Control of Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs

Suppression of illicit traffic is only one aspect of the general Federal Government effort to prevent the abuse of narcotics and other dangerous drug;, but in political significance it is undoubtedly paramount. Various approaches to the problem have been suggested and tried since the first explicitly anti-opium law was enacted in 1887.

CONTROL OF ILLICIT T R A F F I C IN D A N G E R O U S D R U G S (ARCHIVED--01/20/84) ISSUE BRIEF NUMBER IB76061 UPDATED 01/20/84 AUTHOR: Harry Hogan Governmect Division THE L I B R A R Y ' OF CONGRESS CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH S E R V I C E MAJOR I S S U E S SYSTEM D A T E ORIGINATED 09/01/76 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION C A L L 287-5700 0206 CRS- 1 ISSUE DEFINITION Suppression of illicit traffic i s only o n e a s p e c t of t h e g e n e r a l F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t effort to prevent t h e a b u s e of narcotics a n d other d a n g e r o u s drug;, but in political significance it i s undoubtedly paramount. Various a p p r o a c h e s to t h e problem have been suggested and tried s i n c e the f i r s t explicitly anti-opium l a w was enacted i n 1887. Major c u r r e n t proposals a n d a r e a s of investigation concern a p p r o p r i a t e penalties for trafficking o f f e n s e s , t h e r e l e a s e of accused and c o n v i c t e a traffickers o n bail a n d through other r e l e a s e procedures, general sentencing r e f o r m , exclusionary r u l e r e f o r m , t h e organization and policies of t h e Federal e n f o r c e m e n t e f f o r t , the financial a c t i v i t i e s of drug t r a f f i c k e r s , forfeiture of trafficker a s s e t s , marihuana e r a d ~ c a t l o n programs -- both foreign and d o m e s t i c , and ways of securing maximum c o o p e r a t ~ o n ln traffic control m e a s u r e s from t h e Countries figuring i n either t h e production of dangerous d r u g s or their transport into t h e United States. BACKGROUND AND POLICY ANALYSIS During the more than 1 0 0 y e a r s of Government attempts to c o n t r o l d a n g e r o u s drug use i n the United States, a number of legislative, a p p r o a c h e s have been tried. Until a d e c a d e or so a g o , Federal i n t e r e s t was for t h e most part i n i n current t e r m i n o l o g y , "supply r e d u c t i o n " , a s opp.osed t h e regulatory a r e a The Federal regulatory l a w s have been based both o n to "demand reduction." the t a x power and o n the power to regulate i n t e r s t a t e and f o r e i g n commerce. In a landmark enactment of 1 9 7 0 , these l a w s w e r e consolidat.ed a n d extensively revised. Also i m p o r t a n t to the general effort t o control a b u s e h a s been the rapid e x p a n s i o n , during the past 1 5 y e a r s , o f efforts to r e d u c e the d e m a n d for d r u g s through provision of assistance for t r e a t m e n t , r e s e a r c h , t r a i n i n g , and education. - As f o r reducing t h e supply of d r u g s , i n particular t h e narcotic d r u g h e r o i n , several i s s u e s have Continually a t t r a c t e d interest i n Congress i n (1) a p p r o p r i a t e a n d e f f e c t i v e r e c e n t years. Among t h e more r-ecurrent are: o f preventive detention o f penalties for t r a f f i c k i n g , (2) t h e possibility a c c u s e d traffickers awaiting trial o r s e n t e n c e o r pending a p p e a l of s e n t e n c e , 13) organization of t h e executive branch e f f o r t to enforce t h e regulatory (4) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s t a t u t e s , and t h e specific enforcement p o l i c i e s pursued, of t h e most e f f e c t i v e measures f o r curbing i l l i c i t international traffic a n d (5) ways t o induce cooperation t o w a r d s those e n d s by other c o u n t r i e s , and methods of penalizing traffickers "through t h e p o c k e t b ~ o k , ~ 'including t h e strengthening of criminal f o r f e i t u r e provisions in both t h e Controlled S u b s t a n c e s Act a n d t h e Racketeer Influenced a n d Corrupt O r g a n i z a t i o n s Act. Although basic F e d e r a l authority over t h e d r u g industry d e r i v e s from t h e F o o d , Drug and C o s m e t i c Act of 1 9 3 8 , of which t h e earliest provisions w e r e enacted i n 1 9 0 6 , t h e most important narcotic controls h a v e been a c h i e v e d through separate a n d m o r e r e s t r i c t i v e statutes. T h e Harrison Act of 1 9 1 4 , supplemented through t h e years by a number of other s t a t u t e s , was t h e principal Federal narcotics law u n t i l the 1 9 7 0 revision. T h e Harrison A c t was designed to c u r b access to narcotics t h r o u g h the i m p o s i t i o n of a t a x a l o n g with strict procedures f o r i t s payment. Similar c o n t r o l s were a p p l i e d to marihuana in 1937. CRS- 2 IB76061 UPDATE-01/20/84 I n t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g World War 1 1 , r e p o r t s of a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n heroin u s e were r e s p o n s i b l e for enactment of several m e a s u r e s intended t o strengthen anti-narcotics laws. T h e s e l a w s w e r e generally characterized by higher penalties, including o n e providing f o r the possibility of t h e d e a t h s e n t e n c e for a n a d u l t convicted o f selling o r giving heroin to a minor. In 1 9 6 5 , t h e D r u g Abuse Control Amendments (to t h e F o o d , D r u g and Cosmetic Act) brought amphetmines, barbiturates and similar drugs under. special, m o r e r e s t r i c t i v e control. D u r i n g the 1 9 6 0 s a n d early 1 9 7 0 ~the ~ emp.hasis on s u p p l y reduction and heavy penalties w a s challenged i n Congress with g r o w i n g f r e q u e n c y , a n d concern with reduction of l e g i s l a t i o n in that period reflected a greater d e m a n d , through t h e provision of treatment a n d rehabilitation services to drug users. The Community Mental Health Centers Act o f 1 9 6 3 ultimately became the vehicle through which Congress established a specialized F e d e r a l g r a n t program for treatment of drug d e p e n d e n c e , and t h e Narcotic Addict of Rehabilitation Act of 1966 authorized civil - c o m m i t m e n t (for treatment) justice a d d i c t s charged with Federal o f f e n s e s , a n e w concept in t h e Federal system with respect t o disposition of the criminal addict. - B u d g e t totals p r o v i d e a good measure of t h e broadening, during the past d e c a d e , o f the F e d e r a l commitment to prevention of drug abuse: spending for a l l a c t i v i t i e s related to this purpose rose from $ 7 4 million in F Y 6 9 t o approximately $1.3 billion in FY83. Drug a b u s e "law enforcement" s p e n d i n g w e n t from $ 3 7 million to $1.07 billion during the s a m e period. In 1 9 7 0 the e n t i r e complex of Federal narcotic a n d dangerous d r u g regulatory law was consoliaated and rewritten a s the Controlled S u b s t a n c e s Act (CSA). In part t h e result of a 1 9 6 8 Government reorganization that merged several existing drug c o n t r o l bureaus i n t o a n e w a g e n c y , the n e w a c t n o t o n l y instituted tighter controls over t h e pharmaceutical i n d u s t r y , but a l s o revised the e x i s t i n g penalties f o r n a r c o t i c and dangerous drug law offenses. T h e penalty r e v i s i o n s i n the CSA included reduction of a l l first-time s i m p l e possession o f f e n s e s to t h e misdemeanor level; elimination of a l l mandatory penalties except i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g a s p e c i a l category of professional Criminal; and t h e provision f o r possibility of p r o b a t i o n , suspended sentence, and parole f o r a n y offender except o