Constitutional Conventions: Political and Legal Questions

This report discusses the applications that have been passed by 32 of the necessary 34 State legislatures to convene a convention to propose an amendment prohibiting abortion. Because this process for amending the Constitution has never been used, several unresolved legal and policy questions arise governing the convening and the authority of such a convention.

C O N S T I T U T I O N A L CONVENTIONS: P O L I T I C A L A N D LEGAL Q U E S T I O N S U P D A T E 3 07/08/85 BY D a v i d C. H u c k a b e e Government Division Meredith McCoy A m e r i c a n Law D i v i s i o n Congressional Research Service CRS- 1 ISSUE DEFINITION In the 1 9 8 0 s , t h e Natlon may be f a c e d wlth ~ t s flrst constltutlonal A p p l ~ c a t l o n s h a v e been F a s s e d by 3 2 o f the n e c e s s a r y to c o n v e n e a c o n v e r ~ t ~ o r !t o p r o p o s e a n a n e n d m e c t I l x l t ~ n g2efic:t spene:?.:, 2 2 2 Ly 1 2 S t a t e s far a?. a ? e r e ~ e z t 3 r 3 P 1 5 1 t ~ 7 . 7 abortion. a e c a u s e tnls process for a m e n d l n g ~ n eC o n s t l t i ~ t i o n nas n e v e r been x s e d , s e v e r a l unresolved l e g a l and policy q u e s c ~ o r s arlse govern~ncj tne c o n v e n ~ n ga n d t h e authority of s ~ c ka conventlor!. convention s l n c e 17g7. 3 4 S t a t e legislatures Artlcle V o f t h e U.S. C o n s t l t u t l o n e s t a ~ i l s h e s t h e p r o c e d u r e s by w h l c h :he C o n s t l t u t l o n may S e amended. T h e p r o c e s s c a n be c o n v e n ~ e n t l y dlvlde2 lnto or -u.Aa i , , c L:onz.l two pnases: p r o c e d ~ r e s relatlnq to h e proposa; amendments, and procedures p e r t a l n ~ n g to the ratlflcatlon of proposed amendments. m c y - 4 -- A - L L ,,,, a r c ~ c l epravldes Ewe n e z n o 2 s f o r z n e p r o p o s ~ ~ gof anen2mencs. -2e " x h e n e v e r t w ~ - t h l r 5 s of DOLE f l r s t permrts C o n g r e s s to p r o p o s e amendments H o u s e s shall d e e m lt necessary." Ail the amendments now part of the C o n s t l t u t l o n o r l g ~ n a t e d ln t h l s manner. T h e second method 1 s explained ln t h e l a n g u a g e , " o n the a p p l l c a t l o n of t h e legislatures of t w o - t n l r d s [34] of the several States .[Congress] shall call a c o ~ v e n t l o n for proposing a m e n d m e n t s , " and has 7.ever S e e n lnvoked s u c c e s s f u l l y . m h o r- * Article V s p e c i f i e s t h a t , o n c e p r o p o s e d , a m e n d m e n t s a r e t o b e ratified e i t h e r by t h e l e g i s l a t u r e s o r special c o n v e n t i o n s of three-fourths of the S t a t e s before becoming p a r t of t h e Constitution. T h e m e t h o d of r a t i f i c a t i o n , by S t a t e c o n v e n t i o n or S t a c e l e g i s l a t u r e , i s wlthin C o n g r e s s ' power to c h o o s e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i c t a t e s of Article V , w h e t h e r t h e a m e n d m e n t i s p r o p o s e d by t h e C o n g r e s s o r a convention. - T h u s , a c o n v e n t i o n called pursuant to A r t i c l e V d o e s n o t h a v e t h e p o w e r to a m e n d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n b u t , r a t h e r , to p r o p o s e a m e n d m e n t s . Any a m e n d m e n t o r Sy a m e n d m e n t s proposed by such a convention stiil need to be ratified three-fourths ( 3 8 ) of t h e S t a t e s in t h e s a m e manner a s a m e n d m e n t s p r o p o s e d by the Congress. H i s t o r i c a l O v e r v i e w of t h e C o n v e n t i o n I s s u e Controversy over the convention alternative for proposing amendments is In t h e period since 1789, State legislatures have n o t a n e w phenomenom. submitted more than 400 applications for a convention to consider amendments r e l a t i n g to a wide variety of subjects. In r e c e n t y e a r s , l e g i s l a t u r e s h a v e a p p l i e d to C o n g r e s s f o r a c o n v e n t i o n m o r e o f t e n than i n t h e past. During the 174-year period from 1 7 8 9 t o 1963, C o n g r e s s r e c e i v e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 0 applications requesting a convention. In the period since, more than 150 such a p p l i c a t i o n s have been received. D u r i n g t h e 94th-98th C o n g r e s s e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e b u d g e t a n d a b o r t i o n , t h e i s s u e of c o m p u l s o r y s c h o o l a s s i g n m e n t (busing) p r o m p t e d 13 S t a t e s to a p p l y , a n d a m o v e m e n t to a l l o w p r a y e r i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s b r o u g h t CRS- 2 IB80062 UPDATE-07/08/85 five such applications. The constitutional convention issue received considerable attention in the late 1960s and early 1970s, owing largely t o the efforts by Senator Everett D i r k s e n (R.-Ill.). He wanted to corvene a convention i n order to amenC the C o n s t i t u t i o n t o a l l o w o n e h o u s e of a S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e t o b e ap?ortioned by a ineans o z h e r t h a n p o p u l a t i o n . As a resulc of chis campaig>, Senator Sam Ervin, 2r. ( D m - N . C .1 , i n z r o d u c e d iri 1955 (the 90th Congress) C",- L . . C : ,,..a ,,-, ,Lonal C ~ ~ . - ~ e n 5 i? cr z3 z s C ~ r e s .>st (S. 2327). ypA;s :.;as - = p r n v ' i ~ i n l a w c h e s t e p s t o b e t a k e n by t h e C o n g r e s s i n c h e e v e n t chat applications T?.is m e a s ~ r z an2 w a r e receiY7ed f r c m t?.e n e c e s s a r y t x o - c h i r d s of t h e S t a t e s . a s i m i l a r S i l l (S. 523) F r t r o d u c e d i n t?.e 9 1 s t C o n q r e s s w e r e c 2 " s i d e r e d Sy t h e S e n a c e J l ~ d i c l a r y C=rei:tee, S u z w e r e 7.3: r e p o r t e e t o t > e f l o ? r . - J " L ii ,-,i?.g r h e n e e d f o r " g r d e r l y p r o c e d u r e s " z o " a v ~ i dt h e possi5ilizy of a r u n a w a y convention a n 2 a cc~sziti~z:2nal c r i s i s r V S e n a z o r Z r - ~ l nI L Z Y ~ C Z C ~ CS. 2 1 5 i n 1 9 7 1 (92d C o n q r e s s ) . T h e b i l l p a s s e d t h e S e n a t e by a voce of 84-0, A si?.ilar b i l l , S. but t h e House did n o t consider the measure o n the floor. - L I L , p a s s e d t h e S e n a c e S y a v o i c e v o t e i n 1 9 7 3 d u r i n g t h e S 3 r d C o n g r e s s Su' a g a i n , i t was not considered on the Xouse floor. c - ' - m - 7 1 ( 1 ) speclf;e=? T h e s e 9 2 6 ar,d 9 3 6 C o r g r e s s b ~ l l s ,a a o n g o t h e r t h l z g s : accepzazle zo C ~ n g r e s s ; ( 2 ) pravieed znac a p p l l c a t l o n s w o ~ l dr e x a l n in e f f e c t f o r sever: y e a r s ; 1 3 ) allowed States o f ar,y c 3 n v e n t ~ o r : t o resclr.8 a p p l ~ c a t l o n s ; ( 4 ) I l m l t e d t h e ;urlsdlc::on s u ~ ~ e cf o tr whlch ~t was called; ( 5 ) set f o r t h admlnlstratlve procedures convening a ~ o n v e n t l o n , s u c h a s t h e m e t h o d o f selecting delegates and z y p e 0:. v o ~ er e q c l r e d t o p r o p o s e a n ainendment; a n 2 ( 6 ) perrnltteC C o n g r e s s r e l e c c a d l s f a v c r e d c o n v e n t ~ o np r o p o s a l l n l:eu of subnlctlnq 1c to States for r a t ~ f l c a t l o n . ferns c f S c a c e app;~caz:ons I the zne to he for the to the a I n t h e 9 4 t h a n d 9 5 t h C o n g r e s s e s a n u m b e r o f b i l l s w e r e introduced seeklng to set slmilar standards. H e a r ~ n g sw e r e h e l d o n t h e 95th Congress Senate ~ l l l s ,3. 