Soviet Policy Toward the Third World

S O V I E T P O L I C Y TOWARDS THE T H I R D WORLD I S S U E B S I E F WUHBEB I B 7 9 1 0 2 AUTHOR : Cooper, William HI Research B s s i s t a n t , O f f ice of S e n i o r S p e c i a l i s t s THE L I B R A R Y OF C O N G R E S S C O N G R E S S I O N A L RESEARCH S E R V I C E BAJOB I S S U E S SYSTEH D A T 3 O R I G I N A T E D Qu6Jz D A T E UPDATED 04/02180 FOR A D D I T I O N A L I B F O R H A T I O N C A L L 287-5700 0402 CRS- 1 The T h i r d World c u r r e n t l y o c c u p i e s an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n S o v i e t f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e r e c e n t S o v i e t i n v o l v e m e n t i n A f g h a n i s t a n and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , Africa, a n d t h e Middle E a s t , S o v i e t T h i r d World p o l i c y h a s grown o v e r t h e d e c a d e s v i t h s t o p s a n d s t a r t s , b u t t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t i t h a s become a p e r s a n e n t a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t p a r t of Soviet foreign policy. The U , S ,S ,B .'s c o n t i n u i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e a f f a i r s of T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s is a l s o a n i s s u e f a c i n g American o f f i c i a l s i n b o t h t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a n d e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h e s o f t h e Government, A s America becomes more d e p e n d e n t o n raw materials f r o m t h e T h i r d U o r l d , S o v i e t a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d e x t e n d t o a r e a s v i t a l t o American n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . B_WEZiQHND-&BPQHEGZ- BNBLPSZ2 G I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e term n T h i r d Worldm is u s e d t o refer t o the n o n - c o m m m i s t , l e s s d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y Africa ( e x c e p t t h e R e p u b l i c o f South Africa), E a s t A s i a ( e x c e p t J a p a n a n d C h i n a ) , L a t i n America ( e x c e p t Cuba) , t h e H i d d l e E a s t ( e x c e p t Israel) , and S o u t h e a s t A s i a ( e x c e p t Cambodia, Laos, N o r t h Korea, and Vietnam). " T h i r d Worldn w i l l be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h mlessd e v e l o p e d c a n t r i e s n and *'developing c o u n t r i e s u . . I n i t s T h i r d U o r l d p o l i c y , t h e U,S.S.R has sought to: (1) e x t e n d its p o l i t i c a l , m i l i t a r y , a n d economic i n f l u e n c e f a r beyond its own b o r d e r s ; (2) r e d u c e W e s t e r n access t o t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s ; and (3) promote t h e s p r e a d o f Harxism-LeninismP r i o r i t y among t h e s e g o a l s v a r i e s v i t h time and circumstances. V l a d i a i r L e n i n , t h e f o u n d e r of t h e S o v i e t s t a t e , p r o v i d e d t h e i d e o l o g i c a l underpinning for S o v i e t Third world p o l i c y . Be b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e developing n a t i o n s , most of which were s t i l l p a r t of European c o l o n i a l e m p i r e s , were the " w e a k e s t l i n k w i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t e m p i r e s and t h a t r e v o l u t i o n s aBong t h e s e n a t i o n s would u n d e r m i n e t h e m i l i t a r y and economic power of t h e WestIn 1920, h e called o n a l l Communist p a r t i e s t o s u p p o r t t h e s e r e v o l u t i o n s , but Soviet R u s s i a a t t h a t time vas i n v o l v e d i n i t s own c i v i l w a r a n d t o o weak t o s a k e many i n r o a d s i n t h e T h i r d World. A l t h o u g h t h e S o v i e t Union u n d e r S t a l i n had g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h a n d p o t e n t i a l f o r i n f l u e n c e among t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s , S t a l i n t o o k a more p e s s i m i s t i c view of t h e T h i r d Uorld t h a n d i d Lenin. H e c o n s i d e r e d t h e world t o be d i v i d e d p o l i t i c a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y i n t o two camps, t h e s o c i a l i s t and t h e e v e n t h e o n e s which had c a p i t a l i s t , and c o n s i d e r e d the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s won t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e from E u r o p e to b e c a p i t a l i s t . I n s t e a d of t r e a t i n g them as p o t e n t i a l f r i e n d s , he l o o k e d o n them a s e n e m i e s a n d t h u s f a i l e d t o p u r s u e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o make i n r o a d s among c e r t a i n i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f l u e n t i a l leaders of t h e u n d e r d e v e l o p e d w o r l d , egg., Wehru o f I n d i a , -- -- L a t e r , Khrushchev r e j e c t e d S t a l i n 's two-camp thesis and redefined the CRS- 2 IB79 102 U P D ATE-C 4/O 2/80, g l o b a l p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n t o t h r e e camps: t h e s o c i a l i s t and the c a p i t a l i s t camps and t h e c a a p which e n c o a p a s s e d t h e newly i n d e p e n d e n t , n e u t r a l n a t i o n s o f t h e T h i r d World- I n h e l p i n g t h e s e n a t i o n s t o d e c r e a s e t h e i r d e p e n d e n c e on c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , Khrushchev saw a way of g a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l advantage over t h e R e s t . H e p u r s u e d this e f f o r t t h r o u g h f o r m a l p r o g r a n s of a i d , t r a d e , a n d e d u c a t i o n and t h r o u g h more c o v e r t s u p p o r t of selected p o l i t i c a l novements u i t h i n t h e new n a t i o n s , Some o f t h e s e v e n t u r e s were on a g r a n d i o s e scale, e , g - , t h e Asuan D a m i n E g y p t Through i n v e s t m e n t s i n t h e T h i r d World and t h e g r o v t h o f S o v i e t n i l i t a r y power, Khrushchev s u c c e e d e d i n p r o j e c t i n g S o v i e t i n f h e n c e , s u r p a s s i n g p r e v i o u s S o v i s t r u l e r s , B u t i n f o r m u l a t i n g his policies, he f a i l e d t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s C o n s e q u e n t l y , S o v i e t s ponsored p r o j e c t s w h i c h were p r i m a r i l y g e a r e d t o heavy i n d u s t r y were U l - s u i t e d f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l l y based e c o n o m i e s of t h e T h i r d World, In a d d i t i o n , some T h i r d Uorld l e a d e r s who had b e e n h e l p e d by t h e S o v i e t Union proved t o be t o o weak p o l i t i c a l l y t o remain i n power, a n d S o v i e t i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e i r f u t u r e s v a s v a s t e d , When Khrushchev was removed from power i a O c t o b e r 1964, o n e of t h e criticisms d i r e c t e d a t him was of h i s a d v e n t u r i s t i c p o l i c i e s i n t h e T h i r d World. Thus, t h e c h a ~ g e i n S o v i e t l e a d e r s h i p opened t h e way f o r c h a n g e s in S o v i e t f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e n a t i o n s of t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d B r e z h n e v h a s u p h e l d K h r u s h c h e v e s b a s i c c o r n i t m e n t to e n h a n c i n g S o v i e t p r e s t i g e i n t h e T h i r d Florld, b u t h e h a s c h a n g e d t h e n e t h o d o l o g y t o a c c o r d b e t t e r w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l and economic r e a l i t i e s o f t h e n a t i o n s i n v o l v e d ; f u r t h e r m o r e , p r o j e c t s would n o t o n l y b e n e f i t t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , b u t would g u a r a n t e e a r e t u r n t o t h e U,S.S .B o n i t s i n v e s t n e n t . Brezhnev t h u s i n s t i t u t e d what h a v e been c a l l e d n b u s i n e s s l i k e n r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e T h i r d Uorld. Through t h e y e a r s t h e S o v i e t Union has employed a v a r i e t y o f s t r a t e g i e s a n d d e v i c e s i n its r e l a t i o n s v i t h t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s - The U - S . S - B , has u s e d some t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s of g r e a t power d i p l o m a c y , b u t h a s a l s o relied o n o t h e r t o o l s which h a v e grown from its r e v a ? . u t i o n a r y a n d Conmunist background - The S o v i e t program of e c o n o m i c a i d to t h e non-Communist s t a t e s of t h e . Third World w a s s t a r t e d i n 1954 a s p a r t of K h r u s h c h e v e s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . It has b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of g r a n t s - i n - a i d t o a f e u s e l e c t c o u n t r i e s deemed i m p o r t a n t t o S o v i e t s t r a t e g i c i n t e r e s t s (in t h e p a s t , t h e s e . c o u n t r i e s h a v e b e e n t h o s e b o r d e r i n g t h e S o v i e t Union i n S o u t h A s i a and t h e Near E a s t ) ; t h e a l l o c a t i o n of f u n d s p r i n c i p a l l y t o t h e h i g h l y v i s i b l e heavy i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r ; and t h e t y i n g of a i d g r a n t s t o p u r c h a s e s of S o v i e t e q u i p m e n t by t h e r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s R e c e n t l y t h e U ,S - S ,R , h a s used f r a m e v o r k a g r e e m e n t s by v h i c h a i d p l a n s a r e o u t l i n e d i n g e n e r a l v i t h s p e c i f i c amounts and p r o j e c t s worked o u t l a t e r . T h i s t a c t i c h a s g i v e n t h e S o v i e t s a modicum o f f l e x i b i l i t y in its a i d p r o g r a m s - The amount o f a i d h a s f l u c t u a t e d f r m y e a r t o y e a r . I n 1977 t h e S o v i e t s s i g n e d $400 m i l l i o n i n n e v g r a n t s t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 count ries , - I B 7 9 102 CRS- 3 UPDATE-04/02/80 U i l i t a r y a i d h a s h i s t o r i c a l l y been t h e most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t of t h e g e n e r a l S o v i e t a i d program. The U.S.S -8. is now s e c o n d o n l y t o t h e U n i t e d States a s a s u p p l i e r of a r m s t o t h e less d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s - A s v i t h economic a i d , S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a i d h a s b e e n g e n e r a l l y f o c u s e d i n k e y a r e a s of i m p o r t a n c e t o S o v i e t n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , i.e., t h e Middle E a s t a n d c o u n t r i e s b o r d e r i n g t h e U - S -S OR- However, r e c e n t l a r g e s u p p l i e s o f m i l i t a r y e q u i p m e n t t o E t h i o p i a s y m b o l i z e t h e i n c r e a s e d i m p o r t a n c e t h e S o v i e t Union p l a c e s on s u b - S a h a r a n Africa, The Swiet Union now o f t e n d i s p a t c h e s S o v i e t a d v i s e r s t o c o u n t r i e s r e c e i v i n g arms i n o r d e r t o t r a i n l o c a l p e r s o n n e l i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e new e q u i p m e n t o r t r a i n s t h e n a t f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e S o v i e t Union i t s e l f . I n 1977, t h e U - S - S - B - , t o g e t h e r w i t h E a s t e r n Europe, h a d 10,250 m i l i t a r y a d v i s e r s in v a r i o u s less d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s , I n a d d i t i o n , as of that y e a r , 41,875 r i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l from t h e l e s s d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s had been t r a i n e d i n t h e S o v i e t Union- J The S o v i e t navy h a s expanded i n r e c e n t y e a r s u n d e r the a e g i s of Admiral Gorshkov, p a r t i c u l a r l y in t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a and t h e A t l a n t i c and I n d i a n Oceans, It h a s b e e n used t o d e m o n s t r a t e a m i l i t a r y a n d d i p l o m a t i c p r e s e n c e i n T h i r d World r e g i o n s a n d t o s h i p m i l i t a r y s u p p l i e s t o some o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s , I n o t h e r wards, i t h a s b e e n u s e d t o c h a l l e n g e t h e image of t h e P e s t a s masters of t h e s e a s P&r_tp-to-Partx-Cont acts D e l e g a t i o n s from Communist and o t h e r l e f t r i n g p a r t i e s of T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s v i s i t noscow t o meet w i t h o f f i c i a l s of t h e Communist P a r t y of t h e S o v i e t Union (CPSU) , e s p e c i a l l y of t h e CPSU C e n t r a l C o n m i t t e e v s I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e p a r t m e n t which h a n d l e s s u c h c o n t a c t s . CPSU o f f i c i a l s a l s o v i s i t t h e s e c o u n t r i e s on p a r t y matters. P r e s u m a b l y t h e CPSO a l s o p r o v i d e s a i d t o some of these parties. The S o v i e t Union also carries on t h e sore t r a d i t i o n a l s t a t e - t o - s t a t e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s v i t h aost T h i r d World n a t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e e x c h a n g e a m b a s s a d o r s a n d t h e es t a b l i s h a e n t of e m b a s s i e s . High S o v i e t o f f i c i a l s a l s o p a y s t a t e v i s i t s t o t h o s e T h i r d World n a t i o n s deemed i m p o r t a n t enough t o w a r r a n t s u c h a t t e n t i o n . f n a d d i t i o n , t h e S o v i e t Union h a s s i g n e d f r i e n d s h i p a n d c o o p e r a t i o n agree. e n t s w i t h E t h i o p i a , I n d i a , A f g h a n i s t a n , Mozambique, Angola, I r a q , and S o u t h Yemen- C u l t u r a l a g r e e m e n t s h a v e a l s o p r o v e d t o be a n i m p o r t a n t t o o l i n S o v i e t Third World d i p l o e a c y , a l t h o u g h n o t a s i a p a r t a n t a s s i l i t a r y a n d economic a i d , Under t h e s e a g r e e m e n t s , t h e U S .So B s e t s up so-called Yriendship s o c i e t i e ~ ,l ~ i t e r a t u r e e x c h a n g e s , v i s i t s b y S o v i e t f i n e a r t s g r o u p s , and t r a i n i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r T h i r d i t o r l d s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y i n t h e S o v i e t Union. . ' B a s i c t o Soviet p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e T h i r d World is s u p p o r t f o r what S o v i e t p o l i q m a k e r s c a l l % a t i m a l l i b e r a t i o n moverrents ,"G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y Brezhnev d e s c r i b e d S o v i e t p o l i c y i n t h i s r e g a r d i n his s p e e c h b e f o r e t h e 2 5 t h CPSU C o n g r e s s i n F e b r u a r y 1976, N a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n movements h e d e s c r i b e d a s "forces of p r o g r e s s , democracy a n d n a t i o n a 1 i n d e p e n d e n c e * and Brez hnev s a i d , CRS- .. 4 IB79 102 ~~~~TE-04/02/88 ... *, ve t r e a t ( t h e n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n movements) a s comrades-in-arms. O u r p a r t y is r e n d e r i n g and v i l l , r a n d e r s n p p o r t t o p e o p l e s who a r e f i g h t i n g f o r t h e i r f reedoa What d i s t i n g u i s h e s n a t i o n a l , l i b e r a t i o n movements f rcm o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o Soviet p o l i c y , is t h e d e g r e e t o which t h e y follow L e n i n i s t p r i n c i p l e s of f o r e i g n p o l i c y a s i n t e r m e t e d b y t h e CPSU. T h i s p o l i c y h a s b e e n u s e d t o j u s t i f y S w i e t s u p p o r t f o r t h e P o p u l a r flovement f o r the L i b e r a t i o n of Angola (MPLA) , f o r t h e V i e t c o n g , f o r t h e fl e d g i a g E t h i o p i a n Barxist government, and for o t h e r s , a n d w i l l be used as j u s t i f i c a t i o n for o t h e r s u c h s t e p s i n t h e f u t u r e - - The S o v i e t U n i o n a s Cuban a n d E a s t e r n European a l l i e s h a v e b e e n p l a y i n g i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n S o v i e t a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e T h i r d World- an S o v i e t - C n b a n c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e T h i d Uorld is a n o u t g r a w t h o f t h e t i g h t l y knit political, econ o a i c , and n i l i t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p between the tvo c o u n t r i e s , The Cuban m i l i t a r y , f o r example, is c l o s e l y p a t t e r n e d after t h a t o f t h e W .S-S-R. i n t a c t i c s , s t r a t e g y , a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n Soviet military p e r s o n n e l a r e knovn t o t r a i n Cubans. In a d d i t i o n , i n t h e last t w o d e c a d e s , Boscou h a s p r o v i d e d Cuba w i t h a t o t a l of $ 1 - 6 b i l l i o n i n a i l i t a r y a i d , most of which h a s been i n t h e f o m o f m i l i t a r y hardware g i v e n a t n o c o s t - - ' ' A second i n p o r t a n t element of t h e S o v i e t - C u b a n r e l a t i o n s h i p is t h e n o n - s i l i t a r y economic aid p r o v i d e d t o Cuba by t h e U - S - S - B - , m o s t l y in t h e f o m of economic s u b s i d i e s The S o v i e t Union pays h i g h e r - t h a n - w o r l d market p r i c e s f o r Cuban s u g a r and n i c k e l , and Cuba is a b l e t o p a y l o v e r - t h a n - w o r l d ~ a t k e tp r i c e s f o r S o v i et o i l - - From t h e s e t i e s h a s emerged a c o n p e t e n t f i g h t i n g f o r c e v h i c h , a a z o r d i n g t o Defe~seI n t e l l i g e n c e Agency a n a l y s t s , has been