n e sentenced under a s p e c i a l provision pertaining to professional criminals. Within only a f e w y e a r s o f enactment of t h e 1 9 7 0 l a w , t h e r e were c a l l s i n C o n g r e s s and elsewhere for reinstatement of mandatory p e n a l t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e narcotic trafficking o f f e n s e s , and i n 1 9 7 3 the Nixon a d m i n i s t r a t i o n A companion measure provided for the s u b m i t t e d a proposal t o this effect. preand post-trial detention of persons charged w i t h specified d r u g t r a f f i c k i n g offenses. T h e Ford administration s e n t u p a bill with similar provisions. P r o p o s a l s for reinstatement of mandatory penalties r a i s e the f o l l o w i n g (1) W h a t a r e the proper and just penalties for the offense in questions: (2) Even i f the o f f e n s e i s seen a s justifying a r e p r e s s i v e question? ( 3 ) Are p e n a l t y , would t h e penalty a c t u a l l y s e r v e t h e interests o f society? R e g a r d l e s s of d e t e r r e n c e heavy penalties a n effective c r i m e deterrent? ( 4 ) v a l u e , a r e heavy penalties justified o n t h e ground that they remove a d a n g e r . (5) I s i t the _ s t r i c t to t h e community f o r a substantial period of time? s t a t u t o r y penalty o r t h e certainty of punishment that a c t s a s a crime (6) As l o n g a s a r r e s t and conviction r a t e s remain l o w , d o deterrent? CRS- 3 IB76061 UPDATE-01/20/84 'statutory penalties have much impact? (7) I s i t wise to l i m i t judicial for t h e discretion i n t h e sentencing process? (8).Is there a solid basis assumption t h a t without mandatory penalties judges will f a i l to i m p o s e appropriate sentences? Proposals f o r preventive detention of certain high risk o f f e n d e r s have i n t h e past f a c e d strong opposition on constitutional grounds. However, the D r u g Enforcement Administration contends t h a t dangerous drug offenders a r e unusually p r o n e to return to illicit a c t i v i t y while a w a i t i n g trial o r sentence and k h a t current bail release procedures a r e badly hindering the Government's narcotics c o n t r o l effort. O n e answer to this c o m p l a i n t has been that if the criminal justice process could b e expedited, t h e r e l e a s e periods f o r such o f f e n d e r s would n o t be so l e n g t h y ; i t was hoped by s o m e that p a s s a g e of the "Speedy T r i a l Act o f 1 9 7 4 " (P.L. 93-619) would solve t h e problem. A p r o v ~ n g to be. Another is central question i s how effective that l a w 2 s whether t h e r e i s not some alternative to d e t e n t i o n , such a s a pre-trial version of probation. The third major theme of t h e debate over how L O stem drug a b u s e c o n c e r n s t h e actual structure of t h e J'ederal effort. T h e so-called " l a w e n f o r c e m e n t w in r e c e n t side of that effort has undergone a number of reorganizations y e a r s , but q u e s t i o n s c o n t i n u e to be raised. T h e s e include: (1) D o the D r u g Enforcement Administration (DEA) and t h e 2ustoms Bureau still have jurisdictional difficulties despite Reorganization P l a n No. 2 of 1 9 7 3 , which (2) Is tl~ere suff.icient coordination of was supposed t o solve t h i s problem? Federal l a w enforcement efforts in general? (3) Is there sufficient (4) Should a l l F e d e r a l a c t i v i t i e s commitment a t t h e White H o u s e level? concerned with drug a b u s e p r o b l e m s be centered in o n e a g e n c y , a s recommended i n 1973 by t h e National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse? Alternatively, should a special "drug czar" office be established to formulate policy and t o coordinate a c t i v i t i e s of a l l operating drug (5) What i s t h e appropriate and most d e s i r a b l e enforcement agencies? relationship o f D E A to l o c a l l a w e n f o r c e m e n t . a g e n c i e s ? A continuing concern of both congress and the executive branch i s how b e s t to secure t h e cooperation of other countries in the drbg c o n t r o l effort. In addition t o diplomatic maneuver-s and t h e OperatLon of 3EA a g e n t s o v e r s e a s , t h e United S t a t e s presently provides d i r e c t monetary a s s i s t a n c e to a n u m b e r of countries f o r narcotics control purposes. T h i s ' " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Narcotics Control Program" was established by a 1 9 7 1 a m e n d m e n t to the F o r e i g n Assistance A c t ; i n r e c e n t y e a r s the program's r e a u t h o r i z a t i o n h a s been One of the most i m p o r t a n t of t h e limited to a period of o n e y e a r a t a time. efforts initiated has been t h e poppy eradication operation in Mexico, involving massive spraying of herbicides during the growing seasons. U.S. officials h a v e f o r the most part been highly enthusiastic a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m , generally crediting it with a substantial d e c l i n e i n t h e a m o u n t of Mexican of several heroin coming i n t o the United States. H o w e v e r , after a period y e a r s grace, t h e vacuum t h u s created h a s been filled by imports from Southwest Asia. recipients of a s s i s t a n c e provided Many drug s o u r c e countries have been through t h e International Narcotics C o n t r o l program, w h i c h has been (1) associated with a number of Controversial issues. T h e s e h a v e included personnel in the level 0.f influence of D r u g E n f o r c e m e n t Administration (2) d i r e c t participation of U.S. law shaping t h e efforts a s s i s t e d ; enforcement o f f i c i a l s i n f o r e i g n drug l a w enforcement a c t i v i t i e s ; ( 3 ) u s e of U.S.-supplied equipment a n d of U.S.-trained personnel f o r purposes othcr than d r u g traffic control, particularly i n s u p p o r t of non-democratic governments, ' CRS- 4 IB76061 UPDATE-01/2C/84 and (4) u s e of a l l e g e d l y . harmful herbicides i n eradication programs. A related i s s u e i s t h e general question of t h e diplomatic "linkage" of U.S. concerns over t h e drug problem t o a l l f o r m s of U.S. a s s i s t a n c e t o , o r o t h e r accommodation o f , drug source countries. A major review of Federal drug traffic c o n t r o l e f f o r t s , completed by General Accounting Office' in 1 9 7 9 , acknowledged " p o s i t i v e results" characterized the g a i n s a s "fragile" and "requiring constant vigilance" these reasons: --- -- the but for source countries m o v e quickly to f i l l temporary drug shortages, trafficking patterns s h i f t , and the types of drugs cons,umed readiiy change. Cited a s inescapable f a c t o r s were t h e enormous profits of drug t r a f f i c k i n g , the e a s e of smuggling drugs i n t o the United States and of subsequent distribution, and t h e s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , and political realities of m o s t drug-producing countries. - T h e report called for a "much tougher a n d consistent stance" and the implementation of specific m e a s u r e s , including (1) changes in Federal bail and sentencing practices, (2) S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t preparation of "realistic" Country Narcotics Action P l a n s , (3) resolution o f border management " p r o b l e m s " , a n d (4) clarification of t h e r o l e s of v a r i o u s government levels of drug law e n f o r c e m e n t , with increased reliance on S t a t e and l o c a l levels. A m o r e recent study by the same a g e n c y , released i n J u n e 1 9 8 3 , remains c r i t i c a l , citing i n particular t h e a b s e n c e of c o o r d i n a t e d , lack of general cooperation among Government-wide policies - a n d a operating-level a g e n c i e s involved i n drug l a w enforcement. D u r i n g t h e past several years Congress has been w o r k i n g on v a r i o u s proposals for the revision and reform of the F e d e r a l C r i m i n a l Code. Several versions have been proposed, in s o m e cases involving such substantive c h a n g e s for c e r t a i n trafficking in Crug l a w a s (1) a return to mandatory penalties o f f e n s e s and (2) t h e effective decriminalization of possession offenses involving small a m o u n t s of marihuana. G r o w i n g o u t o f the y e a r s of work o n c r i m i n a l c o d e reform i s o n e of t h e l e g i s l a t i v e f o c a l points of the 9 8 t h Congress: a n o m n i b u s c r i m e control b i l l reported by the S e n a t e Judiciary Committee on Aug. 8 , 1 9 8 3 (S. 1762). Much of t h e bill i s substantially similar t o a m e a s u r e that passed t h e S e n a t e i n the 9 7 t h Congress (S. 2572). LEGISLATION H.R. 1 5 8 0 (Mineta et al.)