3 , S. 5 2 0 (Helms) a n d S. 1 7 1 0 ('riatch) ~ n 1 9 7 9 . S. 8 1 7 ( H a t c h ) w a s a p p r o v e d a t t h e Subconrnlttee l e v e l l n 1 9 8 1 , b u t the full Senate Judlclary Cominlttee d l d n o t r e p o r t ~ t o u t of C o m m r t t e e . I n c h e 9 8 t h C o n g r e s s , S. 1 1 9 ( H a t c h ) w a s reported by the full Senate J c d l c l a r y Committee l n A u g u s t 1 9 8 4 , S u t t h e S e n a t e t o o k n o f u r t h e r a c t l o n on the measure. Now in 1985 a l l of the questions concerning a possible constitutional adopted convention are pertinent Secause 3 2 of the necessary 3 4 States have resolutions calling for a constitutional convention to consider an amendment to r e q u i r e a b a l a n c e c F e d e r a l b u d g e t . The Balanced Budget Convention Drive T h e National Taxpayers Union (NTU), a Washington-based lobby group claiming a membership of 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , has been identified with a campaign that sparked considerable interest i n State legislatures to adopt resolutions to Congress about a proposed amendment to limit the power of the Federal Government to incur budget deficits. The NTU is still lobbying for the proposal in the State legislatures. In M a r c h 1 9 7 9 , a c o a l i t i o n o f l a b o r , r e l i g i o u s , b u s i n e s s , a n d interests met to organize a group called Citizens f o r the Constitution. other This CRS- 3 IB80062 UPDATE-O~/O~/~ g r o u p , u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p of the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, T h o m a s P. O ' N e i l l 1 1 1 , helped c o o r d i n a t e t h e e f f o r t s o f those persons who opposed efforts to convene a constitutional convention during 1979. and actively The latter organlzatlon opened an offlce ln Washington l o S b i e d i n nany o f t h e S t a t e s t h a t were c o n s i d e r ~ n g r e s o l u t i o n s t o a p p l y to C o n g r e s s f o r a b u d g e t convenclon. C i t l z e n s f o r he C o n s ~ l c u t i o n 1 s n o w an sf B 1 2 s ~ n e s sa n d l a b ~ rg r o u p s . ~ n f c r ~ . aorqaz:zaz~o?. l :s P r e s e r v e z n e C~~st~:cc:on, was AnoTher o r g a n l z a z ~ o c , ~ n e:onaiztee T31s group ccnzlnues z o i o L ~ y a g a ~ n s z a f o u n d e d ~ n New Ycrk IT, 2979. convention a s d o e s a n o t h e r g r o u p , P e o p l e f o r t h e C o n s t i t u t r o n , t h a t was established ~ n W a s h i n g t o n S t a c e in ;981. In F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 4 , Larry C r a l g a n n o u n c e d t h e information of a new of Congress hat c o n g r e s s r o n a l g r o u p - - 'la c o a l l t l o n of bipartisan Members S e l l e v e we need to er,act a S a l a ~ c e dbudqet/tax 1~a:xacion amenexer.t t o t9.e U.S. Cons~:tutian a r e wll1lr.q to go o u ~ s i d etne S o u n d s o f C o n g r e s s z o d o , L .Il A C L U B S , Congressional L e a d e r s Unlted f o r a Balanced B u d g e t , c c u n z s m o r e tnan sixty S e n a t o r s a n d R e p r e s e n r a t ~ v e s a s meInbers. i Although n o n e w S t a c e s a p p l i e d f o r a c o n v e n t i o n in 1 9 8 1 , t w o " c l o s e c a l l s " legislacures considered budget occurred. Both t h e M i s s o u r i a n d W a s h i n g t o n c o n v ~ n t i o n a p p l i c a z i o n s chat Fassed both h o u s e s . These r e ~ ~ i u tCied ~ ~a~ t t h e end of each S t a t e ' s l e g i s l a t i v e s e s s i o n b e c a u s e the houses could not a g r e e on t h e w o r d i n g f o r the c o n v e n t i o n request. In t h r e e S t a t e s i n 1 9 8 1 (Ohio, West Virginia, and r e s o l u t i o n s w e r e a d o p t e d by o n e h o u s e of t h e legislatures. Rhode Island), S e v e r a l " c l o s e c a l l s " occurred in 1982. A Salanced budget resolution passed t h e K e n t u c k y S e n a t e i n F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 2 b u t failed t o b e a d o p t e d by the House. S i m i l a r r e s o l u t i o n s passed t h e W a s h i n g t o n House (March 1 9 8 2 1 , a n d t h e K i s s o u r i S e n a t e (March 1982). The Missouri l e g i s l a t u r e passed a balanced b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n i n May of 1 9 8 3 . In 1 9 8 4 , a f t e r h a v i n g been a d o p t e d by t h e F i c h i g a n Senate, the Michigan 3 o u s e C o n s t i t u x i o n a l a n d Womens 2 i g F . t ~ C o m m i t t e e failed t o repor: a D a l a n c e d b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e f l o o r by a margin o f o n e vote. Efforts to put the balanced budget convention matter on the N o v e m b e r ballots in C a l i f o r n i a a n d W a s h i n g t o n failed a f t e r s u c c e s s f u l count c h a l l e n g e s . resolutions requesting a constitutional. T h e 32 S t a t e s t h a t h a v e passed c o n v e n t i o n a b o u t F e d e r a l spending are: Alabama, Alaska Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New M e x i c o , N e v a d a , North C a r o l i n a , North D a k o t a , O k l a h o m a , O r e g o n , P e n n s y l v a n i a , South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Wyoming. T h e l e g i s l a t u r e s of C a l i f o r n i a , I l l i n o i s , K e n t u c k y , and M o n t a n a h a v e a d o p t e d r e s o l u t i o n s r e q u e s t i n g that C o n g r e s s p r o p o s e a deficit spending amendment, b u t n o t a s k i n g f o r a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention. CRS- 5 f r o m two-thirds o f t h e S t a t e s , by p r o p o s i n g i t s own substitute amendment? (10) C a n a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n be l i m i t e d to t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a s i n g l e i s s u e ? (11) If a c o n v s ~ . t L o n i s l i x i t a k l e , w h s a a y d~ T h e C o n g r e s s ? T h e S r a t e s ? Z r Sot;?? ;Fie l i a i c i n g ? (14) I s t h e S u p r e m e C o u r c t n e u i t i m a c e a r n l t e r of d i s p u ~ e s o v e r t h e proper i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of A r t i c l e V ? (15) W 9 o would have s t a n d i n g i n a c o u r t of l a w to l i t i g a t e a n y of these issues? (17) C a n a Member of C o n g r e s s S e a d e l e g a t e to a c o n v e n t i o n ? (13) C a n ~ h eCongress s e t t h e v o t e r e q c l r e d S y the c o ~ v e n ? i o r to propose a n amendme?.:? (19) Is a c o n v e n t i o n t h e c r e a t u r e of t h e C o n g r e s s , t h e S t a t e s , o r t h e "people"? PERTINENT 98th CONGRESS LEGISLATION S. 1 1 9 (Hatch) Sets forth Constitutional Convention I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Act of 1984 - procedures for holding constitutional conventions for proposing amendments to the Constitution. R e q u i r e s either Z o u s e of C o n g r e s s co a g r e e to a c s n c u r r e n t r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g for a c o n v e n t i o n w h e n e v e r it determines that at least t w o - t h i r d s of the S t a t e s have submitted within a 7-year period valid a p p l i c a r i o n s f o r t h e calling of a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention upon the same 8 months of the subject. R e q u i r e s t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n be c o n v e n e d w i t h i n a d o p t i o n of t h e r e s o l u t i o n . E n t i t l e s each S t a t e to t h e s a m e n u m b e r of delgates a t such convention as i t has Senators and Representatives in Congress. States that no Senator, Representative, or other person holding o f f i c e under t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s h a l l b e a p p o i n t e d a s delegate. Provides that t h e person w h o i s s e n i o r in y e a r s o f service a s a chief justice of the highest courts of the States shall convene t h e convention. Prohibits the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f F e d e r a l f u n d s f o r t h e s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e of p a y i n g convention expenses. A u t h o r i z e s t h e c o n v e n t i o n to b e c o n d u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e with such r u l e s a s it may adopt. P r o h i b i t s such c o n v e n t i o n from proposing any a m e n d m e n t of a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t s t a t e d i n t h e c o n c u r r e n t r e s o l u t i o n . R e q u i r e s t h e p r e s i d i n g o f f i c e r of t h e c o n v e n t i o n t o submit any proposed a m e n d m e n t to Congress. Authorizes C o n g r e s s to d i s a p p r o v e by c o n c u r r e n t r e s o l u t i o n a n y a m e n d m e n t which d i f f e r s f r o m t h e g e n e r a l subjects d e s c r i b e d i n t h e c o n c u r r e n t resolution. D i r e c t s t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r of G e n e r a l CRS- 5 S e r v i c e s t o t r a n s m l t t o t h e S t a t e s c o p l e s of the proposed amendment and c o p l e s of a n y c o n c u r r e n t r e s o l a t i o n a g r e e d t o by both Houses of C o n g r e s s prescribing t h i s m o d e of ratlflcation. P r o v l C e s that a n a m e n d m e n t shall become valld when r a t l f l e d Sy three-forths o f the States. Permlts a State to resclnd i t s r a t l f l c a t l o n , e x c e p t when valid r a t l f i c a t l c n s S y t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the S t a r e s exlst. I n t r o d l ~ c e U ~ a n 2. 