Seafarer: Extremely Low Frequency Naval Communications System

AUTHOR : Gannon, Edmund J . Foreign A f f a i r s ana N a t i o n a l Defense D i v i s i o n TKE LIBRARY OF COHGBESS COIGBESSIOdAL BESBARCH SERVICE BAJOB I S S U E S SYSTEM DATE O n I G I N A T E D g3/0 3LZb DATE UPDATED 0 6 / 2 0 / 2 8 FOR A D u I T l O I A L I N F O B B A T I O I CALL 426-5700 0115 CBS- 1 n a ~ l l s t l cmissile s u b m a r i n e s (SSBbls) a n d n u c l e a r a t t a c k s u b m a r i n e s (SSBs) c a n n o t p e r f o r m all of t h e l r m l s s l o n s e f f e c t i v e l y u n d e r c u r r e n t c o n n i u n ~ c a t i o n s E x i s t i n g c o r m u n i c a t l o n s s y s t e m s r e q u i r e t h e s e submarlnes t o hmitations a p p r o a c h t h e s u r i a c e a n d d e p l o y a submerged a n t e n n a i n o r d e r t o r e c e l v e T h i s r e d u c e s t h e i r o p e r a t i o n a l ef f~ c l e u c y m e s s a g e s fr o a l a n d - b a s e d s t a t x o n s submarines are and mcreases t h e i r d e t e c t a b ~ l i t y . Hodern n u c l e a r - p o w e r e d c a p a b l e o f o p e r a t i n g a t much g r e a t e r d e p t h s a n a f o r much l o n g e r p e r i o d s t h a n I n t h e past. D e s p l t e t h e s e c a p a b i h t i e s , t h e y a r e r e q u x r e d t o a p p r o a c h the s u r f a c e a t l e a s t e v e r y 12 h o u r s t o r e c e i v e m e s s a q e s a n d I n s t r u c t x o n s . . . SEAPABBB ( S u r s a c e BLP t r a n s n l t t i n g s y s t e m F o r A d d r e s s i n g Remotely d e p l o y e d R e c e i v e r s ) , a n e x t r e m e l y l o w f r e q u e n c y coma u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m d e s i g n e d f o r w o r l d w i d e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h submerged s u b m a r i n e s , h a s b e e n p r o p o s e d a s a s u p p l e m e n t t o c u r r e n t s y s t e m s , SEAPARER c a n p e n e t r a t e seawatez t o g r e a t d e p t h s , a l l o w i n g c o n n u n ~ c a t i o n sw i t h b a l l i s t i c missile s u b m a r i n e s While t h e y Critics o f SEAPABEB c l a l m r e m a i n a t o p t i m a l o p e r a t l n g d e p t h s and s p e e d s . t h a t t h e s y s t e m 1s t o o v u l n e r a b l e t o n u c l e a r a t t a c k , h a s t o o low a d a . t a t r a n s m i s s i o n r a t e , a n d is too l i m i t e d i n c a p a c i t y , a n d t h a t its i n s t a l l a t i o n might p r e s e n t r a d i a t i o n hazards t o o n s i t e r e s i d e n t s , For t h e s e and o t h e r r e a s o n s , s y s t e n d e v e l o p u e n t of SEAFARER h a s b e e n slow iind n o a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e s y s t e m h a s Degun . Land-based communications systems f o r sending messages t o and from s u b m a r i n e s d a t e b a c k many y e a r s , i n d e e d , t o b e f o r e World War 11, U n t i l w e l l a f t e r t h i s t i u e , it was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s u b m a r i n e t o *come s h a l l o w Y t o s e n d o r r e c e l v e m e s s a g e s , u h i c h considerably i n c r e a s e d i t s likelihood o f b e i n g detected. U.S. subnarlnes today receive communications froa a serxes of radio transmission s y s t e m s t h a t r a d i a t e s i g n a l s a t f r e q u e n c i e s v a r y i n g f r o a v e r y frequency (UHF), Reception of low f r e q u e n c y (VLP) t o u l t r a h i g h t r a n s m i s s i o n s anywhere i n t h i s r a n g e r e q a i r e s t h e s u b m a r i n e t o p l a c e a n a n t e n n a w i t n i n SO f e e t o f t h e s u r f a c e f o r VLP a n d on o r a b o v e t h e s u r f a c e f o r h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s - An ELP s y s t e m , . a s n o t e d , would l a r g e l y o b v i a t e t h i s t h r e a t of d e t e c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o a Mavy D e p a r t m e n t E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement (December 1977) : n T h e r e 1s a n a t i o n a l s e c u r l t y n e e d f o r a r e s p o n s i v e , r e l i a b l e , f l e x i b l e and s u r v l v a a l e command a n d c o n t r o l capability t o s e r v e t h e N a t i o n a l Command A u t h o r i t y a c r o s s t h e s p e c t r u m of