/ S. 1 1 4 6 (Bentsen, D e C o n c i n i , and Domenici) (Related bill: H.R. 53) Amends the Federal Aviation Act of 1 9 5 8 t o provide f o r (1) t h e revocation of a i r m a n certificates o f persons convicted o f a violation o f a S t a t e o r Federal l a w relating to controlled substances a n d (2) a d d i t i o n a l p e n a l t i e s for t h e transportation by a i r c r a f t of controlled substances. H.R. 1580 introduced Feb. 2 2 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Public W o r k s and Transportation. S. 1 1 4 6 introduced Apr. 2 6 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Commerce, Science, and Transportation. Reported Sept. 1 5 (S.Rept. 98-228). Passed Senate, amended, Sept. 27. Referred to House C o m m i t t e e on P u b l i c Works a n d T r a n s p o r i a t i o n , Sept. 2 8 , 1983. . CRS- 5 H.R. 2013 (Conyers) (Related bills: S. 829/H.R. 2 1 5 1 , S. 8 3 0 , S. 1762) Criminal C o d e Revision Act of 1983. Revises title 1 8 of t h e U.S. Code. T r a n s f e r s c r i m i n a l penalty provisions of t h e Controlled S u b s t a n c e s Act t o t h e revised title a n d makes some substantive changes. Introduced Mar. 9 , 1983; referred to Judiciary. H.R. 2282 (McKinney et al.) Amends t h e Controlled S u b s t a n c e s Act t o provide f o r t h e therapeutic use of marihuana a n d f o r other purposes. Introduced Mar. 2 3 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Energy and Commerce. H.R. 3 2 9 9 ( H u g h e s , F i s h , S a w y e r , and Sensenbrenner) (Related bills: T i t l e IV of S. 8 2 9 / ~ . R . 2 1 5 1 , Title I1 o f S. 830, S. 948, T i t l e 111 of S. 1762) Amends the Controlled S u b s t a n c e s Act, t h e Controlled Substances Import a n d Export A c t , and the Tariff Act of 1 9 3 0 t o improve f o r f e i t u r e provisions a n d to strengthen penalties (fines) for controlled s u b s t a n c e o f f e n s e s , and for other purposes. 1ntrodu;ed June 1 4 , 1 9 8 3 ; r e f e r r e d jointly to t h e Committees on t h e Judiciary, Energy and C o m m e r c e , and W a y s and Means. H.R. H.R. 4 0 2 8 (Hughes, S a w y e r , Smith of Fla., and Gilman) 3 3 2 6 , S. 17871 e elated bills: R e e s t a b l i s h e s a n Office of D r u g Abuse P o l i c y (ODAP) in t h e Executive O f f i c e of the President. Amends the D r u g A b u s e P r e v e n t i o n , T r e a t m e n t , and Rehabilitation Act to revise t h e authority (still contained in t h e statute) of O D A P , to p r o v i d e for a D e p u t y Director f o r Drug A b u s e P r e v e n t i o n a n d a Deputy Director f o r Drug Enforcement. S e t s forth a u t h o r i t i e s for t h e d i r e c t o r , which i n c l u d e the establishment of policy and priorities f o r a l l Federal drug a b u s e functions a n d the coordination a n d o v e r s i g h t of such f u n c t i o n s . , Among specific powers provided i s review o f a l l a n n u a l budgets of departments a n d agencies engaged i n drug a b u s e functions. Requires a written r e p o r t to C o n g r e s s annually o n t h e a c t i v i t i e s conducted under t h e statute. H.R. 3 6 6 4 introduced July 2 6 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred jointly t o t h e C o m m i t t e e s o n t h e in lieu of Judiciary and o n Energy and commerce. H.R. 4 0 2 8 , a c l e a n bill H.R. 3664, introduced Sept. 2 9 ; referred jointly to t h e Committees o n t h e Judiciary a n d o n Energy and Commerce. O r d e r e d to be reported (amended) by Judiciary Oct. 4 , 1983. H.R. 4 2 0 1 (Rowland et al.) (Related bill: H.R. 1055) Transfers methaqualone from Schedule I1 t o Schedule I under t h e Controlled S u b s t a n c e s Act. Introduced Oct. 2 4 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Energy a n d Commerce. P a s s e d H o u s e Nov. 1 6 , 1983. Reported Nov. 10 ( H - R e p t . 98-534). H.Res. 49 (Rangel and Gilman) P r o v i d e s f o r t h e continuance of the S e l e c t Committee o n Narcotics ASuse 7 and Control. Introduced Jan. 3 1 , 1983; r e f e r r e d to Rules. Reported March ( H - R e p t . 98-4) Passed March 8 , 1983. . S. 1 1 7 (Chiles and Nunn) C r i m e Control Act of 1983. T i t l e I-Organized Crime Enforcement. Among other things, (1) grants CRS- 6 IB76061 UPDATE-01/20/84 l i m i t e d F e d e r a l jurisdiction over cases involving c o n t r a c t k i l l i n g s o r murder f o r hire; (2) a m e n d s t h e obstruction of justice statute t o cover i n f o r m a n t s and potential w i t n e s s e s a s w e l l a s witnesses who a c t u a l l y a r e under subpoena to t e s t i f y ; (3) a m e n d s the Freedom of Information Act to i n c r e a s e protection of jnformation that would identify confidential i n f o r m a n t s ; (4) permits F e d e r a l judges to seal those portions of wiretap d o c u m e n t s t h a t could r e v e a l o n g o i n g criminal investiga-tions or wire intercepts. T i t l e 11-Bail Reform. Specifies that i n setting t h e c o n d i t i o n s of r e l e a s e of persons charged with trafficking in certain n a r c o t i c s a n d other d a n g e r o u s d r u g s t h e judicial officer shall consider t h e danger t h e d e f e n d a n t might p o s e t o t h e community if released. S e t s forth circumstances i n which a d r u g l a w offender should be denied release prior to trial. Increases penalties f o r persons T i t l e 1 1 1 -- Sentencing. v i o l e n t crimes with a dangerous weapon or a destructive device. who commit -- H a b e a s Corpus Reform. Revises Federal h a b e a s corpus s t a t u t e s Title I V by eliminating purely technical challenges to c o n v i c t i o n s f a i r l y arrived a t Jan.. 2 6 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. in a S t a t e court. Introduced S. 215 (Thurmond, Biden et al.) (Related bills: H.R. 1 0 9 8 , T i t l e I1 of 8 3 0 , H.R. S. 1 1 7 , S. 4 0 6 , T i t l e I of S. 1 7 6 2 and H.R. 2151, T i t l e I1 of S. 30C5) Amends the Bail R e f o r m . A c t of 1 9 6 6 to permit c o n s i d e r a t i o n of d a n g e r to t h e community i n setting pretrial release c o n d i t i o n s , t o expand the l i s t of statutory r e l e a s e c o n d i t i o n s , t o establish a more a p p r o p r i a t e b a s i s f o r deciding on postconviction r e l e a s e , and f o r other purposes. Introduced Jan. 2 7 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. Reported May 25 (S.Rept. 98-147). S. 1 0 9 , S. 4 2 2 (Jepson and Thurmond)/H.R. 1 2 5 5 (Hyde) (Related bills: S. 3 8 7 , S. 7 2 1 , H.R. 1661) Makes it a Federal o f f e n s e to r o b a pharmacy of a narcotic d r u g , a m p h e t a m i n e o r barbiturate t h a t i s listed i n S c h e d u l e s I through IV under t h e F e d e r a l Controlled Substances Act. Introduced Jan. 2 6 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. S. 503 (Humphrey e t al.) Makes i t u n l a w f u l t o manufacture, distribute, o r p o s s e s s With intent to d i s t r i b u t e , a