5 , 1 9 8 3 ; r e f e r r e d to J u d ~ c i a r y . 3 e f e r r e P LO S u b c o m m l ~ t e e on C o n s ~ l e u z i o n on Fe3. 2 2 , 1983. Succomrnlttee on C o n s t l t u t l o n a p p r o v e d S . 1 1 9 f c ~ r f u l l c o ~ r n ~ t r e ec o n s ~ i e r a t ~ o s0 : 3 . 8, -. L~al. ~ear;?.gs n s L d s y SLaea3:::tee c z 2azs:~t~:~an cc A p r . 2 5 , 1984. -i a-.L committee a p p r o v e d on Yay i 7 , 1984. - > -?. E.R. 3 5 i ( E y C e , et al.) F e d e r a l C o n s t l t l t l o n C o n v e n t i o n A m e n d m e n t Act -- S e t s f o r t h p r o c e d u r e s f o r proposing aaendments to holding constitutional c o c v e n t l o n s for the Conszltazloc. 2 e q u l r e s :cat both H o u s e s of C o n g r e s s a g r e e ~o a concurrenz r e s o l u t i o n c a i l l n g f o r a c o n v e n t l o n whenever 15 d e c e r m r n e s that a t least two-thirds of t h e S t a c e s nave s u b m ~ t t e dv a l i d a p p l l c a c l o n s f o r t h e c a l i l n g o f a constitutional c o c v e c t ~ o n naon = h e same s u S 3 e c t . ??titles each S t a t e to ~ s n v e n t ~ o : a s 1: has Se7.azors a n 5 c ~ esame n u m D e r of d e l e q a c e s az s ~ c ? c R e p r e s e n ~ a c l v e s 12 C o n g r e s s , w ~ t h o n e delegaze e l e c ~ e d :rom each c o n g r e s s ~ o n a ld l s t r l c t a n d two a t large. A u t h o r ~ z e s t n e convention t3 p r o p o s e c o n s t l t u t i c n a l a m e n d m e n t s 3 y a t w o - t h l r d s vote of t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f delegates. P r p v ~ d e st h a t a n a m e n d m e n t s h a l l S e c o m e valld when r a t i f l e d by its r a t l f i ~ 2 t l c c . t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f = h e S:a:es. Perinlts a S c a t e i3 reScl3d Incroduzed J a n . 3 , 2 9 8 5 ; referred to t h e Judiciary Committee. S. 40 ( H a t c h , e t al.) Constitutional Convention I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Act of 1 9 8 5 -- Sets forth p r o c e d u r e s f o r h o l d i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s for p r o p o s i n g a m e n d m e n t s t o the Constitution. Provides a procedure f o r the C o n g r e s s to a d o p t a c o n c u r r e n t r e s o l u t i o n calling for a c o n v e n t i o n whenever i t d e t e r m i c e s t h a t a c l e a s t two-thirds o f t h e S t a t e s h a v e s u b m i t t e d within a 7 - y e a r period valid a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e c a l l i n g of a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention. Requires that the c o n v e n t i o n be c o n v e n e d within 8 m o n t h s o f t h e a d o p t i o n of t h e r e s o l u t i o n . Z n c i t l e s each S t a t e t o send two d e l e g a t e s on a n a c - l a r g e basis and one d e l e g a t e from each congressional district. States t h a t no Senator, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e , or o t h e r person h o l d i n g o f f i c e un2er the U n i t e d S t a t e s shall S e elected a s d e l e g a t e . P r o v i d e s t h a t that t h e P r e s i d e n t p r o t e m p o r e of the S e n a t e and t h e S p e a k e r o f the House of R e p r e s e n t a z i v e s shall convene the convention. Authorizes appropriations for the payment of convention expenses. A u t h o r i z e s t h e c o n v e n t i o n to c o n d u c t p r o c e e d i n g s in accordance with such r u l e s a s it may a d o p t by a v o t e o f three-fifths o f the numSer cf t h e d e l e g a t e s w h o h a v e s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e o a t h of office. Prohibits such convention from proposing any amendment of a subject matter different from t h a t stated i n the c o n c u r r e n t resolution. R e q u i r e s the p r e s i d i n g o f f i c e r of the c o n v e n t i o n to s u b m i t a n y proposed a m e n d m e n t to the C o n g r e s s . Authorizes the Congress to disapprove by concurrent resolution or to d i r e c t the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of G e n e r a l S e r v i c e s t o t r a n s m i t to t h e S t a t e s c o p i e s of the proposed a m e n d m e n t a n d c o p i e s of a n y c o n c u r r e n t r e s o l u t i o n a g r e e d to by the C o n g r e s s p r e s c r i b i n g t h e mode of ratification. Provides that an amendment s h a l l b e c o m e valid w h e n r a t i f i e d by t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the States. Permits a State to rescind i t s r a t i f i c a t i o n , e x c e p t w h e n valid ratifications by t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e S t a t e s exist. I n t r o d u c e d Jan. 3 , 1 9 8 5 ; r e f e r r e d t o t h e CRS- 7 Judiciary Committee. U.S. Congress. S e n a t e . C o m m i t t e e o n t h e Budget. Balancing the Kar. 5 , 1979. budget. K e a r l c g s , 9 6 c h C o n g r e s s , is^ session. 1 1 4 2. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. G 2 v t . P r i n t . Z f f . , 1973. U.S. Congress. Senace. Committee o n t h e Judiciary. Su~comrnl~tee on Z h e Z o n s t i t c t i o n . "-?stitutional cczven:isn proced2res. S e a r i n g , 9 5 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s i o n , on S. 3 , S . 5 2 0 , a n 2 S . 171C. N o v . 29, 19'73. r~ + a s h i n g z = n ,U . S . G a v t . p r i n t . 3 ? 5 . , 195C. 1 3 7 2 B. , v J 7 ----- ?reposed c o z s t ~ c n z l c c a la r c e n d ~ e n z s ts r s q a ~ r oa 3 a l a n c e C budgec. Hearings, 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s l o n , o n S.J.Res. 2 , 4 , 5 , 5 , 7 , 9 , 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 3 , 15, 1 8 , 3 5 , 4 5 , 4 5 , 5 6 , 7 5 , 8 6 , a E d 9 3 . ?lar. 1 2 , Eay 2 3 , Oct. 4 a n d 1 1 , K a v . 1 , 1 3 - 9 . . W a s h l n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Prlnt. Off., 1 9 8 0 . 6 2 1 p . - - - - - i e g l s l 2 t l ~ ea p ~ r o a c h e s to l l n i t l n g F e d e r a l s p e n d l a g . kiearlngs, 9 5 ~ nZ o n g r e s s , 1 s t s e s s ~ o n . Jaz. 24-25, 133C. W a s h l n g c o n , U.S. G o v t . P r ~ n t .Off., 1980. 2 0 7 p. ----. Subcommittee on Constztutional Amendments. Balancing the budget. H e a r i n g s , 9 4 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t sesslon. Sept. 2 3 , Oct. 7 , 1975. W a s h l n g c o n , U.S. G c v t , ?rlnt. Off., 1 9 7 5 , 2 2 2 p. ----- T a x e s o n i n c o m e , i n h e r i t a n c e s , a n d gifts. Hearing, 83rd Congress, 2 8 s e s s i o n , o n S.J.Res. 2 3 , p r o p o s i n g a n a m e n d m e n t to the Constitution relative to taxes o n income, inheritances, a n d gifts. Apr. 2 7 , 1954. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1954. 2 3 2 p. ----- S u b c o m m i t t e e o n S e p a r a t i o n of Powers. S. 2 3 0 7 , F e d e r a l constitutional convention. Hearings, 90th Congress, 1 s t s e s s i o n , o n S. 2 3 0 7 , a bill t o p r o v i d e p r o c e d u r e s f o r Oct. 30 a n 5 3 1 , 1 9 6 7 . c a l l i n g constitutional conventloris. