittee on Inter-American A f f a i r s concluded a series o f hearings on t h e second presidential certification on conditions in El Salvador. House Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations continued h e a r i n g s o n r e l i g i o u s persecution a s a violation o f human r i g h t s (Coptic Christians a n 8 F a l d s h a Jews). Senate Subcommittee o n Western Hemisphere Affairs continued a s e r i e s of hearings on reforms i n El Salvador. Senate C o m m i t t e e on Foreign Relations held a hearing o n the second El Salvador certification. Senate Foreign Relations Committee had a closed briefing o n t h e second presidential certification on conditions in El Salvador. House Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations continued i t s series of h e a r i n g s o n religious persecution as a human rights violations (Jews i n the S o v i e t Union a n d Eastern Europe). House Foreign Affairs C o m m i t t e e began a s e r i e s of hearings o n the second certification of t h e E l Salvador situation. Department of S t a t e transmitted to C o n g r e s s t h e second certification on El Salvador's human r i g h t s s i t u a t i o n , government control of the a r m e d f o r c e s , a n d economic and political reforms. House o f Representatives marked International Day of Activity f o r Ida Nudel. 07/08/82 -- T h e W a s h i n g t o n P o s t r e p o r t e d that the U.3, G o v e r n m e n t had r e c o m m e n d e d a n u m b e r of r e f o r m s i n c l u d i n g human r ,,ghts i improvements in El Salvador i n order to facilitate the Reagan Administration's continued aid t o t h a t country. T h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n must m a k e a c e r t i f i c a t i o n t o C o n g r e s s o n c o n d i t i o n s ifi El S a l v a d o r by t h e end of J u l y if m i l i t a r y aid i s t o continue. 06/18/82 -- W i t n e s s e s during S e n a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c e S u b c o m m i t t e e hearings on proposed n a t u r a l g a s p i p e l i n e from western Siberia t o West Germany predicted the m a s s i v e u s e by t h e S o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t of f o r c e d l a b o r i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e p i p e l i n e , i n c l u d i n g a s many a s half a million Vietnamese. 05/25/82 -- 04/26/62 -- H o u s e S u b c o m m i t t e e on H u m a n R i g h t s a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s held a h e a r i n g on the S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t humac r i g h t s reports. T h e A s s i s t a n z S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f c r H u m a n R i g h t s and H u m a n i t a r i a n A f f a i r s , E l l i o t t A b r a m s , t e s t i f i e d that the c o h g r e s s i o n a l l y m a n d a t e d h u m a r r i g h t s c e r t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h would a l l o w C h i l e a n d Argentina to r e c e i v e m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e w a s " o n t h e b u r n e r " because of t h e F a l k l a n d s crisis. C3/23/82 -- H o u s e Subcommit'ee or, H u m a n R i g h t s a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s held a h e a r i n q on r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n a s a human rights violations. 92/11/62 -- Senate Commiztee on Foreign Relations concluded h e a r i n g s o n the P r e s i d e n t ' s c e r t i f i c a t i o n or. the situation In El Salvador. 03/09/82 -- House Subcommittees on Human Rights and International O r g a n i z a t i o n s and o n A f r i c a held a h e a r i n g on t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of h u m a n r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n in Africa. 03/05/82 -- 03/02/82 -- H o u s e S u b c o m m i t t e e on Inter-American A f f a i r s c o n c l u d e d h e a r i n g s on t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n on El S a l v a d o r . C3/01/82 -- S e n a t e S u b c o m m i t t e e on W e s t e r n H e m i s p h e r e A f f a i r s continued h e a r i n g s (begun on F e b . 25) on human r i g h t s i n Nicaragua. 