drug t h a t i s a n imitation of a Controlled s u b s t a n c e or a d r u g t h a t purports to a c t l i k e a Controlled substance. Introduced Feb. 1 6 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. S. 8 3 0 (Biden et al.) (Related bills: S. 1 1 7 , S. 2 1 5 , S. 6 6 8 , S. 8 2 9 , 9 4 8 , S. 1 1 8 2 , S. 1 7 6 2 , S. 1 7 8 7 , H.R. 2 0 1 3 , H.R. 3005) S. National Security and Violent C r i m e C o n t r o l Act of 1983. T h e foliowing a r e t h e more significant titles and provisions in r e l a t i o n to d a n g e r o u s drug control: Narcotics Law Enforcement. S u b t i t l e A. N a t i o n a l Narcotics T i t l e I. of 1983. Establishes a cabinet-level o f f i c e of D i r e c t o r of National International D r u g Operations and Policy t o plan a n d c o o r d i n a t e drug enforcement efforts of the F e d e r a l Government. - S u b t i t l e B. I l l e g a l use of aircraft. Amends t h e Federal Aviation Act and law Act: CRS- 7 to provide for the revocation of a n a i r m a n certifica.te, i s s u e d under t h e A c t , upon t h e conviction i n a n y court of the holder f o r a n y v i o l a t i o n of Sfate or Federal l a w relating t o the transportation or distribution of a controlled substance; t o i n c r e a s e penalties for t h e manufacture,' s a l e or u s e of a fraudulent a i r m a n certif'icate or f o r t h e display o n any a i r c r a f t of m a r k s that a r e f a l s e or misleading a s t o t h e nationality or registration of t h e a i r c r a f t ; and to make it a:Federal o f f e n s e to o p e r a t e a n a i r c r a f t t o c o m m i t or a b e t a n a c t that violates Federal or S t a t e l a w relating t u t h e r e g u l a t i o n of controlled substances, subject to penalties of up t o 5 y e a r s i n prison a n d u p to $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 for a f i r s t offense and d o u b l e for a second. S u b t i t l e C. Mutual assistance treaties. C a l l s upon t h e Attorney G e n e r a l to n e g o t i a t e a g r e e m e n t s to secure t h e cooperation of f o r e i g n l a w enforcement authorities to prevent the use of foreign banking f a c i l i t i e s a s havens f o r the proceeds of crime. -- Title 11. Bail, S e n t e n c i n g , and Criminal P r o c e d u r e Reform. Subtitle A Bail reform. Amends t h e Bail Reform Act of 1 9 6 6 to (1) permit potential danger t o th-e community to be considered i n determining w h e t h e r t o r e l e a s e a n accused individual pendin$ trial o r , if release i s appropriate, in determining conditions f o r r e l e a s e (creates a rebuttable presumption t h a t a n individual i s a potential danger to t h e community if he f a l l s i n t o o n e of 6 Specified c a t e g o r i e s , which include persons who have committed a serious d r u g trafficking offense), (2) tighten t h e criterla f o r post-conviction release pending sentencing and a p p e a l , (3) establish procedures for revocation of on release, a n d contempt-of-court prosecution, for committing a c r i m e while sentences for persons convicted of release; (4) provide for consecutive crimes committed o n pretrial r e l e a s e ; a n d (5) i n c r e a s e p e n a l t i e s for jumping bail. S u b t i t l e B -- Sentencing reform. Creates a d e t e r m i n a t e sentencing s y s t e m , with n o parole and limited good t i m e credits. Establishes a sentencing c o m m i s s i o n , to be responsible for formulating guidelines t o b e used by the courts i n determining appropriate sentences. Requires maximum penalties f o r repeat o f f e n d e r s charged with a c r i m e of violence o r a d r u g trafficking offense. -- Violent Juvenile Reform Act of 1983. A m e n d s the juvenileSubtitle D delinquency chapter of T i t l e 18, U.S. C o d e , to lower t h e a g e a t which a n a c t would be considered a crime if committed by a n a d u l t and generally m o d i f i e s provisions that a l l o w f o r special handling o f j u v e n i l e s , to encourage a d u l t treatment of offenders charged with c r i m e s of violence o r drug t r a f f i c k i n g offenses. -- F e d e r a l Diversion Act. Establishes a n e w program of Subtitle E offender diversion f o r persons charged with non-violent c r i m e s -- emphasizing rehabilitative services provided under supervision. Organized Crime. S u b t i t l e A -- Narcotics law enforcement Title 1 1 1 . policy g o a l s and report requires t h e Attorney General to submit (1) within 90 d a y s a n d thereafter a n n u a l l y , a r e p o r t explaining h o w any proposed reorganization of t h e Drug Enforcement Administration a n d J u s t i c e D e p a r t m e n t narcotics control policy and organized crime c o n t r o l policy generally w i l l 60 d a y s , "a c o m p l e t e accomplish certain specified g o a l s , and (2) within report o n t h e status o f organized c r i m e " i n t h e Nation. -- - Subtitle C Criminal forfeiture. Amends both 1 8 U.S.C. 1963 (a provision of t h e Racketeer Influenced and C o r r u p t O r g a n i z a t i o n s Act) and t h e CRS- 8 Controlled S u b s t a n c e s Act to (1) provide f o r t h e criminal f o r f e i t u r e of t h e proceeds of racketeering o r d r u g trafficking a c t i v i t y , (2) establish the sanction Of criminal f o r f e i t u r e f o r a l l f e l o n y drug o f f e n s e s , (3) i n g e n e r a l f a c i l i t a t e f o r f e i t u r e s in drug-related a n d racketeering c a s e s , and (4) r a i s e t h e ceiling on t h e . v a l u e of property subject t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r f e i t u r e from $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 t o $100,000. Introduced Mar. 1 6 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. -- S. 9 0 2 ( R o t h , R u d m a n , et al.) (Related bill: Title IX of S. 1762) Amends the Currency and Foreign T r a n s a c t i o n s Reporting Act to (1) r a i s e t h e dollar a m o u n t in connection with which a report must be f i l e d w i t h the G o v e r n m e n t prior to t h e transport of money or monetary instruments o u t o f t h e U.S. from $ 5 , 0 0 0 to $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 , (2) make i t illegal to a t t e m p t to c a r r y o u t a n a m o u n t in excess of $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 a b s e n t the required r e p o r t , (3) a l l o w Treasury D e p a r t m e n t officials to pay a reward to informants for information which l e a d s to a recovery of a f i n e , civil penalty o r f o r f e i t u r e under the act whenever t h e a m o u n t of recovery exceeds $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 a n d (4) i n c r e a s e the penalties a n d f i n e s f o r failing to f i l e t h e necessary currency reports. -- Amends t h e Racketeer I n f L u e n c e d ' a n d C o r r u p t Organizations Act to (1) make criminal violations of the Currency and F o r e i g n Transactions R e p o r t i n g Act o n e of t h e categories of criminal a c t s covered by the definition of "racketeering activities." Adds major violations of t h e CFTR Act to the enumerate6 statutes under t h e Federal wiretapping statute. Introduced Mar. 2 3 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. S. 813) S. 1 1 4 3 (Hawkins) (Related bill: Conditions U.S. assist-ance to any country t h a t i s a major producer of o p i u m , c o c a , o r marihuana on reductions by t h a t country i n t h e l e v e l s of such 1.ntroduCed Apr. 2 6 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Foreign Relations. production. S. 1 1 9 2 (Thurmond and Biden)/H.R. (Rodino) ) 2 8 9 4 (Fish) (Related bill: H.R. 2912 Department o f Justice Appropriation Authorization A c t , FY84. F o r the D r u g Enforcement Administration, the Senate b i l l a s passed a u t h o r i z e s $275.6 million. For Organized C r i m e D r u g E n f o r c e m e n t , a u t h o r i z e s $121.9 million. H.R. 2 9 1 2 a s reported a u t h o r i z e s $284.5 million for the D E A and $89.9 million f o r OCDE. S. I 1 9 2 introduced May 2, 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. 