Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands: Leasing for Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Development

OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) LANDS: LEASING FOR OIL AND NATURAL GAS EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT ISSUE BRIEF NUMBER IB81i16 AUTHOR: William H y m e s Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONGRESSIONAL RESE-ARCH SERVICE MAJOR ISSUES SYSTEM DATE ORIGINATED 07/15/81 DATE UPDATED 12/20/82 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CALL 287-5700 1221 CRS- 1 ISSUE DEFINITION Leasing of O C S land t o oil c o m p a n i e s f o r oil and n a t u r a l g a s d e v e l o p m e n t i s governed by the O C S Lands Act (OCLA) o f 1 9 5 3 (P.L. 83-212) a n C the O C S Lands Act Amendments (OCSLAA) of 1978. BACKGROUND AND POLICY ANALYSIS T h e O C S i s defined a s those s u b m e r g e d l a n d s on the C o n t i n e n t a l margins o f the United States which are subject to F e d e r a l jurisdiction. T h e s e lands l i e outside o f the 3-mile belt of c o a s t a l submerged l a n d s w h i c h a r e reserved t o the States for purposes of oil a n d g a s development and production. The OC3 i s copmonly described in terms of 2 0 0 a n d 2 , 5 0 0 meters of water d e p t h t h a t serve a s bench marks for a s s e s s i n g the economic and techological recoverability of O C S resources. T h e 2 0 0 meter benchmark i s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e .depth of the seaward e d g e of the physical Continental shelf a n d the 2 , 5 0 0 meter depth i s considered to be t h e c u r r e n t outer boundary of t h e continental margin's exploitable area. According to estimates by t h e D e p a r t m e n t of t h e Interior (DOI), the s i z e of U.S. O C S a r e a s o u t L O a d e p t h of 2 , 5 0 0 meters i s a b o u t 965.8 million (or nearly 1 billion) acres. T h i s a r e a i s divided i n t o four O C S regions comprised of t h e A t l a n t i c , Gulf of Mexicc, P a c i f i c , a n d for Alaska regions. (See Appendix I and 1 1 a t the end of t h i s i s s u e brief maps of t h e areas.) O C S and Related Legislation The OCLA a s amended by the OCLAA of 1 9 7 8 and o t h e r laws, provides the legislative direction a n d framework f o r planning a n d a d m i n i s t e r i n g l e a s i n g , exploring, and developing Federal o f f s h o r e o i l a n d g a s lands. T h e major provisions of the two pieces of O C S l e g i s l a t i o n a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e following: --- authorized the S e c r e t a r y o f the Interior t o a d m i n i s t e r mineral exploration a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t o c o n s e r v e the natural resources o n t h e O C S ; established a n a t i o n a l policy for O C S d e v e l o p m e n t embracing a balance b e t w e e n t h e p o t e n t i a l s for environmental d a m a g e , d i s c o v e r y of o i l a n d g a s , a n d a d v e r s e impact on' t h e c o a s t a l z o n e ; -- required the Secretary o f t h e Interior to p r e p a r e a 5-year leasing plan f o r t h e t i m i n g a n d l o c a t i o n o f O C S l e a s e sales; -- directed the establishment of bidding s y s t e m s designed to promote competition a n d small c o m p a n y participation i n O C S lease sales a n d t o e n s u r e t h e p u b l i c a f a i r and equitable return from l e a s e s a l e s ; -- required appropriate c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i m p a c t s from O C S a c t i v i t i e s which might c a u s e d a m a g e t o the environment o r to p r o p e r t y , o r endanger l i f e and h e a l t h , and required t h e establishment o f f u n d s CRS- 2 IB81118 UPDATE-12/20/82 for defraying oil spill cleanup costs and damages resulting from O C S operation. --required participation by coastal State and local governments in O C S policy and planning decisions. -- called for regulation of OCS operations including a requirement that emphasis be placed on diligence i n exploration and development of leased lands. Several other pieces of legislation have applications and impacts on O C S oil and g a s operations. -- -- been enacted which have leasing developments, a n d T h e Fish and Wildlife Act of 1 9 5 6 , which established the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to s t u d y , protect, and manage the f i s h and wildlife resources under the U.S. jurisdiction. T h e Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1 9 7 6 , which established a 200-mile fishery conservation z o n e off U.S. coasts a n d g a v e to the U.S. exclusive management authority over fisheries within t h e zone. -- T h e National Environmental P o l i c y Act of 1 9 7 9 , which required draft environmental impact statements (DIES), hearings, and f i n a l environmental impact statements (FEIS) f o r a r e a s of leasing and actual leases. In t h i s connection, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is consulted o n all O C S environmental impact statements and may refer unsatisfactory F E I S to the C o u n c i l on Environmental Quality (CEQ). T h e C E Q reviews drafts and final environmental impact statements prepared by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) of the Department of the Interior (DOI) and considers EPA protests. -- T h e Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1 9 7 9 , which limited and controlled the discharge of o i l o r hazardous substances into or on navigable waters and requires EPA to issue National Pollutant ~i'scharge Elimination System permits for exploratory and developmental drilling involving such discharges. -- T h e Coastal Zone Management Act of 1 9 7 2 , which authorized the Secretary of Commerce to provide grants-in-aid to coastal States to encourage the establishment of management programs for uses o f land and water i n c o a s t a l a r e a s , and required consistency of Federal programs with approved State plans. This a c t was amended i n 1 9 7 6 to establish the Coastal Energy Impact F u n d f o r the purpose of ameliorating a d v e r s e impacts from O C S developments and making exploration and development activities which require Federal permits s u b j e c t to a coastal state's certification of consistency with i t s approved coastal z o n e management program. CRS- 3 -- IB81118 UPDATE-12/20/82 T h e Xarine P r o t e c t i o n , R e s e a r c h , and S a n c t u a r i e s Act of 1 9 7 2 , which authorized the Secretary of Commerce, a f t e r consultation with other appropriate agencies/departments of the Government a n d with the approval of the President, to designate a r e a s extending seaward a s far a s the outer edges of the O C S a s marine sanctuaries f o r preservation o r restoration d u e to their conservation, recreational, ecological, or esthetic values. The Secretary of Commerce is a participant i n the OCS advisory process a n d can i s s u e regulations which prohibit or control activities w i ~ h i n sanctuaries. -- T h e Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1 9 7 2 , which established the Marine Mammal Commission and assigned to the Secretaries of Commerce and the D O 1 responsibilities f o r protecting the i n t e r n a t i o n a l , e s t h e t i c , recreational and economic significance of marine mammals in danger of extinction o r depletion a s a result of man's activities. T h e legislation encourages the development of marine mammals and provides for maintaining the health and stability of the marine ecosystems