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1 9 6 7 . 242 p . - - - - - F e d e r a l constitutional c o n v e n t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Hearing, 9 3 r d C o n g r e s s , l s t session. Apr. 1 2 , 1973. W a s h i n g t o n , o n S. 1272. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1 9 7 3 . 2 2 p. R E P O R T S AND C O N G R E S S I O N A L D O C U M E N T S U.S. Congress. House. C o m m i t t e e on t h e J u d i c i a r y . Problems r e l a t i n g to a F e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1957. 112 p . At head of title: 8 5 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Committee print. P u b l i c a t i o n o f a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n by C y r i l F. Brickfield which was submitted to the George Washington U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l o f Law. CRS- 8 ----- S t a t e a p p l i c a t i o n s a s k i n g C o n g r e s s to c a l l a F e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . Off., 1959. 3 8 p. At head of title: 8 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Eouse c o m m i t t e e print. .. . . - e c- e r a l 23cgress. 3ecaze. n e e n . - i I C o n s z l t u c l o n 2 l P r o c e d u r e s A c t ; r e p o r t , togezher w ~ z ns e p a r a t e v l e w s , t o a c c o m p a n y S. 215. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. P r i n t . O f f . , (92d 2 3 r y ~ r e s s , 1 s t sess;on. 3en2te. 1 9 - 1 . 19 p. R e p o r t no. 92-336) ----- Federal C o n s t i t u t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s A c r ; r e p o r t , ~ o g e t h e r . w l z h a e 5 i t i o n a l -~.i?ws,cc a c c o ~ p a c y 9. 1 z 7 2 . kasning;on, U.S. Govt. T r i n ~ .Gif., 1 9 7 3 . 2C p. (S3d Congress, 1 s t session. S e n a r e . 2 e p o r t no. 2 3 - 2 9 3 ) - - - - 7 - - - - - C o n s t ~ t u t ~ o n aClo n v e n t ~ o n I m p l e m e n t a z ~ o n Act o f 1 9 8 4 ; 4 r e p o r t t o g e t h e r w:th s u p p l e m e n t a l a n d a d d ~ t ~ o n av?- e w s o n S. 1 1 9 , a s amended.c Was:,inqtor., Govt. ?r;r.t. Off., 1 9 8 4 . (98th C o n g r e s s , 2d sesslcn. S e ~ a c e . Z e p o r t no, 9 8 - 5 9 4 ) 7 8 p. CHRONOLOGY OF E V E N T S This chronology i s divided into TWO sections. T h e first deals with g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t s r e l a t i n g to t h e c o n v e n t i o n i s s u e , a n d t h e s e c o n d t r a c k s the the S t a t e appl-ications f o r a c o n v e n t i o n a s chey h a v e b e e n received by Congress. SZCTION I. General Developments 05/15/85 - - In C a l i f c r n i a , A.J.R. 04/23/85 -- 04/12/85 - - In M a i n e , L.D. 7 4 0 , a balanced budget 3 3 , 2 balanced b u d g e t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c ~ r v e n t ~ oappl;cation n was d e f e a t e d i n c o m m ~ t t e e by a v o t e of 3-3. I n M i n n e s o t a , H.F. 9 , a balanced b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n , w a s returned to i t s a u t h o r by a v o t e of 67-63. This procedure is s i m i l a r to " t a b l i n g " a resolution. constitutional convention application, was d e f e a t e d i n t h e S e n a t e by a vote of 18-7. 03/27/85 -- T h e M i c h i g a n H o u s e d e f e a t e d (by a v o t e o f 55-51) S.J.R. A. c a l l i n g f o r a b a l a n c e d budget c o n v e n t i o n t h a t had been p r e v i o u s l y p a s s e d by CRS- 9 IB80062 UPDATE-C~/O~/~ t h e Senate. H.J.R.C., a resolution endorsing a b a l a n c e d budget a m e n d m e n t , b u t n o t a c o n v e n t i o n w a s passed i n s t e a d by a v o t e of 97-10. 03/06/85 - - I n Washington t h e S e n a t e J u d ~ c i a r yC o m m i t t e e f a i l e d to r e p o r t a balanced budget C o n s t r t u t ~ o n a l C o n v e n t ~ o n a p p l r c a t i o n (S.1.X. 1G3) by a v o t e o f 7 - 6 . ~2/27/e5 -- I n Illir.ois, a kaalance? S u e g e z ecnvontis?. a p p l i c a z i c z , (S.J.Res. 2) f a i i e d to be r e p o r t e d by a v o t e of 6-4 in t h e Executive Conmitree after a hearlng helc =he same day. 32/21/25 -- h e a r i n g was "12 in ?!sn=a-a b e f o r ? tke S t a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C o m m i t t e e o n H.J.Res. 29. .A ~ 2 / 1 3 / 8 5 - - I n Y o n t a n a a S a l a n c e d ~ u d g e tc o n s z ~ t u t i o n a l z o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n (H.J.R. 29) was i n t r o d u c e d by R e p . J a c k Sands. T h e m e a s u r e was r e f e r r e d to t h e S t a t e Administration 0 2 / ~ 9 / 8 5 - - I n Ill:nals ?. ~alar!ced ~ u d g e zc o ~ v e ' t ~ o ~ a??l~cac:o~ n (S.J.Xes. 2) w a s ~ n t r o d u c e d by S e n a z o r Watson. ,ne meas12re was r e f e r r e d to the E x e c u t i v e C o m n l t ~ e e . Committee. 01/31/85 - - T h e Michigan S e n a t e Fassed S.J.R. A by a v o t e of 1 9 - 1 2 . T h e m e a s u r e was r e f e r r e d t o t h e X s u g e Appropriatiorrs Committee. 4 01/28/85 -- I n C o n n e c t i c u t a balanced b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n The S.J.R. 23) w a s i n t r o d u c e d by T h o m a s Scott. Resolution w a s r e f e r r e d to G o v e r n m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Election Committee. 01/23/85 -- I n W a s h i n g t o n a balanced b u d g e t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n application (S.J.M. 1 0 3 ) was i n t r o d u c e d by Sen. Brae Owen. T h e m e a s u r e w a s r e f e r r e d to the Judiciary C o m m l z t e e . 01/16/85 -- T h e Michigan S e n a t e R u l e s C o m m i t t e e v o t e d to r e p o r t S.J.R.A. a balanced bcdget c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n by a v o t e of 3-2. Floor consideration i s s c h e d u l e d f o r Jan. 30. 01/11/85 -- I n M i c h i g a n a b a l a n c e d budget C o n s t i t u t i o n C o n v e n t i o n A p p l i c a t i o n (S.J.R. A ) was i n t r o d u c e d by S e n a t o r Ed F r e d e r i c k s . A hearing is scheduled for J a n . 1 5 , 1 9 8 5 ; b e f o r e the S e n a t e R u l e s C o m m i t t e e . 09/13/84 - - T h e H o u s e Michigan C o n s t i t u t i o n a l and W o m e n s R i g h t s Committee failed to report a balanced budget c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n by a v o t e of 5-4. 09/12/84 - - T h e Montana Supreme Court agreed t o hear a c h a l l e n g e to t h e balanced b u d g e t i n i t i a t i v e s c h e d u l e d to be o n t h e b a l l o t i n November. T h e h e a r i n g w a s s c h e d u l e d f o r Sept. 2 8 , 1984. 09/08/84 -- J u s t i c e R e h n q u i s t d e c l i n e d to s ~ a yt h e d e c i s i o n of the C a l i f o r n i a S u p r e m e C o u r t t o bar t h e balanced budget initiative from t h e November b a l l o ~ . 58/28/84 - - T h e Ca::for:.la S n c r e z e C a ~ r tr s l 3 v e d a : l n l ~ l a ~ ~from v e t h e N o v e m ~ e r o a i i o z ~ n a twould h a v e deprived :he C a l ~ f o r n ~Lae g ~ s l a z o r so f t h e i r s a l a r ~ e s~ n z l lthey passed a S a l a n c e d S u d g e t e o n v e n t ~ c n a~p1lcat:on. 07/13/84 -- An ~ n l z l a c ~ v;n e W a s h ~ n g ~ oS2z a z e f a l l e d = o q u a l l f y f o r = h e Nov. 1 3 6 4 a a l l o z co r?e,ee = h e s a l a r ~ e s9 f S t a t e i e g ~ s l a t o r st o o n e d o l l a r a year u n t ~ lt h e legislature passed a balanced b u d g e t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t ~ o na p p l l c a t l o n . 