d e p l o y e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e of o p p o r t u n i t i e s which a r i s e . Cuban t r o o p w e r e knovn t o h a v e made a d e c i s i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e v i c t o r y of t h e P o p u l a r Hoverent f o r t h e L i b e r a t i o n of Angola (MPLA) f a c t i o n d u r i n g t h e Angolan c i v i l war i n IS75 a n d t o the d e f e a t of Somali-backed rebels i n t h e Ogaden by B t h i o p i a n government forces i n 1978A c c o r d i n g t o DIA, t h e r e a r e c u r r e n t l y 20,000 Cuban t r o o p s in Angola, 11,000 t o 12,000 i n E t h i o p i a , a n d o t h e r s i n Bozalrbique. Cuban t r o o p s r e p o r t e d l y t r a i n members of sotithem A f r i c a n r e b e l f a c t i o n s s u c h as t h e South-West African P e o p l e % Organ i z a t i o n (SWAPO) , t h e Zimbabwe A f r i c a N a t i o n a l Union (ZANU) , and t h e Zimbabwe Africa P e o p l e ' s Union (ZAPU) - W h i l e t h e r e c a n b e no d a u b t a b o u t t h e i m p a c t of Cuba i n S o v i e t T h i r d World . p o l i c y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e Soviet--Cuban c o a p e r a t i a n r e m a i n s a p o i n t of d e b a t e . S o a e a n a l y s t s a r g u e t h a t Cuba is merely a s u r r o g a t e of n o s c o v and its v e n t u r e s i n Africa a n d e l s e w h e r e a r e t h e p r i c e f o r S o v i e t a i d , s u p p o r t and protection. O t h e r s c o n t e n d t h a t Cuba and t h e S o v i e t Union a r e e q u a l p a r t n e r s c o o p e r a t i n g i n e x e c u t i n g common fo r e i g n p o l i c y p l a n s . Along w i t h Cuba, t h e U-SIS.R.Bs E a s t e r n European a l l i e s a r e a l s o p l a y i n g a g r o v i n g r o l e i n S o v i e t T h i r d U o r l d p o l i c y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Africa. A l l of t h e s e c o u n t r i e s h a v e a i d and t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s - E x c e p t f o r R o n a n i a , t h e p o l i c i e s of t h e s e c o u n t r i e s t u u a r d t h e T h i r d World a r e c l o s e l y a k i n t o t h o s e of t h e S o v i e t Union. S t u d i e s d o n e b y R a d i o Free E u r o p e i n d i c a t e a d e g r e e of w i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r n b e t v e e n t h e U-S.S.B. a n d some E a s t e r n European c o u n t r i e s i n t h e T h i r d Uorld, e s p e c i a l l y in t h e C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , f o r exiurple, h a s d i s t r i b u t i o n of m i l i t a r y a i d t o Africa b e e n a s u p p l i e r of small arms and a m n u n i t i o n a n d some m i l i t a r y a d v i s e r s . In . f a c t , t h e r e were r e p o r t s t h a t C z e c h o s l o v a k i a s u p p l i e d a r r s t o t h e P o p u l a r Movement f o r t h e L i b e r a t i o n o f Angola (HPLA) d u r i n g t h e Angolan c i v i l war and t h a t C z e c h o s l o v a k m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l were i n Angola t o advise HPEA insurgents. E a s t Germany h a s been t r a i n i n g l o c a l T h i r d . World p e r s o n n e l i n s e t t i n g up p o l i c e forces, f o r example, i n S o u t h Yemen - By s h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s v i t h its a l l i e s , t h e U.S.S.R. h a s been a b l e t o expand its i n f l u e n c e i n t h e T h i r d World u s i n g b l o c r e s o u r c e s r a t h e r t h a n j u s k i t s own, t h u s e a s i n g t h e b u r d e n on its own econoay. I n addition, a unified S o v i e t b l o c p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e T h i r d V a r l d h a s added a d e g r e e of c o h e s i v e n e s s t o t h e a l l i a n c e , Romania h a s been t h e o n e e x c e p t i o n . Romanian P r e s i d e n t C e a u s e s c u h a s followed a T h i r d Uorld p a l i c y i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e U ,S ,S ,B. and h a s called f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e of t h e d e v e l o p i n g world from a l l power b l o c s . The U,S-S.R. h a s had mixed r e s u l t s in i t . i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e T h i r d Uorld. S e v e r a l factors c a n be c i t e d a s h a v i n g l e d t o S o v i e t s u c c e s s e s i n t h i s area w h i l e o t h e r s can b e l i s t e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e f a i l u r e s . Popf t i v e f a c t o r p r Many of t h e g o v e r n m e n t s of t h e T h i r d World are h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d , and t h u s , c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n c h a r a c t e r of S o v i e t models and ideology. The S o v i e t Union h a s a l s o b e e n w i l l i n g t o u s e i t s growing economic, p o l i t i c a l , a n d m i l i t a r y power t o a i d " n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n " movemen ts among t h e e m e r g i n g n a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , H o s c o w B s anti-Western o u t l o o k h a s a l l o w e d it t o i d e n t i f y v i t h t h e a n t i c o l o n i a l c a u s e s of t h e e m e r g i n g n a t i o n s , The S o v i e t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n cf i t s d e t e n t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e U n i t e d States h a s p e r m i t t e d S o v i e t p o l i c y m a k e r s t o j u s t i f y t h e i r s u p p o r t o f n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n aovements w h i l e p u r s u i n g improved r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e United S t a t e s . gpqgg&q-factt=s; I n many cases, t h e S o v i e t economic a n d p o l i t i c a l model h a s f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e t h e s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s f a c e d by most T h i r d Uorld nations. S e c o n d l y , e c o n o n i c and m i l i t a r y a i d h a v e b e e n a d r a i n on t h e S o v i e t economy; f u r t h e r S o v i e t e x p l o i t s i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g world m i g h t be c o n s t r a i n e d b y t h i s economic f a c t o r - The S o v i e t Union h a s a l s o b e e n faced w i t h a growing n a t i o n a l i s m among t h e T h i r d World n a t i o n s ; f o r example, Hoscow was e s s e n t i a l l y thrown o u t of Egypt, Sudan, a n d Somalia when t h e leaders of t h e s e n a t i o n s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t S o v i e t i n v o l v e m e n t was a g a i n s t t h e i r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s - Most r e c e n t l y , the e x i s t e n a e of t h e S o v i e t - b a c k e d government in A f g h a n i s t a n is t h r e a t e n e d by a c i v i l v a r w i t h Hoslem rebel forces which r e s e n t Soviet i n v o l v e m e n t in t h e a f f a i r s of t h e i r c o u n t r y . D e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s are now l i n k i n g t h e S o v i e t Union w i t h t h e West in t h e North-South d i a l o g u e a n d demanding t h a t i t t a k e on a g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a i d i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f T h i r d Uorld n a t i o n s Howhere vas t h i s a n t a g o n i s a more e v i d e n t t h a n d u r i n g t h e f o u r t h U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o n f e r e n c e on Trade a n d Development ([JWCTAD I V ) i n l a i r o b i , Kenya, i n May 1976, where T h i r d World d e l e g a t e s c r i t i c i z e d t h e S o v i e t Union a s w e l l a s t h e P e s t , This a n a t a g o n i s m e s s e n t i a l l y h a s p l a c e d t h e U. S ,S .R. on t h e sase l e v e l as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c a l l y e a b a r a s s i n g t o t h e S o v i e t Union. The S o v i e t Union h a s c o u n t e r e d s u c h a r g u m e n t s by c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e c o l o n i a l and n e o - c o l o n i a l p r a c t i c e s of t h e West h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h e T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s froa a t t a i n i n g d e v e l o p e n t f o r which, Hoscow s a i d , i t c a n n o t be h e l d responsible- C h i n e s e r e l a t i o n s v i t h T h i r d World n a t i o n s is based on t h e n o t i o n of China a s an underdeveloped n a t i o n an2 t h u s sore q u a l i f i e d . t h a n t h e developed n a t i o n s , e.g. the U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e S o v i e t Union, t o know t h e p r o b l e a s f a c e d by o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s , The C h i n e s e c l a i m t h a t S o v i e t i n t e n t i o n s i n t h e T h i r d World a r e b a s e d e n t i r e l y an t h e i r own n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s v i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r the v e l f are of t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , The P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c of China h a s a l t e r e d its p o l i c i e s t o w a r d s t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s o v e r the l a s t t w o d e c a d e s , Prior to t h e Cultural R e v o l u t i o n (1966-69), the P-R.C- c o n c e n t r a t e d i t s s u p p o r t on r e v o l u t i o n a r y noveaen t s d e d i c a t e d t o t h e o v e r t h r o w of rnling governments deemed i d e o l o g i c a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e P.R.C. After t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , t h e C h i n e s e t s b l a e d t h e i r e m p h a s i s on i d e o l o g y i n f a v o r of closer t i e s w i t h r u l i n g T h i r d World s t a t e s , Thus t h e y b e g a n t o u t i l i z e more t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l , economic, a n d m i l i t a r y i n s t r u a e n t s of f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o win i n f l u e n c e i n t h e T h i r d World, S e v e r a l f a c t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f a r t h e P,R,C, framework, n o t the l e a s t o f which h a s been t h e p e r c e i v e d growing t h r e a t t o China coming from t h e g r o w t h of i n f l u e n c e o f t h e U S - S - B - i n Africa a n d A s i a , C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n t h e l a s t d e c a d e c h i n a h a s made moves t o improve r e l a t i o n s w i t h Burma, T h a i l a n d , I n d i a , B a n g l a d e s h , a n d o t h e r s i n Asia i n o r d e r t o s t o p S o v i e t e x p a n s i o n i s m , I t h a s a l s o made i n r o a d s w i t h s u c h former S o v i e t c l i e n t s a s Egypt, Sudan, a n d ~ o m a l i ai n A f r i c a , The q u e s t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e of c o m p e t i t i o n t h a t C h i n a c a n offer t h e i n t h e T h i r d World is open t o d e b a t e W h i l e it i s t r u e t h a t d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s c a n i d e n t i f y more r e a d i l y w i t h China a s a model, i t is a l s o t r u e t h a t C h i n a d o e s n o t p o s s e s s t h e e c o n o a i c and m i l i t a r y b a s e t o r e n d e r c o m p a r a b l e amounts of a i d t o f l e d g i n g movements a n d s t a t e s - T h i s was c l e a r l y d e a o n s t r a t e d when the S o v i e t - b a c k e d HPEA f a c t i o n d e f e a t & the C h i n e s e - s u p p o r t e d (and E a t e r A l r e r i c a n s u p p o r t e d ) F8LA and UBITA f a c t i o n s d u r i n g t h e Angolan c i v i l warW,S,S-R. S o v i e t i n v o l v e m e n t r a i s e s s e r i o u s c p e s t i o n s f o r Aaer i c a n p o l i c y n a k e r s , b o t h e x e c u t i v e a n d l e g i s l a t i v e , Soae of t h e s e c o n c e r n s are, a s f o l l o w s : (1) As t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s must compete v i t h t h e S o v i e t Union in r e g i o n s where p r e v i o u s l y o n l y Western c o u n t r i e s were i n v o l v e d , American f o r e i g n p o l i c y m a k e r s a r e forced t o come t o g r i p s v i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g i a p o f t a n c e o f . t h e T h i r d World, t o d e f i n e more a c c u r a t e l y t h e U , S , n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h o s e n a t i o n s , and t o d e t e r d n e what a c t i o n s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s is a b l e and prepared t o t a k e t o p r o t e c t t h o s e i n t e r e s t s - (2) U - S o d e c i s i o n m a k e r s a r e compelled t o g a i n a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e n a t u r e of c h a n g e s in t h e T h i r d World t o be a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n when movements from t h e s t a t u s quo -- i n I r a n , f o r example a r e due t o Soviet i n t e r v e n t i o n and when t h e y are a r e s u l t of i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s , They must t h e n d e v e l o p a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e s b a s e d on t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e situation, (A m i s r e a d i n g of e v e n t s i n t h e T h i r d V o r l d c o u l d have s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s f u r A n e r i c a n - S o v i e t r e l a t i o n s and world a f f a i r s i n g e n e r a l , ) - N e w a r e a s of p o t e n t i a l t e n s i o n between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e .R , r a y b e c r e a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y if S o v i e t a c t i v i t i e s t h r e a t e n r e g i o n s s t r a t e g i c a l l y i n p o r t a n t t o t h e Uniterl S t a t e s , such a s v i t a l e n e r g y and raw (3) TJ.S.S CRS- 7 IB79 I 0 2 UPDA!LE-O4/02/88 material s u p p l y l i n e s (4) American a l l i e s a n d o t h e r n a t i o n s i n a n d o u t s i d e t h e T h i r d World sometimes j u d g e O ,S. w o r l d l e a d e r s h i p by its r e s p o n s e s t o S o v i e t a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e T h i r d World- Along w i t h t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d f o r American p o l i c y m a k e r s in g e n e r a l , S o v i e t T h i r d World a c t i v i t i e s b r i n g f o r t h i s s u e s t h a t C o n g r e s s laay a d d r e s s , s u c h a s : (1) Would it b e i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o l i n k c o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p r o v a l of American a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e U .S -S .B-, e-g- , a m s c o n t z o l a n d t r a d e a g r e e a e n t s , w i t h S o v i e t c u r t a i l m e n t of their v e n t u r e s i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g world o r s h a u l d t h e s e e l e m e n t s be c o n s i d e r e d a s s e p a r a t e entities? (2) A r e t h e r e ways t h r o u g h g r a n t s i n economic and m i l i t a r y a i d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n d i l u t e S o v i e t i n f l u e n c e anong t h e non-Coamunist s t a t e s of t h e T h i r d Rorld? (3) How best c a n C o n g r e s s remain i n f o r m e d of t h e e f f e c t s o f S o v i e t World i n v o l v e m e n t on U .S. n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s ? Third While t h e Brezhnev l e a d e r s h i p h a s con t h u e d t o m a i n t a i n g 8 b u s i n e s s l i k e m r e l a t i o n s w i t h some .embers o f t h e T h i r d Rorld community, it h a s t a k e n a more direct r o l e i n t h e a f f a i r s of o t h e r s t h a n it had s i n c e i t caae t o power i n 1964. This h a s b e e n a p p a r e n t i n t h e S o v i e t Union's p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e Angolan c i v i l war a n d the S o v i e t d i r e c t i n v o l v e a e n t , and t h a t of s m e of its a l l i e s , i n t h e a f f a i r s o f l e f t i s t r e g i m e s i n E t h i o p i a , S o u t h Yemen, a n d , n o s t r e c e n t l y , Afghanistan, Afgica, Soviet i n t e r e s t i n s o u t h e r n Africa, which b e g a n ---civil war i n 1974-75, c o n t i n u e d i n 1977, a s s y m b o l i z e d b y a w i t h t h e Angolan v i s i t of S o v i e t P r e s i d e n t l i k o l a i Podgarny t o T a n z a n i a , Zambia, and Mozambique i n A p r i l of t h a t p e a r , The S o v i e t P r e s i d e n t was accompanied on h i s j o u r n e y by H a r s h a l S O L . S o k o l o v , a S o v i e t first d e p u t y minister of d e f e n s e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e S o v i e t o f f i c i a l s had d i s c u s s e d m i l i t a r y m a t t e r s w i t h a t l e a s t some of t h e i r African hosts, I n d e e d , it was r e p a r t e d t h a t t h e 0,s-S.R. s e n t SAM-7 missiles, h o w i t z e r s , r i f l e s , and t a n k s t o Hozambique s h o r t l y a f t e r Podgorny r e t u r n e d t o Boscow i n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n t h a t c o u n t r y ' s d e f e n s e a g a i n s t RhoCesia I n a d d i t i o n , Podgorny n e t w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e r e b e l f a c t i o n s f i g h t i n g t h e white-dominated government i n R h o d e s i a , - S o v i e t a n d Cuban S o v i e t i n f l u e n c e s p r e a d t o t h e A f r i c a n Horn i n 1977. a d v i s e r s and m i l i t a r y a i d w e r e s e n t t o E t h i o p i a t o h e l p t h e H a r x i s t government of L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l B e n g i s t u t o p u t down a r e b e l l i o n of i n s u r g e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e of Ogaden, B u t t h e U S , S - R . had t o p a y a p r i c e f o r its i n f l u e n c e i n E t h i o p i a . The U,S.S .R. had a l s o h a d good r e l a t i o n s w i t h S o m a l i a and had a c c e