of which they a r e a part. -- T h e Endangered Species Act of 1973, which required a l l Federal departments and agencies to utilize their authorities to conserve endangered species of fish, wildlife and plants facing extinction. O C S Responsibilities in the Federal Government Within t h e Federal Government, the DO1 has primary responsibility for OCS activities. Within the D O I , the Minerals Management S e r v i c e (MMS), assisted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) i s responsible f o r day-to-day OCS T h e F i s h a n d Wildlife Service a n d the National Park S e r v i c e are matters. responsible f o r assisting in areas of expertise. The responsibilities of the Secretary of Commerce, a s enumerated in the discussion of pertinent legislation a b o v e , a r e discharged by the National O c e a n i c and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). T h e Department of Transportation is inv-olved by virtue of t h e Coast Guard's responsibilities for safety and o i l spill clean-up. O t h e r Federal agencies involved include the Department of Energy, the S t a t e Department, the J u s t i c e Department, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Army C o r p of Engineers, all of which have mission-specific OCS responsibilities. T h e Secretary of the DO1 is responsible f o r coordinating the OCS of a l l Federal agencies. Oil and Natural Gas Resources on the U.S. OCS Large portions of the O C S lands have been designated a s having hydrocarbon (oil and gas) potential, but there is much uncertainty a s to the quantities of g a s and o i l and their locations on these lands. According to a report prepared by the USGS and released by t n e DO1 in February 1 9 8 1 , it is estimated that submerged l a n d s , both F e d e r a l and S t a t e , o u t to t h e 2,500 meter depth contour contain undiscovered recoverable r e s o u r c e s in t h e amount of 1 7 to 44 billion barrels o f o i l and 1 1 7 to 231 t r i l l i o n cubic f e e t of natural gas. Of a l l the O C S regions, Alaska appears to be the most promising in that i t comprises more than 56% of t h e total U.S. O C S acreage and is CRS- 4 IBslll8 U23ATS-12/20/62 e s t i m a t e d t o c o n t a i n a l m o s t 4 4 % o f t h e U.S. o f f s h o r e u n d i s c o v e r e d r e c o v e r a b l e o i l r e s o u r c e s and a b o u t 39% of t h e undiscovered n a t u r a l gas. A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e Gulf o f Mexico and S o u t h e r n California are the Gulf of Mexico l e a s e s o n l y OCS a r e a s w i t h c o m m e r c i a l o i l a n d g a s p r o d u c t i o n . c o n t r i b u t e e 95% of t h e 278.4 m i l l i o n barrels of o i l and 99% of the 40 t r i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t o f g a s p r o d u c e d o n t h e OCS i n 1 9 8 0 . In 1980, OCS g a s 9% of p r o d u c t i o n was a b o u t 2 3 % o f d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t i o n a n d OCS o i l was a b o u t domestic o i l production. L e a s i n g P o l i c y Under t h e O u t e r C o n t i n e n t a l Shelf 83-212) Lands Act of 1953 (P.L. During t h e f i r s t 16-year p e r i o d (1954-69) f o l i o w i n g t h e enactrnenc of the OCS L a n d s A c t o f 1 9 5 3 , l e a s i n g was concentrated ~n :he Gulf of Mexico. During t h i s p e r i o d , t h e r e were 17 s a l e s i n t h e Gulf of Mexico resulting in t h e l e a s i n g o f 5.27 m i l l i o n a c r e s out of 9.64 million offered. In the 2 s a l e s o f f t h e c o a s t of P a c i f i c d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d , t h e r e w e r e 4 s a l e s : Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1 s a l e off northern C a l i f o r n i a , and 1 sale o f f t h e coast of Washington/Oregon. T h e r e s u l t o f t h e s e 4 P a c i f i c s a l e s was t h e l e a s i n g o f GAO 1.26 m i l l i o n a c r e s o u t of 2.3 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f f e r e d . According to the R e p o r t t o t h e C o n g r e s s on i s s u e s i n l e a s i n g o f f s h o r e l a n d s f o r o i l and gas of Mar. 26, 198'), there were no formal lease d e v e l o p m e n t (END 8 1 - 5 9 was l i t t l e orderly planned scheduies, and for the most part, there d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e OCS d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . . B e g i n n i n g i n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 s , t h e D O 1 begaIi t o c a k e s t e p s t o increase the number of l e a s e s a n d t h e r e b y i n c r e a s e F e d e r a l r e t u r n s from t h e sale of OCS leases. A d d i t i o n a l e m p h a s i s was f o r t h c o m i n g i n 1 9 7 3 a n d 1 9 7 3 i n r e s p o n s e to t h e n a t i o n a l need t o o f f s e t t h e impact of t h e n a t i o n ' s growing energy c r i s i s . goals and During t h e p e r i o d from June 1971 through June 1979, OCS leasing schedules changed frequently. The g o a l s f o r t h e a v e r a g e number o f s a l e s per In terms of t h e y e a r r a n g e d from 2.7 i n J u n e of 1 9 7 1 t o 5.6 i n J u n e of 1979. acres a m o u n t o f OCS l a n d e x p e c t e d t o b e l e a s e d , t h e 1 9 7 1 g o a l w a s 1 m i l l i o n had grown to per year. By 1 9 7 5 , i n t e r e s t i n t h e OCS a s a s o u r c e o f e n e r g y set. Lease t h e e x t e n t t h a t a l e a s i n g g o a l of 1 0 m i l l i o n a c r e s p e r y e a r was S a l e s i n t h i s l a t t e r amount p e r y e a r have n o t y e t been achieved. During the a more inclusive 1 9 7 0 s , t h e f o c u s on l e a s i n g began t o shift somewhat to concept of i n c l u d i n g f r o n t i e r a r e a s o f t h e A t l a n t i c and Alaskan waters in a d d i t i o n t o a r e a s of t h e Gulf of Mexico and t h e P a c i f i c . L e a s i n g P o l i c y Under t h e O u t e r C o n t i n e n t a l S h e l f L a n d s A c t a s amended by O u t e r C o n t i n e n t a l S h e l f L a n d s A c t A m e n d m e n t s (OCSLAA) o f 1 9 7 8 the In June 1979, t h e f i r s t proposed 5-year l e a s i n g program, including l e a s i n g After a 1978. s c h e d u l e , was i s s u e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e OCSLAA o f S e p t e m b e r y e a r of r e v i e w by t h e Congress, t h e Executive Departments of :he Federal G o v e r n m e n t , a n d S t a t e a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e p l a n was i s s u e d i n J u n e i 9 8 0 1980 l e a s e sale schedule). ( s e e A p p e n d i x 111 f o r a c o p y o f t h e f i n a l J u n e Lease s a l e s i n 1981 and 1982 have been Conducted along the lines of the schedule proposed i n t h i s plan. A news r e l e a s e by t h e O f f i c e of t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r o n J a n . 