'Reported 4. H.R. 2912 May 1 6 , 1 9 8 3 (without written report). P a s s e d Senate Aug. introduced May 4 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. Reported May 16 (H.Rept. 98-181). S. 1 3 4 7 (Percy)/H.R. 2 9 9 2 (Zablocki a n d Broomfield) International Security a n d Development Cooperation Act of 1983. With respect t o the international narcotics program under t h e Foreign A s s i s t a n c e AS r e p o r t e d , both A c t , authorizes appropriations of $ 5 3 , 0 3 0 , 0 0 0 f o r FY84. t h e House a n d S e n a t e bills require t h e President to suspend a l l U.S. a s s i s t a n c e t o a n y country when he d e t e r m i n e s that t h e government o f the country has failed to take a d e q u a t e measures t o prevent narcotic o r other d a n g e r o u s d r u g s , produced or processed i l l i c i t l y in such c o u n t r y , from being smuggled i n t o t h e U.S. An end of t h e s u s p e n s i o n would r e q u i r e a presidential determination t h a t the country's government had taken certain specified T h e S e n a t e bill s t e p s , a l o n g with a report t o Congress o n t h e matter. provides f u r t h e r that C o n g r e s s , through a c o n c u r r e n t r e s o l u t i o n , may direct t h e President to suspend a s s i s t a n c e under t h e section. S. 637 intgoduced Mar. 1 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to F o r e i g n Relations. S. 1 3 4 7 , a c l e a n bill, r e p o r t e d H.R. i n lieu of S. 6 3 7 , S. 6 3 8 , S. 7 0 1 , and S. 7 1 4 May 23 (s.Rept. 98-146). CRS- 9 IB76061 UPDATE-01/20/84 1 8 5 0 introduced Mar. 2 , 1983; r e f e r r e d to F o r e i g n Affairs. ,H.R. 2992, a Clean bill, introduced in lieu of H.R. 1 8 5 0 May 1 2 , 1983. R e p o r t e d May 17 (H.Rept. 98-192). S. 1 7 6 2 (Thurmond and Laxalt)/H.R. 2 0 1 3 , S. 830) 2151 (Fish) (Related bills: Comprehensive C r i m e Control Act of 1983. T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e significant t i t l e s or provisions i n relation to d a n g e r o u s d r u g control: H.R. more Bail Reform. (Related bills: T i t l e I1 of S. 1 1 7 , S. 215, Title I. 1966 to (1) T i t l e I1 of S. 8 3 0 , H.R. 3005). A m e n d s the B a i l Reform Act of permit danger t o the community to be considered i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether to release a n accused individual pending trial, o r , if r e l e a s e i s a p p r o p r i a t e , i n determining conditions for release (2) establish procedures for revocation of release, a n d contempt-of-court prosecution, for committing a c r i m e while on release; (3) tighten the criteria for postconviction r e l e a s e pending s e n t e n c e s for persons sentencing a n d a p p e a l ; (4) provide f o r Consecutive convicted of crimes committed on pretrial r e l e a s e ; and (5) i n c r e a s e penalties for jumping bail. Title 11. Sentencing Reform. (Related bills: S. 6 6 6 , T i t l e 11 of S. 8 3 0 , S. 1182). Creates a determinate sentencing s y s t e m , with n o parole a n d limited good time credits. Establishes a sentencing c o m m i s s i o n , to b e responsible f o r formulating g u i d e l i n e s t o be used by t h e courts in determining a p p r o p r i a t e sentences. T i t l e 111. Exclusion-ary R u l e Reform. [ R e l a t e d bill: S. 1 0 1 , S. 17641 Narrows t h e application of the court-made rule requiring Suppression o f improperly seized evidence by a l l o w i n g admission where the Officers making t h e seizure w e r e proceeding upon a "reasonable, good faith b e l i e f w that they were acting properly. n ' c l e 1 Forfeiture Reform. (Related bill: Title I11 o f S. 8 3 0 , S. 9 4 8 , H.R. 3299) Amends both 18 U.S.C. 1963 (a provision of t h e Racketeer Influenced a n d Corrupt Organizations Act) and t h e Controlled Substances Act to (1) provide for the criminal- f o r f e i t u r e of t h e proceeds of racketeering o r drug trafficking a c t i v i t y , (2) establish the sanction o f c r i m i n a l f o r f e i t u r e (3) i n general f a c i l i t a t e f o r f e i t u r e s i n f o r all f e l o n y ' d r u g offenses, drug-related and racketeering c a s e s , and (4) r a i s e t h e Ceiling o n t h e value fr0.m $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 to $100,000. of property subject t o administrative forfeiture -- T i t l e VII. D r u g Enforcement Amendments. P a r t A. Controlled substance penalties. Amends both the Controlled Substances Act and t h e Controlled Substances Import and Export Act t o (1) increase t h e maximum p r i s o n penalties f o r trafficking in large (specified) a m o u n t s of a n o p i a t e , cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), o r LSD; (2) i n c r e a s e the f i n e level for trafficking in (3) i n c r e a s e prison penalt.ies a n d fines for a n y controlled substance; trafficking i n any a m o u n t of most non-narcotic substances in S c h e d u l e s I o r (4) increase penalties f o r trafficking i n I1 (includes LSD and PCP); permit S t a t e marihuana i n a m o u n t s ranging from 5 0 to 4 5 4 k i l o g r a m s ; and ( 5 ) and foreign f e l o n y drug convictions to be considered under t h e enhanced sentencing provisions for repeat drug offenders. Part B. Diversion control amendments. Among other t h i n g s , (1) provides for new emergency authority t o bring an uncontrolled substance, under temporary c o n t r o l ; (2) increases regulatory a u t h o r i t y of t h e D r u g Enforcement (e.g., e x p a n d s a u t h o r i t y t o revoke o r Administration over practitioners ' suspend registrations) ; (3) simplifies practitioner registration r e q u i r e m e n t s (allowing a 3-year life-span if determined appropriate); (4) expands reporting requirements for drug d i s t r i b u t o r s ; (5) clarifies t h e control of (6) authorizes a program of g r a n t s to S t a t e and l o c a l i s o m e r s ; and g o v e r n m e n t s to a s s i s t them i n the suppression o f diversion of controlled substances from l e g i t i m a t e m e d i c a l , - s c i e n t i f i c , a n d commercial channels. T i t l e XII. F o r e i g n Currency TransGztion Amendments. (Related bill: S. 902) Amends t h e C u r r e n c y and Foreign Transaction Reporting A c t to m a k e i t more difficult to t r a n s f e r o r transport o u t of t h e country currency derived from d r u g trafficking. Specifically, provides f o r payment o f rewards f o r i n f o r m a t i o n leading t o conviction of money l a u n d e r e r s , establishes sanctions f o r "attempted" i l l e g a l currency t r a n s a c t i o n s , and a u t h o r i z e s border s e a r c h e s related to currency transaction offenses. T i t l e XIV. Violent Crime Amendments. P a r t A. Extends existing Federal jurisdiction over c o n t r a c t killings a n d violence related to racketeering where travel a c r o s s S t a t e lines i s involved. Creates sanctions for t h e o f f e n s e of soliciting t h e P a r t B. of a c r i m e of violence. commission P a r t M. (Related bill: H.R. 2643) Amends F e d e r a l extradition l a w s to f a c i l i t a t e extradition of t e r r o r i s t s , n a r c o t i c s t r a f f i c k e r s , and o t h e r international c r i m i n a l s to foreign countries with which t h e U.S. has an extradition treaty. T i t l e XV. to warn a n y o n e authorities. S e r i o u s Nonviolent Offenses. P a r t C. that his property i s a b o u t t o be Makes i t searched an by offense Federal T i t l e XVI. (Related bill: T i t l e I1 of S. 830) P r o c e d u r a l Amendments. P a r t A. Prosecution of certain juveniles a s adults. Amends the