s s t o n a v a l f a c i l i t i e s i n B e r b e r a . Rivalry betveen E t h i o p i a and S a m a l i a o v e r the B t h i o p i a n p r o v i n c e of Ogaden p l a c e d t h e S o v i e t Hoscow a t t e m p t e d t o Union i n an awkward p o s i t i o n between t h e t w o n e i g h b o r s . CBS- 8 IB79102 UPDATE-04/02/80 e a s e t h e s i t u a t i o n by p r o p o s i n g a f e d e r a t i o n composed of Somalia and E t h i p o i a Somalia p l u s S o u t h Yemen a n d t h e newly i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e of D j i b o u t i , rejected t h e p l a n , B e l a t i o n s between t h e 0,S.S.Ba n d S o m a l i a r e a c h e d bottoa when t h e S o v i e t Union gave its s u p p o r t t o E t h i o p i a i n i t s war w i t h t h e r e b e l s i n t h e Ogaden, who were b a c k e d by S o m a l i a , Brezhnev c r i t i c i z e d Somabia@s s u p p o r t of t h e r e b e l s w h i l e t h e M o g a d i s c i o government ordered S o v i e t a d v i s e r s s t a t i o n e d i n t h e c o u n t r y o u t and t e r m i n a t e d t h e s o v i e t - S o m a l i T r e a t y of f r i e n d s h i p a n d c o o p e r a t i o n which came i n t o f o r c e i n 1974. a _ S o v i e t r e l a t i o n s w i t h E g y p t which had b e e n on t h e d e c l i n e for s e v e r a l y e a r s reached a p o i n t j u s t s h o r t o f complete termination a s a r e s u l t of P r e s i d e n t S a d a t @s peace i n i t i a t i v e with I s r a e l , I n O c t o b e r 1977 t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d the S o v i e t Union s i g n e d a d e c l a r a t i o n p l e d g i n g b o t h s i d e s t o r e c o n v e n e t h e Geneva c o n f e r e n c e o n p e a c e i n t h e Middle E a s t t o be c o - c h a i r e d by t h e t w o s n p e r p o u e r s , The U ,S,S . R - had e s s e n t i a l l y b e e n l e f t o u t of t h e Middle E a s t p e a c e n e g o t i a t i n g p r o c e s s d u r i n g S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e K i s s i n g e r r s s h u t t l e d i p l o m a c y in t h e Nixon and F o r d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , The O c t o b e r d e c l a r a t i o n b r o u g h t Moscow back i n t o this p r o c e s s , But S a d a t ' s u n i l a t e r a l move t o make p e a c e w i t h I s r a e l and t h e s u b s e q u e n t U S . s u p p o r t of . t h e i n i t i a t i v e were s e e n by t h e S o v i e t l e a d e r s h i p a s a a a n u e v e r t o l o c k it o u t o f t h e H i d d l e E a s t o n c e a g a i n , The S a d a t t r i p t o J e r u s a l e m i n Noverber was c o n d e r n e d by t h e S o v i e t Union a s a n a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t of E g y p t and t h e U n i t e d States $0 s e c u r e a n a g r e e m e n t w i t h I s r a e l b e h i n d t h e b a c k s of t h e Arabs s t a t e s and t h e PLO, P r e s i d e n t S a d a t c o u n t e r e d t h e s o v i e t criticism by c l o s i n g some c u l t u r a l c e n t e r s and c o n s u l a t e s o f t h e U , S . S , R . and its 3 u r o p e a n a l l i e s , C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , E a s t Germany, Rbngary, and P o l a n d , A t t h e same time, t h e U n i t e d States a n d t h e S o v i e t Union were o n c e a g a i n o n o p p o s i n g s i d e s on t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e fliddle E a s t , &fg&a_Having d e f e a t e d t h e Somali-backed i n s u r g e n t s of t h e Ogaden w i t h Cuban a n d Soviet a i d , the H a r x i s t government o f E t h i o p i a moved t o s u p p r e s s t h e p e r e n n i a l r e b e l l i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e of E r i t r e a Unconfirmed r e p o r t s claiaed t h a t t h e U.S.S-B. a n d Cuba were p r o v i d i n g m i l i t a r y s u p p o r t t o E t h i o p i a i n t h i s b a t t l e a s w e l l - During t h e r e i g n of Emperor H a i l e S e l a s s i e , t h e U,S ,S,B, was a s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r o f t h e E r i t f e a n r e b e l s , The U , S , S , R . had r e p o r t e d l y t r i e d t o g e t t h e E t i t r e a n rebels t o a g r e e tc j o i n a f e d e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Addis Ababa g o v e r r m e n t , b u t this p r o p o s a l was r e j e c t e d by l e a d e r s of the insurgents, I n Novenber, t h e S o v i e t Union and E t h i o p i a s i g n e d a t r e a t y of f r i e n d s h i p and c o o p e r a t i o n , which c a p p e d t h e movement t o w a r d s c l o s e r : r e l a t i o n s by t h e two c o u n t r i e s and s i g n i f i e d lloscowrs d e c i s i o n t o back E t h i o p i a a t t h e e x p e n s e o f good r e l a t i o n s w i t h S o m a l i a , - M i d _ & & e E a _ s t , The Soviet Dnion c o n t i n u e d t o condemn t h e Egypt i a n - I s r a e l i P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r a t Camp. p e a c e n e g o t i a t i o n s and the m e e t i n g h e l d b y W-S, David a s a n a t t e m p t by S a d a t t o n e g o t i a t e a ? s e p a r a t e d e a l b e h i n d t h e b a c k s of t h e Arab state^,^ The U,S,S,B backed i t s c o n d e m n a t i o n o f Egypt by s u p p l y i n g S y r i a w i t h lame arms a s a resolt o f a v i s i t by S y r i a n P r e s i d e n t Assad t o Moscow f o r n e e t i n g s w i t h B r e z h n e v , ------- S o u t h Yepen- F o r t h e p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s , r e l a t i o n s between S o u t h Yemen a n d t h e S o v i e t Union were c l o s e , However, t h e Hoscou-Aden r e l a t i o n s h i p was d e s t i n e d t o become t i g h t e r w i t h t h e o v e r t h r o w of P r e s i d e n t Salem Robaye A l i a n d h i s r e p l a c e m e n t by Ali Nasser flohammed B a s s a n i , a n avowed pro-floscow Hasxist, CRS- 9 IB79102 UPDATE--OY/O2/8O g&lg.,e-gqst, The S a v i e t Union c o n t i n u e d t o condemn t h e Egypt i a n - I s r a e l i p e a c e i n i t i a t i v e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y scored the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r its d i r e c t r o l e i n t h e negotiating process, T h i s candeanation carried o v e r t o t h e s i g n i n g of t h e E g y p t i a n - I s r a e l i p e a c e a g r e e m e n t in Washington on Harch 26, I n F e b r n r a r y 1979, Moscow announced t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of the new g o v e r n a e n t o f I r a n , v h i c h came t o power a f t e r a r e v o l u t i o n l e d t o t h e o u s t e r o f Shah Moharmed P a h l a v i and a l s o t h e s u b s e q u e n t government o f P r i m e flhister B a k h t i a r - The S o v i e t Union h a d s u f f e r e d economic losses a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n v h e n a s t r i k e b y o i l v o r k e r s , b e g i n n i n g i n O c t o b e r 1978, f o r c e d t h e shutdown of o i l a n d g a s s u p p l i e s - The S o v i e t Union had been i m p o r t i n g n a t u r a l g a s from I r a n since 1970 w i t h t h i s g a s g o i n g t o t h e S o v i e t r e p u b l i c s o f A z e r b a i j a n , Armenia, a n d G e o r g i a The l o s s o f g a s from I r a n f o r c e d i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e r e p u b l i c s t o s h u t down and c a u s e d many p e o p l e t o g o w i t h o u t h e a t i n t h e i r homes d u r i n g an e s p e c i a l l y c o l d w i n t e r . The f u e l cutoff a l s o s e v e r e l y h u r t t h e c o u n t r i e s of E a s t e r n Busope, a l l o f which had been r e c e i v i n g o i l *or I r a n , F u e l f l o w s r e s u a e d i n A p r i l b u t h a v e b e e n f a r s h o r t levels. While Hoscov h a s t r i e d t o m a i n t a i n good of pre-revolutionary r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e Khoseini-backed govetmment i n T e h r a n , t h e government of t h e I r a n i a n Xslamic R e p u b l i c h a s condemned Soviet i n t e r f erenaa in Afghanist a n - ---------- S o u t h Yezen- I n F e b r u a r y , war b r o k e o u t b e t v e e n B o r t h and S o u t h Yemen, r e s u l t i n g i n t h e i n v a s i o n of N o r t h Y e m e n by f o r c e s o f t h e M a r x i s t g o v e r n n e n t i n t h e s o u t h , Responding t o what it p e r c e i v e d t o be a b u i l d u p of S o v i e t i n f l u e n c e o n t h e A r a b i a n p e n i n s u l a , t h e Carter A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i s p a t c h e d a s u p p l y of American-nade weapons t o N o r t h Yeaen, an a l l y o f S a u d i B r a b i a , A K u w a i t i newspaper r e p o r t e d t h a t 2,300 Cuban t r o o p s a n d 300 S o v i e t a d v i e r s had been s e n t from B t h i o p i a t o S o u t h Yemen t o h e l p it i n its w a r w i t h t h e n o r t h , T h e c l a s h e n d e d w i t h a g r e e m e n t between t h e t w o s t a t e s , setting a timetable for unification- - I,,&n_Am_~rica W i t h t h e o b v i o u s e x c e p t i o n o f Cuba, S o v i e t p r e s e n c e in L a t i n America is c u r r e n t l y v e r y l i m i t e d - The 0-S-SoB , h a s b e e n c o n d u c t i n g r e l a t i v e l y good t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h some L a t i m American s t a t e s , m o s t n o t a b l y A r g e n t i n a , b u t S o v i e t a t t e m p t s a t c r e a t i n g s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o r i c , and t i l i t a r y b o n d s i n t h i s r e g i o n h a v e n e t w i t h l i t t l e s u c c e s s . The U .S-S,R, was able t o s e l l f i g h t e r a i r c r a f t t o P e r u . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of combat t r o o p s i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n i n December 1979 w a s t h e first t i m e t h e S o v i e t Union had t a k e n s u c h a c t i o n a g a i n s t a d e v e l o p i n g . n a t i o n s i n c e Khrushchev u n d e r t o o k t o d e v e l o p S o v i e t i n t e r e s t s i n t h e T h i r d World i n t h e mid-1950s. T h i s a c t i o n zap w e l l represent a t u r n i n g point i n S o v i e t T h i r d World p o l i c y and is, t h e r e f o r e , g i v e n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n h e r e , R u s s i a n / S o v i e t i n t e r e s t i n A f g h a n i s t a n is n o t a new phenomenon. I n f a c t , t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y t h e t u o c o u n t r i e s have c o n t i n u a l l y p l a y e d i m p o r t a n t r o l e s During t h e 1 8 t h and 1 9 t h c e n t u r i e s , i n each o t h e r v s f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , A f g h a n i s t a n was a b u f f e r s t a t e between a n e x p a n d i n g B r i t i s h e m p i r e which uas moving e a s t v a r d f r o x I n d i a a n d a l i k e v i s e e x p a n d i n g R u s s i a n e m p i r e moving s o u t h w a r d from C e n t r a l Asia, A l t h o u g h t h e B o l s h e v i k S e v o l u t i o n o f 19 17 p r o f o u n d l y c h a n g e d t h e n a t u r e of t h e R u s s i a n government, many t r a d i t i o n a l R u s s i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n t e r e s t s r e m a i n e d , i n c l u d i n g t h a t in A f g h a n i s t a n . I n 1919 t h e Afghan government t u r n e d t o t h e S o v i e t s f o r h e l p i n its war of CRS- 10 IB7 9 102 UPDATE-04/02/80 i n d e p e n d e n c e from G r e a t B r i t a i n , S a v i e t R u s s i a was o n e o f t h e f i r s t c o u n t r i e s t o r e c o g n i z e newly i n d e p e n d e n t A f g h a n i s t a n - I n 1921 t h e t w o s t a t e s s i g n e d a f r i e n d s h i p a n d m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t r e a t y , w h i c h v a s f o l l o w e d by a n e u t r a l i t y a n d n o n a g g r e s s i o n p a c t 10 y e a r s l a t e r , Soviet-Afghan r e l a t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e d i n t h e 1930s, with t h e S o v i e t s u p p r e s s i o n of t h e B u s l i m p o p n l a t i a n of C e n t r a l A s i a , fioveves, when Khruschev began t o r e o r i e n t S o v i e t f o r e i g n p o l i c y t o w a r d s the T h i r d World in t h e a i d - 1 9 5 0 s , A f g h a n i s t a n v a s targeted a s a n area v i t a l t o t h e O - S - S - R . A f g h a n i s t a n i n 1 9 5 5 w a s o n e o f t h e first T h i r d World states t o r e c e i v e S o v i e t economic a n d m i l i t a r y a i d , S i n c e t h e n it h a s become a f a v o r e d c u s t o m e r , w i t h t h e U.S,S,R, g r a n t i n g r e p a y a e n t t e n s more l i b e r a l t h a n t h o s e g r a n t e d t o any o t h e r T h i r d World n a t i o n , A s of 1977 t h e S o v i e t Union h a d s u p p l i e d A f g h a n i s t a n w i t h 95% o f i t s m i l i t a r y h a r d w a r e f i g h t e r a i r c r a f t , tanks, s u r f a c e - t o - a i r missiles, etc. I n a d d i t i o n , i n 1977 t h e r e were 350 S o v i e t r i l i t a r y t e c h n i c i a n s a d v i s i n g Afghan m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l i n A f g h a n i s t a n The S o v i e t Union had a l s o become K a b u l g s s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t s u p p l i e r of economic a i d , h a v i n g p r o v i d e d $1.3 b i l l i o n o f s u c h b e t w e e n 1954 a n d 1977, I n c l u d e d i n t h e many S o v i e t - s p o n s o r e d projects w a s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t af t h e Afghan o i l and g a s i n d u s t r i e s . B S o v i e t - b u i l t n a t u r a l g a s p i p e l i n e h a s been d e l i v e r i n g Afghan n a t u r a l gas t o t h e s o v i e t p i p e l i n e n e t w o r k a t a n a n n u a l r a t e of 3 b i l l i o n c u b i c meters, T h i s g a s has been s u p p l i e d t o H o s c o w i n p a r t i a l repayment f o r S o v i e t a i d , I n a d d i t i o n , by 1977 t h e r e were 1,300 Soviet economic a d v i s e r s i n A f g h a n i s t a n . Over t h e y e a r s t h e s o v i e t Union h a s a l s o become Af g h a n i s t a n 8 s p r i m a r y t r a d i n g p a r t n e r - -- T h e r e a r e a number cd g e o p o l i t i c a l a n d d e m o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s which h a v e The S o v i e t Union s h a r e s d e t e r r i n e d Russian/Sov i e t i n t e r e s t s i n A f g h a n i s t a n a 1 , 2 0 0 - r i l e b o r d e r w i t h A f g h a n i s t a n on i t s s o u t h e r n p e r i p h e r y a n d t h e r e f o r e h a s w a t c h e d c h a n g e s in the s t a t u s q u o i n t h a t c o u n t r y with great self-interest, Furt hermare, Afghanistul occupies center stage in s t r a t e g i c a l l y i a p o r t a n t S o u t h Asia, It b o r d e r s C h i n a , c u r r e n t l y a b i t t e r S o v i e t a d v e r s a r y , P a k i s t a n , a n d I r a n , S o u t h A s i a h a s b e e n viewed by some s t r a t e g i c a n a l y s t s a s a s t e p i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e warm w a t e r s of t h e P e r s i a n Gulf. - - The S o v i e t Union s h a r e s among its p o p u l a t i o n a number of e t h n i c g r o u p s Ta j i k s , Uzbeks, Turkom-, and Kirghiz with Afghanistan adding t o t h e m u t u a l i n t e r e s t s of t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s , T h e r e a r e c o r r e n t l y 50 x i l l i o n S o v i e t H u s l i m s - R e c e n t g r o w t h r a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e S o v i e t Huslim p o p u l a t i o n is i n c r e a s i n g a t a f a s t e r p a c e t h a n i n t h e p a s t , w h i l e t h e g r o w t h r a t e of t h e G r e a t R u s s i a n s is d e c r e a s i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e S o v i e t B u s l i m s i s one of t h e Soviet n a t i o n a l g r o u p s most r e s i s t a n t t o a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o t h e g e n e r a l Russian-doainated Soviet society, These f a c t o r s c o u l d i m p a c t on S o v i e t r e l a t i o n s w i t h n u s l i ~c o n n t r i e s s u c h as A f g h a n i s t a n . - The S o v i e t Union saw t h e o v e r t h r o w of t h e Afghan monarchy i n J u l y 1973 by Daud a s a p r o g r e s s i v e s t e p and q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e new government of t h e Republic of A f g h a n i s t a n , In A p r i l 1978 t h e Dand r e g i m e was r e p l a c e d by a c o a l i t i o n o f t h e Khlaq a n d Parcham f i c t i o n s of t h e p r o - S o v i e t People's D e r o c r a t i c P a r t y (PDP) d u r i n g a b l o o d y coup. I t s t i l l i s n o t c l e a r what r o l e , i f a n y , Moscow p l a y e d i n T a r a k i 0 s a s s u m p t i o n o f power, T h e O.S,S,$. e n j o y e d close r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e Daud regime! b u t it s o o n became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e PDP would b r i n g A f g h a n i s t a n closer m t o t h e S o v i e t o r b i t . Ploscow was one of t h e f i r s t s t a t e s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e T a r a k i regime and q u i c k l y t o o k s t e p s t o fuse Soviet-Afghan r e l a t i o n s . By t h e e n d of 1978 t h e c o n t i n g e n t o f S o v i e t economic and m i l i t a r y a d v i s e r s h a d r i s e n from 1,500 t o . CES-11 IB79 102 UPDATE -0 4/0 2/80 3,000 a n d t o some 5,OO 0 i n 1978, m a i n l y t o h e l p t h e Afghan government in its w a r v i t h M u s l i a i n s u r g e n t s who s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e new regime. I n December 1978 t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s f u r t h e r t i g h t e n e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s i g n i n g of a f r i e n d s h i p a n d c o o p e r a t i o n t r e a t y v h i c h i n c l u d e d a p r o v i s i o n f o r r e n d e r i n g m i l i t a r y a i d in t h e t i m e of crisis. A s t h e s t a b i l i t y of the T a r a k i r e g i m e became i n c r e a s i n g l y t e n u o u s w i t h t h e growing t h r e a t f r o m t h e Muslim rebels, t h e S o v i e t c o a m i t a e n t t o i t s s u r v i v a l became g r e a t e r , I n A p r i l 1979, G e n e r a l A l e k s e y Yepishev, t h e C h i e f of t h e Hain P o l i t i c a l Directorate of t h e S o v i e t A m y and Navy, v i s i t e d A f g h a n i s t a n H e was followed by G e n e r a l P a v l o v s k y , t h e Commander-in-Chief of the S o v i e t Ground F o r c e s , i n August 1979, T h e s e visits by h i g h - r a n k i n g Soviet defense o f f i c i a l s u n d e r s c o r e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t Boscoa had g i v e n t o its commitment t o t h e PDP r e g h e . B u t a s t h e T a r a k i g o v e r n a e n t became a p p a r e n t l y weaker v i s - a - v i s t h e Muslin rebels, noscow r e a c h e d a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n its p o l i c y towards A f g h a n i s t a n , i n d e e d i n its p o l i c y t o v a r d s t h e T h i r d World as a whole: w h e t h e r t o c o n t i n u e t o s u p p a r t t h e T a r a k i r e g i n e , t o v i t h d r a w s u p p o r t and l e t " n a t u r e t a k e its c o u r s e , n o r t o t a k e a more d i r e c t c o n b a t r o l e i n t h e f i g h t i n g t o d e f e a t t h e Huslims, It i s c l e a r t h a t t h e U.S,S - R I c h o s e t h e l a s t c o u r s e i n December 1979 when it i n t r o d u c e d its ovn cambat d i v i s i o n s i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n , It i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union t o o k a d i r e c t r o l e i n r e p l a c e m e n t o f P r e s i d e n t H a f i z u l l a h Anin by Babrak Karmal. Aain had h i m s e l f o v e r t h r o w n T a r a k i i n S e p t . 