11, 1982, summarized t h e accomplishments i n leasing lands in the OCS d u r i n g calender year 1981. These accomplishments a r e t a S u l a t e d below. CRS- 5 I281118 1 9 8 1 C a l e n d a r Y e a r OCS S t a t i s t i c s Area Saie Offered Acres Tracts 53 RS-1 A66 56 60 66 59 California Gulf of Alaska Gulf o f Mexico So. A t l a n t i c Cook I n l e t Gulf of Mexico Mid-Atlantic Totals Area Leased Acres Tracts Bonus Accepted CRS- 6 IB81118 UPDATE-12/20/82 T h e s a m e n e w s r e l e a s e by t h e O f f i c e of t h e I n t e r i o r o n Jan. 1 1 , 1982, i n c l u d e d a s u n m a r y of l e a s e s a l e s a c t i v i t y , p r o d u c t i o n , a n d r e c e i p t s f r o m OCS o i l and gas production from the year 1970 through 1981. This information is t a b u l a t e d below. CRS- 7 IB81118 UPDATE-12/20/82 OCS Program Statistics 1970-1981 NO. Year of Sales Acreage Offered Acreage Leased Tracts Leased CRS- 8 OCS P r o g r a m S t a t i s t i c s 1970-1991 (continuedj O i l Year & Condensate Produced (mbbl. ) Gas Produced (tcf) Bonus Received. (bil. $) Royalty Paid (bil. $) Kotes e = estimated USGS estimate (12/11/81) of o i l and g a s p r o d u c t i o n a s w e l l a s r o y a l t i e s i s b a s e d on 6 m o n t h s ' a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n o f o i l a n d 9 m o n t h s ' o f g a s . CRS- 9 IB81118 UPDATE-12/20/82 N o t e t h a t t h e s u m m a r y o f OCS l e a s i n g a c t i v i t y f o r 1 9 7 0 t h r o u g h 1981 does total rental not include rental receipts. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e MMS o f t h e D O I , r e c e i p t s f o r OCS o i l a n d g a s l a n d s w e r e between $0.19 billion and $0.23 b i l l i o n f o r each y e a r from 1976 through 1981. The t o t a l r e n t a l r e c e i p t s for 1 9 8 1 w e r e $ 0 . 2 2 b i l l i o n , a n d when a d d e d t o $ 6 . 6 0 b i l l i o n i n b o n u s e s a n d $ 3 . 2 3 billion i n royalties, the t o t a l receipts f o r the year 1 9 8 1 were a b o u t $10 billion. The A n n u a l R e p o r t f o r f i s c a l y e a r 1 9 8 1 , O u t e r C o n t i n e n t a l Shelf Leasing and Production Program, i s s u e d by t h e S e c r e t a r y of the i n A p r i l 1982, i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e number of acres in p r e s e n t l y u n d e r l e a s e a n d t h e n u m b e r o f a c t i v e l e a s e s i n t h e 4 OCS T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s t a b u l a t e d below. Gas OCS R e g i o n Totai Acres Under L e a s e and Interior t h e OCS regions. O i l Active Leases Atlantic Gulf of Mexico Offshore California Offshore Alaska Total A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r ' s r e p o r t o f A p r i l 1 9 8 2 , 59 o i l and g a s l e a s e s a l e s and one r e - o f f e r i n g s a l e have been h e l d on t h e OCS s i n c e t h e beginning of t h e program i n 1954. P r o d u c t i o n o f o i l a n d g a s i n t h e 4 OCS r e g i o n s d u r i n g 1 9 8 1 , a s r e p o r t e d i n t h e S e c r e t a r y ' s r e p o r t , a r e t a b u l a t e d below. OCS P r o d u c t i o n F i s c a l Year 1 9 8 1 Alaska O i l and condensate (thousands of bbls. ) Gas (million cu. ft.) 0 Number o f p r o d u c i n g o i l wells 0 Number o f p r o d u c i n g gas wells 0 Atlantic Gulf of Mexico Pacific Total T h e latest issue of "Outer Continental S h e l f Statistics" (June 1981) -- a compilation of statistics o n O C S o i l , g a s , s u l p h u r , a n d s a l t l e a s i n g , drilling, production, and i n c o m e -- stated t h a t a b o u t 5.4 billion barrels of oil a n d condensate, and 48.6 trillion cubic f e e t of gas have been produced in the O C S from 1 9 5 4 through 1980. Revenue from t h i s production amounted to a b o u t $41.3 billion. When t h i s amount of $41.3 billion from previous years i s added to the approximately $ 1 0 billion r e a l i z e d in 1 9 6 1 , total revenue from oil and gas production in the OCS i s a b o u t $51.3 billion over the period from 1 9 5 4 through 1981. CURRENT I S S U E S Leasing policy Section 1 8 of t h e OCSLAA reqcires the S e c r e t a r y o f the Interior to prepare and periodically revise a n d to maintain an o i l a n d gas leasing program to to implement the policies of t h e Act. T h e l e a s i n g program is required Consist of a schedule of proposed lease sales indicating, a s precisely as p o s s i b l e , the s i z e , t i m i n g , a n d location o f leasing activity which the Secretary determines will best meet national energy needs for the 5-year period following approval o r reapproval of t h e plan. T h e Secretary is required to review t h e existing plan at least annually. T h e required a n n u a l review o f the 5-year program of J u n e 1 9 8 0 was completed and a proposed n e w 5-year leasing program, inclueing a leasing s c h e d u l e , was announced i n l a t e July 1981. T h e proposed new 5-year leasing program called f o r 4 2 lease sales in a 5-year period (1982-86) fcr a n average i s considered a substantial increase in leasing rate. o f 8 Offerings a year. In testimony before t h e Subcommittee on P a n a m a Canal/Outer Continental Shelf of the House Merchant Marine and F i s h e r i e s Committee o n Ocz. 28, 1 9 8 1 , a representative of t h e D O 1 summarized the process by which the rate of leasing would be increased. According to t h e t e s t i m o n y , the increased pace o f leasing i s considered possible mainly on t h e basis of plans to streamline two component of t n e pre-sale planning process. One element of the streamlining process i n v o l v e s issuing t h e proposed notice of sale and asking S t a t e governors for their comments o n the s i z e , t i m i n g , and location of the proposal during the s a m e month i n which t h e final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is issued. T h e practice h a s been to issue the proposed n o t i c e of sale two months after t h e EIS for t h e f i n a l sale h a s been prepared. Additionally, t h e D e p a r t m e n t of Energy (DOE) would be requested to conduct i t s required review of the l e a s e terms and o t h e r conditions a t the same cime the S t a t e officials a r e preparing their comments. These steps a r e expected t o r e s u l t in a time saving of approximately t h r e e months. T h e second element o f t h e streamlining effort i n v o l v e s substantive changes in preparation for sales and composition of sales. Instead o f studying the offering of a relatively Small nunber o f t r a c t s , entire p l a n n i n g areas will be considered. T h e approach i s delineated below. 1. Instead o f t h e previously used call f o r nomination of tracts by potential bidders, there will be a call for information. In response to the call f o r information, potential bidders will be expected t o o u t l i n e broad a r e a s where they believe h y d r o c a r b o n s . m a y o c c u r and where they h a v e interest i n leasing instead of nominating specific tracts. S t a t e s , environmental organizations, and others will have the same opportunities to comment. - 2. The " T e n t a t i v e Tract Selection," currently used t o determine t h e specific tracts t o be studied i n t h e E I S , w i l l be eliminated in f a v o r of "Area Identification." T h e " A r e a Identifications" designated by potential bidders will b e used a s a basis f o r eliminating portions of the planning a r e a -- such a s military considered i n c o m p a t i b l e with o i l and gas development operational a r e a s -- and for i d e n t i f y i n g f a v o r a b l e g e o l o g i c areas. T h i s will take into a c c o u n t t h e c o l l e c t i v e judgement of t h e oil and g a s industry and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). T h e E I S w i l l be prepared o n the e n t i r e planning area. 3. The EIS prepared for t h e f i r s t o f f e r i n g i n a planning area under the new concept w i l l emphasize a n a l y s i s , rather than d e s c r i p t i o n , and the aggregate of exploration and d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y that might occur w i t h i n t h e entire planning a r e a , if a l l the r e s o u r c e s in the planning a r e a a r s developed. T h i s analysis c a n b e g i n , in s o m e i n s t a n c e s , a year before the "Call for I n f o r m a t i o n w i s issued. T h e d o c u m e n t required by the National Environmental P o l i c y Act (NEPA) prepared f o r t h e second area-wide offering in a n area will u p d a t e the EIS f o r t h e f i r s t offering with information t h a t h a s become available since the f i r s t document w a s prepared. It i s expected that :he second d o c u m e n t will be s h o r t e r and take l e s s time to prepare t h a n the initial planning-area EIS. 4. T h e environmental s t u d i e s program o f t h e Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the r e g i o n a l g e o h a z a r d s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of t h e U S G S will be phased information a p p r o p r i a t e to to provide a l e v e l of detail i n environmental decisions a t each step i n t h e process. These p r o g r a m s will stress large-scale reconnaissance s t u d i e s a n 2 w i l l emphasize g r e a t e r use of existing infgrmation. 