juvenile delinquency chapter of title 1 8 , U.S. C o d e , to lower the a g e a t which certain violent o r o t h e r w i s e illegal acts would be considered crimes i f committed by a n a d u l t , and generally modifies provisions t h a t a l l o w for special h a n d l i n g of juveniles, to e n c o u r a g e adul-t t r e a t m e n t of o f f e n d e r s charged with crimes of v i o l e n c e or drug trafficking offenses. Explicitly a u t h o r i z e s P a r t F. Witness Security Program improvements. w i t n e s s relocation a n d protection a n d provides a procedure for handling c i v i l claims filed a g a i n s t protected witnesses. S E N A T E BILL A S REPORTED OMITS EXCLUSIONARY R U L E P R O V I S I O N S A S WELL A S TITLES ARE RENUMBERED OTHERS T H A T ARE N O T INCLUDED IN T H E ABOVE DIGEST. ACCORDINGLY. ' T h e Senate b i l l , S. 8 2 9 , introduced Mar. 1 6 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred t o Judiciary. S. 1 7 6 2 (clean bill in l i e u of S. 829) reported Aug. 4 (no written report). W r i t t e n report filed by J u d i c i a r y , Sept. 1 4 , 1983. (S.Rept. 98-225.) R e f e r r e d to t h e C o m m i t t e e on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s u n t i l Sept. 20, 1 9 8 3 , for t h e p u r p o s e only of considering c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f part M of T i t l e X (relating t o extradition). Reported to S e n a t e by S e n a t o r P e r c y with a m e n d m e n t s Sept. 2 0 (no written report). P l a c e d on S e n a t e L e g i s l a t i v e Calendar under G e n e r a l Orders Sept. 20. Committee on Foreign Relations filed H.R. 2151 i n t r o d u c e d Maf. 16, written report Sept. 2 6 , 1 9 8 3 (Rept. 98-241). 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. S. 1 7 6 4 (Thurmond, L a x a l t et al.) S. 829/H.R. 2151) (Related bills: S. 1 0 1 , T i t l e I11 of Narrows t h e application of t h e court-made r u l e r e q u i r i n g suppression of improperly seized evidence by allowing a d m i s s i o n where t h e officers making t h e seizure were proceeding upon a " r e a s o n a b l e , good f a i t h belief" that t h e y w e r e a c t i n g properly. Iri'troduced Aug. 4 , 1 9 8 3 ; r e f e r r e d to Judiciary. Reported Without amendment Aug. 4 (no written report a s of t h e time of t h i s update). S. 1 7 8 7 (Biden et al.) National Narcotics Act of 1983. C r e a t e s a n "Office of t h e Director of National and International D r u g Operations a n d P o l i c y " , to b e headed by a Director and a Deputy Director who a r e appointed by t h e P r e s i d e n t , by a n d with the COI?Sent of the Senate. Provides that t h e Director i s authorized to (1) d e v e l o p , r e v i e w , i m p l e m e n t , and enforce U.S. G o v e r n m e n t policy with r e s p e c t to illegal d r u g s ; (2) direct and coordinate a l l U.S. Government e f f o r t s to halt the f l o w i n t o , and sale and u s e of i l l e g a l d r u g s within the U.S.; ( 3 ) d e v e l o p , i n concert with the a p p r o p r i a t e g o v e r n m e n t a l e n t i t i e s , budgetary priorities and albocatio'ns relating t o control of illegal d r u g s ; and (4) coordinate t h e collection and dissemination of information necessary to i m p l e m e n t government policy With respect to illegal drugs. Authorizes a p p r o p r i a t i o n s of $ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 for F Y 8 4 for carrying o u t t h e act. Introduced 4. hug. 4 , 1 9 8 3 ; referred to Judiciary. R e p o r t e d , without a m e n d m e n t , August Written report filed Oct. 25 ( S - R e p t . 98-278). (Contents of bill added by f l o o r a m e n d m e n t o n Oct. 2 6 , 1 9 8 3 , to H.R. 3 9 5 9 , a supplemental a p p r o p r i a t i o n bill t h a t passed t h e Senate Oct. 2 7 , 1983. Amendment dropped i n conference.) HEARINGS U.S. --------- Congress. Control. House. S e l e c t Committee on Narcotics A b u s e and Bail reform and narcotics cases. Hearing, 97th Congress, 1st session. Wa,shington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. 1 1 7 p. Cocaine: a major drug i s s u e of t h e seventies. Hearings, 9 6 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 1 4 2 6. ----------------- ----- DEA/FBI reorganization. Hearing, 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 2d session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. 3 7 p. Federal drug strategy: prospects f o r t h e 1980's. H e a r i n g , 96th C o n g r e s s , 2 6 session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 1 6 4 p. Federal drug strategy-1981. Hearing, 97th Congress, 1st session. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. 5 4 p. F i n a n c i a l investigation of drug trafficking. Hearing, 9 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. 1 5 0 p. Impact of Federal budget c u t s on l o c a l narcotics l a w enforcement. H e a r i n g , 97th C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. 99 p. Off., 1981. --------- Investigation of narcotics trafficking proceeds (Chicago, Ill.). Hearings, 95th Congress, 1st session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1978. 289 p. Sentencing practices and alternatives in narcotics cases. Hearing, 97th Congress, 1st' session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. 1 0 8 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on S t a t e , Justice, Commerce, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies. Federal drug enforcement and supply control efforts. Hearing, 9 6 t h Congress, 1st session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 325 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Illegal narcotics profits. Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st session. December 1979. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 5 0 7 p. ----- International narcotics trafficking. Hearings . . . 97th C o n g r e s s , 1st session. November 1981. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. 6 3 0 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Subcommittee on Reorganization., Research, and International Organizations. He-arings, 9 3 6 C o n g r e s s , 1st session. April 1973. 2 parts. Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1973. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights. Preventive detention. Hearings, 9 1 s t Congress, 2d session. May and June 1970. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1970. 1 3 5 6 p. ----- .- Speedy trial. Hearings, 93d C o n g r e s s , 1st session. April 1973. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1973. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee o n t h e Judiciary. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice. Forfeiture of narcotics proceeds. Hearings, 96th Congress, 2d session. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1981. 1 6 5 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on t h e Judiciary. Subcommittee On Criminal Laws and Procedures. Reform of the Federal criminal laws. Hearings; 93d Congress, 2d s e s s i o n , o n S. 1 and S. 1400. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1974. 6805-7672 p. Part 10--Provisions relating t o complicity, conspiracy, drugs, government operations, Indians, insanity, intoxication, jurisdiction, national security, obscenity, and offenses against the person. ----- Subcommittee on Security and Terrorism. The Cuban government:^ involvement i n facilitating international drug traffic. Joint hearing before the Subcommittee and t h e Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere Affairs... and t h e Senate Drug Enforcement Caucus, 98th Congress, 1st session. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1983. 6 8 7 p. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency. Stopping "mother ships" -- a loophole i n drug enforcement. Hearing, 95th Congress, 2d s e s s i o n , on S. 3437. Aug. 2 2 , 1978. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1978. 1 1 8 p. REPORTS AND CONGRESSIONAL DOCUMENTS U.S. ----- U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. [ ~ i s ] a ~ ~ r o v iReorganization ng Plan No. 2 of 1973 (Drug Enforcement Administration); report to accompany H.Res. 382. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1973. 3 0 p. (93d Congress, 1 s t session. House. Report no. 93-228) Military a s s i s t a n c e to civilian narcotics law enforcement: a n interim report. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. 23 p. (97th Congress, 2d session. House. Report no. 97-921) Congress. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970; report to accompany H.R. 18583. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1970. (91st Congress, 2d session. House. Report no. 91-1444) 2 parts. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Criminal Code Revision Act of 1980. Report t o accompany H.R. 6915. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1980. 7 5 8 p. (96th Congress, 2d session. House. Report no. 96-1396) U.S. ----- Congress. House. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. Investigation of narcotics trafficking and money laundering in Chicago. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., February 1978. 4 3 p. At head of title: 95th C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Committee print. "Serial no. SCNAC-95-1-16" Problems of l a w enforcement and its effort to reduce the level of drug trafficking i n South Florida. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., August 1978. 1 9 p. At head of title: 95th C o n g r e s s , 2d session. Committee print. "Serial no. SCNAC-95-2-5" ----- Summary of testimony a n d findings and conclusions resulting from oversight hearings on narcotic a b u s e and control; interim report. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. (95th Congress, 1st session. Off., Mar. 1, 1977. 8 7 p. House. Report no. 95-32) U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Federal narcotics e n f o r c e m e n t ; interim report. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1976. 1 9 1 p. (94th C o n g r e s s , 2d session. Senate. Report no. 94-1039) ----- I l l e g a l narcotics profits. Washington, U.S. Govt. P r i n t Off., 1 9 8 0 1 4 4 p. (96th C o n g r e s s , 2d session. Senate Report no. 96-887):' U.S. Congress. Senate. C o m m i t t e e on Government Operations. S u b c o m m i t t e e o n Reorganization, R e s e a r c h , and International Organizations. Reorganization Plan No. 2 , establishing a D r u g Enforcement Administration i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' o f Justice. W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1973. 5 8 p. (93d C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Senate. R e p o r t no. 93-469) U.S. Congress. Senate. C o m m i t t e e on the Judiciary. Controlled D a n g e r o u s Substances Act of 1 9 6 9 ; r e p o r t to a c c o m p a n y S. 3246. (91st C o n g r e s s , W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1969. 1 6 5 p. 1st session. Senate. R e p o r t no. 91-613) - U.S. ----- ----- Congress. Senate. C o m m i t t e e o n the Judiciary. Criminal Code Reform Act of 1 9 7 9 ; report to accompany S. 1722. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print.. Off., 1980. 1 5 0 7 p. (96th C o n g r e s s , 2d session. Senate. Report no. 96-553) C r i m i n a l C o d e Reform Act of 1 9 8 1 ; report to a c c o m p a n y S. 1630. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. 1 5 6 9 p. (97th C o n g r e s s , 1st session. Senate. Report no. 97-307) National Narcotics Act of 1 9 8 3 ; report to a c c o m p a n y S. 1787. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1983. 6 3 p. (98th C o n g r e s s , 1 s t session. Senate R e p o r t no. 98-278) CHRONOLOGY OF E V E N T S 09/15/83 -- 08/04/83 -- T h e House Subcommittee o n C r i m e approved a clean bill to amend Title I1 of the D r u g Abuse O f f i c e a n d T r e a t m e n t Act for t h e purpose of recreating t h e O f f i c e of Drug A b u s e Policy i n the E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e of t h e P r e s i d e n t (subsequently introduced a s H.R. 4028). Deputy D i r e c t o r s both f o r D r u g Enforcement and f o r Drug Abuse P r e v e n t i o n would be appointed under t h e bill's provisions. An a m e n d m e n t a c c e p t e d i n subcommittee mark-up would a l l o w t h e P r e s i d e n t to name t h e vice President a s Director. An altered version of t h e Administration o m n i b u s c r i m e c o n t r o l bill w a s reported b y the S e n a t e J u d i c i a r y C o m m i t t e e ( S . 1762). T h e clean bill o m i t s some of t h e more controversial t i t l e s of the original p r o p o s a l , such a s t h o s e dealing with the Exclusionary r u l e and H a b e a s Corpus. Separate bills concerning t h e ommitted matter, a s w e l l a s one t h a t would establish a "drug czar" o f f i c e , w e r e a l s o reported. 03/23/83 -- T h e White House announced t h e creation of a n e w drug interdiction g r o u p headed by Vice-president George Bush. T o be known a s t h e National Narcotics Border Interdiction System (NNBIS) , i t will c o o r d i n a t e t h e work of F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s with responsibilities f o r interdiction of sea-borne, air-borne and a ~ r ~ s s - b ~ r dimportation er of narcotics and o t h e r principally t h e Customs S e r v i c e , the dangerous drugs Coast Guard:, and t h e armed services. -- 03/16/83 -- T h e Administration's omnibus c r i m e control b i l l w a s introduced i n both S e n a t e and H o u s e (S. 829/H.R. 2151). An alternative bill w a s introduced by a g r o u p of Senate D e m o c r a t s , led by members of the J u d i c i a r y Committee (S. 830). 01/14/83 -- President Reagan withheld his a p p r o v a i of H.R. 3 9 6 3 , thus exercising a pocket veto. H e was especially critical of a provision establishing a " d r u g czar" o f f i c e t o coordinate Federal drug law enforcement, and of t h e a b s e n c e of provisions dealing with certain major crime and drug control problems. 12/20/82 -- A scaled-down version of t h e Violent C r i m e and D r u g Enforcement Improvement Act (H.R. 3963) was cleared for the President. i0/14/82 -- President Reagan announced a major new drive a g a i n s t illicit drug trafficking. . T h e program i n v o l v e s creation o f - 1 2 regional task f o r c e s and will reportedly require the hiring of 1 , 2 0 0 n e w investigators and prosecutors. 09/30/82 -- 09/03/82 -- 05/26/82 -- 05/21/82 -- T h e Senate passed S. 2 5 7 2 , the Violent Crime a n d D r u g Enforcement Improvement Act a n d added t h e bill's contents to H.R. 3 9 6 3 , which was a l s o passed a n d returned to the House. T h e President approved the T a x Equity and F i s c a l Responsibility A c t , which contains provisions designed . t o remove impediments to Internal Revenue S e r v i c e cooperation with other Federal l a w enforcement agencies. T h e changes a r e considered to be of special s i g n i f i c a n c e i n relation to F e d e r a l efforts t o c u r b illicit drug traffic. An omnibus c r i m e and drug c o n t r o l bill (S. 2572/H.R. 6497) was introduced in both t h e S e n a t e and t h e House. Sponsored by a number of committee c h a i r m e n and ranking minority Members, t h e S e n a t e bill w a s placed directly o n t h e calendar. T h e National Narcotics I n t e l l i g e n c e Consumers C o m m i t t e e (NNICC) released i t s r e p o r t on d r u g trafficking i n 1980. T h e r e t a i l v a l u e of drugs supplied to t h e illicit U.S. market i n 1 9 8 0 w a s in the r a n g e of $ 7 9 billion, according t o t h e r e p o r t , u p from $ 6 5 billion