Abortion: Judicial and Legislative Control

In 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Constitution protects a

woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy, Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, and that a State may not unduly burden the exercise of that fundamental right by regulations that prohibit or substantially limit access to the means of effectuating that decision, Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179. But rather than settling the issue, the Court's rulings have kindled heated debate and precipitated a variety of governmental actions at the national, State and local levels designed either to nullify the rulings or hinder their

effectuation. This brief discusses this ongoing issue, including related legislation and judicial history.

ABORTION: J U 3 I C I A L AND L E G I S L A T I V E C O N T R O L I S S U E B R I E F NUMEER I B 7 4 0 1 9 AUTHOR: L e w i s , K a r e n J. American Law Division R o s e n b e r g , Morton A m e r i c a n Law D i v i s i o n P o r t e r , A l l i s o n I. American Law Division T H E L I B R A R Y OF C O N G R E S S CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE MAJOR I S S U E S S Y S T E M DATE ORIGINATED DATE U P D A T E D F O R A D D I T I O N A L I N F O R M A T I O N C A L L 287-5700 1013 CRS- 1 ISSUE DEFINITION In 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Constitution protects a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy, Roe v. Wade, 4 1 0 U.S. 113, and that a State may not unduly burden the exercise of that fundamental right by regulations that prohibit or substantially limit access to the means of effectuating that decision, Doe v. Bolton, 4 1 0 U.S. 179. But rather than settling the issue, the Court's rwlings have kindled heated debate and precipitated a variety of governmental actions a t the national, State and local levels designed either to nullify the rulings or hinder their effectuation. These governmental regalations have, in turn, spawned further litigation in which resulting judicial refinements in the l a w have been no more successful in dampening the controversy. Thus the 97th Congress promises to again be a forum for proposed legislation and constitutional amendments aimed a t limiting or prohibiting the practice of abortion and 1981 will see Court dockets, including that of the Supreme Court, filled with a n ample share of challenges t o 5 S t a t e and local actions. BACKGROUND AND POLICY ANALYSIS The background section categories, as follows: of this issue brief is organized under I. JUDICIAL HISTORY A. Development and Status of the Law Prior to 1973 B. The Supreme Court's 1973 Abortion Rulings 11. U.S. SUPREME COURT DECISIONS SUBSEQUENT TO "ROE" AND "DOE" Informed Consent, Spousal Consent, Parental Consent, and Reporting Requirements B. Parental Notice C. Advertising of Abortion Services D. Abortions by Non-Physicians E. Abortions in Public and Private Hospitals F. The Definition of Viability A. 111. T H E PUBLIC FUNDING OF ABORTIONS Restrictions on Public Funding of The 1977 Trilogy Nontherapeutic or Elective Abortions B. The Public Funding of Therapeutic of Medically Necessary Abortions The Supreme Court's Decisions in McRae and Zbaraz -- A. -- IV. V. UNRESOLVED ISSUES RELATING TO ABORTION LEGISLATION A. Constitutional Amendments B. Human Life Statute C. Hyde-Type Amendments to Appropriations Bills D. Hyde-Type Amendments to Substantive Bills E. Limitation on Federal Court Jurisdiction F. Early Developments in the 97th Congress G. Public Laws five CRS- 2 I. JUDICIAL HISTORY A. Development and Status of the Law Prior to 1973 The moral and legal issues raised by the practice of abortion has tested the philosophers, theologians, and statesmen of every age since the dawn of civilization. The Stoics' belief that abortion should be allowed up to the moment of birth was vigorously opposed by the Pythogoreans who believed that the soul was infused into the body at conception and that to abort a fetus would be to commit murder. Early Roman law was silent as to abortion; and abortion and infanticide was common in Rome, especially among the uppper classes. Opposition by scholars and the growing influence.of the Christian religion brought about the first prohibition of abortion during the reign of Severus (193-211 A.D.). These laws made abortion a high criminal offense and to banishment. During the subjected a woman who violated the provisions European Middle Ages major church theologians differentiated between a n embryo informatus (prior to endowment of a soul) and a n embryo formatus The distinction was used to assess (after endowment with a soul). punishments for abortion, fines being levied if abortion occurred before animation but death ordered if it was aborted at any time after. The English common law adopted the doctrine of "quickening" i-e., the first movement of the fetus in the mother's womb, to pinpoint the time when abortion could incur sanctions. Generally, a t common