5. Geohazard information o n s p e c i f i c t r a c t s , f o r m e r l y collected before lease sales, w i l l n o longer be gathered by the Federal Government for u s e in tract selection decisions. I n s t e a d , r e g i o n a l geohazard s t u d i e s will be used in making sale decisions. T h e more d e t a i l e d geohazard information o n specific tracts required o f l e s s e e s prior to a p p r o v a l of e x p l o r a t i o n , development, a n d production plans together with regional information from the USGS and/or M M S w i l l b e used t o make sure that proposed operations a r e properly designed a n d safe. 6. Existing and updated hydrocarbon r e s o u r c e estimates will be used in the analysis i n t h e EIS for t h e broad planning a r e a s i n s t e a d of preparing n e w estimates for specific tracts scattered o v e r a n a r e a a s has been the past practice. T h e u s e o f existing hydrocarbon resource a s s e s s m e n t s w i l l permit t h e ccmmencement of analytical work i m m e d i a t e l y following adoption t o the proposed leasing plan. 7. The e s t i m a t e s of i n d i v i d u a l t r a c t v a l u e s will be completed a f t e r t h e sale rather than before it. T h i s will a l l o w evaluation o f o n l y those tracts receiving bids instead of a l l t r a c t s offered f o r lease. W h i l e the USGS w i l l continue to e v a l u a t e a l l proven d e v e l o p m e n t a n d drainage tracts, t e c h n i q u e s a r e under d e v e l o p m e n t which w i l l a l l o w a s s u r a n c e of receipt of f a i r m a r k e t value for O C S l e a s e rights w i t h o u t evaluating every tract receiving a bid. According to t h e testimony o f t h e w i t n e s s from the Department of the Interior, t h e s e techniques a r e based on a recognition the f u n d a m e n t a l soundness of t h e s e a l e d , c o m p e t i t i v e bidding process tablished by the Congress and o n t h e potential g a i n s i n government efficiency that c a n be realized if a carefully selected portion o f t r a c t s d r a w i n g bids i s reviewed. T h e Department o f t h e Interior r e p r e s e n t a t i v e noted that t h e evaluation of a sample of the bids w i l l be a d e q u a t e b a c k u p for the competitive bidding process, just a s t h e I R S audit of only a portion of tax returns i s efficient a n d adequate i n a s s u r i n g proper payment of taxes. The Department expects t h a t t h e indicated c h a n g e s will make t h e evaluation much more efficient. T h e period f o r p u b l i c comment on t h e proposed n e w 5-year plan closed o n Oct. 2 2 , 1 9 8 1 , with 96 comments filed by that date. T h e States of X h o d e I s l a n d , P e n n s y l v a n i a , Maryland, North Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana, and T e x a s supported the proposed n e w schedule. T h e States of Maine, California, a n d Alaska responded With strong opposition to the proposed plan. Most coastal States complained t h a t t h e streamlining discussed a b o v e would reduce their r o l e s in planning O C S sales. One governor of a n east cost S t a t e said that i t i s difficult t o see how a n adequate evaluation of the issues will be possible i f the Federal EIS i s published at t h e same time a s the proposed notice c f sale. T h e s a m e governor also questioned the wisdon of ti program that promotes basinwide o i l a n d gas leasing of tracts near fishing and recreation 03s areas. Local governments raised questions about the effects of a c t i v i t i e s o n s u b s i s t e n c e lifestyles and about proposed budget reduction in t h e environmental s t u d i e s program. Comments from t h e o i l and gas industry g a v e qualified support to the proposed n e w 5-year plan. There was a concern that many small and medium-sized c o m p a n i e s will not have the resources to gather and evaluate t h e information necessary to bid on vast Industry members a l s o feared that t h e supply of capital, machinery, and manpower was insufficient to develop t h e h u g e a c r e a g e t h a t was planned to be offered. T h e proposed plan envisioned offering a b o u t 200 million acres of the O C S per year for a total of 1 billion a c r e s during t h e 5-year span of the plan. F u r t h e r , industry felt t h a t because manpower a n d capital resources would be spread over such large a r e a s , tracts would n o t b e w e l l evaluated and prospective a r e a s might be g l o s s e d over. , Among t h e departments and agencies o f the Federal Government, t h e Department of Energy and t h e Department of Defense support the proposed new plan of leasing. T h e National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration objected to t h e elimination of tract selection because of t h e need f o r specific information o n tracts for environmental assessment work. T h e State o f California and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), both o f which o p p o s e d t h e n e w proposed leasing plan, were successful in a l a w s u i t brought a g a i n s t the OCS leasing plan which had been approved in 1980. O n Oct. 6 , 1 9 8 1 , t h e U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled t h a t the previous O C S leasing plan of 1980 did not Comply with t h e OCS Lands Act and ordered the plan returned to t h e DO1 for revision. T h e court noted t h a t the plan failed to: identify 2 offshore California sales with a d e q u a t e specificity; consider t h e need to share benefits a n d risks of the plan a m o n g a l l O C S r e g i o n s ; consider the relative environmental sensitivities o f different O C S a r e a s ; strike a proper balance between environmental f a c t o r s a n d economic f a c t o r s such a s oil and g a s potential. In returning the 1980 plan f o r r e v i s i o n , t h e court noted that the Secretary of the Interior i s revising t h e program plan ( i - e . , preparing a revised 5-year plan of leasing). In the process o f modifying its proposed new 5-year leasing plan to m e e t t h e Appeals Court o r d e r , the DO1 asked the court to allow sharply limited review of the plan. T h e Court ruled o n t h e DOI's request on Jan. 1 9 , 1982. T h e court order required t h e D e p a r t m e n t of the Interior t o announce o n or a b o u t Mar. 15, based on consideration o f all 1 9 8 2 , a tentative proposed final program f a c t o r s i n s e c t l o n s 1 6 i a ) ( C ) a n d ( a ) 0 )o f t h e OCS L a n d s A c t . These s e c t i o n s o f t h e 