07/03/84 - - An i n i t i a t i v e in M o n t a n a q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e N o v e m b e r 1 9 8 4 ballot tfiat w o u l d r e d u c e the s a l a r i e s of S t a t e l e g i s l a t c r s to o n e dollar a year u c c i l he l e g i s l a c u r e passes a balanced budget constitutional convention application. ' 06/20/84 -- 04/18/84 - - A b a l a n c e d budget c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n (H.J.2. E) passed A s u i t w a s filed b e f o r e t h e C a l i f o r n i a S u p r e m e C o u r t to prevent a n i q i t i a t i v e from being p l a c e d o n che N o v e m b e r ballot. This initiative, i f p a s s e d , would d e p r i v e the C a l i f o r n i a L e g i s l a t o r s of t h e i r pay u n t i l t h e y passed a n a p p l i c a t i o n to C o n g r e s s f o r a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n to b a l a n c e t h e budget. t h e Michigan S e n a t e by a v o t e of 23-15. F e d e r i c k s is t h e sponsor. S e n a t o r Ed 04/14/84 - - K e n t u c k y l e g i s l a t u r e a d j o u r n e d w i t h o u t f u r t h e r a c t i o n on t h e balanced budget a p p l i c a t i o n (S.C.R. 10). 03/13/84 -- A b a l a n c e d budge^ a p p l i c a t i o n (J.R.H. 21) w a s d e f e a t e d i n t h e Vermont H o c s e Z u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e by a vote of 9-1. 03/11/84 -- W e s t Virginia l e g i s l a t u r e a d j o u r n s w i t h o u t passing S.J.Res. 3 8 , a balanced b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n application. 02/30/84 -- 02/22/84 -- An i n i t i a t i v e h a s been f i l e d i n M o n t a n a to r e d u c e t h e s a l a r i e s of S t a t e l e g i s l a t o r s to o n e d o l l a r a y e a r u n t i l t h e l e g i s l a t u r e passes a balanced b u d g e t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention application. The sponsors h a v e u n t i l J u n e 2 9 to g e t t h e r e q u i s i t e n u m b e r o f s i g n a t u r e s t o g e t t h e m e a s u r e o n t h e ballot. A b a l a n c e d budget c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n (S.C.R. 1 0 ) p a s s e d t h e K e n t u c k y S e n a t e by a v o t e of 24-13. 01/19/84 -- A b a l a n c e d budget c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e W e s t V i r g i n i a S e n a t e by S e n a t o r Robert H o l l i d a y (S.J.Res. 38). The m e a s u r e was r e f e r r e d t o t h e S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee. 31/17/84 -- A balanced 01/11/83 -- A 05/31/83 -- An i n i t i a t i v e d r i v e h a s b e e n s t a r t e d i n W a s h i n g t o n t o d i r e c t l y pass a balanced budget a p p l i c a t i o n thus bypassing t h e l e g i s i a t u r e . ' S i g n a ~ u r e sm u s t b e o b t a i n e d f r o m 1 3 8 , 4 7 2 persons before J u l y 1 3 , 1984. 05/26/83 -- Missour: Youse p a s s e d s . c . R . NO. 3 by a v o t e o f a n d b e c a m e t h e 3 2 n d S:a?e zo approve a b a l a n c e d b u d g e t c O n s t l t ~ t i 0 n 2 lc o n v e n t l o n a p p l l c a ~ l o n . b u d g e t convention application was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e Vermont S o u s e by R e p s . G l u l l a n l , G r a i f , a n d Condon ( 2 . 2 . 5 . 2 1 ) . The m e a s n r e was r e f e r r e d ? o t i e 3 o u s e J u d z c i a r y Zzxin~t:ee. b a l a n c e d budget ccnvent:on ap2;:cation was : n t r o C u c e d i n t 3 e K e n t u c k y S e n a t e by S e n a t o r 13). T w e r . t y - c h r e e si a 3 8 P3rd I S . C . 9 . s o s ~ o c s o r e et t e 3 3 s s ~ 2 l eS e c 2 t 3 r s ~ 8 e r s neascre. 116-45 05/20/83 -- Petitions f o r an i n i t i a t i v e t h a t provides t h a t i f the Assembly does n o t a p p r o v e a balanced budget c o n v e n t i o n application t h a t "conpensation, benefits, and expenses of l e g i s l a t o r s " w i l l be suspended i s being c i r c u l a t e d i n C a l i f o r n i a by t h e N a t i o n a l Tax L i m i t a t i o n C o m m i t t e e . Sponsors of t h e measure must o b t a i n 393,835 s i g n a t u r e s by S e p t . 1 6 , 1 9 8 3 . 05/15/83 -- Balanced budget a p p l i c a t i o n s have been i n t r o d u c e d J. i n t h e New J e r s e y L e g i s l a t u r e b y S e n a t o r D a s e y ( S . 4 r e f e r r e d t o t h e S t a t e G o v e r n m e n t C o m m i t t e e ) a n d by Assemblyman Simmer ( r e f e r r e d t o t h e R e v e n u e , F i n a n c e , and Appropriation Committee). 05/10/83 -- A 03/03/93 -- balanced budget c o n t i t u t i o n a l convention a p p i i c a t i o n w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e New Y o r k A s s e m b l y b y A s s e m b l y m a n A s i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n s p o n s o r e d by Wertz ( A . 3552). S e n a t o r J o h n s o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n c h e S e n a t e ( S . 9 1 5 ) . Both measures were r e f e r r e d t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e chambers' J u d i c i a r y Committee. A b a l a c - e d b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e M i c h i g a n House by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e O'Connor I t was r e f e r r e d t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l (H.J.R.F.). R e v i s i o n a n d W o m e n ' s R i g h t s Committees. -- b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e C a l i f o r n i a House by Assemblyman F r a n k H a l l A balanced (H.J.R. 04/04/83 .-- 29). A r e s o l u t i o n seeking t o withdraw an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a b a l a n c e d b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n ( p a s s e d by t h e Maryland L e g i s l a t u r e i n 1975) p a s s e d t h e House by a v o t e of 8 1 to 4 5 (H.J.R. 37). A S i m i l a r S e n a t e R e s o l u t i o n (S.J.R. 17) w a s r e f e r r e d t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d P u b l i c L a w C o m m i t t e e for f u t h e r study. 03/29/93 -- A S a l a n c e d budget c o n v e n t i o n application ~ ~ t r o d l ~ c e d by S e n a t o r S n o w d e n passed ~ n e M ~ a s o u r iSenate b y a v o t e cf 2 1 c o 1 3 IS.C.3. n o . 3). 02/15/83 -- A b a i a n c e a budget c o n v e n t i o n application was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e Xic5igan Se?.ate by S e c a c o r rrederiz:ks (S.3.3.E.) - 02/07/83 - - A S a l a c c e Z ~ u d q e c co?.ven:;on app;iza~;on x a s i n t r o d u c e d in t h e Minnesota S e n a c e by S e n a t o r S c h e m i e i e s k i (S. F i l e 233) . 01/31/83 -- 01/18/83 -- A A b a l a n c e d budget c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n w a s i n t r o d u c e d in t h e O h i o S e n a t e by Senator i u k e n s (S.J.R.1). ~ a l a n c e dbudge c o c s ~ ~ : u c ~ o n a lc o n v e n c ~ o n a p p l l c a z i o w a s ~ n t r o d u c e d 19 t h e O h l o S e n a t e ~ y S e n a t o r Donald L u k e n s (S.S.R. No. 1). I t w a s referred t o the bl11 R e f e r r a l Commltcee. P e t i ~ i o n s ere c i r c u l a t e d in W a s h i n g t o n S t a ~ eto p u t a pro-balanced budget c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n i n i t i a t i v e o n t h e ballot. 01/13/83 03/18/82 -- Missouri Senate passes S . C o n . ~ e s . 1 4 for a budget convention. 03/03/82 -- W a s h i n g t o n H o u s e passes H.J.M. 1 , by a v o t e of 5 1 - 4 7 f o r a b u d g e t convention. - - K e n t u c k y S e n a t e p a s s e s S.Con.Res. for budget c o n v e n t i o n by a v o t e of 25-11. 01/15/82 -- A l a s k a becomes t h i r t y - f i r s t S t a t e to a d o p t a b a i a n c e d budget c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n . 05/01/81 -- Washington and Missouri legislatures adjourn without c o m p l e t i n g a c t i o n on their b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s . 03/24/81 -- C o n f e r e e s a p p o i n t e d i n M i s s o u r i l e g i s l a t u r e o n S.C.R. 4 f o r a budget convention. T h i s m e a s u r e h a s passed b o t h H o u s e s i n d i f f e r i n g forms. 03/06/81 -- W a s h i n g t o n S e n a t e p a s s e s S.J.M. 1 0 5 for a b a l a n c e d b u d g e t convention. The House previously passed H.J.M. 1 , r e q u e s t i n g b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n t h a t w a s w o r d e d slightly differently. T h e Legislature adjourns Apr. 2 6 , 1981. -- S.C.R. passed W e s t V i r g i n i a Senate. Ref e r r e d House Rules Committee. 