military operations, WOur n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y is b a s e d upon t h e c r e d i b i l ~ t yof U.S. strategic n u c l e a r i o r c e s as s t a b i l i z i n g i n t e r e s t s I n m a i n t a i n i n g world peace The U S , Navy *s missile s u b m a r i n e f o r c e 1s r e c o g n i z e d a s t h e n o s t s u r v i v a b l e e l e m e n t of a l l s t r a t e g x forces , P r o g r a m s u h i c h i m p r o v e t h e o p e r a t i o u a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and s u r v i v a b i l i t y of t h e s e submarines a r e iaportant f o r national security. . . CBS- 2 UPDATE-06/20/78 IB780 15 "Current subnarine o p e r a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s permit o p e r a t i o n s a t a e p t h s of uany h u n d r e d s o f f e e t , b u t c u r r e n t c o n m u n i c a t l o n s s y s t e m s a r e n o t e t f e c t i v e beyond a n t e n n a d e p t h s o f 2 5 t o 3 0 f e e t el ow t h e o c e a n s u r f a c e due t o sea w a t e r a t t e n u a t i o n . T h i s c o n s t r a i n t f o r c e s s u b m a r i n e s o u t o f t h e i r most e f f e c t i v e (deep) operational e n v e l o p e i n t o t h e more s u s c e p t i b l e n e a r s u r f a c e , making t h e n v u l n e r a b l e t o d e t e c t i o n and endangering their survi~ability.~ . The first ELF s y s t e m p r o p o s e d f o r w o r l d w i d e c o a n u n i c a t i o n s was SANGUINE t h e SAHGUIXE a n t e n n a g r i d would h a v e c o v e r e d a n a r e a o i 3 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s , u s e d 100 t r a n s m i t t e r s , a n d h a v e had a power i n p u t of 15-30 m e g a u a t t s . A s f i n a l l y c o n f i g u r e d In Bavy p l a n n i n g , S e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s were r a i s e d a b o u t SANGOIB&*s survivability I n a n u c l e a r e n v i r o n m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y if t h e s y s t e m were t a r g e t e d d u r i n g a f i r s t s t r i k e o n t h e American retaliatory f o r c e s . Likewise, p o s s i b l e h a r m f u l biological e f f e c t s of r a d i a t i o n t o r e s i d e n t s of t h e s i t e were a n t i c i p a t e d by some c r i t i c s . Former D e f e n s e S e c r e t a r y L a i r d d i r e c t e d t h e Bavy t o l o o k f o r a s i t e i n Texas and an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e proposed s i t e i n wisconsin. % h i s change was r e j e c t e d s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r b e c a u s e o f s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n i n T e x a s , combined w l t h r h e relatively u n f a v o r a b l e g e o l o g i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e area . I n 1975, t h e Savy p r o p o s e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f SEAPABER, a more m o d e s t program t h a n SAIGUIIE a n d o n e n o t h a r d e n e d a g a i n s t n u c l e a r a t t a c k . After f o r m a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t a n a l y s i s of s i t e s i n Nevada, N e w Hexico, and S ~ A P B B B B was p r o p o s e d t o b e l o c a t e d o n t h e B i c h i g a n Upper Bichigan, Peninsula . A n u a b e r of l s s u e s h a v e b e e n r a i s e d r e g a r d m g SEAPABEB, The major ones are: ------------ V u l n e r a b i l i t y , Opponents of t h e s y s t e m ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a r g u e t h a t t h e t r a n s m i t t e r and t h e command a n d c o n t r o l s y s t e m c o u l d be t a r g e t e d v e r y e a s i l y land-based strategic ~ y t h e S o v i e t Union d u r l n g a f i r s t s t r i k e on t h e U . S . T h e y q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e l a t i o n a l Command A u t h o r i t i e s would D e a b l e forces. t o s e n d a message d i r e c t i n g b a l l i s t i c missile s u b m a r i n e commanders t o l a u n c h sustained a nuclear s t r i k e . S u p p o r t e r s of t h e t h e i r sissiles a i t e r t h e U.S. s y s t e n D s d e v e l o p m e n t a g r e e t h a t t h e SEAFARER c o n u u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m c a n be d e s t r o y e d by a n u c l e a r s t r i & e ; however, t h e y c o n t e n d t h a t p r i m a r y r e l i a n c e o n d e d i c a t e d , s u r v i v a b l e , a i r b o r n e s y s t e m s (e.g , Tacamo) c o a p e n s a t e f o r t h i s drawback. Eouever, t h e y p o i n t o u t t h a t SEAFARER would a f f o r d g r e a t e r s u r v i v a b i l i t y t o A a e r l c a n s u b m a r u e s ( b o t h b a l l i s t i c missile and a t t a c k ) d u r i n g a crisis o r l i m i t e d u a r s h o r t o f n u c l e a r strires on l a n d b a s e d T h i s would p r e c l u d e t h e n e c e s s i t y of r e m a i n i n g close t o strategic assets. t h e surface a t a l l t i m e s t o deploy an underuater antenna a requirement t h a t may s i r n p i i f y d e t e c t i o n by t h e enemy F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e requirement t o a p p r o a c h t h e s u r f a c e t o r e c e i v e message t r a f f i c r e d u c e s t h e e i f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e SSNs i n t h e p e r i o r m a n c e of o t h e r a s s i g n e d t a s k s . . . -- gffect&pvgess. ELF s y s t e a s c a n o n l y t r a n s m i t a t v e r y l o u r a t e s While t h e p r e c l s e r a t e o f t r a n s m i s s i o n i n t h e SEAPABER s y s t e m is classified, it i s known t h a t t o transmit, nGood a o r n i n g , Commander," uonld t a k e s e v e r a l complex minutes. P o r this r e a s o n SEAPABER o p p o n e n t s b e l l e v e t h a t a i n s t r u c t i o n rrosr t h e command and c o n t r o l c e n t e r would t a k e far t o o l o n g cas- 3 d u r i n g a crlsls o r r a p l d l y c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n . T h e Navy a r g u e s t h a t t h e slow t r a n s m i s s i o n r a t e would n o t u n d u l y undermine t h e s y s t e m perf oraance Bessages a r e s e n t i n t h r e e c h a r a c t e r codes ( e . g . , ABC, 123) whrch are s e l f - c o n t a ~ n e d m e s s a g e s or c a n r e f e r t h e u n i t coamander t o o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s stored I n t h e subnarlne. ( T h e r e are 46,656 p o s s i b l e c o m b m a t i o n s o f three a l p h a b e t combined w i t h 10 digits-) character cdes i n t h e 26-letter B o r e o v e r , u s l n g a b i n a r y c o d i n g s y s t e m would c o n s i d e r a b l y e x p a n d t h e t o t a l corn u n i c a t i o n v o c a b u l a r y . . -------------- ---- E n v i r o n m e n t a i Imeact. The i m p a c t of a n ELF s y s t e m on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t was a major a r e a o f d l s p u t e b e t w e e n o p p o n e n t s and s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e s y s t e m . O p p o n e n t s a r g u e t h a t v e r y l i t t l e is known ' a b o u t t h e l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s of ELF c o m m u n i c a t i o n s on t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y on e s s e n t i a l l y virgin land. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e opponents have argued t h a t ambient e l e c t r i c i t y from i n p r o p e r l y s h i e l d e d ELF t r a n s m i s s i o n c o u l d t r i g g e r t e l e p h o n e s t o r i n g . P x n a l l y , t h e y a r g u e t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o Z a SEAFARER a n t e n n a s y s t e m w i l l a t t r a c t enemy n u c l e a r w a r h e a d s i n t h e e v e n t of n u c l e a r war. T h e Navy d o e s n o t d e n y t h e l a s t p o i n t , b u t i t is c o n f i d e n t t h a t o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s c a n be satisfied, The December 1977 e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e m e n t c o n c l u d e s that,. . - t h e b i o l o y l c a l a n d e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h program h a s r e v e a l e d n o deleterious e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c e f f e c t s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o ELF e l e c t r o m a g n e t ~ cf l e l d s a t i n t e n s i t i e s p l a n n e a f o r a SEAPABEB s y s t e m .