1979, and i t was b e l i e v e d by many W e s t e r n a n a l y s t s a t t h e time t h a t Anin h a d had Hoscow*s b l e s s i n g . Recent r e p o r t s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t , t o t h e c o n t r a r y , T a r a k i v a s t o h a v e had Amin r e p l a c e d as P r i m e H i n i s t e r a t H o s c o v ~ s s u g g e s t i o n , b u t h i s move b a c k f i r e d . A c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n v i l l n o t b e g i v e n h e r e . [ F o r more d e t a i l e d e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n and o f t h e i n v a s i o n i t s e l f , see t h e CHRONOLOGY a t t h e end of t h i s i s s u e b r i e f ,] S u f f i c e it t o s a y t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union h a d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e u s e d i t s combat forces t o install a government i n a T h i r d World n a t i o n A n u ~ b e r of r e a s o n s have been o f f e r e d for t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n in Afghanistan, some or a l l o f which may h a v e e n t e r e d i n t o t h e S o v i e t d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s , The S o v i e t government h a s c l a i m e d t h a t its a c t i o n w a s i n r e s p o n s e t o a n i n v i t a t i o n from t h e Afghan government t o a i d i t i n r e p e l l i n g t h r e a t s from e x t e r n a l forces (namely China and A f g h a n i s t a n ) The S o v i e t s h a v e c o n t e n d e d t h a t s u c h a c t i o n v a s a p p r o p r i a t e u n d e r t h e December 1978 Soviet-Af ghan t r e a t y and under Article 51 of t h e U.N, C h a r t e r A s .any o f f i c i a l a n d p r i v a t e a n a l y s t s h a v e i n d i c a t e d , i t is d o u b t f u l t h a t a government would h a v e i n v i t e d f o r e i g n forces i n t o l i q u i d a t e i t , But t h e S o v i e t s were p r o b a b l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t the p o t e n t i a l growth of C h i n e s e . i n f l u e n c e i n t h e area, Hovever, r e p o r t s i n t h e p r e s s indicate t h a t A ~ i n may h a v e a c t u a l l y resisted t h e i n f l u x o f S o v i e t combat t r o o p s ; hence, the r a t i o n a l e f o r his removal from p o v e r and e x e c u t i o n by t h e S o v i e t s , - . Some W e s t e r n a n a l y s t s b e l i e v e t h a t S o v i e t l e a d e r s v i e w e d t h e g r a r t h o f t h e B u s l i a i n s u r g e n c y , and t h e f a i l u r e of t h e T a r a k i a n d A m i n g o v e r n m e n t s t o q u e l l t h a t i n s u r g e n c y , as a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o S o v i e t s e c u r i t y , The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a n Islamic s t a t e i n A f g h a n i s t a n would h a v e meant t h a t t h e r e would b e t h r e e l!lulsim-daminated s t a t e s on or v e r y n e a r t h e S o v i e t b o r d e r , t h e o t h e r t w o c o u n t r i e s b e i n g I r a n a n d o a k i s t a n - It c a n b e assumea t h a t t h e Soviets would be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p o t e n t i a l l o n g - t e r m effects of s u c h g o v e r n m e n t s on t h e i r own Iluslims, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of t h e e v a n g e l i s t i c n a t u r e o f , s a y , t h e movement of t h e A y a t o l l a h Khomeini i n I r a n . CRS- 12 UPDA'1E-04/02/80, IB79102 The S o v i e t i n c u r s i o n i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n h a s a l s o b e e n s e e n by some Western a n a l y s t s a s an o p p o r t u n i s t i c move- A c c o r d i n g t o s u c h t h i n k i n g , the recent r e v o l u t i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t t u r n o i l i n I r a n h a s l e f t t h e o n e - t i m e "policeman o f t h e P e r s i a n G u l f m p a r a l p e d t o p r o j e c t a major x i l i t a r y i n f l u e n c e aatsi.de its b o r d e r s , T h i s factor taken t o g e t h e r with Axerican preoccupation w i t h t h e s e i z u r e of t h e American Embassy i n T e h e r a n by I r a n i a n n s t u d e n t s , n i t is b e l i e v e d , p r o v i d e d t h e S o v i e t Union w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e m i l i t a r y a c t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n with i m p u n i t y , I n a d d i t i o n , it is p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e S o v i e t s viewed t h e q u e s t i o n a b l e s t a t e o f S o v i t t - A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s as r e p r e s e n t e d by, i n t e r a l i a , t h e p o t e n t i a l r e j e c t i o n of t h e SALT I1 t r e a t y as g i v i n g them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y of g a i n i n g a f o o t h o l d i n S o u t h A s i a a t a s r a l l price, Whatever t h e r e a s o n s beyond t h e S o v i e t i n v o l v e m e n t i n A f g h a n i s t a n , i t is c l e a r t h a t this a c t i o n h a s f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o v i e t T h i r d World policy, S i n c e t h e mid-195Os, S o v i e t i n v o l v e m e n t among t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s h a s p r o g r e s s e d from i n d i r e c t a c t i o n i n t h e form of m i l i t a r y and e c a n o m i c a i d t o more d i r e c t a c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e u s e of Cuban combat t r o o p s i n Angola a n d E t h i o p i a . The use of S o v i e t combat t r o o p s in A f g h a n i s t a n can be s e e n a s y e t a n o t h e r stage i n t h i s p r o c e s s , The case of A f g h a n i s t a n is t h e f i r s t t i a e t h e S o v i e t Union h a s used t h e f r i e n d s h i p and c o o p e r a t i o n t r e a t y a s a n a l i b i t o t a k e d i r e c t m i l i t a r y a c t i o n i n a T h i r d World c o u n t r y - Besides A f g h a n i s t a n , t h e S o v i e t ijnion h a s s u c h t r e a t i e s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g n o n a l i g n e d s t a t e s : Angola, E t h i o p i a , I n d i a , I r a q , flozambique, and S o u t h Yemen- Soviet a c t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n c o u l d a f f e c t its r e l a t i o n s v i t h t h e s e c o u n t r i e s a s well, (It s h o u l d b e r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e U-S-S.2a l s o h a s s u c h a t r e a t y w i t h s o c i a l i s t Vietnam, b u t f a i l e d t o t a k e d i r e c t m i l i t a r y a c t i o n i n its b e h a l f when it was i n v a d e d by t h e P.R,C, in e a r l y 1979.) The S o v i e t a c t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n h a s a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e a t t i t u d e s of many o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s towarB Boscow On Jan. 15 the Third World-domina t e d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t o w a r d Goscov On J a n 15 t h e T h i r d W o r l d d o m i n a t e d U .I- G e n e r a l Assembly passed a r e s o l u t i o n (104-18) i m p l i c i t l y condemning t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n - Among t h e ~ a j o r i t yv e r e I r a n , I r a q , Kuwait, Oman and S a u d i Arabia s i g n i f y i n g t h e o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e Islamic World t o fioscowrs a c t i o n I n a d d i t i o n , Algeria, Libya, and Syria, a l l p e r e n n i a l s u p p a r t e r s of t h e S o v i e t Union, d i d n o t v o t e w i t h Moscow on t h e r e s o l u t i o n b u t e i t h e r a b s t a i n e d o r were a b s e n t a t t h e time of t h e v o t e , p r e s u m a b l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o s i d e w i t h t h e U.S,S,R, on t h i s i s s u e , If s u c h a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e U,S,S,R, persists in the. T h i r d World, it c o u l d t a r n i s h B o s c o v D s c r e d i b i l i t y a n d c r i p p l e i t s a b i l i t y t o e x t e n d its i n f l u e n c e among t h e s e n a t i o n s , . - . The S o v i e t i n v a s i o n a l s o p r e s e n t s a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e U n i t e d S + a t e s , n o t o n l y i n its r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U , S . S , B . , b u t w i t h t h e T h i r d World a s w e l l . I t forces U - S . p o l i c y m a k e r s t o d e c i d e what Americaas r o l e w i l l b e i n t h i s r e g i o n o f t h e globe. U.S. - Congress House- C o m m i t t e e on I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , Subcommittee o n Burope a n d t h e H i d d l e East. The S o v i e t Union: i n t e r n a l d y n a m i c s of f o r e i g n p o l i c y , p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e , H e a r i n g s , 9 5 t h Congress, 1st s e s s i o n September - and O c t o b e r 1977. 333 p - Washington, C I S I Govt - Print- Off,, 1978, -- - U n i t e d S t a t e s - S o v i e t r e l a t i o n s , 1978, H e a r i n g s , 9 5 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n , A u g , 9; S e p t . 19, a n d 26, 1978, Washington, U-S, Govt, P r i n t , O f f , , 19?0- 208 p, U S , C o n g r e s s , House. C o m m i t t e e on I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , Subcommittee o n I n t e r - A m e r i c a n A f f a i r s , I m p a c t of Cuban-Soviet t i e s i n t h e Western Hemisphere , H e a r i n g s , 9 5 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n . Apr, 2 5 and 26, 1979. Washington, U, So G o v t . P r i n t , O f f , , 1979 50 p- - BAL DOCUMENTS ---------- V,S, - C o n g r e s s , House, Committee an F o r e i g n A f f a i r s Subcommittee o n Asian and P a c i f i c Affairs. C h i n a and Asia an a n a l y s i s of Chinats r e c e n t policy t o w a r d n e i g h b o r i n g s t a t e s , P r e p a r e d by R o b e r t S u t t e r , C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , U, S , L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n , Harch 1979. Washington, U , S - G o v t , P r i n t , Off ,, 1979, 5 4 p. -- U,S, C o n g r e s s , House, C o m m i t t e e on I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , The S o v i e t Union a n d t h e T h i r d World: a v a t e r s h e d i n great p o v e r p o l i c y ? P r e p a r e d by J o s e p h G, R h e l a n a n d W i l l i a m B- I n g l e e , C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , U ,S, L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s , Washington, U , S , G o v t , P r i n t , Off ,, 1977, 186 p A t head of t i t l e : 9 5 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n - Committee p r i n t - U,S, C o n g r e s s , Joint Economic Committee- S o v i e t economic p r o s p e c t s f o r t h e s e v e n t i e s - E d i t e d by John H a r d t , C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , U S . L i b r a r y of Congress. J u n e 27, 1973, Washington, U , S , 60vt, P r i n t , off ,, 1973, 7 7 6 p A t head of t i t l e : 9 4 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n , J o i n t committee print Includes -Soviet f o r e i g n aid: scope, d i r e c t i o n and t r e n d s n by Leo Tansky, - S o v i e t economy i n a new p e r s p e c t i v e , E d i t e d by J o h n H a r d t , O c t , 1 4 , 1976, Washington, U,S, Govt, P r i n t - O f f ,, 1976- 8 2 1 p , A t head of title: 9 4 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d s e s s i o n - J o i n t committee print Articles i n c l u d e : ? S o v i e t a i d t o t h e t h i r d w o r l d n by Orah Cooper, p , 189-196, and n S o v i e t a i l i t a r y a i d t o t h e H i d d l e East a n e c o n o a i c b a l a n c e s h e e t w by Gur O f e r , p - 216-239, . -- 03/19/80 -- O f f i c i a l s o f t h e CPSU and a e n b e r s of t h e d e l e g a t i o n from t h e S a n d i n i s t a L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t of N i c a r a g u a s i g n e d documents i n M o s c o w on e s t a b l i s h i n g l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e S a n d i n i s t a L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t a n d t h e CPSU. T r a d e a g r e e m e n t s and a n a g r e e m e n t on e c o n o m i c and t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n b e t v e e n t h e S o v i e t g n i o n and LB79 102 CRS- 14 UPDATE-0410 2/80 N i c a r a g u a were a l s o s i g n e d , a c c o r d i n g t o H o s c o w r a d i o , 03/17/80 -- A c c o r d i n g t o T a s s , a d e l e g a t i o n of t h e S a n d i n i s t a L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t o f N i c a r a g u a a r r i v e d i n Moscow f o r t a l k s w i t h S o v i e t Communist P a r t y o f f i c i a l s , Anong t h o s e u h a t h e d e l e g a t i o n a e t were S o v i e t P a r t y l e a d e r s K i r i l e n k o and P m o n a r e v . 03/12/80 -A 03/11/60 - The 02/28/80 - The 02/26/80 - The 02/23/80 -- S o v i e t commentator s u g g e s t e d t h a t f e a r o f C h i n e s e power s e e p i n g i n t o ~ f g h a n i s t a nwas a major f a c t o r i n t h e S ~ v i e td e c i s i o n t o i n v a d e A f g h a n i s t a n Anthony A u s t i n of t h e N e w York Times r e p o r t e d t h e commentary of I g o r B e l y a e v from Moscow, - C h i e f o f t h e U,S.S.R. G e n e r a l S t a f f a n d F i r s t Deputy H i n i s t e r of Defense f l a r s h a l Ogarkov met w i t h t h e chairman of t h e j o i n t command of t h e P e r u v i a n Arned Forces a n d c h i e f of t h e Hain S t a f f o f t h e Ground F o r c e s Haj-Gen. 8. Hoyas Rubio i n M o s c o w , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S o v i e t army newspaper Red S t a r . weekly news m a g a z i n e V e n d r e d i , S a a e d i , Diaanche r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e l3.S.S .R. is ' w i l l i n g t o s u p p l y modern Big-21 and Big-23 a t t a c k - b o m b e r s t o A r g e n t i n a i n e x c h a n g e f o r g r a i n . The magazine a l s o s a i d t h a t U.S,S.R. D e f e n s e H i n i s t e r U s t i n o v would a a k e a n o f f i c i a 1v i s i t t o A r g e n t i n a s h o r t l y , A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s r e p o r t e d from Kabul t h a t t h e government of Babrak K a w a l was v i r t u a l l y p a r a l y z e d i n t h e wake of d e n o n s t r a t i o n s by t h e p o p u l a c e a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t o c c u p a t i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n . The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t an u n s p e c i f i e d S o v i e t m i l i t a r y commander had t a k e n o v e r c o n t r o l of t h e g o v e r n m e n t , An Afghan f o r e i g n a f f a i r s o f f i c i a l , s e n t t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o d e f e n d h i s government a t a s p e c i a l m e e t i n g o f t h e n o n a l i g n e d n a t i o n s , i n s t e a d denounced t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of his c o u n t r y and d e f e c t e d on t h e spot. - Soviet P r e s i d e n t Brezhnev r e j e c t e d P r e s i d e n t Carter's demand t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union v i t h d r a w from A f g h a n i s t a n , b u t i n s t e a d i s s u e d h i s own demand f o r a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l n g u a r a n t e e n by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o c e a s e a l l e g e d s u b v e r s i o n o f t h e B a r x i s t Kabul govern. e n t b e f o r e a p u l l o u t c a n b e g i n . -- A f g h a n i s t a n 's S o v i e t - i n s t a l l e d g o v e r n a e n t d e c l a r e d martial l a w amid t h e e r u p t i o n o f l a r g e a n t i - S o v i e t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n d r e c u r r e n t s h o o t i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o Williaa B r a n i g a n o f t h e Vashington P o s t , A c c o u n t s h a v e p a i n t e d a p i c t u r e of mounting p o p u l a r r e s i s t a n c e in Kabul t o t h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n and t o t h e S o v i e t - b a c k e d government, T h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s were b e l i e v e d t o b e t h e f i r s t major p u b l i c p r o t e s t s s i n c e Afghan cornrnunists f i r s t t o o k power i n A p r i l 1978. CRS- 15 02/22/80 -William 02/13/80 -- T h e IB79102 UPDATX-04/02/80 B r a n i g a n of t h e U a s h i n g t o n P o s t w r o t e t h a t S y r i a h a s become i n c r e a s i n g l y i s o l a t e d i n t h e Arab w o r l d a n d h a s r e l u n c t a n t l y moved c l o s e r t o t h e S o v i e t Union d e s p i t e i t s g r a v e r e s e r v a t i o n s o v e r fioscowas i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Afghanistan, According t o Branigan, t h e s t r e n t h e n i n g of S y r i a ' s t i e s t o M o s c o w h a s been accompanied by a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e d e l i v e r y of a b o u t 100 a o d e r n S o v i e t - b u i l t T72 t a n k s , a n d S o v i e t p l a n s t o s u p p l y S y r i a w i t h advanced BIG-25 f i g h t e r p l a n e s , The increase in m i l i t a r y h a r d w a r e c o u l d b e f o l l o v e d by an i n f l u x i n t h e number of S o v i e t advisers - i n S y r i a . E g y p t i a n M i n i s t e r of D e f e n s e r e p o r t e d t h a t Muslim rebels from A f g h a n i s t a n were r e c e i v i n g m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g i n E g y p t and would be r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r homeland t o f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t - b a d r e d g o v e r n m e n t - - Soviet F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r Gromyko w a s i n I n d i a a p p a r e n t l y t o v i n India's e n d o r s e m e n t of t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n , A l l i n d i c a t i o n s v e r e t h a t Gromyko f a i l e d i n h i s attempt. 