02/10/81 -- O h i o S e n a t e passed S.J.R. 1 f o r a b a l a n c e d b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n . T h e r e h a s been n o H o u s e action. 04/29/80 -- A l a b a m a l e g i s l a t u r e b e c o m e s t h e 1 9 t h S t a t e to a d o p t a riqtt-to-life c o n v e n t i 3 n a p p l i c a t i o n . s S t a t e tc ad=?= 24/09/92 - - Okla?.oaa leg~slat- re S e z o ~ ~ e:St5 a right-ro-life convention appLicatron. 03/03/80 -- I d a h o l e g i s l a t u r e b e c o m e s the 1 7 t h S t a t e to a d o p t a r l g h c - t o - l i f e c o r v e c t i o n 'ppl~catlon. 0 1 / 3 0 / 3 ~ - - T e n n e s s e e legislature becomes t n e 1 6 t h S t a c e to a e o p t a r l q h t - z o - l ~ f e c o n v e n t ~ cappl:car:an ~ w ~ z n H o u s e a p p r o v a l of S.J.Res. 23 by a v o t e of 5 9 - 3 2 , wlth one aSsention. 01/28/80 -- 01/23/80 - - Kenrucky Senate approves a bueget c o n v e n t ~ o n West Virginia Senate approves a budget convention a p p l i c a z i o n r e s o l u t i o n (S.Con.Res. 4) by a v o t e of 20-14. a?pllcatlon r e s o i c t l o n of 26-1. 12/19/79 (S.Ccn.2es. 9) by a v o t e - - Secate SuScommittee on the Constitution approves a p r o p o s e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a m e n d m e n t w h i c h would l i m i t F e d e r a l s p e n d i n g , a l l o w i n g d e f i c i t s p e n d i n g o n l y when a u t h o r i z e d by a v o t e of t h r e e - f i f t h s o f each H o u s e . 12/29/79 -- H e a r i n g held by S e n a t e S u b c o m m i t t e e o n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o n t h e s u b j e c t of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n procedures. 12/01/79 -- H e a r i n g held by S e n a t e S u b c o m m i t t e e o n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o n the s u b j e c t of proposed a m e n d m e n t s to b a l a n c e t h e budget. H e a r i n g s w e r e a l s o held on Mar. 1 2 , May 2 3 , a n d Oct. 4 , i 9 7 9 . 07/06/79 -- T h e New York T i m e s r e p o r t s t h a t a l t h o u g h the balanced b u d g e t convention d r i v e a p p e a r s to S e o v e r t h i s y e a r , proponents will concentrate on Malne, M i n n e s o t a , K e n t u c k y , a n d R h o d e I s l a n d i n early 1980. 04/26/79 -- New H a m p s h i r e b e c o m e s 3 0 t h S t a t e to r e q u e s t a constitutional convention on the budget with the State S e n a t e a p p r o v a l of a n a p p l i c a t i o n b y a v o t e of 16-7. 04/20/79 - - New H a m p s h i r e H o u s e a p p r o v e s a b u d g e t c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n by a v o t e of 178-161. 03/23/79 -- Montana Senate rejects budget convention application b y a v o t e o f 31-18. 03/17/79 -- Under leadership of Massachusetts Lieutenant G o v e r n o r T h o m a s P. O ' N e i l l 1 1 1 , a g r o u p c a l l e d t h e Citizens for the Constitution i s formed to oppose the c o n v e n i n g of a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n . 03/16/79 -- D e b t l l m l t i n c r e a s e a p p r o v e d rn c h e U.S. House of R e p r e s e n t a t r v e s , a f t e r d e i e a t of a n a m e n d n e n c ( b y a 2 0 1 - 1 9 9 p r o c e d u r a l vote) w h l c h would h a v e permitted f u t u r e increases l n t h e debt c e l i l n q or.ly 1: t h e F e d e r a l Sudcjsc were ln Salance. 03/00/79 -- G a l l u p survey f o r t h e U.5. C n a m b e r of Z o m m e r c s r e p o r t s 76% of t h o s e respondln? f a v o r a csns:itxt~onal a m e n d m e n t to li?.it F e d e r a l sper.dlng a ~ dtaxes. 02/22/79 -- Zalifornia State Assenbly's Xays and Xeans Commltree d e f e a t s budget c o n v e n t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n p r o p o s a l b y a v o t e o f 12-8. 02/09/79 -- I o ~ aS o g s e a5cp:s resoldz:3n applyrzg for a ~ a l a n c e d b u d g e t c0nstlcu:ronai convent;on. 02/08/79 -- H a r r i s poll shows t h a t 6 9 % o f s a m p l e f a v o r major c u t b a c k s in F e d e r a i s p e n d i n g , and s2m.e p e r c e n t a g e f a v o r s a c o n s t i f u t i o n a l a m e n d m e n t to b a l a n c e :he budget. 02/04/79 -- X e p u b l i c a n P a r t y l e a d e r s m e e t i n g i n E a ~ t o n ,Md. reported as rejecting a resolution endorsing a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a m e n d m e n t to r e q u i r e a b a l a n c e d budget in favor of a proposal to call for lower taxes and the imposition of spending limits on the Federal Government. 01/30/79 -- National Tax Limitation Committee issues an amendmentp r o p o s a l , a u t h o r e d i n part by Milton F r i e d m a n , to limit Federal spending. 01/25/79 - - California Senate approves a resolution requesting a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e budget by a v o t e of 24-i4. 01/09/79 SECTION 11. -- C a l i f o r n i a G o v e r n o r Edmund G. a r o w n c a l l s f o r a constitutional amendment to require a balanced Fsderal budget, endorsing a Constitutional convention i f o n e i s n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e such a n a m e n d m e n t . State Applications Received b y the Congress 06/11/84 -- Arizona legislature application received relating g r a n t i n g t h e P r e s i d e n t item v e t o power. CR/S. 6 8 9 2 (v. 130). 05/24/84 -- do. CR/H. Note: 4884. (v. 130). E i t h e r t h e t e x t or a s u m m a r y o f each S t a t e a p p l i c a t i o n a p p e a r s in t h e C o n g r e s s i o n a l Z e c o r d (CR). P a g e n u m b e r s a r e c i t e d a s follows: CR/H2301-H2304 (v. 126). S e n a t e c i t a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e t h e t e x t of t h e application. 07/21/83 -- Nissouri legislative aFplication receives relating to balanced Sudge: a m e n d m e n t . Referred to S e n a t e J u d i c a r y C 4 / S 1 3 5 9 4 ( v . 129) Csmmlttee. ~7/11/83 -- Fissouri legislative appl=cation received relaring to balanced Bueget amendmezt. R e f e r r e C to 3 o x s e J1;CieLary Committee. ZR/:': 49-22 (v. 129) . 02/03/82 -- A l a s k a l e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n received r e l a t i n g to convening a c o n v e n t ~ o n to p r o p o s e a n amendmen: to b a l a n c e the budget. R e f e r r e d to H o u s e J u d i c i a r y C R / ~ 2 0 0 (v. 128) . Committee. 09/09/81 - - A l a S a m a l e g i s l a c u r e app;lcacion received relating to n a k i n g Federal j u d g e s h i p s e l e c t i v e o f f i c e s . R e f e r r e d to House J u d i c i a r y Committee. ~ R / H 6 0 7 2 (v. 1 2 7 ) . 05/i5/80 - - A r i z o n a L e g i s l a t u r e application r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to c o n v e n i n g a c o n v e ~ c i o n to p r o p o s e an a m e n d m e n t whlch would prevent t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t f r o m t h r e a t e n i n g to w i t h o l d F e d e r a l f u n d s to f o r c e S t a t e s t o a c t i n c e r t a i n ways. R e f e r r e d t o S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Conmittee. CR/S5467 (v. 126) . 05/09/80 -- Alabama Legislature application received relating to a c o n v e n t i o n t o p r o p o s e a r i g h t - t o - l i f e amendment. ~ ~ / ~ 5 0(v. 9 5126). Referred to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee. 05/02/80 - - T e n n e s s e e L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g t o a c o n v e n t i o n co p r o p o s e a r i g h c - t o - l i f e a m e n d m e n t . R e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee. C R / S 4 4 9 9 (v. 126). -- T e n n e s s e e L e g ~ s i a t n r e a p p l z c a t i o n r e c e l v e d relating to right-to-life convention. Referred to House C R / H 3 0 7 4 (v. 126). J u d i c i a r y Committee. -- A r i z o n a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to a b a l a n c e d budget. R e f e r r e d t o H o u s e J u d i c i a r y Committee. ~ ~ / H 2 2 4 (v. 5 125) . 