= R e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s ' s u p p o r t i n g t h e SEAFABER s y s t e m i n c l u d e n e t w o r k a n a l y s i s , c o v e r a g e p r e d i c t i o n , m o d u l a t i o n c o d i n g an& c o m p r e s k i o n , s u b m a r i n e a n t e n n a and a s p e c i a l operational e v a l u a t i o n s y s t e m s , i n t e g r a t e a r a d ~ o rooms, program . SEAFAREP would n o t s a t l s f y a l l s u b m a r i n e c o m m u n i c a t ~ o n s r e q u l r e a e n t s , but v o u l d b e a n e f f e c t i v e c o m p l e m e n t a r y s y s t e m t o o t h e r s y s t e m s s u c h as Tacamo, HP, and satellite a n a i r b o r n e VLP r e l a y s y s t e m , and a n e t w o r k o f VLF, LP, shore broadcast s t a t l o n s . GENERAL CEABACTEBISTICS A I D PkOPOSBD LOCATIONS A s o r i g r n a l l y c o n c e i v e d , SEAPABEB would h a v e o c c u p i e d a n a r e a of 4,700 s q u a r e mlles i n t h e B i c h i g a n Opper P e n i n s u l a . The s y s t e m would h a v e c o n s i s t e d of 2,400 u l l e s o f b u r i e d a n t e n n a s , f l v e t r a n s n l t t e r s t a t l o n s , and a transmitter control center. ELF c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a r e most e f f e c t ~ v e when t h e The a n t e n n a 1s e n b e a d e d I n a n a r e a u n d e r l a i n by r o c k of l o u c o n d u c t i v i t y . Laurentian Shleld, t h e pre-canbrian g r a n i t e b e d r o c k u n d e r l y i n g t h e Opper P e n i n s u l a , is of u n i q u e l y low c o n d u c t i v i t y . gest-esac&&ities. I n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e SEAFARER s y s t e m p r i o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of a n o p e r a t i o n a l s y s t e m , t h e l a v y h a s p r o p o s e d c o n s t r u c t i o n a test f a c i l l t y a t K.I. Sawyer A i r F o r c e B a s e , n e a r H a r q u e t t e , Michigan, t h e Upper P e n i n s u l a . to of on f h e t e s t f a c l l ~ t yp r o p o s e d f o r t h e d i c h i g a n SEAFABEP c o n s i s t s o f a c o n t r o l c e n t e r and a t r a n s m i t t e r s t a t l o n on K . I . Samyer A i r F o r c e Base, w i t h a n north-south a n t e n n a o f o n e 5 U - - 1 ~ i l eeast-west c a ~ i ea n d two (33- a n d 49-mile) underground c a b l e s . A 1 1 b u t a b o u t 10 railes o f t h e s e would b e l o c a t e d along e x l s t i n g rxghts-of-way. The t r a n s m i t t e r s t a t l o n would n o t be manned e x c e p t t o r s e c u r i t y personnel. I t would b e o p e r a t e d e l e c t r o n ~ c a l l y srom t h e CBS- 4 T r a n s m i t t e r C o n t r o l Center. Operating s i g n a l s vould be s e n t t o t h e ~ y c a b l e s b u r l e d w i t h t h e a n t e n n a s . The T r a n s a i t t e r C o n t r o l C e n t e r p r i n c i p a l w o r K p l a c e and o p e r a t l o n s c e n t e r f o r SEAPABEE. station is t h e T h e h l c h l g a n t e s t f a c l l l t y would b e u t i l l z e a t o c o n f i r m t h e o p e r a t i o n a l a n d e n v i r o n m e c t a l p r e a ~ c t i o n sd e v e l o p e d i n t h e e n v i r o n n e n t a l i m p a c t s t a d y and form t h e b a s s f o r a d e c i s l o n t o p r o c e e d w l t h a l a r g e r s i z e s y s t e m and production o i receiving e q u i p m e n t f o r a l l SSBs a n d SSBNs. T h l s analysis would b e documeutea I n a f o l l o v - u p f o r m a l s u p p l e m e n t t o t h e e n v ~ r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e l p e n t of Deceaber 1977. I n response t o extensive p u b l i c concern over t h e l a r g e - s u e SEAFAREP s y s t e a and t o c o n g r e s s i o n a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o f i n d l e s s e x p e n s i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e N i c h l g a n SEAFARER, t h e Pavy 1s c o n s i d e r i n g a n a l t e r n a t i v e s y s t e m . To t h i s e n d , t h e Pavy h a s examined t h e t e c h n ~ c a l f e a s i b i l i t y , environmental i m p a c t , and o p e r a t i o n a l u t i l i t y of a s y s t e m t h a t c o m b i n e s t h e o u t p u t of t h e K . 