i n 1979. I n c r e a s e s i n estimated c o c a i n e a n d marihuana imports accounted for most of t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e totals for the two years. _ President Reagan announced the establishment of a special task f o r c e to combat illicit drug t r a f f i c i n South Florida. Composed of o f f i c i a l s from a n u m b e r of Federal a.gencies, t o work with S t a t e and local a u t h o r i t i e s , the task f o r c e w a s placed under the directi-on of Vice President Bush. T h e Attorney General announced that t h e FBI had been given concurrent jurisdiction with t h e D r u g Enforcement Agency (DEA) over t h e investigation of violations of Federal dangerous drug laws. T h e D E A Administrator will report to the Attorney General through t h e F B I Director. The President signed P.L. 9 7 - 8 6 , which contains a provision authorizing certain k i n d s of cooperation by the Armed S e r v i c e s with civilian law enforcement a u t h o r i t i e s for specific purposes, including drug l a w enforcement. T h e f i n a l r e p o r t o f - t h e Attorney G e n e r a l ' s Task F o r c e on Violent Crime was released. The report emphasizes t h e seriousness of i l l i c i t drug traffic and the i m p o r t a n c e of a clear and c o n s i s t e n t enforcement policy. Recommendations included support of t h e use of herbicides for drug crop e r a d i c a t i o n , support for the u s e of military resources f o r drug i n t e r d i c t i o n , and c a l l s f o r changes in l a w and practice with respect to bail, s e n t e n c i n g , and exclusion of evidence. The J u s t i c e Department announced chat t h e FBI's chief investigator of organized c r i m e , F r a n c i s M. (Bud) Mullen Jr., would b e named a c t i n g administrator of t h e Drug Enforcement Admi-nistration. DEA Administrator Peter B. Bensinger confirmed t h a t he would l e a v e office July 1 0 a t t h e r e q u e s t of t h e Administration. House Judiciary Committee reported H.R. the criminal c o d e revision bill. 01/17/80 -- 01/30/78 -- 08/02/77 -- 07/29/76 -- 6915, T h e S e n a t e Judiciary committee reported S. 1 7 2 2 , a bill f o r reform of t h e F e d e r a l Criminal Code. Senate passed S. 1 4 3 7 , a m e n d e d , a bill for reform of t h e Federal Criminal Code. Congress received Presidential m e s s a g e o n drug abuse announcing general policy e m p h a s e s , the outline of a forthcoming Administration narcotics trafficking control bill, and s u p p o r t for t h e concept of Federal "decriminalization" o f possession of small a m o u n t s of marihuana ( H - D o c . 95-200). House voted t o establish t h e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e o n Narcotics Abuse a n d C o n t r o l , charged with conducting a general investigation of F e d e r a l drug a b u s e c o n t r o l efforts and with making r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n t o the standing c o m m i t t e e s with r e l e v a n t jurisdiction. 07/01/73 -- 02/07/72 -- 10/27/70 -- P r e s i d e n t signed t h e Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention a n d Control Act of 1 9 7 0 , a n o m n i b u s bill containing t h e Controlled Substances Act, which consolidated and r e v i s e d the Federal narcotics a n d d a n g e r o u s drug c o n t r o l laws. 04/08/68 -- T h e Federal Bureau of Narcotics (Treasury Department) a n d the Bureau of D r u g Abuse Control (HEW) w e r e merged i n t o a new agency i n the J u s t i c e D e p a r t m e n t , t h e B u r e a u . o f Narcotics and D a n g e r o u s Drugs. T h e Bureau of Narcotics and D a n g e r o u s D r u g s and several o t h e r agenc-ies w e r e merged i n t o t h e D r u g Enforcement Administration, by Reorganization P l a n No.. 2 of 1973. T h e n e w agency absorbed a number of C u s t o m s Bureau officials. P r e s i d e n t signed t h e Foreign A s s i s t a n c e Act of 1 9 7 1 (P.L. 92-22,6), which contained a provision establishing a program of a s s i s t a n c e designed to e n c o u r a g e international narcotics control. ADDITIONAL R E F E R E N C E SOURCES Bonnie, R i c h a r d J. Marijuana u s e and criminal sanctions. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , the Michie C o m p a n y , 1980. 2 6 4 p. Drug.s i n America. A social history: 1800-1980. M o r g a n , H. Wayne. S y r a c u s e , N.Y., Syracuse University p r e s s , 1981. 233 p. National Task F o r c e on Cannabis Regulation. The regulation and taxation o f cannabis commerce. [?] D e c e m b e r 1982. 64 p. Research T r i a n g l e Institute. D r u g u s e and crime: r e p o r t of t h e panel o n drug u s e and criminal behavior. Washington, U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e , September 1976. 5 6 1 p. (Prepared f o r t h e National Institute o n Drug Abuse; reproduced by t h e National Technical Information Service under series number P B - 2 5 9 1 6 7 ) (LRS76-17535) U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of Justice. Attorney G e n e r a l l s Task F o r c e o n Violent Crime. Final report. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., A u ~ . 1 7 , 1981. 94 p. U.S. General Accounting Office. Drug c o n t r o l i n South America having l i m i t e d success--some progress but problems a r e f o r m i d a b l e ; report to t h e Congress by t h e Comptroller General o f t h e United States. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1978. 3 7 p. "GGD-78-45, Mar. 2 9 , 1 9 7 8 " (LRS78-5366) ----- Federal d r u g interdiction efforts need strong c e n t r a l o v e r s i g h t ; report t o t h e Congress by t h e Comptroller G e n e r a l of the United States. [ w a s h i n g t o n ] 1983. 1 3 6 p. "GGD-83-52" ----U.S. Gains m a d e i n controlling i l l e g a l drugs, y e t t h e drug t r a d e f l o u r i s h e s ; report to the Congress by the C o m p t r o l l e r General of t h e United States. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] 1979. (GGD-80-4). 2 1 4 p. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Asian drug trade: implications f o r U.S. f o r e i g n policy [ b y ] Marjorie Niehaus. [Washington] Aug. 1 1 , 1983. 1 6 p. IB83138 ----- Coordination of Federal Efforts t o Control I l l i c i t D r u g T r a f f i c [ b y ] Harry Hogan. [ W a s h i n g t o n ] Oct. 2 4 , 1983. IB83168 Federal laws relating to the c o n t r o l of narcotics and o t h e r dangerous d r u g s , enacted 1961-1981; brief summaries [ b y ] Harry Hogan. [Washington] Sept. 9 , 1982. 2 9 p. C R S Report 8 2 - 1 4 8 Gov ----- U.S. - U.S. ----- - F e d e r a l Controlled Substances Act (Titles I1 a n d 1 1 1 , P.L. 91-513): summary a n d legislative history [ b y ] Harry Hogan. [ ~ a s h i n g t o n ]April 9 , 1980. 7 6 p. C R S Report 9 0 - 7 4 EPW National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee. Narcotics intelligence estimate. T h e supply o f d r u g s to the U.S. i l l i c i t market from f o r e i g n a n d d o m e s t i c sources. Washington w rug Enforcement Administration] 1978 + (annually) O f f i c e of Drug Abuse Policy. Border management and interdiction: a n interagency review. [Washington] Sept. 7 , 1977. 5 9 p. plus appendices. International narcotics control policy. March 1978. 9 5 p. [Washington] ----- Supply control: d r u g l a w enforcement; a n interagency review. [ w a s h i n g t o n ] December 1977. 6 1 p. + appendices. U.S. P r e s i d e n t ' s D o m e s t i c Council. D r u g Abuse Task Force. W h i t e paper on drug abuse. R e p o r t to the President... Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., September 1975. 1 1 6 p. U.S. President. O f f i c e of Policy Development. D r u g Abuse Policy Office. F e d e r a l strategy f o r prevention o f drug a b u s e a n d drug trafficking, 1982. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1982. 7 5 p.