02/25/82 -- S u b c o m m i t t e e on F o r e i g n O p e r a t i o n s of t h e S e n a t e A p p r o p r i a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e held a h e a r i n g on h u m a n r i g h t s v i o l a t i o n s i n Nicaragua. C2/23/82 -- House Subcommittee on Human Rights and Internaticnal O r g a n i z a t i o n s held a h e a r i n g on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of H o u s e Subcommittee on H u m a n Rights a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o c s held a h e a r i n g on r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n a s a v i o l a t i o n of h u m a n rights. The Washington Post reported that the Reagan ACministrStion i s r e a s s e s s i n g the r e s u m p t i o n of m i l i t a r y aid to C h i l e because c f c o n c e r n t h a t the poor human r i g h t s r e c o r e of t h e military r e g i m e t h e r e will e x p o s e P r e s i d e n t R e a g a n t o c o n g r e s s i o n a l c h a r g e s of bad f a i t h . congressionally mandated human r i g h t s provisions. 02/10/82 -- H o u s e Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Grganizations held a hearing o n religious intolerance and persecution. G2/08/82 -- S e n a t e Committee o n Foreign Relations held a hearing on the Presidential certification of conditions i n El Salvador. 02/07/82 -- T h e required a n n u a l S t a t e Department report o n human rights in a l l other UN member nations was made- public. This 1 , 1 4 2 - p a g e report coverinq 159 countries i s t h e f i r s t compiled under the Reagan Administration. 02/02/82 -- T h e House Committee on Foreign Affairs held a hearing on t h e Presidential certification of conditions in El Salvador. 01/26/82 -- 12/10/el -- 12/03/81 -- T h e Senate Foreign Relations Committee held a ' h e a r i n g o n t h e Convention o n the Prevention and Punishment of t h e Crime of Genocide. 11/24/81 -- U.S. Ambassador to the UN J e a n e Kirkpatrick i n a statement b e f o r e the General Assembly's Third Committee denounced the UN's double standard in human rights and called on the UN system to affirm and adhere t o a single standard. 11/18/81 -- 11/17/81 -- -- 11/05/31 -- P r e s i d e n t Reagan sent a certification to Congress indicating t h a t t h e Government of El Salvador "has ma'de a concerted, s i g n i f i c a n t , and good faith effort to d e a l with the c o m p l e x political, social, and human rights problems i t i s co3fronting a n d that progress i s being made." S u c h a certification was required by Sec. 7 2 8 o f the International Securicy and Cooperation Act of 1 9 8 1 (P.L. 97-113) i f military assistance and s a l e s t o El S a l v a d o r a r e to continue. H o a s e Subcommittees on Africa afid Human R i g h t s a n d International organizations held a hearing o n human r i g h t s in Africa. H o u s e Subcommittees on Asian and Pacific Affairs a n d Human R i g h t s and International Organizations held a joint hearing o n U.S. policy toward the Philippines. S e n a t e Committee o n Foreign Relations held a hearing on the nomination o f Elliott Abrams to be Assistant Secretary o f S t a t e for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs. F o l l o w i n g the hearing the Committee approved t h e nomination by a 9 to 0 vote. H o u s e Subcommittees on Asian a n d Pacific Affairs and on Human Rights and International Organizations continued joint hearings o n implementation of congressionally mandated human rights provisions (Asian and P a c i f i c region). H o u s e Subcommittees on Human Rights and International Organizations and on Europe and the Eiddle East held a joint h e a r i n g o n c o n g r e s s i o n a l l y mandated h u m a n r i g h t s policy ( N e a r Eastern a n e S o u t h A s i a n r e g i o n ) . 10/30/61 -- 09/17/81 -- 09/15/81. -- 07/30/81 -- -- T h e W h i t e Bouse a n n o u n c e d the coinination of E l l i o t t A b r a m s , Assistant Secretary of S t a t e f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n A f f a i r s , f o r t k e position cf A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r H u m a n R i g h t s a n d H u m a n i t a r i a n Affairs. H o u s e S u b c o m m i t t e e on Human R i g h t s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s held part 111 of h e a r i n g s o n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of human r i g h t s p r o v i s ~ o n s . H o u s e S u b c o m m i t t e e s o n H u m a n R i s h t s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d O R Inter-American A f f a i r s h e l d a h e a r i n g on proposed a r m s s a l e s t o Uruguay. H o u s e S u b c o m m i t t e e on Human R i g h t s and I c t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s continued h e a r i n g s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of c o n g r e s s i o n a l l y mandated human r i g h t s p o l i c y . H o u s e S u b c o m m i t t e e s on Human R i g h t s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d Inter-American A f f a i r s h e l d h e a r i n g s o n h u m a n r i g k t s in Guatemala. 