1 . Sawyer Akr F o r c e Base t e s t f a c l l i t y w i t h t h e o u t p u t o f t h e e x i s t i n g ELF t e s t f a c l l i t y a t C l a n Lake, N i s c o n s l n . T h l s Y l s c o n s r n T e s t Facility, In e x i s t e n c e s i n c e 1969, c o n s l s t s of a c o n t r o l c e n t e r , a t r a n s a i t t e r s t a t i o n , a n d t w o 14-mile cables a b o v e g r o u n d . T h e s e two i n d e p e n a e u t s y s t e m s , a b o u t 165 m i l e s a p a r t , would b e l i n k e d by l e a s e d t e l e p h o n e l l n e s o r a microwave r e l a y s t a t l o n , t o a s s u r e p r o p e r p h a s i n g The Havy c o n s l d e r s t h e l ~ n k i n gt o be a t e c h n i c a l Batter a n d of t h e sxgnals. The l a v y b e l i e v e s t h e o p e r a t ~ o n a lc a p a b i l i r y o f t h e n o t a s e r i o u s probleai. c o n b l n e d t e s t t a c i l ~ t l e s *s l g n a i s would b e o f sufficient m a g n i t u d e t o p r o v i d e a n o p e r a t i o n a l l y u s e f u l ELF c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a p a b i l i t y . Whlle t h e estimated o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e o t t h e alternative s y s t e n is l e s s t h a n t h e a ~ c h i g a n SEAPABBR8s, ~t would s t x i l c o v e r a r e a s t h a t t h e l a v y c o n s l d e r s v i t a l . The d a t a t r a n s m l s s l o n r a t e of t h e a l t e r n a t i v e v o u l d a l s o b e lower t h a n H x h i g a n SEAFARER, b u t t h e liavy c o n s i d e r s it a d e q u a t e . The Navy p l a n d o e s n o t c a l l f o r any expansion o f t h e W ~ s c o n s i nT e s t P a c l l i t y ( C l a m Lake) . COST The Pavy e s t i m a t e s t h e costs of t h e a l t e r n a t i v e program t o be 5250-300 m i l l i o n , compared t o a b o u t $590 m i l l i o n f o r t h e f l i c h l g a n SEAFAkEB s y s t e m . About $110 m i l l i o n o f t h e a i t e r n a t i v e program estimate would b e f o r t h e f u r t h e r research a n d a e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e d ( u h e r e v e r a n ELF s y s t e m is l o c a t e d ) , a b o u t $56 r l l l i o n f o r r e c e i v e r s , and t h e remainder f o r b u i l d l n g t h e systen. T o d a r e , total ELY f u n d i n g f o r t h e p a s t 18 y e a r s h a s been a b o u t $130 million. These f u n d s i n c l u d e moneys e x p e n d e d o n s u c h p r e d e c e s s o r p r o g r a m s a s S A I G U I B i 3 (SEUAREB8s iamediate p r e d e c e s s o r ) . PRESENT STATUS OF THE PROGRAH . T h e PY78 Uofense A u t h o r i z a t i o n A c t (P .L. 9S-79) a u t h o r i z e s $20 141 m i l l i o n m t o be a v a i l a ~ l eo n l y f o r research and d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n e x t r e m e l y l o u ,38 f r e q u e n c y (BLP) s y s t e m . .. ) cas- 5 L n l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n on t h e fX78 D e f e n s e A p p r o p r i a t i o n A c t (P.L, 4 5 - I l l ) , v o t e d n o f u n d s f o r SEAFABBB. The S e n a t e v o t e d t h e a n o u n t a u t h o r i z e d . The C o r n i n i t t e e of C o n f e r e n c e a g r e e d on a compromise $15 u i l l i o n . To some d e g r e e thls compromise was f o s t e r e d by a l e t t e r from P r e s l a e n t C a r t e r t o R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C e d e r b e r g ( J u l y 25, 1477) i n which t b e P r e s i d e n t p r o m i s e a t h a t n o n e of t h e . . t h e House . nSEAPABEB f u n d l n g now u n d e r consideration i n FY78 w i l l u s e d i o r work o n a s i t e i n M i c h i g a n . T h e s e f u n d s u i l l , i f a p p r o v e d , be u s e d f o r e q u i p m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t which is i n d e p e n d e n t 02 u l t i m a t e s i t e l o c a t i o n , a n d f o r c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Wisconsin T e s t F a c i l i t y a n d r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h efforts. P i n a l l y , I want you t o know t h a t i f we d o d e c i d e t o r e q u e s t funds f o r d e p l o y m e n t of a n y s o r t SEAPAnEB s y s t e m s m H l c h l g a n , 1 w i l l be r e v l e w l n g t h i s i s s u e p e r s o n a l l y , * De W l t h t h i s a s s u r a n c e , t h e Comlalttee o f Conference reconmended an a p p r o p r i a t i o n of $15 n i l l l o n , which sum u a s e v e n t u a l l y e n a c t e d . I n January recommended 1976, t h e D e r e n s e S y s t e m s Acquisition Review C o u n c i l (USABC) of the small (Clichigan-Wisconsin