02/02/80 - The S o v i e t Union s u p p l i e d Kuwait, a pro-Western A r a b s t a t e , with s o p h i s t i c a t e d surf a c e - t o - s u r f ace missiles, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Kuwaiti Defense Ministry The K u w a i t i D e f e n s e B i n i s t e r s a i d t h a t ~ u w a i twas p r e p a r i n g t o d e f e n d its t e r r i t o r y a g a i n s t any " f o r e i g n a g r e s s i o n " a n d t o t a k e p a r t i n " l i b e r a t i n g o c c u p i e d Arab l a n d s o m . 02/07/80 -- Saudi O i l C l i n i s t e r S h e i k Yamani s t a t e d t h a t p o t e n t i a l o i l s h o r t a g e s prompted Moscov t o i n v a d e A f g h a n i s t a n a s a pay t o a p p r o a c h t h e l l i d d l e E a s t o i l f i e l d s . - Zambia has b o u g h t more t h a n $90 m i l l i o n w o r t h of a r m s from t h e S o v i e t Union i n c l u d i n g 16 HIG-21 f i g h t e r p l a n e s . T h e T i m e s o f Xambia q u o t e d a government spokesman, P r e s i d e n t Kzunda s a i d l a s t y e a r t h a t h e was t u r n i n g t o Moscow a f t e r t h e V e s t , namely t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d F r a n c e , h a s ref used t o p r o v i d e a d v a n c e d weapons. 02/05/80 - U,S, 02/04/80 - Edward S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e C y r n s Vance s a i d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s nfaced a n i m p a r t a n t and t r o u b l i n g s i t u a t i o n w b e c a u s e of s i g n s of growing S o v i e t i n f l u e n c e i n N o r t h Yemen, S p e a k i n g b e f o r e t h e House F o r e i g n A f f a i r s Comaittee, Vance s a i d t h a t a s p e c i a l e n v o y had been s e n t t o Yemen f o r t a l k s w i t h P r e s i d e n t A l i - A b d u l l a h S a l e h , Vance said t h a t S o v i e t m s d e l i v e r i e s t o N o r t h Yemen, a l o n g v i t h t h e p r e s e n c e of S o v i e t a d v i s e r s t h e r e a n d t a l k s between N o r t h a n d S o u t h Yelaen on p o l i t i c a l u n i f i c a t i o n , h a d l e d t o new f e a r s o f S o v i e t s g a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e i n t h e oil-producing Arabian Peninsula. G i r a r d e t r e p o r t e d i n t h e C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e Monitor t h a t on Apr. 2 , 1979, S w i e t a d v i s e r s t o o k p a r t i n t h e massacre of v i r t u a l l y t h e e n t i r e male p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e Afghan v i l l a g e of Kerala- A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e p o r t , Afghan government s o l d i e r s had a c c u s e d t h e K e r a l a - CBS 16 IB79 102 UPDATE-04 /02/80 t o v n s p e o p l e of c o l l a b o r a t i n g v i t h a n t i - - g o v e r n n e n t Muslim % t u j a d h e e n n f i g h t e r s , T h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e 1,170 men was s a i d t o h a v e been d a n e a t t h e o r d e r s of a d a r k - b l o n d , g r e e n - e p 3 R u s s i a n o f f i m r who wore a n Afghan u n i f o m w i t h o u t r a n k i n s i g n i a - The s a s s a c r e had t a k e n p l a c e u n d e r t h e r e g i m e of P r e s i d e n t T a r a k i a n d P r i m e M i n i s t e r Amin p r i o r t o t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n o f A f g h a n i s t a n - On Feb- 5, 1980, T a s s news a g e n c y d e n i e d t h e r e p o r t o f t h e a a s s a c r e, - Ayatollah K h o a e i n i condeaned f o r t h e f i r s t time t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n and p l e d g e d % n c o n d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t m f o r t h e Muslim i n s u r g e n t s f i g h t i n g t h e Soviet-backed governasnt. 02/03/80 - Algerian 0210 2/80 - Marshal . A i r F o r c e Cormander L t .Col, B H u s s u n i a r r i v d in Moscow f o r a n o f f i c i a l v i s i t a t t h e i n v i t a t i o n o f C h i e f M a r s h a l o f A v i a t i o n P.S. Kutakhov, S o v i e t A i r F o r c e Commander-in-Chief and Deputy N i n i s t e r o f Defense, bl-V. Ogarkov, C h i e f of t h e S o v i e t G e n e r a l S t a f f , a s r i v e d i n Kabul, A n a l y s t s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e v i s i t by one f f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n 8 s t o p s i l i t a r y .en v a s prompted by t h e poor s i t u a t i o n o f t h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n A f g h a n i s t a n , i n c l u d i n g an e s t i m a t e d 2,000 S o v i e t c a s u a l t i e s , wounded and k i l l e d , i n the first month of f i g h t i n g . -U-s, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s on S o v i e t a f f a i r s s a i d t h a t t h e y had c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e d e a t h i n December 1979 of a S o v i e t p o l i c e o f f i c i a l , L t - G e n . V i k t o r P a p n t i n , was l i n k e d t o t h e d e p o s i n g of ??resident Amin i n A f g h a n i s t a n T h e American o f f i c i a l s s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h e v i d e n c e on t h e e x a c t c i r c u a s t a n c e s o f Gene P a p u t i n ' s d e a t h were i n c o n c l u s i v e , it was c l e a r t h a t h e was i n v o l v e d i n +he r e m o v a l of M r . Amin. 01/30/80 - Speaking 01/2 9/80 - Islamic on t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , I n d i a n Prime H i n i s t e r I n d i r a Gandhi s a i d , nRhat happened i n A f g h a n i s t a n is a n i n t e r n a l m a t t e r o f t h a t c o u n t r y - m G a n d h i meted o u t blame t o b o t h s u p e r p o w e r s , b u t seemed more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t V a s h i s g t o n ' s p r o p o s e d r e a r m i n g of P a k i s t a n t h a n by t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n , f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r s m e e t i n g i n I s l a m a b a d condemned Soviet s i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Afghanistan a s a " f l a g r a n t v i o l a t i o n m o f in t e r n a t i o n a l l a w . The m i n i s t e r s o f 34 H o s l i a n a t i o n s a l s o suspended A f g h a n i s t a n f r o m t h e I s l a r r i c C o n f e r e n c e , T h e r e s o l u t i o n demanded m t h e i n r d i a t e and u n c o n d i t i o n a l w i t h d r a w a l of a l l S o v i e t t r o o p s s t a t i o n e d i n Afghan t e r r i t o r i e s , n ... 01/28/80 - Soviet 01/27/80 -- S o v i e t F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r A n d r e i Gromyko met v i t h PLO C h a i r m a n Yasir A r a f a t d u r i n g h i s v i s i t t o S y r i a , according t o TassF o r e i g n m i n i s t e r Gronyko began a 3-day v i s i t t o Damascus, S y r i a , i n an a p p a r e n t a t t e m p t t o b o l s t e r - Arab s u p p o r t f o r S o v i e t p o l i c i e s i n l i g h t of H o s c o v ~ s i n v a s i o n of A f g h a n i s t a n I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e O.S -S-R, would a g r e e t o s u p p l y S y r i a w i t h more a r m s a s p a r t of this c a n p a i g n , 01/25/80 - An 01/24/80 - The e s t i n a t e d 4,000 S o v i e t c i v i l i a n a d v i s e r s h a v e b e e n f l o w n i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n and a n o t h e r 100 a r e a r r i v i n g d a i l y t o r u n A f g h a n i s t a n ' s government, a c c o r d i n g t o a r e p o r t by Anthony Hascaren i n t h e Washington P o s t B a s c a r e n r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e new a r r i v a l s s p e a k f l u e n t P e r s i a n , know t h e l o c a l c u s t o n s , and a r e h i g h l y t r a i n e d t o s t e p i n t o jobs f o r m e r l y h e l d by A f g h a n s U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n a major p o l i c y s h i f t r e l a t e d t o t h e A f g h a n i s t a n crisis, announced t h a t it was w i l l i n g t o s e l l m i l i t a r y equipment t o China f o r t h e first timeThe e q u i p m e n t , however, was n o t t o i n c l u d e weapons, I n a d d i t i o n , b o t h t h e S e n a t e and t h e House a p p r o v e d m o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t i o n s t a t u s f o r China - - Soviet news a g e n c y T a s s d i s m i s s e d a s a n 8 1 a b s u r d i t y n P r e s i d e n t Carter's v a r n i n g t h a t t h e U n i t e d States r e g a r d e d t h e P e r s i a n Gulf r e g i o n a s o n e of the v i t a l i a t e r e s t s of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d would u s e force, i f n e c e s s a r y , to r e p e l an o u t s i d e t h r e a t . "It is common knowledge," T a s s s a i d , W h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s is t h e o u t s i d e farce t h a t h a s c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e b i g g e s t armada e v e r of n a v a l f o r c e s i n the a r e a - n Tass r e p a r t e d a l s o o n a s p e e c h by A n d r e i Gromyko i n which t h e S o v i e t f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r s t a t e d , " The wave of s h a m e l e s s s l a n d e r a n d f a l s e h o o d a b o u t t h e e v e n t s i n A f g h a n i s t a n is o n l y a m a n s of d i v e r t i n g a t t e n t i o n from U ,So s u b v e r s i v e a g g r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e Hiddle E a s t a n d S o u t h Asia - The S o v i e t f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r a l s o c r i t i c i z e d msome p e o p l e in I r a n n f o r e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e t h r e a t p o s e d b y S o v i e t forces i n A f g h a n i s t a n - 01/17/80 - Concerned over t h e upheaval i n I r a n and S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n , I r a q was r e p o r t e d t o be c o n s u l t i n g w i t h S a u d i A r a b i a and K u v a i t on v a y s t o k e e p t h e P e r s i a n G u l f area f r e e o f f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n from b o t h East a n d V e s t , Harvine H o w e r e p o r t e d i n t h e N e w York Times t h a t I r a q i o f f i c i a l s were d e e p l y c o n c e r n e d o v e r w h a t t h e y saw a s t h e danger of a c o n f r o n t a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n b e t v e e n t h e S o v i e t Union a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , -- W i t h S o v i e t t r o o p s i n Afghanistan outnumbering Afghan government s o l d i e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2-to-1, W e s t e r n d i p l o a a t s a n d m i l i t a r y e x p e r t s i n Kabul are s t i l l p u z z l e d o v e r Boscw8s u l t i m a t e aim, v r o t e J a n e s P S t e r b a i n t h e New York T i m e s - S o v i e t t r o o p s i n A f g h a n i s t a n h a v e b e e n e s t i a a t e d t o b e between 80,000 and 85,000, c o n s i s t i n g o f a d v i s o r y g r o u p s i n command of t h e Afghan army, h e l i c o p t e r and jet p i l o t s , an a i r b o r n e d i v i s i o n , a n d f i v e m o t o r i z e d r i f l e divisions. -Iranian P i n a c e H i n i s t e r aria P r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e B a n i S a d r a c c u s e d Hoscow 06 t r y i n g t o s p l i t u p I r a n a n d t h e n p u s h on t o t h e I n d i a n Ocean i n l i g h t of t h e S o v i e t invasion o f Afghanistan. - The S o v i e t - b a c k e d government of A f g h a n i s t a n o r d e r e d a l l Aaerican correspondents t o l e a v e t h e country, a c c u s i n g t h e n o f b i a s e d r e p o r t i n g and " i n t e r f e r e n c e i n [ Afg h a n i s t a n a s ] a f f a i r s ." 01/15/80 - The 01/14/80 -- * A f g h a n i s t a n ' s G e n e r a l Assembly p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n which c a l l e d for t h e S o v i e t w i t h a r a u a l of i t s t r o o p s from A f g h a n i s t a n . Only 30 n a t i o n s d e c l i n e d t o be c o u n t e d a t t h e Assembly's emergency s e s s i o n , The s i z e of t h e v o t e a g a i n s t Hoscov w a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e d i s m a y among t h e T h i r d World countries t o t h e Soviet action. U.N. (104-18) new l e a d e r , Babrak K a m a l , h a s b i t t b e t o worry about a s long a s S o v i e t t r o o p s are h e r e t o p r o t e c t him,* wrote James Dorsey f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e H o n i t o r i n Kabul. Dorsey s t a t e d t h a t d i p l o m a t s i n Kabul h a v e e s t i m a t e d Karaal's s u p p o r t among t h e Afghan p o p u l a t i o n t o be n o more t h a n 5%. The p e o p l e q u e s t i o n h i s l e g i t i m a c y and view him a s a n a t h e i s t who s o l d h i a s e b f t o t h e S o v i e t Union. - Former Indian P r i n e M i n i s t er I n d i r a Gandhi 's C o n g r e s s - I p a r t y won o v e r t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e seats i n t h e I n d i a n p a r l i a m e n t e l e c t i o n s . The e l e c t i o n o f G a n d h i as p r i m e m i n i s t e r c a n e a t a t e n s e time f o r S o u t h A s i a and t h e rest of t h e T h i r d World in l i g h t of t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n B f g h a n i s t a n - Under G a n d h i a s p r e v i o u s regime, t h e S o v i e t Union e n joyed close r e l a t i o n s w i t h I n d i a . 01/08/80 -A a i l i t a q d e l e g a t i o n f r o m t h e Yemen Arab R e p u b l i c ( N o r t h Yenen) h e a d e d by L t C o l . H. Dayf a l l a h , coamander of t h e YAR A i r F o r c e , a r r i v e d i n t h e U,S.S.R. on a v i s i t T h e d e l e g a t i o n was met by C h i e f M a r s h a l of Avia t i o n P.S Kutakhav, c o a ~ a n d e r - i n - c h i e f , S o v i e t A i r Force. . 01/06/80 - In 01/07/80 - The . . a s p e e c h g i v e n d u r i n g t h e 9 5 t h a n n i v e r s a r y of t h e f o u n d i n g of t h e I r a q i a m y , P r e s i d e n t H u s s e i n c a l l e d S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n *an enormous a n d u n j u s t i f i e d a c t t h a t m e a t es a n x i e t y f o r a l l f r e e d o m a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e - l o v i n g people." S o v i e t Union v e t o e d a S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n demanding t h a t t h e U.S.S.R. withdraw its t r o o p s a t a c e f r o m A f g h a n i s t a n - The vote i n f a v o r o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n was 13-2, b u t t h e S o v i e t Union, a s one of t h e f i v e p e r m a n e n t C o u n c i l members, was e n t i t l e d t o e x e r c i s e a v e t o . Only E a s t Gentany j o i n e d t h e S o v i e t Union i n v o t i n g a g a i n s t t h e measure, The r a j o r i t y i n c l u d e d a l l CRS- 19 I B 7 9 102 UPDATE-0 4/02/88 s e v e n Third World members of t h e C o u n c i l . 