07/22/6i -- 07/2l/&i -- 07/1+1'81 -- H o u s e S u b c o m m l t t e e on Hur,an R i g h t s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l human rights O r g a n i z a t i o n s held a hearing o n U.S. policy. 07/09/81 -- H o u s e S u b c o m m i t t e e o n Human R i g h t s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d on I n t e r n a t i o n a l Operations h e i d a h e a r i n g on U N E S C O ' s e s t a b l ~ s h m e n t of a n e w w o r l d i n f o r m a t i o n o r d e r arid freedom of the press. 07/01/81 -- T h e D e p a r t m e n t of t h e T r e a s u r y n o t ~ f i e dC o n g r e s s of c h a n g e s i n U.S. v o t i n g policy on m u l t i l a t e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t bank l o a n s t o A r g e n t i n a , C h i l e , P a r a g u a y , a n d Uruguay. T h e notice e x p l a i n e e t h a t t h e D e p a r m e n t of S t a t e had r e v i e w e d the c u r r e n t human r i q h t s s i t u a t i o n in t h o s e c o u n t r i e s a n d d e t e r m i n e d t h a c ULSL h u m a n r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i c n d o e s n o t r e q u i r e U.S. o p p o s i t i c n on loans to t h o s e c o u n t r i e s . 06/05/81 -- Senate Committee on Foreign Relations voted 13-4 a g a i n s t c o n f i r m a t i o n of E r n e s t W . i e f e v e r t o b e A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r Human R i g h t s a n d E u m a n i t a r i a n Affairs. L a t e r t h a t day L e f e v e r H o u s e S u b c o m m i t t e e cn Xuman R i g h t s and International Organizations and Commission o n S e c u r i t y a n d Cooperation in E u r o p e held a h e a r i n g c n S o v i e t v l o i a t i o n of t h s H e l s l n k i F i n a l Act: i n v a s i o n cf Aahanistar,. H o u s e S u b c o m m i t t e e on I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t I n s t i t u t i o n s and F i n a n c e began a s e r i e s o f h e a r i c g s o n h u m a n r i g h t s a n d U.S. policy i n the m u l t i l a t e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t banks. withdrew his n a m e from consideration. 06/04/81 -- T h e House Subcommittee on Asia and P a c i f i c Affairs held a hearing on political and human r i g h t s i n Taiwan. 04/30/81 -- During a ceremony a t the White House i n memory of the victims of the Holocaust, President Reagan said t h a t t h e United States should not negotiate with n a t i o n s that persecute their citizens s n l e s s such persecution is part of the neqotiations. 03/31/81 -- Sscretary o f S t a t e H a i g delivered a speech on human rights a n C U.S. f o r e i g n policy to the Trilateral Commission i n Washington, D.C., Haig outlined the f o l l o w i n g a s imperatives of Reagan Administration hunari r i g h t s policy: to strengthen the UniteC S t a t e s , i t s allies and friends; to i m p r o v e our o w n exampie; to adopt a sense of proportion i n dealing with violators; and to examine the credentials a n d programs of the opposition. 03/12/81 -- House Subcommittee o n Human Rights a n d International Oraanizations held a hearing to review the State Department's 1981 human rights reports. 02/09/01 -- T h e required a n n u a l State Department r e 2 o r t on human r l g h t s conditions i n all other UN member nations was released amid controversy over delay because o f the visit of President Chun D o o Hwan o f South Kcrea. 52/06/81 -- Washington P o s t reported that Ernest W. L e f e v e r , a strong critic of Carter administration human r i g h t s p o l i c y , has been occupying the office of a s s i s t a n t secretary for human rights and humanitarian affairs a t the State Department amid growing speculation that h e will be President Reagan's nominee f o r that position. 01/2S/81 -- Durinq a press conference Secretary Haig declared that "international terrorisn wiil take the place of human rights" a s the prlority concern of American foreign policy i n the Reagan Administration. 01/14/81 -- P r e s i d e n t Carter in h i s farewell address stressed the struggle for human rights. 12/18/80 -- T h e head of President-elect Reagan's S t a t e Department trarisition t e a m , R o b e r t Neumann, in a Washington P o s t report stated that while human r i g h t s wlll p o l i c y , there c o n t i n u e to be a n element of U.S. i s strong sentiment in the transition team for giving i t less priority by eliminating the Bureau o f Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and having a special assistant to the Secretary of S t a t e to deal with the subject. 