proceeding wlth development In c o m b l n a t l o n ) SEASABER, a n d f o r w a r d e d t h e r e c o n m e n d a t i o n t o t h e President. F e b r u a r y 1978, t h e P r e s i d e n t d e c i d e d t o (1) t e r v i n a t e SEAPABEB a s a s p e c l f i c (2) support the s m a l l program b u t r e t a l n a n E U communications o p t l o n , s y s t e m , and (3) make no f l n a l s x t e d e c i s i o n a t t h i s t i r e . The Navy h a s a s k e d f o r 540.5 m l l l i o n f o r ELF c o a n u n I c a t i o n s p r o g r a m s I n FY79. A l l b u t $6.4 million 1s n o n - s i t e r e l a t e d . The $6.4 i n c l u d e s h a l l t h e amount needed f o r s l t e preparation f o r commencement of c o n s t r u c t l o n i n PY80, Absent a P r e s l d e n t l a l d e c l s l o n t o proceed with szte development ot any ELP c o r ~ i n u n i c a t i o x i ss y s t e m , i t LS d i x f l c u l t t o see how t h e s e f u n d s ($6 - 4 m l l l i o n ) c o u l a b e effectively u s e d . I n A p r l l 1978, t h e House A r m e d S e r v i c e s Coamittee recommended $10 m i l l i o n f o r SEAYABEB , T h e c o a m l t t e e s p e c i f l c i a l l y i n c l u d e d l a n g u a g e I n t h e FY79 m i l i t a r y procur-ent b i l l l i m i t i n g t h e e x p e n d ~ t u r eo f i u n d s t o i m p r o v e m e n t o f The House h a s n o t y e t t a k e n t h e SEAFARER T e s t B e d P a c i l l t y a t C l a m Lake. a c t i o n on t h e b i l l , A c c o r a l n g l y , t h e program now s t a n d s a s f o l l o w s : (1) U l PI78 appropriations a r e f o r r e s e a r c h ana development, ( 2 ) A l l FY79 f u n d i n g recommended by t h e House Araed S e r v i c e s C o m m i t t e e 1s t o r r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t , (3) T h e P r e s ~ d e n t ~ da el c l s i o n t o t e r m l n a t e SEAFARER b u t r e t a l n a n o p t i o n t o d e v e l o p a n ELF c o m m u n i c a t ~ o n s c a p a b l l l t y h a s l e f t t h e s c o p e of t h e system l a r g e l y unresolved . ALTERNATIVE dEAaS OF SUBfiABINE COtIhU N X A T I O N S i t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a b l u e - g r e e n s p a c e b o r n l a s e r c o u l d be u s e d t o r e s o l v e t h e ELF c o m n u n i c a t l o n s problem. S u c h a l a s e r would b e incorporated i n a s a t e l l i t e p l a c e d i n o r b i t - When a c t i v a t e d , t h e l a s e r would p e n e t r a t e t h e o c e a n t o s u k f i c l e n t d e p t h s a n d t h e s p e c l f i c c o m m u n x a t i o n would b e s e n t down a n d t h e r e t o r e , if c o n s t r u c t e d , would o b v i a t e t h e n e c e s s r t y f o r a CBS- 6 IB780 15 UPDATE-06/20/78 SEAPABER-type s y s t e m . T h e r e a r e , however, c e r t a l n d r a w b a c k s t o t h i s l a s e r system. Changes in t h e s a l i n l t y a n d d e n s i t y o t t h e water c a n c h a n g e t h e l a s e r m s p e n e t r a b i l i t y . S i n c e t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e communications s y s t e m c a n n o t be c h a n g e d o n c e it h a s b e e n p l a c e d i n o r b i t , t h e r e would b e a n a n b e r of conditions u n d e r which t h e s y s t e m c o u l d n o t b e used. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e l a s e r m s b e a n m i g h t be s u b j e c t t o n t h e r m a l Thermal b l o o m i n g o c c u r s when t h e l a s e r beam h e a t s t h e m o l e c u l e s i n t h e a i r , thus c h a n g i n g t h e d e n s i t y of t h e a i r . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , i t c o u l d n o t transmit conmunlcations~ SEAPABER PUNDING ( B i l l i o n s of D o l l a r s ) ADMIIISTR ATION BEQUEST HOUSB ACTION SENATE ACTION PlblAL ABOOIT AYPBOVED FY76 AYD TRABSITIOH P B I O D : Bythor&zriog H.aept. 94-199 (Hay 10, 1975) S - R e p t . 94-146 (Hay 19, 1975) H .Sept. 94-4t38 ( S e p t . 18, 1975) -Conference 94-334 ( J u l y 25, 197s) --Conference S .Rept 89 S t a t . 531 (Oct. 7 , 1975) P.L. 94-106; . Report Report -A E E E S E ~ A ~t & ~ n B .Bept. 3 4 4 17 ( S e p t . 25, 1975) 94-446 (Now, 6, 1975) S.Bept H .Re@ 9 4-7 10 ( D e c 10, 1975) --Conference P .L. 94-212; 90 S t a t . 153 (Feb. 9 , 1976) .. . Report PY77 : &gthorxcazainn H-Rept. 94-967 S . a e p t . 