law, abortion performed before quickening was not an indictable offense. There is dispute whether The predominant view i s that abortion of a quick fetus was a felony. abortion of a quick fetus was, at most, a minor offense. In the United States, the law in all but a few States until the mid-19th Century adopted the pre-existing English common law. Thus, no indictment would occur for aborting a fetus for a Consenting female prior to quickening. However, there could be an indictment afterward. Also, as was the case under the common law, a woman herself was not indictable for submitting to an abortion, or for aborting herself, before quickening. By the time of the Civil War, however, an influential antiabortion movement began to affect legislation by inducing States to add to or revise t.heir statutes in order to prohibit abortion a t all stages of gestation. By 1910 every State had antiabortion laws, except Kentucky whose courts judicially declared abortions to illegal. In 1967, 49 of the States and the District of Columbia classified the crime of abortion as a felony. The concept of quickening was no longer used to determine criminal liability but was retained in some States to set punishment. Non-therapeutic abortions were essentially unlawful. The States varied in their exceptions for therapeutic abortions. Forty-two States permitted abortions only if necessary to save the life of the mother. Other States allowed abortion to save a woman from "serious and permanent bodily injuryw or her "life and health." Three States allowed abortions that were not "unlawfully performed" or that were not "without lawful justification", leaving interpretation of those standards to the courts. This, however, represented the highwater mark in restrictive abortion law? in the United States, for 1967 saw the first victory of a n abortion reform movement with the passage of liberalizing legislation in Colorado. The CRS- 3 legislation was based upon the Model Penal Code. The movement started in the early 1550s and centered its efforts on a proposed criminal abortion statute developed by the American Law Institure that wculd allow abortions when childbirth posed grave danger to the physical or mental health of a woman, when there was high likelihood of fetal abnormality, or when pregnancy resulted from rate or incest. Between 1967 and the Supreme Court's 1973 decisions in Roc and Doe, approximately one-third of the States had adopted, either in whole or in part, the Model Penal Code's provisions allowing abortions in instances other Also, by the end of 1970, than where only the mother's life was in danger. four States (Alaska, Hawaii, New York, and Washington) had repealed criminal penalties for abortions performed in early pregnancy by a licensed physician, subject to stated procedural and health requirements. The first U.S. Supreme Court decision dealing with abortion was rendered 62. In Vuitch, t h e ' Court denied a in 1971. U.S. v. Vuitch, 402 U. S. vagueness challenge to the District of Columbia abortion statute. The net effect of the Vuitch decision was to expand the availability of abortions under the D.C. law's provision allowing abortions where "necessary for the health." preservation of the mother's ... B. The Supreme Court's 1973 Abortion Rulings Eetween 1968 and 1972 the constitutionability of r e s t r i c t ~ v e abortion statutes of many States were challenged on the grounds of vagueness, violation of the fundamental right cf privacy, and denial of equal protection under these laws. These challenges met wlth mixed success in the lower Courts. However, on Jan. 22, 1973, the Supreme Court issued its rulings in In those cases the Court found that Texas and Roe v. W a d e and Doe v. Bolton. Georgia statutes regulating abortion interfered to an unconstitutional extent with a woman's right to decide whether to terminate her pregnancy. The Texas statute forbade all abortions not necessary "for the purpose of saving the of the mother." The Georgia enactment permitted abortions when continued pregnancy seriously threatened the woman's life or health, when the fetus was very likely to have severe birth defects, or when the pregnancy resulted from rape. The Georgia statute required, however, that abortions be performed only a t accredited hospitals and only after approval by a hospital committee and two consulting physicians. The Court's decisions were delivered by Mr. Justice Blackmun for himself anC six other Justices. Justices White and Rehnquist dissented. The Court ruled that States may not categorically proscribe aaortions by making their performance a crime, and that States may not make abortions unnecessarily difficult to obtain by prescribing elaborate procedural guidelines. The constitutional basis for the decisions rested upon the conclusion that the Fourteenth Amendment right of personal privacy embraced a woman's decision The Court noted that its prior whether to carry a pregnancy to term. a guarantee of personal decisions had "found at least