3CS L a n d s A c t g o v e r n the balancing of OCS development risks apd benefits. The C o u r t r e q u i r e d the showing of new data which have been c o n s i d e r e d i n p r e p a r i n g t h e proposed l e a s i n g p l a n and t h e method of a n a l y z i n g F o l l o w i n g a p u b l i c comment p e r i o d , t h e D O 1 a n n o u n c e d a proposed t h e s e data. 1982, and submitted the program to the f i n a l l e a s i n g p r o g r a m o n Nay 7 , 21, President and t h e Congress. T h e f i n a l 5 - y e a r p l a n was a n n o u n c e d o n J u l y 1 3 9 2 , a n d i s shown i n A p p e n d i x 111. T h e new p l a n c a l l s f o r 4 1 s a l e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e f r o m A u g u s t 1 9 8 2 was t h r o u g h J u n e 4 9 8 7 , t h e s a m e n u m b e r o f s a l e s p r o p o s e d i n t h e p l a n when i t s u b m i t t e d t o t h e C o n g r e s s i n May 1 9 8 2 . However, changes were made in the t i n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s a l e s . The p l a n e m p h a s i z e s f r o n t i e r a n d high-potential a r e a s o f f s h o r e A l a s k a -- 1 6 o f t h e 4 1 s a i e s a r e o n = h e A l a s k a n O C S . The American P e t r o l e u m I n s t i t u t e i s r e p o r t e d t o Lave welcome5 the new ever aciopted in the 28-year 5-year p l a n as " t h e most p r o g r e s s i v e program h i s t o r y o f f e d e r a l l e a s i n g " o f t h e OCS. The i n d u s t r y g r o u p feels that the between environmental protection and resource program achieves a balance n a t i o n a l and economic s e c u r i t y . development and w i l l strengthen t h e U.S. H o w e v e r , t h e new 5 - y e a r p l a n h a s been challenged in the Conqress and elsewhere. Bouse a n d S e n a t e r e s o l u t i o n s (Ei.J.Res. 545 a n d S . J . R e s . 2 i 6 ) h a v e been i n t r o d u c e d t o p r o h i b i t t h e Department of t h e I n t e r i o r from implementing t h e plan u n t i l t h e Secretary has taken c e r t a i n a c t i o n s t o confcrm t h e plan t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e OCS L a n d s A c t . The S t a t e s o f A l a s k a a n d C a l i f o r n i a f i l e d s u i t s against the leasing schedule i n the U.S. Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia on July 22, 1982. The latter action essentialJy continues a l a w s u i t o f 1 9 8 1 i n which a d j u s t m e n ~ s were sought to certain environmental deficiencies. Plaintiffs also include the National Resources Defense C o u n c i l , t h e S i e r r a Club, and t h e North S l o p e Borough ( A l a s k a ) . Revenue Sharing 4 s n o t e d a S o v e , o i l a n d g a s p r o d u c e d o n t h e OCS h a v e b e e n the source of some $ 4 1 b i l l i o n f r o m t h e t i m e o f t h e i n c e p t i o n of t h e l e a s i n g p r o g r a m i n t h e $10 e a r l y 1950s through 1981. Revenue from t h i s s o u r c e i n 1 9 8 1 &as a b o u t b i l l i o n a n d p r o j e c t i o n s by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n t e r i o r for FY83, FY84, and as FY85 a r e $ 1 5 . 7 , $ 1 6 . 8 a n d $ 1 7 . 2 b i l l i o n , respectiveiy. The OCSDA A c t a m e n d e d b y t h e OCSLAA of 1978 require that revenues from all rentals, in r o y a l c i e s , a n d o t h e r s u m s d e r i v e d f r o m a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e OCS b e d e p o s i t e d laws the Treasury and c r e d i t e d t o miscellaneous receipts. However, other d e s i g n a t e c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c uses o f revenues d e r i v e d from o i l and gas produced have been introduced which i n t h e OCS. S t i l l o t h e r legislative p r o p o s a l s w o u l d d e s i g n a t e a l l o c a t i o n s o f r e v e n u e s f r o m t h e OCS t o coastai States and 4597, H.R. 5063, f o r other purposes. These p r o p o s a l s include S. 2129, H.2. H.R. 5134, and H.R. 5543, which are summarized under the "legislation" OCS section of t h i s i s s u e b r i e f . T h e laws w h i c h c u r r e n t l y d e s i g n a t e u s e s o f revenues a r e d i s c u s s e d below. The Land a n d Water C o n s e r v a t i o n Fund Act o f 1 9 6 5 as amended (79 S t a t . 213, 8 2 S t a t . 3 5 4 , 8 5 S t a t . 4 5 9 , 9 0 S t a t . 3 7 5 , 1 3 1 3 , 9 1 S t a t . 2 1 0 ) was e n a c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of a s s i s t i n g i n d e v e l o p i n g and preserving outdoor recreation the resources. These p u r p o s e s a r e accomplished by p r o v i d i n g f u n d s t o assist S t a t e s i n planning, acquiring, and developing needed land and water a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s , a n d by p r o v i d i n g f u n d s f o r F e d e r a l a c q u i s i t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f sale of scrplus c e r t a i n lands and o t h e r areas. Sums realized from the government p r o p e r t y and from motor Boat f u e l t a x e s were d e s i g n a t e d as two law authorized annual sources of monies f o r t h e fund. In addition, the a p p r c p r i a t i o n s o u t o f a n y money i n t h e T r e a s u r y , n o t o t h e r w i s e appropriated, as amounts t o make t h e income o f t h e f u n d n o t less than $300 million for f i s c a l y e a r 1 9 7 7 , a n d $900 m i l l i o n f o r f i s c a l y e a r 1978 a n d f o r each fiscal year thereafter through Sept. 30, 1989. To the extent that the sums a p p r o p r i a t e d a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o make t h e t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f u n d e q u i v a l e n t Act requires t o t h e a m o u n t s i n d i c a t e d , t h e L a n d a n d Water C o n s e r v a t i o n F u n d a n amount s u f f i c i e n t t o cover t h e remainder t o be c r e d i t e d t o t h e fund from t h e revenues due and payable t o the Treasury a s miscellaneous receipts under OCS Lands ~ c t . The amounts c o n t r i b u t e d to the Land and Water the C o n s e r v a t i o n Fund from f i s c a l y e a r 1 9 7 1 t h r o u g h 1981 are t a b u l a t e d below. OCS r e v e n u e s in m i l l i o n s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e L a n d a n d W a t e r Conservation Fund FY71-81* (millions) Year Amount 1976 (Transition year) *Source: Year Amount= 41 O f f i c e of B u d g e t , D e p a r t m e n t of the I n t e r i o r , A p r i l 1 9 8 2 . X e Eistorical Preservation Act (80 Stat. 9 1 5 , 84 Stat. 2 0 4 , 8 7 Stat. 3 4 , 6 7 , 94 Stat 458) a u t h o r i z e d t h e 1 3 9 , 50 Stat. 1 3 1 3 , i 9 3 9 , 9 2 Stat. Secretary of the Interior to maintain a n a t i o n a l register o f d i s t r i c t s , sites, buildings, a n d objects significant i n American h i s t o r y , a r c h i t e c t u r e , archeology, and c u l t u r e , and to establish a program of matching grant-in-aid to the National T r u s t f o r Historic Preservation i n t h e United States. The National Trust f o r Historic Preservation was chartered by a n Act of Congress on Oct. 26, 1949 (63 Stat. 927). The National Historic Preservation Act a l s o established t h e Historic Preservation Fund to carry out i t s provisions. T h e Act provided that t h e func? should have $24.4 million for fiscal year 1 9 7 7 , $ 1 0 0 million f o r f i s c a l year 1 9 7 8 , $100 inilllon for fiscal year 1 9 7 9 , $150 million for fiscal y e a r 1 9 8 0 , and $150 million for fiscal 1 9 8 1 , from r e v e n u e s payable to the U.S. T h e a m o u n t s of O C S revenues transferred to Treasury under