01/06/80 - Egyptian President 01/05/80 -- T h e Soviet Wniosl b i t t e r l y denounced P r e s i d e n t Carter's Sadat decided t o order a reduction i n t h e S o v i e t Union's p e r s o n n e l i n Bgypt and t o o f f e r t h e p e o p l e of A f g h a n i s t a n m i l i t a r y a i d t o d r i v e S o v i e t t r o o p s o u t uf t h e i r c o u n t r y r e s p o n s e s t o t h e invasion of Afghanistan, saying they w e r e mborroved from t h e C o l d War a r s e n a l , a f l a g r a n t v i o l a t i o n of commitmentsn t o t h e S o v i e t s , These comments v e r e in r e s p o n s e t o C a r t e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o c u r t a i l g r a i n s h i p m e n t s t o t h e U,S .S,B, and t o c a r r y o u t o t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s a g a i n s t Noscow. - President C a r t e r von b a c k i n g o f key members of C o n g r e s s f o r emergency l e g i s l a t i o n t o l i f t a b a n on m i l i t a r y a i d t o P a k i s t a n i n t h e a f t e r m a t h of t h e S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Afghanistan. - Islamic leaders i n Turkey, Sudan, I n d i a , I n d o n e s i a , a n d I r a n l e d p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t Moscow a c t i o n i n Afghanistan. S a u d i Arabia u r g e d Arab a n d Moslem c o u n t r i e s t o p r o t e s t t h e Soviet action, 01/03/80 -- Kevin 01/02/80 - President Klose r e p o r t e d S o v i e t l e a d e r s e v i d e n t l y h a v e c o n s i d e r e d A f g h a n i s t a n an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the S o v i e t U n i o n % x i l i t a r y z o n e o n i t s s o u t h e r n b o r d e r s , and f o r e s e e a v i r t u a l s t a t e of o c c u p a t i o n t h e r e f o r many y e a r s t o come, Klosemsv i e w s r e s u l t e d from i n t e r v i e w s v i t h S o v i e t a n d Western s o u r c e s i n Hoscov and were r e p o r t e d i n a Washington P o s t a r t i c l e , C a r t e r recalled U , S . a m b a s s a d o r t o Hoscov Thomas Watson f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e Afghan crisis, - Thousands of Afghans a n d t h e i r I r a n i a n s u p p o r t e r s s t o n e d the S o v i e t embassy in T e h e r a n and r i p p e d down t h e ham mer-and - s i c k l e before I r a n i a n p o l i c e d r o v e them away, The d e m o n s t r a t i o n was a p r o t e s t of t h e S o v i e t invasion of Afghanistan I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Saudi-based Islamic World League condemned t h e S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n a s a b i d t o wipe o a t Muslim i n f l u e n c e i n t h a t Islamic n a t i o n a n d t r a n s f o r m i t i n t o a *communist base." 01/01/80 - The n e v government o f A f g h a n i s t a n s a i d t o d a y t h a t i t had i n v i t e d S o v i e t t r o o p s i n t o t h e c o u n t r y " i n view of t h e p r e s e n t a g g r e s s i v e a c t i o n s of t h e e n e m i e s of A f g h a n i s t a n , - India e x p r e s s e d d e e p c o n c e r n o v e r b o t h the S o v i e t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n and r e p o r t s t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s would s t e p u p d e l i v e r y of arms and m i l i t a r y equipment t o P a k i s t a n , - President Carter s h a r p l y r e b u k e d t h e S o v i e t Union for t h e c o u p i n Afghanistan ,a c c u s i n g P r e s i d e n t Brezhnev - o f p r o v i d i n g a %zompletely i n a d e q u a t e and c m p l e t e l y m i s l e a d i n g " r e s p o n s e t o O, S p r o t e s t s . I n an ABC news i n t e r v i e w , Carter s a i d Brezhnev n c l a i n e d t h a t h e h a d b e e n i n v i t e d b y t h e Afghan government t o come i n a n d p r o t e c t B f g h a n i s t a n f r o n some o u t s i d e t h i r d - n a t i o n t h r e a t . T h i s was o b v i o u s l y f a l ~ e , * ~ 12/3 1/19 - 0,s- o f f i c i a l s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union was m o b i l i z i n g a t l e a s t two more m o t o r i z e d i n f a n t r y d i v i s i o n s and g a t h e r i n g a l a r g e force of f i g h t e r s and bombers in t h e a r e a n e a r t h e Soviet-Afghan b o r d e r . O f f icia 1s o u r c e s e s t i n a t e d s t r e n g t h of S o v i e t forces i n A f g h a n i s t a n a t between 30,000 and 40,000 combat troops. - The S o v i e t Union s a i d t h a t it had s e n t a nli.mited contingentm i n t o Afghanistan t o help r e p e l aggression f r o n abroad and t h a t t h e t r o o p s would be withdrawn when t h e y were n o l o n g e r n e e d e d - 12/30/79 -- SS ot uv ai er tt 12/29/79 - White Auerbach of t h e Washington Post r e p o r t e d t h a t t r o o p s were1 i a firm c o n t r o l o f a l l s t r a t e g i c c r o s s r o a d s and i s p o r t a n t government b u i l d i n g s i n Kabul. House P r e s s S e c r e t a r y P o w e l l e s t i m a t e d t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e S o v i e t i n v a s i o n f o r c e i n A f g h a n i s t a n a t 30,000 combat t r o o p s . - Afghan Xuslia g u e r i l l a l e a d e r s vowed t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r war a g a i n s t t h e new Afghan g o v e r n r e n t , i n s t a l l e d i n a floscov-engineered c o u p - The r e b e l l e a d e r s r e j e c t e d c o n c i l i a t o r y s t a t e m e n t s by t h e new Kabul g o v e r n m e n t , b r a n d i n g i t s l e a d e r , Babrak K a r r a l , a n p n p p e t n o f t h e Kremlin - The S o v i e t Union c o n f i r m e d t h a t its t r o o p s were o p e r a t i n g i n A f g h a n i s t a n i n s u p p o r t o f the new K a b u l g o v e r n n e n t , The o f f i c i a l T a s s news a g e n c y asserted i n a d i s p a t c h f r o n Kabul t h a t the Afghan government s o u g h t S o v i e t m i l i t a r y and t e c h n i c a l a i d t o d e f e n d i t s e l f a g a i n s t n i n t e r f e r e n c e and p r o v o c a t i o n s of e x t e r n a l eneaaiesn u n d e r t h e terms o f t h e Soviet-Afghan p a c t cf Dec, 5, 1 9 7 8 - T a s s a l s o q u o t e d a t e l e g r a m from Brezhnev t o Karma1 w i s h i n g him " g r e a t s u c c e s s e s " i n t h e task of l e a d i n g the c o u n t r y - - Iranian Foreign M i n i s t e r G hotbzadeh called t h e S o v i e t a c t i o n m.. .a h o s t i l e measure, n o t o n l y a g a i n s t t h e p e o p l e of ( A f g h a n i s t a n ) b u t a g a i n s t a l l t h e Hoslers of the world." The c h i e f of s t a f f of t h e I r a n i a n navy, Ad.. fladani, s a i d I r a n and P a k i s t a n were c o n s u l t i n g on t h e c h a n g e s i n Kabul, 12/28/79 - President C a r t e r s h a r p l y condemned t h e S o v i e t Union f o r its w i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Bfghanistan, c a l l i n g i t a n b l a t a n t v i o l a t i o n of a c c e p t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l r u l e s of b e h a v i o r o n H e d i s p a t c h e d Deputy S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e U a r r e n C h r i s t o p h e r t o E u r o p e f o r u r g e n t c o n s u l t a t i o n on CRS-21 IB79 1 02 U P D A TE--0 4/02/80 t h e S o v i e t rrove w i t h U-S, a l l i e s 12/27/79 - Afghan P r e s i d e n t H a f i z u l l a h Anin was o u s t e d and r e p l a c e d by Babrak Karaal. S o v i e t news a g e n c p T a s s d i s t r i b u t e d a s p e e c h s a d e by t h e new Afghan l e a d e r i n which h e d e n o u n c e d h i s p r e d e c e s s o r a s t h e head of a *bloody d y n a s t y ' @a n d a n a g e n t of "United S t a t e s i m p e r i a l i s m . " W e s t e r n a n a l y s t s t o o k t h e S o v i e t t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h e s p e e c h as a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t its p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d a i r l i f t of t r o o p s was d e s i g n e d t o h e l p r e p l a c e Amin w i t h K a r n a l . Karmal, a n e a b e r of t h e Parcham f a c t i o n of t h e P e o p l e m s Democratic P a r t y (PDP) , h a d b e e n o u s t e d by t h e Khalq f a c t i o n of t h e p a r t y l e d by T a r a k i a n d Anin, H e w a s made a n b a s s a d o r t o Czechoslovakia When c h a r g e s of s u b v e r s i o n were b r o u g h t a g a i n s t Karmal by t h e Khab q - d o m i n a t e d government, h e r e m a i n e d i n e x i l e i n P r a g u e u n t i l t h e r e m o v a l of Amin. T h e P a r c h a n f a c t i o n o f t h e R)P h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d to b e more i n l i n e w i t h Ploscowms v a y of t h i n k i n g t h a n h a s t h e Khalq f a c t i o n . - 12/26/79 - The S t a t e Department r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union had carried o u t a 150-plane a i r l i f t of a n e s t i m a t e d 4,000 t r o o p s a n d f i e l d equipment i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n d u r i n g t h e last t u o d a y s , The i n t r o d u c t i o n of combat forces i n t o A f g h a n i s t a n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e first t i m e s i n c e Borld War X I t h a t t h e U S . S .R h a s deployed such t r o o p s o u t s i d e t h e S o v i e t b l o c . The S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t a l s o r e p o r t e d a c o n t i n u i n g b u i l d u p of S o v i e t combat forces i n S o v i e t a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o A f g h a n i s t a n . Department o f f i c i a l s e s t i m a t e d t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e b u i l d u p t o be equivalent t o f i v e divisions, . 12/19/79 - The S t a t e Department r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e more t h a n 1,000 S o v i e t p e r s o n n e l who r e a n t l y a r r i v e d i n A f g h a n i s t a n a r e e q u i p p e d f o r combat, According t o Washington P o s t staff writer Don O b r d o r f e r , some American o f f i c i a l s have s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t s may b e p r e p a r i n g t o s h i f t from a n e s s e n t i a l l y a d v i s o r y r o l e i n t h e Kabul g o v e r n m e n t m s war a g a i n s t r e b e l l i n g Hoslem t r i b e s m e n t o d i r ct i n v o l v e m e n t in g r o u n d combat. - The S o v i e t Union nay have t o p u l l o u t of a f i s h i n g d e p o t o f f w e s t e r n Africa t h a t it h a s leased s i n c e 1973, a c c o r d i n g t o T o a Burns of t h e R a s h i n g t o n P o s t , The p u l l - o u t would f o l l o v a t u r n towards t h e West by t h e p r e s e n t m i l i t a r y j u n t a which t o o k power from Marxist leader F r a n c i s c o a a c i a s Nguera, A c c o r d i n g t o B u r n s , t h e d e p o t was u s e d a s a s t a g i n g g r o u n d for Cuban t r o o p s d u r i n g t h e Angola c i v i l war a n d had s e r v e d a s a S o v i e t communications base, 1 2 / 0 1 n 9 -- 11/29/79 . D e f e n s e H i n i s t e r V s t i n o v met w i t h Bozanbique M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e Chipande i n t h e S o v i e t Union. U ,S ,S ,R - According t o Daniel Southerland of t h e Christian S c i e n c e H o n i t o r , t h e S o v i e t Union h a s been q u i e t l y s h i p p i n g nev f i g h t e r planes, tanks, and a v a r i e t y of o t h e r modern n i l i t a r y e q u i p m e n t t o N o r t h Yemen. E a r l i e r i n t h e y e a r , P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r had waived arms c o n t r o l r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r N o r t h Yemen i n o r d e r t o s h i p them American weapons t o a i d t h a t c o u n t r y i n a c l a s h w i t h S o u t h Yemen. 11/15/19 - 11/19/79 11/12/19 - 11/15/79 -- Geraan Derocratic R e p u b l i c leader E r i c h H o n e c k e r was i n Aden, S o n t h Yeaen, on a n o f f i c i a l v i s i t . -- GDR and Communist p a r t y l e a d e r Honecker was i n Ethiopia at t h e i n v i t a t i o n of Ethiopian leader f l e n g i s t u - During h i s v i s i t , Honecker s i g n e d a t r e a t y of f r i e n d s h i p and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h E t h i o p i a on b e h a l f of h i s c o u n t r y . 11/12/t9 - 11/14/79 -- PLO l e a d e r Y a s i r A r a f a t was i n Moscow on a " f r i e n d l y v i s i t n a c c o r d i n g t o a communique p u b l i s h e d by Psavda. D u r i n g h i s v i s i t , A r a f a t m e t w i t h S o v i e t F o r e i g n H i n i s t e r Gromyko a n d Coamunist P a r t y o f f i c i a l Boris Fmonarev - 10/25/79 - Soviet Communist P a s t y G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y L e o n i d B r e z h n e v s i g n e d a t r e a t y o f f r i e n d s h i p and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h S o u t h Yemen leader I s m a m i li n Moscov- I n c l u d e d i n t h e document was a s t a t e m e n t v h i c h s a i d t h a t t h e t w o sidesn would c o n t i n u e t o d e v e l o p c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e m i l i t a r y f i e l d on t h e b a s i s of t h e r e l e v a n t a g r e e g e n t s m n c l u d e d between them i n t h e i n t e r e s t s of s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r d e f e n s e c a p a c i t y .I8 ..- an Iranian d e l e g a t i o n held s u c c e s s f u l t a l k s with S o v i e t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on q u e s t i o n s of f u r t h e r e c o n o m i c c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e two c o u n t r i e s . T h e I r a n i a n energy m i n i s t e r s a i d , on h i s r e t u r n f r o n t h e S o v i e t Union, t h a t it was d e c i d e d a t t h e t a l k s i n Moscow t o s t a r t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a;f a power s t a t i o n i n I s f a h a n . T h i s power s t a t i o n would b e c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h S o v i e t assistance. 10/22/79 -- A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S o v i e t news agency T a s s , 10/18/79 - The 10/15/79 - c h a h a n of t h e B-S S - B . S t a t e Coasittee f o r F o r e i g n Economic R e l a t i o n s Skachkov s i g n e d a number of d o c u a e n t s w i t h t h e S y r i a n S t a t e M i n i s t e r f o r P l a n n i n g H u r a n i y ah, i n c l u d i n g a p r o t o c o l on e c o n o m i c and t e c h n i c a l coopera t i o n , - P r e s i d e n t Assad of S y r i a was p r o v i d e d s o p h i s t i c a t e d S o v i e t weapons d u r i n g h i s v i s i t t o t h e U S .S -R The v i s i t marked a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n S o v i e t - S y r i a n r e l a t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g to p r e s s r e p o r t s , Hoscow had p r o v i d e d i n c r e a s e d s h i p m e n t s o f a r m s t o S y r i a i n 1978, b u t a p p a r e n t l y r e f u s e d t o s u p p l y S y r i a w i t h t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d ueapcms s o u g h t by Damascus. A c c o r d i n g t o r e p o r t s , Assad was h o p i n g t o o b t a i n H-1 and fl-25 s u p e r s o n i c j e t f i g h t e r s a n d T-72 t a n k s T h e U.S .S.R, a l s o reportedly cancelled Syria's 10/18/79 . - $500 m i l l i o n d e b t , 10/15/79 - In a s p e e c h a t a d i n n e r h o n o r i n g S y r i a n P r e s i d e n t Assad, S o v i e t Premier Kosygin a d d r e s s e d t h e i s s u e of p e a c e i n t h e Middle B a s t , Kosygin s a i d , o" a l l t h e Arab t e r r i t o r i e s o c c u p i e d by I s r a e l must b e l i b e r a t e d ; P a l e s t i n i a n Arabs mst r e a l l y b e g u a r a n t e e d t h e r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and t o create t h e i r own state; a l l s t a t e s of t h e r e g i o n m u s t b e g u a r a n t e e d a n i n d e p e n d e n t a n d secnre e x i s t e n c e o n Bssad was i n Hoscou on a s t a t e visit - - 10/13/79 - rf ieacresihvael dN,VC o ,l - Ogarkov, Swiet General S t a f f S , F a r j a n i , commander of t h e 10/04/79 -- Youssef 09/16/79 - Associated Og/l qfl9 - TASS Chief, Libyan A i r F o r c e , who was in t h e S o v i e t Union on a n o f f i c i a l v i s i t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S o v i e t army n e w s p a p e r , Red S t a r , M, I b r a h i a r e p o r t e d i n t h e N e w York T i r e s t h a t s e n i o r S a u d i A r a b i a n o f f i c i a l s have vowed t o i n t e n s i f y e f f o r t s t o s t a b i l i z e t h e P e r s i a n Gulf r e g i o n and t o p e r s u a d e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t a k e a *more f o r c e f u l s t a n d " a g a i n s t what t h e y see a s S o v i e t a m b i t i o n s t o e n c i r c l e t h e a a jor o i l - p r o d u c i n g a r e a , An u n i d e n t i f i e d member of t h e S a u d i r o p s l f a a i l y was q u o t e d a s s a y i n g t h a t t h e a i l f t a r y - ~ r e s e n c e o f R u s s i a n s in t h e gulf a n d Horn o f A f r i c a was a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o Vestern s e c u r i t y , Press r e p o r t e d f r o n H e w D e l h i t h a t A f g h a n i s t a n P r e s i d e n t T a r a k i had r e s i g n e d t h e p r e s i d e n c y and t h e l e a d e r s h i p of t h e r u l i n g p a r t y and was t o be r e p l a c e d by A a f i z n l l a h Amin i n b o t h of t h o s e p o s t s , According t o t h i s r e p o r t , Aain i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e more of a h a r d - l i n e Communist t h a n h i s predecessor , reported t h a t Angolan P r e s i d e n t A g o s t i n h o Neto d i e d i n H o s m a f t e r having undergone s u r g e r y , - Boscow radio r e p o r t e d t h a t TJ,S,S,R. Prime Minister Kosygin h e l d t a l k s i n Addis Ababa w i t h E t h i o p i a n l e a d e r k n g i s t u B a i l e Harialr. The S o v i e t l e a d e r was i n E t h i o p i a v i t h a d e l e g a t i o n which i n c l u d e d S o v i e t a i r force Commander-in-Chief P a v e 1 Kut akhov and t h e c h a i r m a n of t h e S t a t e C o m m i t t e e f o r F o r e i g n Economic r e l a t i o n s Semen Skachkov, O9/l O n 9 - CPSU 09/0 8/79 - Ua s h i n g t o n G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y Brezhnev n e t v i t h Afghan P r e s i d e n t T a r a k i v h o was i n tloscow e n r o u t e home from t h e n o n - a l i g n e d c o n f e r e n c e in Havana. T a r a k i l e f t Moscow on S e p t , 11, P o s t c o r r e s p m d e n t Kevin K l ose r e p o r t e d from Boscow t h a t t h e S o v i e t government n e w s p a p e r I z v e s t i a h a d l a b e l l e d t h e A y a t o l l o a h Khomeiniss r u l e a d i s a s t e r for Iran. This statement represented a draaatic c h a n g e i n S o v i e t p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e government which h a d o v e r t h r o w n t h e Shah o f I r a n and