04/24/80 -- Oklahoma Legislatcre application received about a c o n v e n t i o n relating to right-to-life a m e n d m e n t . CR/S4202 R e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee. (v. 1 2 6 ) . 03/21/80 -- Idaho Legislature application received about a c o n v e n t i o n r e l a t i n g to a right-to-life a m e n d m e n t . R e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee. CR/S2804 04/29/80 03/18/80 -- 01/29/80 - - N e v a d a i e g ~ s i a c u r ea?pllcazlon Idaho Legislature application received for a r i g h t - t o - l i f e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l cor,vention. R e f e r r e d to H o u s e J u d i c i a r y Committee. CR/E1967 (v. 126). r e c e ~ v e da b o u t a R e f e r r e 2 t~ Z?./S318 ( v . 125). convention r e l a t ~ n q tc = h e budget. S e n a t e ;zS:ciary 37/18/79 -- Zo~lx:zzee. Loulslana Leglslatcre a ~ p i l c a t l o n received relatlng z o a b a l a n c e d budget. R e f e r r e d co H o u s e J u d l c i a r y Committee. C R / ~ 6 1 9 7 (v. 125). 07/17/79 - - i o u i s i a n a L e g i s l a c u r e applicaziofi r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s a d o p c e d 5y a a m i n i s t r a ~ i v e Soaies. Z e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y C o m m i r t e e . C R / ~ 9 5 4 7 (v. 125). 06/25/79 -- Louisiana L e g ~ s l a t u r e application r e c e l v e d r e l a r l n g t o b a l a n c e d S u d g e t . R e f e r r s d to Hcuse J u d l c i a r y Coninittee. C3/HGli2 (v. 125). -- I o w a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to a b a l a n c e d b u d g e t , R e f e r r e d t o S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Ccminittee. C R / S 8 4 0 9 - S 8 4 1 0 (v. 125). -- N e v a d a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to right-to-life. Referred to S e n a t e j u d i c i a r y Committee. CR/S8409 (v. 125). 06/2-2/80 - - R e p r e s e n t a c i v e G r a s s l e y i n s e r t s t e x t of I o w a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a c o n v e n t i o n r e l a t i n g to a balanced budget. CR/E3168 ( v . 125). 06/21/79 -- S e n a t o r Z e p s e n i n s e r t s text of Iowa S t a t e S e n a t e r e s o l u t i o n making a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a C o n v e n t i o n (This r e s o l u t i o n r e l a t i n g to t h e budget. CR/S8182 (v. 125). p a s s e d i n 1979.) 06/18/79 -- I o w a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to a b a l a n c e d budget. Referred to Senate Judiciary Committee. CR/S7879 (v. 125). 06/05/79 -- Maryland Legislature application received relating to a balanced budget. Referred to House Judiciary Committee. CR/H4074 (v. 125). (This r e s o l u t i o n w a s a d o p t e d i n 1975.) 05/31/79 -- Representative Smith inserts communication of a m a j o r i t y of t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e I o w a S e n a t e s t a t i n g t h a t if they h a d b e e n a b l e t o r e c o n s i d e r t h e i r p a s s a g e of their balanced budget application, they would have d o n e so. CR/H3982 (v. 125). 05/24/79 -- S e n a t o r Humphrey l n s e r t s New Hampshire L e g l s l a t u r e a p p l l c a t l o n f o r a c o n v e n c ~ o n . C R / ~ 6 3 0 0 (v. 125). r e s o l u z l o n x a s a d o p t e Z ic 1979.) (Thls 05/15/79 - - New X a a p s k i r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a z i n g t o b a l a l c e e -S u e g e t . Referred tc !-ic12seJ ~ d i c l a r - yComrn:zzee. 2 2 / 3 3 2 8 4 (v. 125). 05/03/79 -- 05/01/79 - - I n d i a n a Legislature appiicatiofi r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to a balanced S u d g e t . R e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y North D a k o t a a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g L O a b a l a n c e d budget. Referred t o Senate Judiciary Committee. 125). C 2 / ~ 5 3 2 0 (-;. C o m i e Cx/SS317 a d o p t e d in ;959.) ( 125). (Tkls r e s c l ~ t i o nl i a s -- I n d i a n a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to a b a l a n c e d budget. R e f e r r e d to H o u s e J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e . ~ R / H 2 5 3 4 ( v . 125) . 04/10/79 -- A r i z o n a L e g i s l a t u r e s p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t ~ n gL O a balanced budget. R e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e . ~ R / S 4 2 9 8 (v. 125). 03/22/79 -- Oregon Legislature application received relating t o a balanced budget. Referred t o Senate Judiciary C o m m i t t e e . C R / S 3 1 6 5 (v. 125). (This r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d t h e l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1977.) 03/19/79 - - Representative McClory inserts Illinois Senate reso.lution ~ i r g i n g C o n g r e s s to a c t o n a b a l a n c e 6 b u d g e t a m e n d m e n t . C R / E 1 1 7 4 (v. 1 2 5 ) . 03/15/79 - - O r e g o c L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e z v e d r e l a t i n g t o a balanced budget. Referred to House Judiciary (This r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d C o m m i t t e e . ~ R / H 1 4 2 4 (v. 125). t h e l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1977.) -- Alabama Legislature application received relating t o t h e budget. R e f e r r e d to .House J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e . C R / H 1 4 2 4 (v. 125). (This r e s o l u t i o n w a s a d o p t e d in 1976.) -- Texas Legislature application received relating to the budget. Referred t o Senate Judiciary Committee. CR/S2869 (v. 125). Also r e c e i v e d in H o u s e a n d r e f e r r e d t o H o u s e J u d i c i a r y Committee. CR/H1424 (v. 125). (This r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d i n 1977.) 03/13/79 -- Alabama Legislature application relating t o budget r e c e i v e d . R e f e r r e d t o S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee. ~ ~ / ~ 2 6(v. 1 0125). (This r e s o l u t i o n w a s a d o p t e d i n 1976.) 03/12/79 -- P e n n s y l v a n i a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l ~ c a t l o nr e c e l v e e r e l a t i n g t o t h e budget. R e f e r r e d to S e n a t e Judiciary C o m m l t t e e . ~ i ? / S 2 5 0 0 - S 2 5 2 1 (v. 125). (Tnis r e s o l a t i o n w-as ziCopzPZ i n 1976.) -- G e o r g i a L e g - s i a t u r e a p p i l c a t l o n r e c e l v e d r e l a z ~ n g to a r;ght-to-l~fe amendaert. 3eferre2 ts Xouse J x 2 ~ c ~ a r y Coxrnittee. CR/Xl220 (v. 125). -- A r k a n s a s L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e l a t i n g to t h e S u d g e t r e c e i v e d . R e f e r r e Z c o S e n a z e ;ud:c~ary Cornrni~cee. C R / ~ 2 3 6 3 (v. 125). ( ~ h l sr e s o l u ~ i o nw a s a d o p t e d i n 1979.) -- G e o r g l a Legislature a p p l l c a t ~ o n ~ e c e - v e d r e l a t i n g t o a rlgn~-zo-life aner,dmen:. 3 e f e r r e d :o S e n a c e Z c d l c i z r y Cornrnltzee. C ~ / S 2 3 6 3 j v . 1 2 5 ) . -- Utah L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o b u d g e t received. Referred to Senate Judiciary Committee. c ~ / s 2 3 5 3 - ~ 2 3 5 4(v. 125). (This r e s o l u t i o n w a s adsptec! i n i975.) -- N e b r a s k a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n received r e l a t i n g to a b a l a n c e d Sudget. Referred to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e . CR/S2185 (v. 125). -- Utah Legislature application received relating to a b a l a n c e d budget. Referred to House Judiciary Commlttee. CEi/H1145 (v. 125). 03/08/79 03/07/79 03/05/79 - - A r k a n s a s L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e l a t i n g to t h e b u d g e t received. Referred to House J u d i c i a r y Committee. CR/H1068 (v. 125). (This r e s o l u t i o n was a d o p t e d in 1979.) 