94-878 S -Sept 94-1004 P.L. 94-361; 90 . -A E Ii.Bept. E E ~ E Elon ~~S 34-1231 (flar. ~ 6 1976) , (Hay 14, 1976) ( J u n e 28, 1976) -Conference S t a t . 9 2 3 ( J u l y 14, 1976) Report ( J u n e 8, 1976) S - B e p t . 94-1046 ( J u l y 22, 1976) H .Rept 94-1475 ( S e p t 3 , 197 6) -Conference Bepoxt P.L. 94-419; YO S t a t . 1279 (Sept. 22, 1976) . . FY78: Bgrhog&ggg&tg E .Repto 95-194 (Apr. 7 , 1977) 95-129 (Hay 10, 1977) S .Bept H .Bept. 95-446 ( J u n e 20, 1977) --Conference Seport P ,Lo 95-79; 9 1 S t a t . 3 2 3 ( J u l y 30, 1977) A~pxxiat~og H .dept 9 5 - 4 5 1 ( J u n e 21, 1977) S .Bept. 95-325 ( J u l y 1, 1977) H .Rept 95-565 ( B u g . 4, 1977) --Conference R e p o r t P.L. 95-111; 91 S t a t . 886 ( S e p t . 21, 1977) . - HEARINGS -------- . . . if . S . Consress Senate. Committee o n Arred S e r v i c e s . P l s c a l year 1978 m i l i t a r y p r o c u r e m e n t a u t h o r i z a t i o n . B e a r i n g s , 93th Congress, 1st s e s s i o n . P a r t 10. C Washington, 0 .S. Govt. P r l n t . Off . I 1977. p, 6677-6756. U .S. Congress. House. C o n f e r e n c e Committee, 1977. Department o f Defense a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r f i s c a l y e a r 1978; conference report t o accompany H.B. 7933. Aug. 4, 1977. [ W a s h i n g t o n , B.S, Govt. P r i n t . Off 3 1977. ( 9 5 t h C o n g r e s s , 1st s e s s i o n . House. . CBS- 8 T h e House A r m e d S e r v i c e s C o m m i t t e e recommended a n authorization o f 910 m i l l i o n f o r SEAFARER. S p e c i i i c language u i l n c l u d e d u u c h l l n i t s expenditures t o t h e improvement o f t h e SEAFAREB T e s t Bea l a c i l i t y a t Clam Lake. P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r d e c i d e d t o t e r m i n a t e SEAPABBB w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e o p t i o n and r e c o g n i z i n g t h e n e e d f o r a s a a l l ELF c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s y s t e m . H e made n o r l n a l site selection. T h e D e f e n s e S y s t e u s A c q u i s i t i o n Beview C o u n c i l (DSABC) recoinmended a p p r o v a l o f t h e s m a l l s i t e ( B i c h i g a n - U i s c o n s i n combination) and f o r v a r d e d t h e recommendation t o t h e P r e s i d e n t . F i n a l Bnvironmental Impact S t a t e m e n t on Project SEAPARBB s a s f i l e d by Navy D e p a r t m e n t , Based on P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r ' s a s s u r a n c e t h a t n o FY78 SEAPAABB uoney w i i l b e u s e d f o r s l t e p r e p a r a t ~ o ni n h i c h l g a n , C o m m i t t e e of C o n f e r e n c e on t h e FY78 D e f e n s e A p p r o p r i a t i o n s B ~ 1 1recommended $15 m i l l i o n i o r SEAPABiU W T C E , ( T h l s amount was approved.) I n a letter t o Representative Cederberg, P r e s i d e n t C a r t e r p r o m i s e d t o u t i l i z e a l i PY78 SEAPARER f u n d l n g a t t h e C l a m Lake, W i s c o n s i n , t e s t f a c i l l t y and s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o m i s e d t o s p e n d none of t h e money f o r a n y SEAPAdEB construction i n Michigan. Coamittee of C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e PY78 f l l l ~ t a r yP r o c u r e m e n t B l l l r e s t o r e d SEAPA6LEB funding. Eiouever t h e c o m n l t t e e recommended t h a t a l l f u n d s be u s e d s t r i c t l y f o r BDTGE effort . (Becommendation s u s t a i n e d i n l e g i s l a t i o n .) House Araed S e r v i c e s committee recommended d e l e t i o n or all SEAFARER f u n d s f o r F Y 78. Becommenaed l n p r o v e m e n t C l a m Lake f a c i l i t y , f e a s i b i l i t y of s p a c e - b o r n e l a s e r a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e submarine cornmunications s y s t e m , and a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e A i r F o r c e Advanced S p a c e Communications System. B a s i s o f committee recommendation: S o v i e t ASH t h r e a t is n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t t o j n s t l f y f undiny o f E L F s y s t e m a t t h l s t i m e . Governor B i l l i k e n o f M i c h i g a n e x e r c i s e d a v e t o o v e r t h e establishment of