the O C S Lands ACK. the Historic Preservation Fund each year from 1 9 7 7 through 1 9 8 1 a r e tabulated Delow. O C S revenues i n millions transferred to t h e Historical Preservation Fund 1977 throush 1981% (miliions) Year *Source: Amount O f f i c e of B u d g e t , D e p a r t m e n t cf t h e I n t e r i o r , A p r i l 1 9 8 2 . LEGISLATION H.J.Res. 300 (Forsythe e t a l . ) P r o v i d e s f o r t h e removal of r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t impede o r c o n s t r a i n leasing and development of energy resources and s t r a t e g i c and c r i t i c a l material resources on public lands, t h e Outer Continental S h e l f , and o t h e r l a n d s that c o n t a i n r e s o u r c e s under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e F e d e r a l Government. Introduced jointly t o Committees on Agriculture, o n Armed J u n e 2 5 , 1981; r e f e r r e d S e r v i c e s , o n E n e r g y a n d Commerce, on I n t e r i o r a n d Insular Affairs, a n d on Herchant Marine and Fisheries. H.J.Res. 545 (Studds e t al.) The r e s o l u t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l t o S.J.Res. 216. Introduced r e f e r r e d j o i n t l y t o Committees on Interior and Insular Kerchant Marine and Fisheries. H.R. 85 July 22, 1982; A f f a i r s a n d on (Biaggi et al.) Provides a comprehensive system of liability and compensation for O i l s p i l l damage a n d r e m o v a l costs. Introduced Jan. 5, 1981; referred t3 Committees on Merchant Marine and F i s h e r i e s , on Public Works and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d o n Ways a n d M e a n s . H.R. 164 (Clausen)/H.R. 1267 ( P a n e t t a e t al.) D i r e c t s t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e DO1 t o r e t a i n s p e c i f i e d l a n d s w i t h i n t h e OCS extending from Point Concepcion i n t h e south t o t h e California-Oregon border i n t h e n o r t h and extending seaward as a n a t i o n a l reserve for o i l and gas production. H.R. 164 introduced Jan. 5 , 1981; H.R. 1267 introduced Jan. 23, 1981. Both b i l l s were r e f e r r e d t o Committee on I n t e r i o r and I n s u l a r A f f a i r s . H.R. 2792, (Forsythe et al.) Amends title I V of t h e OCSLAA, provisions. I n t r o d u c e d Mar. 2 4 , 1 9 8 1 . H.R. 4597 the Fisherman's Contingency Fund (Jones) T i t l e s I a n d I1 amend t h e 1 9 5 3 O u t e r C o n t i n e n t a l S h e l f L a n d s A c t and t h e 1 9 7 8 O u t e r C o n t i n e n t a l S h e l f Lands A c t Amendments t o r e v i s e p e r m i t s and o i l for exploration. T i t l e I11 amends the Federal/State and g a s leases coordination f o r the permitting procedures outlined i n section 307(c) (3) of t h e 1 9 7 2 C o a s t a l Zone Management A c t . T i t l e I V would e s t a b l i s h a n Ocean and grants C o a s t a l R e s o u r c e Management Fund t o p r o v i d e c o a s t a l S t a t e s w i t 1 1 b l o c k f o r use i n c o a s t a l z o n e management activities, coastal energy impact programs, sea g r a n t a c t i v i t i e s , and f i s h e r y programs. The Fund would be f i n a n c e d by 5% o f t h e r e v e n u e s ( f r o m r e n t s , r O Y a l t i e S , and o t h e r sources) f r o m t h e OCS l e a s i n g p r o g r a m , a n d t h e l i m i t o f r e v e n u e s g o i n g i n t o t h e Fund would be $300 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y . T h e Commerce S e c r e t a r y w o u l d a d m i n i s t e r t h e F u n d , a n d may r e q u i r e m a t c h i n g S t a t e s h a r e s n o t t o e x c e e d 2 5 % f o r t h e block g r a n t program. The Commerce S e c r e t a r y w o u l d d e v e l o p a f o r m u l a for the allocation of t h e block grants t o t h e coastal States. The S e c r e t a r y w i l l make a v a i l a b l e 3 0 % o f t h e amount of the block grants for activities, including the coastal energy impact program, authorized by C Z M A , 1 0 % for the S e a Grant p r o g r a m , and 1 0 % for fishery programs. Introduced Sept. 2 5 , 1981. Referred to House Committees o n Interior and Insular A f f a i r s , and on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. H.R. 5063 (Patman) T h e proposed legislation would provide that a certain a m o u n t of revenues received by the United S t a t e s under leases o n t h e OCS would be used to a c q u i r e petroleum products for the strategic petroleum reserve and strategic and critical materials f o r the national defense stockpile. T h i s would be seq.) achieved by a m e n d i n g section 9 of the O C S L a n d s Act (43 USC 1 3 3 8 et T h e proposed amendment would provide that for each fiscal year a n a m o u n t equal to the difference between t h e aggregate revenues from the O C S paid to the Treasury a s required by other laws shall be deposited ln the Treasury. Of the a m o u n t , 80% shall be deposited in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Petroleum a c c o u n t , and 2 0 % i n t h e National D e f e n s e Stockpile Transaction Fund. Introduced Nov. 2 0 , 1 9 8 1 ; referred to Committees on Interior and Insular Affairs, Energy and Commerce, Armed S e r v i c e s , and Rules. H.R. 5 1 3 4 (Patman) T h e proposed legislation would provide that a certain amount of revenues received by the United S t a t e s under leases o n t h e OCS would b e used to a c q u i r e strategic a n d critical materials f o r t h e national defense stockpile. T h i s would b e achieved by a m e n d i n g section 9 of t h e O C S Lands Act (43 USC 1338).. T h e proposed amendment would provide t h a t for each fiscal y e a r , an a m o u n t equal to the difference between t h e a g g r e g a t e revenues from t h e OCS paid to the Secretary of t h e Interior o r t h e Secretary of the Navy under any l e a s e o n t h e O C S a n d the a g g r e g a t e a m o u n t s of such revenues deposited in other a c c o u n t s of t h e Treasury a s required by o t h e r laws shall b e deposited in the Treasury. Of the a m o u n t , 20% shall be deposited in t h e national be deposited in d e f e n s e stockpile transaction f u n d , and 80% shall miscellaneous receipts account. Introduced Dec. 8 , 1 9 8 1 ; referred to Comrr,ittees o n Interior and Insular A f f a i r s , Armed S e r v i c e s , and Rules. H.R. 5543 (Jones et al.) Establishes the Ocean and C o a s t a l R e s o u r c e s Management and Development Fund i n o r d e r to provide coastal States with block grants for s c e a n and coastal resources management and development. T h e block grant program would be financed by 1 0 % of O C S oil a n d gas r e v e n u e s , with a n annual financing ceiling of $ 3 0 0 million. T h e block grant program would be used to fund coastal z o n e management programs, the coastal z o n e energy impact program, and the national sea grant college program. T h e Commerce Secretary would administer t h e program and would be required to u s e a t l e a s t 4 0 % of the block grants for activities under the 1 9 7 2 Coastal Z o n e Management Act. Measure introduced Feb. 2 2 , 1 9 8 2 ; reported to H o u s e (H.Rept. 97-628) from Committee o n Merchant Marine a n d Fisheries o n J u n e 29. H o u s e debated measure September 22. Measure passed House September 29. H.R. 5 9 0 6 (Studds) Amends the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act of 1 9 7 8 , Title 1 1 1 , to i n c r e a s e the scope of liability of o w n e r s and operators of offshore facilities. Measure introduced Mar. 1 8 , 1982. Reported to House (H.Rept. 97-861) from the Committee o n Merchant Marine a n d Fisheries on Sept. 23, 1982. Measure passed House Dec. 1 2 , 1982. H.2. 