03/01/79 -- F l o r i d a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e l a t i n g to t h e b u d g e t received. R e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee. ~ ~ / S 1 9 3 (v. 0 125). (This r e s o l u t i o n , S e n a t e M e m o r i a l No. 2 3 4 , passed i n 1976.) -- Florida Legislature application relating to the b u d g e t received. Referred to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e . CR/S1930-S1931 (v. 125). (This resolution, H o u s e Memorial No. 2 0 8 1 , passed i n 1976.) -- N e w Mexico L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g t o budget. R e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee. ~ ~ / ~ 1 9 3 1 - S 1 9 (v. 3 2 125). (This r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d i n 1976.) -- South Dakota Legislature application received relating t o a balanced budget. Referred to Senate Judiciary Committee. CR/S1931 (v. 125) . -- I d a h o L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to a b a l a n c e d budget. Z e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee. CR/S1932 (v. 125). 02/28/79 - - I d a h o i e g l s l a t u r e a ~ p l ~ c 2 t ~received o n r e l a r ~ z gto budget. Z e f e r r s c :o X o c s e Z ~ d i c i a r y2or~a~:zee. (This r e s o l l ~ t r o np a s s e e rn 1979.) C 4 / H l 0 0 4 iv. 1 2 5 ) . -- South Dakota Legislature application received r e l a t i n g to a balanced S u d g e t . R e f e r r e d to H o u s e J u d i c i a r y Committee. C~/ii945 (v. i25). (This r e s o l u t i o n passed in 1979.) 32/26/79 - - New M e x l c o i e q ~ s l a t ~ raep p l ~ c a t l o n receive? rela'--. _ ,.Y to budgec. ReferreC c s Eouse Judlclary Ccamlttee. c~i/HS98 (v. 125). (Thls r e s o l u t r o n passed r n 1975.) - - R e p r e s e n t a t i v e F o u n t a i n i n s e r t s North C a r o l i n a resoluti9n relating to calling a constitutional c o n v e n t i o n for a b a l a n c e d budget. (This r e s o l u t i o n ~ii/ii887 (v. 125). was a d o p t e d i n 1979.) -- 02/22/79 M i s s i s s i p p i L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to a r i g h t - t o - l i f e amendment. R e f e r r e d to S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y Committee.. CR/S1788 (v. 123). - - F l o r i d a L e g i s l a t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g to budget. Referred to H o u s e J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e . CR/H830 (v. 125). (This r e s o l u t i o n , S e n a t e M e m o r i a l No. 2 3 4 , passed i n 1975.) - - North C a r o l i n a a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e r v e d r e l a t ~ n gto budget. CR/H830 Referred to H o u s e J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e . (v. 125). 02/21/79 -- M l s s l s s l p p r application r e c e i v e d r e l a t i n g t o a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l convention r e g a r d i n g a r l g h t - t o - l l f e a m e n d m e n t . Referred to H o u s e J u d i c i a r y Committee. C R / H 8 1 S - (v-. 125). 02/08/79 -- S e n a t o r Harry F. Byrd i n s e r t e d c o p i e s of a p p l i c a t i o n s for a convention relating t o the budget from the f o l l o w i n g States: A l a b a m a (1976 resolution), A r i z o n a (1977 Resolution), C o l o r a d o ( 1 9 7 8 r e s o l u t i o n ) , D e l a w a r e (1975 r e s o l u t i o n ) , F l o r i d a ( 1 9 7 6 r e s o l u t i o n ) , G e o r g i a (1976 resolution), K a n s a s ( 1 9 7 8 r e s o l u t i o n ) , L o u i s i a n a ( 1 9 7 8 resolution), M a r y l a n d (1975 resolution), M i s s i s s i p p i (1975 r e s o l u t i o n ) , N e b r a s k a (1976 resolufion), N e w M e x i c o (1976 resolution), North D a k o t a (1975 r e s o l u t i o n ) , O k l a h o m a (1976 resolution), O r e g o n (1977 resolution), P e n n s y l v a n i a (1976 resolution), S o u t h C a r o l i n a (1975 resolution), T e n n e s s e e ( 1 9 7 7 r e s o l u t i o n ) , T e x a s ( 1 9 7 7 resolution), V i r g i n i a ( 1 9 7 6 r e s o l u t i o n ) , and Wyoming ( 1 9 7 7 resolution). CR/S1305-Sl313 (v. 125) . 02/06/79 -- North C a r o i l n a L e g z s i a t u r e a p p l l c a t l o n r e c e l v e d relating to b u d q e c . Referred to S e n a z e J u d l c ~ a r y C o m m i t t e e . (,"is rosc:mL,,-on p a s s e 5 5:. 1973.) ea/sl:.? (v. 125). Amerlcan Bar Assoclatlon. S ~ e c l a lConstitutional C o n v e n t r o n Study Comrnlt2ee. Amendment of the C o n s t i t u t i o n S y t h e convention m e t h o d c n d e r A r t l c l e V. C n l c a g o , 1974. 50 p . Amerlcan E n t e r p r i s e I n s t ~ c u t efor ? u b l ~ cP s l l c y Research. P r o p o s a l s for a c o n s t ~ t u t i o ~ a clo n v e n r l o n to r e q u ~ r ea Dalanced Feeera: S c d g e t . W a s h ~ n g t c n ,1979. 38 p . (Amerlcan Enterprise Institute for P u S l l c P o l l c y R e s e a r c h . L e g l s l a t l v e analysis, 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , no. 3). B l a c k , C h a r l e s L . , J r . Amendlng t h e Constitution: a l e t t e r to a Congr.essman. Yale l a w jourc&l, v . 6 2 , Dec. :972. 189-215. F i s h e r , Louis. Confidential spending and governmental accountability. G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n l a w r e v i e w , v. 4 7 , Jan. 1979: 347-385. UnSalancing the Constitution. G r o s s , Bertram M. 449-468. Apr. 28, 1979: N a t i o n , v. 2 2 8 , K a p p , Elaine S. A balanced F e d e r a l budget and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n c o n t r o v e r s y . S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t , v. 7 , s p r i n g 1 9 7 9 : 58-64. U.S. L i b r a r y of Congress. Congressional Research Service. C a l l i n g a F e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n by S t a t e p e t i t i o n ; selected r e f e r e n c e s [ b y ] J o h n n y K i l l i a n , u p d a t e d by Meredith McCoy [ w a s h i n g t o n ] 1979. 5 p. C R S R e p o r t 79-61A ----- C o n s t i t u t i o n a l conventions: political and legal issues; the u n a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n s [ b y ] Meredith McCoy a n d D a v i d C. Huckabee. 4 3 p. [ w a s h i n g t o n ] J u n e 2 , 1981. C R S R e p o r t 8 1 - 1 3 5 GOV/A Balanced Budget Amendment C o h e n , R i c h a r d E. T r y i n g to k i c k t h e s p e n d i n g habit. j o u r n a l , v. 1 1 , Apr. 2 1 , 1979: 632-636. M a c L a u r y , B r u c e K. National P r o p o s a l s to l i m i t F e d e r a l s p e n d i n g a n d b a l a n c e t h e budget. I n P e c h m a n , J o s e p h A., ed. Setting national priorities: the 1980 Sudget. Washington, Brookings Institution, 1979: 213-223. NlsXanen, W ~ l l l a m . Controlling the growth of government: the c o n s t l t u t ~ o n a la m e n d m e n t a p p r o a c h . St. i o u l s , Center for the S c u d y of A n e r i c a n a d s i n e s s , Washington U n ; v e r s ~ z y , 1 9 7 9 . 18 p. (Washington Unlverslty, St. Louis. Center for che S t c C y af A n e r l c a r 3,slness: W:ztsaaro 23252 s e r ~ e s ) Shannon, John a n 2 Bruee X a l l ~ n . R e s z r a i n ~ n g rhe tederal budgec: alternative p o l l c i e s a z d s t r a t e g ~ e s . I n t e r g c v e r n ~ e n t a l 8-14. perspect;ve, v . 5 , s p r ~ n q19'9: U.S. Library of Congress. C o n g r e s s i o n a l 3esearcfi S e r v i c e . a aalancing che 3udget a n 2 limizing Federcl spezeicg: selected bibiiograp9y [ b y ] Felix Chin. Apr. 6 , 1 9 7 9 . 7 p. - - - - - m- h e 'salanced 'sueget p r o p o s a l : s o n e m a c r o s C o n o ~ i c imp;izations [ b y ] John Henderson. C R S M i n i 'Brlef M 5 7 9 2 2 9 ----- 3aianced 23dgec ard spsneicg Ilrn~caclons: propasod c o n s t l e u c l o n a l a m e n d m e n t s i b y ] A l i e n M. Schick. CRS Issue Srlef IB79027 The balanced budget movement: a political W a l k e r , D a v i d B. perspective. I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , v. 5 , s p r i n g 1 9 7 9 : 15-20.