12/13/83 -- During t h e p a s t few e s y s acrimonous exchanges occurred between C a r t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s a n d a i d e s t o P r e s i d e n t - e l e c t R e a g a n o v e r U.S. p o l i c y i n c e n t r a l America. Patricia Derian, Assistant S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r Human R i g h t s a n d H u m a n i t a r i a n A f f a i r s charged t h a t "imprudent statements" by t h e R e a g a n t r a n s i t i o n team h a d p l a y e d d o w n U . S . s u p p o r t f o r human r i g h t s a n d t h u s e n c o u r a g e d i n c r e a s e d b r u t a l i t y by r i g h t wing f o r c e s i n E l S a l v a d o r . T h i s followed l e a k a g e t o t h e p r e s s of a p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t b y R e a g a n t r a n s i t i o n t e a m members w h i c h d e s i g n a t e d U.S. A m b a s s a S o r s t o E l S a l v a d o r , R o b e r t White, and Nicaragua, Lawrence P e z z u l c , as markeZ f o r removal because t h e y a r e functioning as liberal, s o c i a l reformers rather than ambassadors. The ambassadors i n t u r n charged t h a t t h e Reagan s u p p o r t e r s had u n d e r c u t t h e i r a u t h o r i t y by e n c o u r a g i n g r i g h t i s t forces seeking t o i o s t e r military dictatorships i n the region. 91/25/80 -- T h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e OAS f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r s following a marathon a l l - n i g h t debate approved a c o n s e n s u s r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g on s i x L a t i n A m e r i c a n nations (Argentina, Chile, E l Salvaeor, H a i t i , P a r a g u a y , a n d U r u g u a y ) t o i m p r o v e human r i g h t s performance. 11/19/60 -- P r e s i d e c t Carter a a d r e s s i n g t h e 1 0 t h r e g u l a r s e s s i o n o f t h e G e n e r a i A s s e m b l y o f t h e OAS m e e t i n g i n Washingtori d e f e n d e d h l s o u t s p o k e n e f f o r t s t o make human r i g h t s a k e y t o ~ n t e r - A m e r i c a n c o o p e r a t i o n a n d e c 3 n o m i c a n d m i l i t a r y a i d :o L a t i n A m e r i c a n countries. "Today n o government i n t h i s h e m i s p h e r e can expect s i l e n t a s s e n t from i t s neighbors i f it t r a m p l e s o n t h e r i g h t s o f i t s own c i t i z e n s . The c o s t s of r e p r e s s i o n have i n c r e a s e d , b u t s o h a v e c h e b e n e f i t s o f r e s p e c t i n g human r i g h t s . " 1;/12/80 -- P r e s i d e n t Carter t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e S e n a t e f o r i t s advice and consent t o r a t i f l c a t i o n t h e Convention on t h e E l i m i n a t i o n o f A l l Forms of D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A g a i n s t Women. T h e C o n v e n t i o n was a d o p t e d b y t h e UN G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y on December 1 8 , 1979 a n d s i g n e d S y t h e U n i t e d S t a c e s o n J u l y 1 7 , 1980. 11/11/80 -- 35 s i g n a t o r y n a t i o n s o f f i c i a l l y began t h e m e e t i n g a~ M a d r i d , S p a i n , t o r e v i e w c o m p l i a n c e wi:h t h e H e l s i n k i F i n a l A c t of t h e C o n f e r e n c e on S e c u r i t y and Cooperation i n Europe. 11/06/80 -- The During a press conference President-elect Ronald R e a g a n w h i l e a f f i r m i n g h i s d e d i c a t i o n t o human r i g h t s , c r i t i c i z e d t h e human r i g h t s p o l i c y o f t h e "I d o n ' t think t h a t our Carter administration: r e c o r d of t u r n i n g away from c o u n t r i e s , t h a t were b a s i c a l l y f r i e n d l y t o u s , S e c a u s e o f some d i s a g r e e m e n t o c s o m e f a c e t o f human r i g h t s , a n d t h e n f i n d i n g t h a t t h e r e s u l t was t h a t t h e y h a v e l o s t a l l h u m a n r i g h t s i n t h a t c o u n t r y -- t h a t i s n ' t a p r a c t i c a l way t o g o a b o u t t h a t . " 09/16/80 -- S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e Mzskie announcsd t h a t t h e United S t a t e s wonid s u p p o r t t h e s e a t i n q of P o l P o t ' s D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea r e g i m e i n t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s Muskie s a i d t h e d e s p i t e i r s human r i g h t s r e c o r d . U.S. d e c i s i o n " i n n o w a y i m p l i e s a n y s u p p o r t o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e D e m o c r a t i c Kampuchea r e g i m e . We a b h o r a n d c o n d e m n t h e r e g i m e ' s human r i g h t s r e c o r d anC would n e v e r s u p p o r t i t s r e t u r n t c power i n Phnom P e n h . " ADDITIONAL REFERENCE SOURCES American C i v i l L i b e r t i e s Union. E e p o r t o n Human r i g h t s i n E l S a l v a d o r ; a r e p o r t t o t h e Board of t h e American C i v i l L i b e r t i e s Union, January 1982. Washington, Center f o r National Security S t u d i e s , 1982. 