6 3 6 5 (Panetta et 21.) The proposed legislation would not a l l o w t h e Secretary o f the Interior to i s s u e oil and g a s l e a s e s , g r a n t certain l i c e n s e s and p e r m i t s , a p p r o v e c e r t a i n plans wizh r e s p e c t to a geographical a r e a located in the P a c i f i c O c e a n off che coastline of t h e State of California, u n t i l Jan. 1 , 2000. Introduced May 1 2 , 1982; referred to Committee on interi'or a n d Insular Affairs. H.R. 7 3 5 6 (Yates) Interior D e p a r t m e n t FY83 a p p r o p r i a t i o n s bill. Measure introduced Dec. 2, House, 198.2. Leasure reported (H.Rept. 97-942) D e c e m b e r 2. M e a s u r e passed a m e n d e d , December 3 and passed Senate, amended, 9ecemDer 14. The House-passed version of the bill prphibited t h e use of Interior D e p a r t m e n t f u n d s for the l e a s i n g and development of t h e O C S off the c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n Coasts of C a l i f o r n i a , and 6 0 mid-Atlantic O C S canyon hear! tracts. The -Senate-passed bill would ban drilling in f o u r O C S basins off California P O L K ~Arena, B o d e g a , Santa C r u z , and Eel River. S.J.Res. 2 1 6 (Kennedy) T h e resolution would prohibit the Secretary of t h e Interior from implementing t h e 5-year OCS o i l and gas l e a s i n g plan until the Secretary h a s taken certain a c t i o n s to conform the plan to t h e purposes a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s of a p p l i c a b l e law. Introduced J u l y 22, 1 9 8 2 ; referred to C o m m i t t e e o n Energy and Natural Resources. S. 2 1 2 9 (Mitchell) Establishes a n Ocean and C o a s t a l R e s o u r c e s Management a n d Development F u n d t o provide c o a s t a l States with block g r a n t s for u s e in c o a s t a l z o n e management a c t i v i t i e s , coastal energy i m p a c t programs, l i v i n g marine r e s o u r c e proqrams, and natural resources enhancement a n d management. T h e Fund w o u l d be financed by 1 0 % of revenues from O C S o i l a n d gas l e a s i n g , and the l i m i t o f f u n d s going i n t o t h e Fund would be $ 3 0 0 million a n n u a l l y . The Commerce Secretary would administer the F u n d , and would a l l o c a t e m o n i e s to the c o a s t a l States a c c o r d i n g to a formula. T h e S e c r e t a r y would m a k e available 4 0 % of each State block g r a n t for a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g the, c o a s t a l energy impact p r o g r a m , a u t h o r i z e d by CZKA. T h e Secretary .would make a v a i l a b l e 20% of each S t a t e block g r a n t f o r the enhancement a n d management of living m a r i n e resources. T h e Secretary would use 10-20% of the f u n d s for carrying o u t t h e National S e a G r a n t College Program. In o r d e r to r e c e i v e a block grant, a S t a t e must s u b m i t a n annual report to t h e Commerce Secretary. Measure introduced Feb. 2 3 , 1 9 8 2 ; referred to S e n a t e Committee o n C o m m e r c e , S c i e n c e , a n d Transportation. HEARINGS U.S. Congress. House. Committee o n G o v e r n m e n t Operations. S u b c o m m i t t e e o n Offshore Leasing: Department of t h e Interior Oversight. Hearings, 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Apr. 1 and 2 8 , 1981. Washington. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. U.S. Congress. House. Committee o n Merchant Marine a n d Fisheries. Subcommittee on Oceanography. Oceanography miscellaneous -- part 2 -- outer continental shelf drilling activities oversight. Aug. 2 6 , 1980. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 1980. ----- Oceanography miscellaneous -- part 1 , drilling mud research oversight. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. Mar. 3 , 1980. Washington. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. Subcommittee on the Panama Canal/Outer Continental Shelf. Provisions of the OCSLA concerning interrelationships of Federal and State Governments in the decisionmaking process and the importance of the OCS on the Coastal Zone. Hearings, 97th Congress, 1st session. Mar. 2 6 , 3 1 , and May 5 , 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print Off., 1981. "Serial no. 97-6" U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee on the Ouier Continental Shelf. OCS oversight of 1978 amendments -- part 1 , Oversight on the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act amendments of 1978. Hearings held Mar. 8 , 1 4 , 2 0 , May 7 , 1 4 , 1979. ----- -- OCS Oversight of 1 9 7 8 Amendments part 2 , Oversight on the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act amendments of 1978. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1 s t session. Washingtcn, U.S. Govt., Print. Off. 1979. Hearings held July 9 , 2 3 , Aug. 1 , Sept. 1 7 , 1 9 7 9 , Washington, D.C.; Aug. 2 9 , 30, 1 9 7 9 , San Francisco, California. ----- OCS oversight of the 1978 amendments -- part 4, Oversight o n the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978. Hearings, 96th Congress, 2d session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 6 0 4 p. Hearings held Oct. 1 9 , Nov. 1 4 , 1 5 , Dec. 4 , 1 9 7 9 ; Feb. 6 , Apr. 1 5 , 2 9 , 3 0 , May 1 5 , 1980. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. Subcommittee on Energy and Natural Resources. S. 2119, a bill to protect the fisheries resources on the Georges Bank and for other purposes. Hearings, 96th Congress, 2d session. Mar. 2 5 , 1980. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. (Energy Committee Publication No. 96-96) U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Supply. Proposed 5-year plan for oil and gas development in the outer continental shelf. (Review the Secretary of the Interior's proposed 5-year plan for oil and gas development in the Outer Continental Shelf pursuant to the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978, Public Law 95-372 (43 U.S. L801). Hearings, 97th Congress, 1st session, Oct. 6 , 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. U.S. Congress. Resources. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Subcommittee on Znergy Resources and Material. -- Outer Continentai Shelf a n d G a s Leasing program proposed 5-year O C S O i l and G a s L e a s i n g program. Hearings, 96th Congress, 2d session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. Mar. 1 8 and 1 9 , 1980. U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee o n Small Business, Committee on Commerce, S c i e n c e and Transportation, S u b c o m m i t t e e on Energy Resources. Impact of the offshore o i l and g a s development o n the Georges Bank. Hearings, 9 6 t h Congress, 2d session. Feb. 2 9 , 1980. Washington, U.S. G o v t Print. Off., 1980. REPORTS AND CONGRESSIONAL DOCUMENTS U.S. Congress. Hcuse. C o m m i t t e e on Merchant Marines and Fisheries. Ocean and C o a s t a l Resources Management and Development Block Grant Act. Report to accompany H.R. 5543. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. 8 0 p. (97th C o n g r e s s , 2d session. House. Report no. 97-628) U.S. Congress. House. Select Committee o n t h e Outer Continental Shelf. O f f s h o r e oil and gas: the five-year leasing program and implementation of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. At head of title: 9 6 t h Congress, H o u s e Report no. 96-1214, Union Calendar no. 755. U.S. General Accounting Office. Issues in Leasing Offshore L a n d s for O i l and Gas Development; R e p o r t to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States. Washington Mar. 2 6 , 1981. (EMD 81-59) U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. O n s h o r e a n d Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing and Operations. Report no. 82-111 by William H. H y m e s , Washington, 1982.' 