a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t e n s i o n s between t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s b r o u g h t on by d i f f e r e n c e s o v e r S o v i e t p o l i c y i n A f g h a n i s t a n and Khomein i V st r e a t m e n t o f I r a n i a n l e itist s, 09/03/79 - 09/07/99 - A c o n f e r e n c e 09/05/79 - The 08/28/79 -- A c c o r d i n g t o a R e n t e r s r e p o r t , 08/22/79 - Richard 08/13/79 - The 06/14/79 - The 06/12/79 - Iranian of n a t i o n s o f t h e n o n a l i g n e d n o v e n e n t w a s h e l d i n Havana, Cuba- Cuban p r e s i d e n t Castro p r e s i d e d - Sore o b s e r v e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t C a s t r o w a s u s i n g h i s p o s i t i o n as c h a i r m a n of t h e c o n f e r e n c e t o draw a e n b e r s o f t h e movement t o w a r d a p o s i t i o n more f a v o r a b l e t o t h e S o v i e t Union, One c r u c i a l i s s u e f a c e d b y t h e membership v a s on t h e q u e s t i o n o f who s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t Cambodia -- t h e V i e t n a m e s e - i n s t a l l e d government of Heng Samrin o r t h e d e p o s e d r e g i m e o f P o l P o t . The c o n f e r e n c e d e c i d e d t o t a b l e t h e i s s u e u n t i l 1981 and l e a v e t h e Cambodian s e a t v a c a n t - C h i e f o f staff o f t h e I n d i a n a i r f o r c e , A i r C h i e f M a r s h a l L a t i f , a r r i v e d on a n o f f i c i a l v i s i t t o Boscow a t t h e i n v i t a t i o n of C h i e f Marshal of A v i a t i o n Kutakhov, C o m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f of t h e S o v i e t A i r F o r c e . P e n t a g o n o f f i c i a l s had s t a t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union had p r o v i d e d S y r i a w i t h 50 t o 7 0 o f its most modern t a n k s , t h e T-72, A l t h o u g h t h i s number o f t a n k s would n o t h a v e a p r o f o u n d m i l i t a r y i m p a c t , t h e o f f i c i a l s were c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e d e l i v e r y o f t h e s e weapons v o u l d c o n t i n u e . The T-72 had n o t been d e p l o y e d o u t s i d e t h e Warsaw P a c t up t o t h i s t i n e , B u r t o f t h e H e w York Times r e p o r t e d t h a t D e f e n s e Department o f f i c i a l s d i s c l o s e d t h a t N i g e r i a had r e c e n t l y o r d e r e d t h e S o v i e t Union t o c u t i t s c o n t i n g e n t o f m i l i t a r y a d v i s e r s i n t h e c o u n t r y from 4 0 t o 5, The o f f i c i a l s s a i d t h a t t h e N i g e r i a n a c t i o n h a d been p r o m p t e d by i n e f f i c i e n t p e r f o r m a n c e a n d * c o n d e s c e n d i n g a t t i t u d e s n on t h e p a r t ah S o v i e t z d v i s e r s , who t r a i n N i g e r i a l s t o f l y S o v i e t EIIG-21 f i g h t e r s . N e w York Times r e p o r t e d t h a t N i c a r a g u a ' s I n t e r i o r H i n i s t e r Tonas Borge s t a t e d t h a t h i s c o u n t r y would a v o i d b u f i n g arms from Communist n a t i o n s i n order t o avoid t h e apretext t o f e e l i n g s t h a t w e a r e aligning ourselves with then p o l i t i c a l l y - S o v i e t Union had a s k e d I n d i a t o i n t e r c e d e w i t h P a k i s t a n t o s t o p a s s i s t i n g t h e Afghan rebels, it was r e p o r t e d , d u r i n g U .S.S .Be Prime H i n i s t e r K o s y g i n @ s v i s i t t o N e w D e l h i . I n d i a n Prime H i n i s t e r Desai was r e p o r t e d t o h a v e c o u n t e r e d b y t e l l i n g Kospgin t h a t t h e Afghan government U s h o u l d t r y t o a c q u i r e c r e d i b i l i t y among t h e Afghan p e o p l e n i n s t e a d o f blaming " P a k i s t a n i i n f l u e n c e n f o r t h e i r p r o b l e a s r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r t h e Ayatollah Khoxeini accused t h e S o v i e t Union o f a s s i s t i n g A f g h a n i s t a n i n s u p p r e s s i n g t h e Islamic r e b e l l i o n i n t h a t c o u n t r y . 06/11/79 -A 05/23/79 - Eacknowledged a s t German D e f e n s e E i n i s t e r Heinze t h a t E a s t Germany g a v e Western d i p l o m a t i n Moscow s a i d t h a t S o v i e t p r e s e n c e i n A z g h a n i s t a n had i n c r e a s e d t o a b o u t 3,000 c i v i l i a n a d v i s e r s a n d 1,000 m i l i t a r y a d v i s e r s . "The s i t u a t i o n i s critical from t h e Soviet v i e w p o i n t , t h e d i p l o m a t saiil- Africa, Hoffman had military aid to Hoffman u a s i n Zambia o n a 2-day v i s i t . 04/29/79 -In 04/11/79 -- A 03/26/79 - Following 03/24/79 - Pro-Khoaeini 03/18/79 - Pravda 03/14/79 - The a sudden c h a n g e i n p a l i c y , t h e U.S,S,R, issued a n o f f i c i a l d e n u n c i a t i o n o f former Ugandan P r e s i d e n t I d i Alrin Dada i n a P r a v d a a r t i c l e , s p o k e s a a n f o r Afghan r e b s l s claiaed t h a t S o v i e t a d v i s e r s i n A f g h a n i s t a n h a d t a k e n on expanded s o l e s . H e s a i d t h a t t h e S o v i e t a d v i s e r s had " t o t a l c o n t r o l m of t h e Afghan a i r f o r c e a n d were a l s o e x t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s on t h e g r o u n d , a %day v i s i t t o Damascus, S o v i e t F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r A n d r e i Gronyko j o i n e d S y r i a n P r e s i d e n t Assad i n d e n o u n c i n g t h e I s r a e l i - E g y p t i a n agieemen t, demonstrators in I r a n a s s a i l e d t h e Soviet Union f o r its r o l e i n A f g h a n i s t a n . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Afghanistan I s l a m i c P a r t y d a r g e d t h a t Soviet p i l o t s were f l y i n g B I G ' S a g a i n s t Afghan r e b e l s , was q u o t e d a s h a v i n g a c c u s e d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , P a k i s t a n , and a number of u n i d e n t i f i e d Arab c o u n t r i e s of h e l p i n g t h e Afghan d i s s i d e n t s , S o v i e t Union denounced U.S. claims t h a t S o v i e t a n d C u b a a d v i s e r s were h e l p i n g S o u t h Yemen i n its war a g a i n s t N o r t h Yemen. - India a n d t h e S o v i e t Union a g r e e d t o t r a d e and s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n , Agreements c o v e r i n g t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s were s i g n e d i n N e w D e l h i by P r i m e U i n i s t e r D e s a i and U.S.S,B, P r i m e M i n i s t e r Kosygin. 03/08/79 -- A 03/02/75 -A 02/28/79 - The 02/24/79 - The Kuwait n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e d t h a t n e a r l y 3,000 Cuban s o l d i e r s a n d S o v i e t m i l i t a r y a d v i s e r s had been r u s h e d t o S o u t h Yemen from E t h i o p i a i n t h e l a s t t h r e e d a y s , spokesman f o r t h e E r i t r e a n P e o p l e ' s L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t s a i d t h a t 2,000 S o v i e t a d v i s e r s and t e c h n i c i a n s remained i n E r i t r e a , U , S , S t a t e Department d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a d r a i s e d t h e m a t t e r o f t h e Yeaen b o r d e r f i g h t i n g w i t h t h e S o v i e t Union which had 1,000 a d v i s e r s i n S o u t h Yenen. Cuba h a d 500-700 a d v i s e r s w h i l e E a s t Germany had more t h a n 100 a d v i s e r s l o c a t e d i n S o u t h Yemen, A y a t o l l a h Khomeini sumnoned t h e S o v i e t a m b a s s a d d t o I r a n t o his h e a d q u a r t e r s t o warn t h e e n v o y a g a i n s t outside interference i n Iran's internal affairs. 02/20/79 -In 02/16/79 - The a s p e e c h d e l i v e r e d a t G e o r g i a I n s t i t u t e o f Technology i n Atlanta, President Carter, indirectly referring t o t h e S o v i e t Union, warned a g a i n s t i n t e r f e r e n c e i n I r a n "If others interfere d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , t h e y a r e on n o t i c e that t h i s w i l l have s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s a n d w i l l a f f e c t our b r o a d e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e m - United S t a t e s lodged t h r e e s e p a r a t e p r o t e s t s w i t h t h e I3 .S .S. B o v e r S o v i e t a n t i - A m e r i c a n b r o a d c a s t s t o I r a n . . -A KNWFUS d e l e g a t i o n l e d by G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y Bos Samay a r r i v e d in floscov a n d was r e c e i v e d i n t h e C e n t r a l C o n n i t t ee by Z i n y a n i n and Ulyanovsky , a c c o r d i n g t o Pravda. 02/12/19 -- The U .S S , R , e x t e n d e d f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f Khomein irs government i n Iran.. 02/08/79 - U-S. 02/05/79 -- A S o v i e t government d e l e g a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f Deputy D e f e n s e S e c r e t a r y Harold Brow s a i d t h a t t h e U n i t e d States had t o " f i n d a v a p n t o h e l p c o u n t r i e s f i g h t off S o v i e t s u r r o g a t e s , l i k e t h e c u b a n t r o o p s , P r e m i e r I v a n Arkhipov and s e v e n o t h e r o f f i c i a l s a r r i v e d in V i e n t i a n e . 01/23/79 - The O1/2 1/79 - Somalia s t r i k e by I r a n i a n o i l f i e l d v o r k e r s h a s c u t o f f d e l i v e r i e s of I r a n i a n n a t u r a l g a s t o t h e S o v i e t r e p u b l i c s o f Armenia, A z e r b a i j a n , and G e r o g i a according t o reports, P r e s i d e n t Basre h e l d o u t t h e p r o s p e c t of i m p r o v e d r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e W.S.S.R. i n a speech i n t h e S o m a l i c a p i t a l of H o g a d i s c i o , Barre d i d n o t o p p o s e renewed c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s , a l t h o u g h h e c r i t i c i z e d HoscowDs % e l f i s h i n t e r e s t N i n t h e Horn o f Africa, -- A T a s s d i s p a t c h from Washington on r e c e n t t e l e v i s i o n a n d p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e pronouncements by P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r on f o r e i g n p o l i c y s a i d t h a t Carter had a g a i n r e t u r n e d t o t h e well-worn t h e s e o f S o v i e t and Cuban n i n t e r f e r e n c e n i n t h e a f f a i r s of t h e t t e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , "It is s c a r c e l y n e c e s s a r y a g a i n t o r e f u t e t h i s u t t e r l y false thesis. If o n e is t o s p e a k of g e n u i n e and n o t i m a g i n e d i n t e r f e r e n c e , t h e n i t is w h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i t s e l f is c a r r y i n g on i n I r a n , where, d e s p i t e o f f i c i a l d e n i a l s , O.S , s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s c a r r y on i n t e r f e r e n c e . " 02/10/79 - Angolan P r e s i d e n t Neto r e c e i v e d 0,s , S , R . Deputy F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r L,F. I l r i c h e v . I l r i c h e v a l s o met San Nnj cma of t h e S o u t h - U e s t A f r i c a n P e o p l e 9 s O r g a n i z a t i o n (SHAPO) - 02/06/79 - Il'ichev was i n Maputo, Mozambique, f o r t a l k s w i t h P r e s i d e n t Hachel. 02/05/79 -A 02/0 4 / 7 9 - Reporting 02/02/79 - Ilwichev uas d e l e g a t i o n l e d by 3 . S ,S. I!, Deputy Premier Arkhipov was i n Hanoi f o r t h e f i f t h s e s s i o n o f t h e TJ.S.S.RI-Vietna~ j o i n t commission f o r s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n . t h e Washington announcement o f S e c r e t a r y of D e f e n s e Harold Brown's f o r t h c o m i n g R i d d l e E a s t t o u r , T a s s said t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m e d o b s e r v e r s , t h e p u r p o s e of the t o u r was W o t r y t o knock t o g e t h e r a new a n t i - C o m m u n i s t a l l i a n c e i n t h e HiGdle E a s t , which w i l l assrme t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e s e n t i n e l i n p e r i a l i s t i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s oil-rich region a f t e r t h e USA's l o s s of I s a n o n r e c e i v e d by P r e s i d e n t Kaunda o n h i s a r r i v a l i n Zaabia, -A t a ceremony i n B r a z z a v i l l e , Congo, t h e n a t i o n a l P a r t y s c h o o l b u i l t w i t h S o v i e t a i d was opened by t h e C o n g o l e s e m i n i s t e r of i n f o r n a t i o n , according t o Pravda, 01/29/79 01/22/79 01/11/79 - I l g i c h e v was i n T a n z a n i a . - I n d i a a n d t h e U.S,S,B, s i g n e d a new a g r e e m e n t on c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e peaazlful u s e o f a t o m i c e n e r g y , which covered a d d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f c o o p e r a t i o n t o t h o s e u n d e r a 1961 a g r e e m e n t . - Tt oh eAmman P a r i s A r a b i c newspaper Al-Watan a l - A r a b i , a c c o r d i n g radio, s a i d t h a t S y r i a n Defense R i n i s t e r T a l a s ' s visit t o floscou was s u c c e s s f u l , a n d Moscow d e c i d e d t o f u l f i l l t h e a r m s o r d e r s of b o t h S y r i a a n d (following t h e S y r i a n - I r a q i rapproachment) Iraq. 01/04/79 - According 01/01/79 - In 12/20/78 - t o Tass, S y r i a n D e f e n s e M i n i s t e r T a l a s v a s r e c e i v e d by U s t i n o v a n d had t a l k s w i t h him, Blso t a k i n g p a r t I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s v e r e F o r e i g n E c o n o a i c Belat i o n s C o m m i t t ee Chairman Skachkov and Co1,-Gen, Kozlov F i r s t Deputy C h i e f , Soviet G e n e r a l S t a f f , a m e s s a g e t o t h e P e o p l e ' s D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y of A f g h a n i s t a n on its 1 4 t h a n n i v e r s a r y , t h e CPSU C e n t r a l Cornnittee said t h a t t h e S o v i e t people noted w i t h deep s a t i s f a c t i o n how t h e A f qhan p e o p l e ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e h a d c u l a i n a t e d i n t h e A p r i l 1978 r e v o l u t i o n a s a r e s u l t of which t h e i r c o u n t r y embarked on building a socialist society, - A v i s i t by F r e n c h P r e s i d e n t Giscard d V E s t a i n g v a s s e e n a n an i n d i c a t i o n of G u i n e a ' s improvement of r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e V e s t , The government had l a u n c h e d a r a d i c a l s o c i a l i s t program o n a c h i e v i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e i n 1958 a n d h a d drawan closer t o t h e U,S .SOB Hawever, Guinea h a s r e p o r t e d l y g r u u n d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h S o v i e t e c o n o m i c a i d and S o v i e t trading practices, 12/22/78 (D-S.D.) , Angolan P r e s i d e n t Neto a s s e r t e d , *it i s n e c e s s a r y a t a l l t i a e s t o d e f e n d t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e c o u n t r y .I8 H i s u n e x p e c t e d stress o n i n d e p e n d e n c e w a s i n t e r p r e t e d by o b s e r v e r s a s a n i n d i r e c t a t t a c k on t h e U ,S,S ,It. and Cuba, t h e p r i n c i p a l s u p p o r t e r s of t h e Angolan government, 12/13/78 -- I n a m e e t i n g w i t h S e n a t a r George HcGovern 12/05/YEs - Soviet 11/20/78 - Ethiopia and t h e 11/19/78 -- I n 11/02/78 - The 10/21fi8 - North P r e s i d e n t Brezhnev and Afghan P r e s i d e n t Taraki. s i g n e d a 20-year t r e a t y o f f r i e n d s h i p and c o o p e r a t i o n a f t e r two n a y s of d i s c u s s i o n s i n tloscow. U.S-SOB. s i g n e d a 20-year p a c t o f f r i e n d s hip and c o o p e r a t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e d a p l e d g e f o r m i l i t a r p c o n s u l t a t i o n s , The t r e a t y c a p p e d t h e two-year ilaprovenent i n Soviet-Ethiopian r e l a t i o n s t h a t l e d t o s u b s t a n t i a l Soviet involvement i n E t h i o p i a a s war a g a i n s t s e c e s s i o n s i t s i n E r i t r e a a n d Ogaden. a n n i n t e r v i e w a f o r P r a v d a Brezhnev warned a g a i n s t i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of I r a n , U-S .S,Rr e c o g n i z e d t h e g o v e r n a e n t of Dominica i a n e d i a t e l y upon its g a i n i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e . Y e m n F o r e i g n l i n i s t e r A b d a l l a h Asna j l i n k e d t h e S o v i e t Union t o t h e u n s n c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o o v e r t h r o w t h e N o r t h Yemen government on O c t o b e r 15. 