280 p. LRS 8 2 - 6 9 6 Amnesty I ~ t e r n a t i o n a l . Amnesty I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p o r t Londan, 1982. 368 p . 3erg, 1982. Argenti~~a, Graeia. Humari r i g h t s s a n c t i o n s a s l e v e r a g e : a case s t u d y . J o u r n a l of l e g i s l a t i o n , v. 7 , 1980: 93-112. LRS80-7713 Human r i g h t s a n d U . S . 3 r o w n , P e t e r G . , a n d D o u g l a s MacLean. foreign policy: p r i n c i p l e s and a p p l i c a t i o n s . Lexington, Mass., Lexington books, 1973. 310 p. K 3 2 4 0 . 6 H85 Human r i g h t s a n d f o r e i g n p o l i c y : Kuckley, W i l l i a m F . , J r . a proposal. F o r e i g n a f f a i r s , v. 5 8 , s p r i n g 1930: 775-790. LRS80-2230 C o n e i t i o n i n g U.S. s e c u r i t y a s s i s t a n c e o n h u m a n Cohen, Stephen B. rights practices. American journal of i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , v. 76, A p r i l i982: 246-27'9. Crahan, Margaret, zd. Human r i g h t s a n d b a s i c n e e d s i n t h e W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , i982. 343 p. Americas. Derian, Patricia. Human r i g h t s i n A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . N o t r e Dame l a w y e r , v . 5 5 , D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 9 : 2 6 4 - 2 8 0 . LRS79-19226 Forsythe, David P. A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y a n d human r i g h t s : rhetoric and r e a l i t y . U n i v e r s a l human r i g h t s , v . 2 , no. 3 , J u l y - S e p t . 1980: 35-53. LRS80-11728 Fraser, Do~ald. Human r i g h t s a n d U . S . foreign policy: b a s i c questions regarding p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l s u t d i e s q u a r t e r l y , v. 23, June 1979: some Bennelly, Alfred, ed. Hcman r i g h t s i n t h e A m e r i c a s : the .struggle f o r consensus, Washington, D.C., Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. 291 p. A p r o f i l e of c o n s i s t e n c y : Ernest Lefever a t Howell, Leon. t h e edge of power. C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d c r i s i s , v . 4 1 , March 2 , 1 9 8 1 : 36-45. LZS81-1997 Human r i g h t s a n d A m e r i c a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y : v . 7 2 , Nov. 1 9 8 1 : 25-63. Euman a symposium. Commentary, r i g k t s anc? U . S . f o r e i g n p o l i c y u n d e r C a r t e r : a Freliminary appraisal. Denver j o u r n a l of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law a n e p o l i c y , v . 8, 1 3 7 9 ( w h o l e i s s u e ) . LRS79-12500 L e f e v s r , E r n s s t W. Policy review, The t r i v i a l i z a t i o l i no. 3 , w i n t e r 1978: o f human r i g h t s . 11-26. LRS78-3700 L s a r d , Evan. affairs Human r i g h t s a n d f o r e i g n p o l i c y . International ( L o n d o n ) , v. 56, autumn 1980: 579-606. LRS80-17691 Schlesinger, Arthcr, Jr. Human r i g h t s a n d t h e A m e r i c a n F o r e i g n a f f a i r s , v . 5 7 , n o . 3 , 1 9 7 5 : 503-,526. LRS79-776 tradition. Sohn, L o u i s B. a n 8 T h o m a s B u r g e n t h a l . Basic documents on i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n o f hcman r i g h t s . New Y o r k , Bobbs-Merrill, 1973. 244 p. LAW ----- I n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n of Bobbs-Merrill, 1973. 1402 p. human r i g h t s . LAW New York, U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r e i g n p o l i c y a n d human r i g h t s : principles, p r i o r i t i e s and practice. Report of t h e National Policy P a n e l o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A. New York, December 1979. 86 p. K324G.4 .U18 Vogeigesang, Sandra. American dream, York, Norton, 1980. 303 p. ----- C i p l o m a c y o f human r i g h t s . q u a r t e r l y , v. 23, June 1979: global nightmare. New JX1417.V63 1 9 8 0 International studies 216-245. LRS79-8456 Warshawsky, Howard. T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e a n d human policy: a c a s e s t u d y o f t h e Human R i g h t s B u r e a u . a f f a i r s , v. 1 4 2 , w i n t e r 1980: 188-215. LRSGO-3782 rights World