5 7 p. CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS 07/22/82 -- States of Alaska, California, and several environmental groups filed suit against the O C S leasing plan which was announced by t h e Secretary of the Interior on July 21. 07/21/82 -- Secretary of the Interior announced approval of a n e w 5-year leasing plan f o r OCS o i l and gas. 05/20/82 -- H.R. 5 5 4 3 , a bill t o share O C S revenues with coastal S t a t e s , was voted o u t by the House Committee o n Merchant Marines a n d Fisheries. 05/06/82 -- T h e Secretary of t h e Interior submitted a proposed final 5-year leasing program to the Congress and the President. 03/15/~2 -- The S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r i s s u e d a p r o p o s e d r e v l s e d 5 - y e a r p l a n o n l e a s i n g OCS l a n d s f o r c o m m e n t s . 01/19/82 -- U.S. C o u r t of A p p e a l s f o r t 5 e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a , i n a s e c o n d r u l i n g o n :he p r o p o s e d f ~ v e - y e a r OCS l e a s i n g p l a n , approved an a l t e r n a t i v e schedule t h a t allows t h e D e p a r t r c e n t o f c h e I n t e r i o r t o a p p r o v e a p l a n by t h e m i d d l e of J u l y , 1 9 8 2 . 11/13/81 -- D e p a r t m e n t o f C u s t i c e , on b e h a l f o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r , r e q u e s t e d t h e U.S. C o u r t o f A p p e a l s o f t h e D i s t r i c t of Columbia t o c l a r i f y i t s r u l i n g cf O c t . 6 , 1 9 8 1 , on t h e 1 9 8 0 a p p r o v e d OCS l e a s i n g p l a n i n o r d e r t h a t t h e Department cf t h e I n r e r i o r w i l l be a S l e t o e f f e c t a p p r o p r i a t e c h a n g e s i n t h e p r o p o s e d new p l a n . 10/06/61 -- U.S. C o u r t o f A p p e a l s o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a r u l e d t h a t t h e OCS l e a s i n g p l a n a p p r o v e d i n 1 9 8 0 d i d n o t c o m p l y w i t h t h e OCS L a n d s A c t a n d o r d e r e d chat t h e p l a n b e r e t u r n e d t o t h e Department of t h e I n t e r i o r f o r r e v i s i o n . l0/22/81 -- C o m m e n t s o n t h e p r o p o s e d new OCS l e a s i n g p l a n w e r e r e c e i v e d by t h e Department of t h e I n t e r i o r from S t a t e a n d l o c a l governments, environmental groups, o t h e r Departments of t h e F e d e r a l Government, and t h e o i l and g a s i n d u s t r y . 07/28/81 -- The O f f i c e of t h e S e c r e t a r y of t h e Department of t h e I n t e r i o r a n n o u n c e d p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d 5 - y e a r OCS O i l a n d Gas L e a s i n g P r o g r a m ( F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r , J u l y 3 1 , 1981: 39226) . 07/24/81 -- 07/15/81 -- Proposed 5-year media. 04/16/81 -- T h e O f f i c e o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Department o f t h e I n t e ~ i o ri s s u e d n e w s r e l e a s e on p r o p o s e d new i n i t i a t i v e t o speed leasing i n high p o t e n t i a l offshore areas. (News r e l e a s e i n c l ~ d e dp r o p o s e d 5 - y e a r l e a s i n g schedule covering t h e period from January 1 9 8 2 t h r o u g h November 1 9 8 6 . 04/04/80 -- The S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i 3 r s u b m i t t e d t h e p r o p o s e d f i n a l 5-year l e a s i n g program t o t h e P r e s i d e n t and t h e Congress. 05/06/79 -- The S e c r e t a r y of t h e I n t e r i o r s u b m i t t e d a p r o p o s e d l e a s i n g program t o t h e Congress, t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , and t h e Governors of t h e a f f e c t e d S t a t e s f o r review a n d comment. P r o p o s e d 5 - y e a r OCS O i l a n d G a s L e a s i n g P r o g r a m s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Congress and t h e Attorney General. OCS L e a s i n g P r o g r a m a n n o u n c e d v i a n e w s ADDITIONAL R E F E R E N C E S O U R C E S U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of t h e Interior. Letter of Apr. 4 , 1 9 8 0 , enclosing t h e proposed J u n e 1 9 8 0 5-year l e a s i n g program for o f f s h o r e oil a n d gas. U.S. L i b r a r y of Congress. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Research Service. E n v i r o n m e n t and Natural R e s o u r c e s P o l i c y Division. Onshore and Outer C o n t i n e n t a l Shelf o i l and g a s l e a s i n g and operations (Report no. by William 3 . Symes. W a s h i n g t o n , 1982. 5 7 p. 82-111) U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Outer C o n t i n e n t a l Shelf oil and gas leasing: i s s u e of split responsibility by William H. Hymes. Washington 1980. (Issue brief IB80051) ----- O i l a n d gas development on t h e Outer Continental Shelf Washington 1974. (Issue brief IB74061) by J a m e s E. Mielke . R e g u l a r l y updated. APPENDIX I IB 81118 A P P E N D I X 111 yyY 81 C. Gulf of Mexico ...................... April 87 Diapir Field.............................. Julie 84 W. Gulf 01 Mexico. ..................... July 88 Gulf of AlaskalCook Inlet ........ Oclober .............................. July 74 W. Gulf of Mexico .................. August ............... September 78 St. Atlantic 79 E. Gulf of Mexico ............... November 69 Gulf of Mexico.. ................... October 57 Norton Basin ................. -....November June 94 E. Gulf of Mexico. 91 C. & N. California . . . . . . . .\November . : . . . . . . September 100 Norton Basin. . . . . . . . . . . . - October . . . . . . . . .August ............... 102 W. Gulf of Mexic6. 111 Mid-Atlantic June July ................. ........... December SThe Department wUlconsull wiih the Alaska Land Use Councl lollowing issua~~ce ol the Ptoposed Nolke ol Sale ........ .................. 101 St. George Basin 99 Kodiak 105 W. Gulf of M e x i c o . 97 Diapir Field October .April .......... 104 C. Gulf of Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . . May 98 C. Gulf of Mexico. .March -- Secretary of the Interior - 86 Shumagin ................................ June 110 C. Gulf of Mexico ....................April 109 Barrow Arch ....................... February . . . . . . . . . . . . . .February ............. 108 S. Atlantic .......................... January 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . January 107 Navarin Basin 96 N. Atlantic. F.California . . . . . . . . . . . . .April February ............. 85 Barrow Arch 95 92 N. Aleutian Basin January .............. 90 S,. Atlantic 1986 73 C. & N. California 89 St. George Basin ................ December 83 Navarin Basin ......................... March 72 C. Gulf of Mexico ....................... May .................... October 52 North Atlantic.. 82 N. Atlantic ......................... February .......................... Aprii 71 Diapir Field. ....................September 76 M i d Atlantic.. 80 S'. California ....................... Januar f *70 St. George Basin ................. F e b r u q y 1984 July 1982 RS-2.. .................................... August Minerals Management Service Proposed Sale Dates FINAL 5-YEAR OCS OIL & GAS LEASING SCHEDULE U.S. Department of the Interior _