10/06/78 - The 10/04/78 - The 09/22/78 - Brezhnev s a i d 09/08/78 - The 09/06/73 - The 08/07/78 - President 07/18/78 -At S o v i e t Union p l e d g e d more a s a s t o S y r i a f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n s in H o s c o w between P r e s i d e n t Assad and P r e s i d e n t Brez hnev, U.S ,S-R.. r e a c h e d ' a n a g r e e l a e n t w i t h L i b y a on p r o v i d i n g i t w i t h a n u c l e a r power complex that would i n c l u d e a 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 - k i l o w a t t r e a c t o r , r e s e a r c h c e n t e r , and l a b o r a t aries. t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , E g y p t , and Israel h a d c o n e u p a t Canp David w i t h a n a g r e e m e n t t h a t "was a d e a l worked o u t behind t h e b a c k s o f t h e Arabs." government of Ghana h a d e x p e l l e d f i v e S o v i e t b l o c d iplonats f o r engaging i n s u b v e r s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o a r e p o r t from Accra, S o v i e t Union denounced t h e Camp David c o n f e r e n c e a s a n American V x i c k n to i n c r e a s e its i n f l u e n c e i n t h e H i d d f e E a s t r a t h e r t h a n a s an e f f o r t t o b r i n g p e a c e t o t h e region. Rene of t h e S e y c h e l l e s d e n i e d a r e p o r t t h a t t h e S o v i e t llnion had been g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o u s e h i s c o n n t r p as a s u b m a r i n e b a s e t h e opening s e s s i o n of t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n of A f r i c a n U n i t y , Sudanese P r e s i d e n t J a m f a r Huhammad N m a y r i c a l l e d upon A f r i c a n s t a t e s t o reject t h e u s e of f o r e i g n t r o o p s , N i g e r i a n l e a d e r Obasan jo e c h o e d Numayri i n a J u l y 1 9 s p e e c h , when h e s a i d t h a t t h e U.S,S,R, a n d Cuba * s h o u l d n o t o v e r s t a y t h e i r welcome i n A f r i a 07/08/78 - sA a By ienigr utthnaet wtshpea pSeor vhad quoted E a s t E u r o p e a n s o u r c e s a s i e t Union had a s s u r e d S y r i a t h a t nitwould n o t s t a n d i d l y b y n i f I s r a e l , w i t h American support, attespted to a t t a c k Syria- 06/26n8 - Secretary of S t a t e C y r u s Vance s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o n l i n kagew b e t w e e n Soviet A f r i c a n p o l i c y and SALT. The Soviet-Cuban i n t e r e s t i n A f r i c a was o f s e r i o u s c o n c e r n , h e s a i d , b u t U ,S, p o l i c y was n b a s e d upon a n af f i r n a t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o A f r i c a n issues. -A p r o - S o v i e t l g p e o p l e * s n a i l i t i a l e d by Abd a l - F a t t a h I s m a i l , U l e d P r e s i d e n t Salem R n b a y e i A l i a f t e r a d a y o f heavy f i g h t i n g i n Aden, S o u t h Yemen 06/25/78 - In 06/22/78 - In - a j o i n t commnnique f o l l o w i n g t h e v i s i t o f T u r k i s h P r e m i e r E x e v i t t o t h e S o v i e t Union, t h e S o v i e t g o v e r n a e n t changed its p o s i t i o n on t h e C y p r u s d i s p u t e t o confosm w i t h t h a t of T u r k e y . The U ,S ,S.R, s t a t e a e n t s a i d t h a t t h e t v o communities on t h e i s l a n d should r e s o l v e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s t h r o u g h d i r e c t t a l k s . The D.S.S.RI had p r e v i o u s l y called f o r a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e t o s e t t l e t h e Cyprus c o n f l i c t , a T a s s report, t h e S w i e t g o v e r n a e n t d e n i e d t h a t S o v i e t and Cuban a i d t o Angola a n d E t h i o p i a " c r e a t e s a t h r e a t t o p e a c e and s t a b i l i t y on t h e c o n t h e n t a n d u n d e r l r i nes t h e p r o c e s s 1 @of d e t e n t e , - Diploma tic sources reported t h a t t h e Eritrean Liberation F r o n t l e a d e r Ahned Nasser had v i s i t e d t h e U,S.S ,R, and h a d t a k e n p a r t i n a series of t a l k s w i t h S o v i e t l e a d e r s , I t was t h o u g h t t h a t H o s c o w had t r i e d t o p e r s u a d e lasses t o s e e k a n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e E t h i o p i a n government. T h e S o v i e t Union f a v o r e d a c o n f e d e r a t i o n o f R i t r e a and E t h i o p i a , which t h e g u e r i l l a s rejected i n f a v o r of i n d e p e n d e n c e , 06/2 1/18 O6/2 O n 8 - Soviet jet f i g h t e r s s h o t down a n I r a n i a n a r a y h e l i c o p t e r t h a t s t r a y e d a c r o s s t h e U ,S ,S R b o r d e r , . I -- B e g a r d i ng S o v i e t i n v o l v e m e n t i n Africa, S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e Vance d e c l a r e d t h a t U-S. " A f r i c a n p o l i c y had n o t c h a n g e d ; i t w i l l n o t b e o u r p o l i c y t o mirror S o v i e t and Cuban p o l i c i e s i n A f r i ~ a - ~ 05/28/78 - Presidential 05/27/78 -- S o v i e t N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r Zbigniew B r z e z i n ski, i n a t e l e v i s i o n i n t e r v i e w , c r i t i c i z e d " t h e s h e - s i g h t e d Soviet conduct i n t h e l a s t 2 o r s o y e a r s n i n c l u d i n g i t s e f f o r t s t o * e n c i r c l e and p e n e t r a t e t h e Hiddle E a s t o n F o r e i g n H i n i s t e r A n d r e i Gromyko d e n i e d a c h a r g e from P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r t h a t Hoscow had been i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n v a s i o n o f Shaba p r o v i n c e i n Z a i r e . 05/25/78 - President Carter s t a t e d , a t a news c o n f e r e n c e , t h a t it was a j o k e t o c a l l Cuba n o n a l i g n e d , a n d t h a t Cuba w a s a s u r r o g a t e of t h e U.S.S.R. - The S o v i e t news a g e n c y , TASS, c h a r g e d t h a t French and B e l g i a n t r o o p s had c a r r i e d o u t t h e s l a u g h t e r of w h i t e s in K o l v e z i wand o t h e r t o w n s o f Shaba so a s t o b l a m e t h e rebels f o r t h e mass murder o f whites." -A K u w a i t newspaper r e p o r t e d t h a t I r a q had t h r e a t e n e d t o s e v e r d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e TJ-S-S.R. i f i t provided a i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o E t h i o p i a i n its d r i v e a g a i n s t Eri t r e a n r e b e l s t h a t were s u p p o r t e d by I r a q , 05/19/78 - Iran and Pakistan v e r e r e p o r t e d l y concerned about v h a t t h e y regarded t o be t h a p r o - S o v i e t and pro-Communist l e a n i n g s o f t h e new government i n A f g h a n i s t a n , a c c o r d i n g t o r e p o r t s fran Tehran and I s l a m a b a d T h e r e v e r e r e p o r t s t h a t I r a n had i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e S o v i e t anbassador t o Afghanistan vas h o l d i n g d a i l y m e e t i n g s w i t h Afghan P r e m i e r T a r a k i t o a d v i s e him o n what p o l i c i e s t o follow. -A spokesman f o r t h e S t a t e Department s a i d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r e b e l s vho i n v a d e d Shaba p r o v i n c e i n Z a i r e had b e e n t r a i n e d by Cuba i n Angola and were c a r r y i n g S o v i e t - l a d e weapons- 05/07/18 - The 05/06/78 - In 05/05/78 - President 04/09/78 - The 04/04/18 - Angolan 03/29/78 - The S o v i e t Union denonnaea a s w s l a n d e r o u s n r e p o r t s from t h e West t h a t t h e U - S - S - R . had i n s p i r e d t h e A p r i l 1978 Afghan coup.. a news c o n f e r e n c e , Afghan l e a d e r T a r a k i d e n i e d t h a t A f g h a n i s t a n u a s moving closer t o t h e S o v i e t Union. C a s t e r s p o k e o u t a t a town m e e t i n g a g s i n s t S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Africa, H e s a i d s u c h i n t e r v e n t i o n "was a danger t o Russian-America r e l a t i o n s * and h e h a d s o informed S o v i e t l e a d e r s chairman o f t h e Peruvian j o i n t c h i e f s o f s t a f f s r e t u r n e d f r m H o s c o w a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t Hoscow had a g r e e d t o r e s c h e d u l e P e r u ' s payment f o r arms p u r c h a s e s . P e r u had p u r c h a s e d $250 m i l l i o n w o r t h o f f i g h t e r p l a n e s government troops and Cuban f o r c e s had r e c e n t l y begun a m a s s i v e o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t g u e r i l l a s o f UNITA. A U N I T A s p o l e s n a n s a i d t h a t 5,000 Cubans i n v o l v e d i n t h e o f f e n s i v e v e r e backed b y S o v i e t j e t f i g h t e r s a n d o t h e r S o v i e t m i l i t a r y hardwareA r a b League condemned Cuba a n d t h e S o v i e t Union v i t h o u t s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n i n g t h e i r names f o r t h e i r " a g r e s s ivem i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e Born o f A f rim. CRS-31 03/21/78 - O3/0 7/78 - Yugoslav 03/02/78 - President IB7 9 1 02 UPDA TE-0 4/0 2/80 N i g e r i a and t h e S o v i e t Onion s i g n e d a t r a d e a g r e e m e n t p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h a e n t of t r a d e s i s s i o n s i n e a c h countand t h e e x c h a n g e o f v a r i o u s g o o d s , P r e s i d e n t T i t o a n d American P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r . d u r i n g t a l k s , a g r e e d t h a t S o v i e t and Cuban a i d s h o u l d b e v i t h d r a w n from E t h i o p i a as s o o n a s a s e t t l e m e n t b e t w e e n E t h i o p i a and S o m a l i a w a s r e a c h e d , during a press conference, strongly d e p l o r e d t h e S o v i e t Union's i n c r e a s i n g r o l e i n t h e Horn of Africa and warned t h a t i t was j e o p a r d i z i n g c h a n c e s f o r c o n g r e s s i o n a l a p p r o v a l of any 'J .S. - S o v i e t a r m s l i n i t a t ion a g r e e m e n t Carter, - 03/0 1/78 - National 02/21/78 - 02/22/78 - S y r i a n 02/02/18 - According 01/31/78 - The 01/25/78 - President 01/18/19 - In 01/12/78 - In S e c u r i t y A d v i s e r B r z e z i n s k i warned t h a t S o v i e t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e Horn o f A f r i c a n i g h t h a v e a n a d v e r s e e f f e c t on t h e outcome o f SALT 11, P r e s i d e n t Assad v i s i t e d Noscow i n an apparently s u c c e s s f u l effort t o obtain a d d i t i o n a l S o v i e t arns, A t a d i n n e r h o n o r i n g Assad, Brezhnev a s s a i l e d the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r s u p p o r t i n g d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n Egypt and I s r a e l - B r e z h n e v said t h a t his governatent s t i l l f a v o r e d a g e n e r a l Pliddle E a s t conference under t h e a u s p i c e s of t h e United S t a t e s a n d t h e S o v i e t Union a s o u t l i n e d in t h e O c t o b e r 1, 1977, U .So-Soviet d e c l a r a t i o n , t o a R e u t e r s r e p o r t , a n E t h i o p i a n s o l d i e r who d e f e c t e d t o t h e E r i t r e a n r e b e l s was q u o t e d a s s a y i n g t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union has p r o v i d e d a c t i v e m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e 'to E t h i o p i a n t r o o p s f i g h t i n g s e c e s s i o n i s t s i n Eritrea, U - S .S,R. a n d Horocco h a s c o n c l u d e d a long-term pact f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p h o s p h a t e mine, The $ 2 - b i l l i o n d e a l was b e l i e v e d t o b e t h e l a r g e s t S o v i e t i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e T h i r d World, C a r t e r t o l d S o v i e t P a r t y o f f i c i a l , Boris P o n o n a r ev, who had been l e a d i n g a S o v i e t p a r l i a m e n t a r i n d e l e g a t i o n t o t h e Uniteti S t a t e s , t h a t U-S --Soviet r e l a t i o n s c o u l d s u f f e r if t h e S o v i e t Union e s t a b l i s h e d i t s m i l i t a r y r o l e i n t h e Horn of A f r i c a . a news ccmf e r e n c e , Maj, B i r h a n n Baje, a .ember o f Ethiopia's ruling a i l i t a r p council, denied t h a t Soviet a n d Cub an p e r s o n n e l were f i g h t i n g w i t h t h e E t h i o p i a n army o r s e r v i n g a s a d v i s e r s , a news c o n f e r e n c e , P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r called S o v i e t invovlement i n t h e Somali-Ethiopian f i g h t i n g n u n w a r r a n t e d m , H e s a i d t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union had s o l d m e x c e s s i v e n q u a n t i t i e s of weapons t o b o t h sides, "and t h e y ' r e a l s o d i s p a t c h i n g Cubans i n t o E t h i o p i a who a r e , p e r h a p s , t o become c o m b a t a n t s t h e m s e l v e ~ , ~ 01/11/78 - Syria 01/05/98 - U.S. 12/25/77 -- would Soviet Cormmist not attend 12/06/77 - The 12/05/77 - Egypt a n d t h e S o v i e t Union h a s s i g n e d a "new a g r e e m e n t u u n d e r which Damascus i s t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h more S o v i e t a r n s and a i s , according t o t h e S t a t e Department, Moscow is s a i d t o h a v e d e c i d e d on t h e exapnded m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e a f t e r Egypt l a u n c h e d i t s p e a c e dialogue v i t h Israel. of f k i a l s s a i d t h a t t h e U,S ,S.R, has suspended t h e a a s s i v e a i r l i f t o f w e a p m s and n a t e r i a l t o E t h i o p i a . T h e S o v i e t Union h a s been p r o v i d i n g E t h i o p i a w i t h s n a l l a r n s , t a n k s , a n d p l a n e s t o repel. an i n v a s i o n o f S o n a l i - b a c k e d s e p a r a t i s t g u e r i l l a s i n t h e Ogaden r e g i o n . P a r t y newspaper P r a v d a s a i d t h a t Hascov a Geneva c o n f e r e n c e t o r a t i f y a n a g r e e m e n t r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e I s a a i l a t a l k s , The p a p e r c h a r g e d t h a t s u c h a m e e t i n g would be "a s c r e e n c o v e r i n g s e p a r a t e d e a l s t o t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of a g e n e r a l Middle E a s t peace settlement." American Ambassador t o t h e 0-N. Andrev Young c h a r g e d t h a t t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union and Cuba were " c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e e s a l a t i o n o f Oeath and d e s t r u c t i o n i n Africa." Young s a i d t h a t t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d a s s i s t i n the t a s k o f n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g instead, severed diplomatic r e l a t i o n s with Syria, I r a q , L i b y a , A l g e r i a , a n d S o u t h Yenen i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r t h e i r a t t e n t p t s t o d i s r u p t P r e s i d e n t Sadat's peace o v e r t u r e s t o I s r a e l , T h e S o v i e t U n i o n m ss u p p o r t o f t h e f i v e Arab h a r d l i n e s t a t e s prompted C a i r o t o o r d e r t h e c l o s i n g i n E g y p t o f ' t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t e r s and some c o n s u l a t e s sf: t h e S o v i e t Union a n d f o u r of its E a s t European allies C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , Hungary, E a s t Germany a n d Poland. - D I T Z--------------O I A L REFERENCE SOURCES -A Q-- A l b r i g h t , David E, The U,S .S.B, a n d Africa: S o v i e t p o l i c y , P r o b l e m s of Conmunism, v, 27, J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1978: 20-39. Bereznai, Aurel. Hungary's p r e s e n c e i n B l a c k Africa, R a d i o Free Europe r e s e a r c h , BAD b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t / 7 5 ( H u n g a r y ) , Apr, 2, 1979. B u l g a r i a n S e c t i o n of R a d i o F r e e E u r o p e , B u l g a r i a ' s p r e s e n c e i n B l a c k A f r i c a , R a d i o F r e e Europe r e s e a r c h , R A D b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t / 9 2 ( B u l g a r i a ) , Apr, 20, 1979. C l i f t o n , Tony. R u s s i a D s Vietnam. Newsveek, J u n e 11, 1979: 67-68 G a f t o n , P a u l , and t h e R m a n i a n s e c t i o n of RFB, R o a a n i a D s p r e s e n c e i n B l a c k Africa, Radio F r e e Europe r e s e a r c h , RAD background r e p o r t / l l 8 (Romania) , Bay 2 3 , 1979 , Eowe, Uarvine. S o u t h Yeaen b l e n d s Marxisa w i t h I s l a m and Arab N e w York times, Bay 25, 1979. nationalism. - H e t z l e r , John J - P e i p i n g i n A f r i c a : p r o s p e c t s a n d p o r t e n t s f o r Communist C h i n a g s r o l e i n t h e S u b s a h a r a n z o n e . Issues and s t u d i e s , A u g u s t 1 9 7 8 , S o v i e t diplomacy Novik, N i a r o d , On t h e s h o r e s of Bab Al-Handab: and r e g i o n a l d y n a m i c s , P h i l a d e l p h i a , Foreign P o l i c y Research I n s t i t u t e , Monograph n m b e r 2 6 , P i c k , O t t o - C z e c h o s l o v a k i a 8 s p r e s e n c e in Black A f r i c a - B a d i o F r e e Europe r e s e a r c h - RAD background r e p o r t 1 6 6 ( C z e c h o s l o w k i a ) B a r - 19, 1979, P r i c e , David Lynn, !!oscow and t h e P e r s i a n G u l f , C o a n u n i s n , March-April 1979, v , 2 8 : 1-33. P r o b l e m s of After t h e c o u p : e i g h t months 09 S o v i e t - A f g h a n Band, R o b e r t , freindship, Radio L i b e r t y r e s e a r c h , B L 78/79, Har 8, 1479, . R o b i n s o n , W i l l i a m F , E a s t e r n E u r o p e 8 s p r e s e n c e i n B l a c k Africa. R a d i o Free Europe r e s e a r c h , BAD b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t 1 4 2 ( E a s t e r n E u r o p e ) . J a n - 2 1 , 1979S c a r l i s , S t e l i o n o s, S o v i e t involvement i n Afghanistan L i b e r t y r e s e a r c h , RL 182/79, J u n e 13, 1979, . S i n e s , Richard Iloscow g a m b l e s on T i s a k i , May 37, 1979: 3-4, - Radio Soviet analyst. . S t e f a n o w s k i , Roman, P o l a n d ' s p r e s e n c e in B l a c k A f r i c a Radio F r e e Europe r e s e a r c h , RAD background r e p o r t / 5 0 (Poland), Har. 1, 1979. r3.S. C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency, N a t i o n a l F o r e i g n A s s e s s a e n t C e n t e r , Communist a i d t o l e s s d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s o f t h e free w o r l d , 1977. November 1978, U-S , L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s , Congressional Research Service, Africa: Soviet/Cuban role [ b y ) Raymond W , Copson, [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1979. (Updated r e g u l a r l y ) I s s u e B r i e f 78056 -----Mar, The - S o v i e t U n i m and t h e T h i r d World [ b y ] W i l l i a m B, I n g l e e , 20, 1978, [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1978 (Updated r e g u l a r l y ) I s s u e B r i e f 77101 Pang, Yu San- P e o p l e n s R e p u b l i c of C h i n a i n L a t i n America, A s i a n p r o f i l e - A u g u s t 1978, Yodf a t , Aryeh Y o The P e o p l e n s R e p u h l i c of C h i n a a n d t h e t l i d d l e East. P a r t s I , 11, a n d 111- B s i a q u a r t e r l y , no, 3, 1977; no. 1, 1978; no. 4 , 1 9 7 8 , ,