a SEAFABEB a n t e n n a i n t h e N i c h i g a n Upper P e n m s u l a . Navy D e p a r t m e n t c l a i n e d t h a t t h e R i c h i g a n G o v e r n o r had no r i g h t of v e t o o v e r a n i t e m of n a t l o n a l s e c u r l t y . Navy D r a f t E n v i r o n u e n t a l I m p a c t S t a t e m e n t on P r o j e c t SEAPA&8B was Z i l e d . Examined i m p a c t i n t h r e e a r e a s : CBS- 9 IB780 15 02DATB-Ob/20/78 Yevaaa, l e u n e x i c o , and t h e B l c h i g a n Upper Y e n i n s u i a , 12/00/76 - National 09/03/76 - Committee Acaaevy o f S c i e n c e s B N a t i o n a l B e s e a r c h C o u n c i l a e c l a r e d SBAPAiiER program s a f e . Councll r e p o r t states t h a t t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s g r i d would r a d i a t e - 0 7 v o l t s / m e t e r u n ~ c hIS %mailer t h a u t h o s e known t o p r o d u c e c l a s s i c b l o l o g i c effects s u c h a s electric s h o c k and n e r v e s t m u l a t i o n .* o f C o n f e r e n c e o n t h e PX77 D e f e n s e A p p r o p r i a t i o n s B i l l a g r e e d t o a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t SEAFARER b e f u n d e d a t t h e same basic l e v e l a s ' p y 7 6 . Specrflcally, a i l f u l l - s c a l e development f u n d s are e x c l u d e d . 06/28/36 - Comnlttee 05/14/76 -- 02/16/76 - Deputy of Conference a g r e e d t o r e s t o r a t i o n of e n g i n e e r i u g d e v e l o p m e n t f u n d s c o n t i n g e n t upon ( I ) e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e n e nt i n d i c a t i n g no u n a c c e p t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l or b i o l o g i c a l h a z a r d s , (2) s e l e c t i o n o f a c a n d i d a t e s i t e , a n d (3) f i r m s c h e c t u l e t o Degln c o n s t r u c r i o n , S e n a t e Armed S e r v i c e s C o m m i t t e e reconmended a p p r o v a l of A d a i n x s t r a t i o n r e q u e s t f o r RDTGE f u n d i n g f o r PY77; recommended d e t e r r a l o f f u l l - s c a l e e n g l n e e r l n g d e v e l o p m e n t u n t i l PY78. S e c r e t a r y of Defense Clements, i n a l e t t e r t o h i c h i g a n G o v e r n o r H i l l i k e n , s t a t e d t h a t Y would n o t recommend a d i c h l g a n s i t e t o C o n g r e s s i f you o b j e c t , , , . 05/19/75 - Senate 05/00/75 - Proposed 00/00/68 00/00/66 lli Araed S e r v i c e s Committee recommended a p p r o v a l of A d v i n i s t r a t i o n r e q u e s t f o r SEAPABEB RDTIE f u n d s ; recommended d e l e t l o n o f f u l l s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t f u n d s (Couaittee d u r i n g PY 76 a n d t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d . recommendations s u s t a i n e d r n l e g i s l a t i o n . ) BLP s y s t e m name c h a n g e d f r o m SAPGUINE t o SEAPABE%. SEAPAkEB 1s l e s s c a p a b l e t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l SAPGUIIE b e c a u s e it is n o t t o b e h a r d e n e d a g a i n s t n u c l e a r a t t a c k , Bowever, a SEAFABE& s y s t e m v o u i d b e s u b s t a n t ~ a l l y c h e a p e r t h a n a SAIGOIIB s y s t e m , - ELF t e s t r a c i l i t y c o n s t r u c t e d a t Clam - E x p l o r a t o r y ELP c o n t r a c t uas a w a r d e d , LaKe, i i i s c o n s m . B o f f e y , P h i i i p ii, P r o j e c t SEAFARER: c r i t i c s a t t a c ~l a t l o n a l p , 3213-1215, Acadernyts r e v l e u g r o u p . S c i e n c e , J u n e 1 8 , 1976, SEAFARER : p r o j e c t s t i l l h o m e l e s s a s H i l l i k e n C a r t e r , L u t h e r J. s a y s n o t o Navy. S c i e n c e , S e p t . 2, 1977. p . 964-968, Hichigangs uar a g a i n s t t h e Magneg, J o h n - P r o j e c t SBAPABBB: Progressive, J u l y 1977. p. 22-24. Navy. A Navy p r o j e c t g o e s aground i n Michigan. 1 9 7 7 . p. 2 8 , B u s i n e s s Week, Apr. 11, U.S, G e n e r a l Accounting O f f i c e . L e t t e r report of Oct, 7 , 1977, c o n c e r n i n g Project SEAFAB3R, Washington, October 1977, 5 2. D -5, Navy. SEAFABEB ELF C o l ~ m u n i c a t i o n s S y s t e m s P i n a l Environaen.ta1 l a p a c t S t a t e m e n t for Site S e l e c t i o n and Test O p e r a t i o n . U a s h l n g t o n , December 1 9 7 7 . 6 v .