the roots of privacy" in various amendments to the Constitution or their penumbras (i.e., protected offshoots) and characterized the right to privacy as grounded in "the Fourteenth Amendment's concept of personal liberty and restrictions upon Reg'arding the State action." Roe v. Wade, 410 U. S. 113, 152, 153 (1973). scope of that right, the Court stated that it included "only persgnal rights that can be deemed 'fundamental' or 'implicit in the concept of ordered l i b e r t y n v and "bears some extension to activities related to marriage, procreation, contraception, family relationship, and child rearing and ... CRS- 4 IB74019 UPDATE-lO/l3/8% education." Id. at 152-153. Such a right, the Court concluded, "is brcad enough to encompass a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy." Id. at 153. With respect to protection of the right against State interference, the Court held that since the right of personal privacy is a fundamental right, only a "compelling State interest" could justify its limitation by a State, Thus while it recognized the legitimacy of the State interest in protecting maternal health and the preservation of the fetus' potential life, Id. a t 148-150, and the existence of a rational connection between these two interests and the State's antiabortion law, the Court held these interests insufficient to justify an absolute ban on abortions. Instead, the Court emphasized the durational nature of pregnancy and held the State's interests to be sufficiently compelling to permit curtailment o r prohibition of abortion only during specified stages of pregnancy. The High Court concluded that until the end of the first trimester an abortion is no more dangerous to maternal health than childbirth itself, and found that: W ith respect to the State's important and legitimate interest in the health of the mother, the "compellingw point, in light of present medical knowledge, is at approximately the end of the first trimester. Id. at 163. Only after the first trimester does the State's interest in protecting maternal health provide a sufficient basis to justify State regulation of akortion, and then only to protect this interest. Id. a t 163-164. The "compellingq1 point with respect to the State's interest in the potential life of the fetus "is at viability." FoLlowing viability, the State's interest permits it to regulate and even proscribe a n abortion except when necessary, in appropriate medical $udgment, for the preservation of the life or health of the mother. =Id. at 163-164. The Court defined viability as the point at which the fetus is "potentially able to live outside the Id. a t 160. The Court mother's womb, albeit with artificial aid." summarized its holding as follows: (a) For the stage prior to approximately the end of the first trimester of pregnancy , the abortion decision and its effectuation must be left to the medical judgment of the pregnant woman's attending physician. (b) For the stage subsequent to approximately the end of the first trimester, the State, in promoting its interest in the health of the mother, may, if it chooses, regulate the abortion procedure in ways that are reasonably related to maternal health. (c) For the stage subsequent to viability, the State in promoting its interest in the potentiality of human life may, if it chooses, regulate, and even proscribe, abortion except where it is necessary, in appropriate medical judgment, for the preservation of the life or health of the mother. 410 U.S. a t 164-165 In Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179 (1973), the Court reiterated its holding in Roe v. Wade that the basic decision of when an abortion is prcper rests with the pregnant mother and her physician, but extended Roe by warning that just CRS- 5 IB74019 UPDATE-10/13/81 as States may not prevent abortion by making the performance a crime, States m3.y not make abortions unreasonably difficult to obtain by prescribing Elaborate procedural barriers. In E , therefore, the Court struck down State requirements that abortions be performed in licensed hospitals; that abortions be approved beforehand by a hospital committee; and that two Id. at 196-199. The Court physicians concur in the abortion decision. appeared to note, however, that this would not apply to a statute that protected the religious or moral beliefs of denominational hospitals and their employees. Id. a t 197-98. - The Court in Roe also dealt with the question whether a fetus is a person under the Fourteenth Amendment and other provisions of the Constitution. The Court indicated that the Constitution never specifically defines "person," but added that in nearly all the sections where the word person appears, "...the use of the word is such that it has application only post-natally. None indicates, with any assurance, that it has any possible pre-natal application." 410 U.S. a t 157. The Court emphasized that given the fact that in the major part of the 19th century prevailing legal abortion practices were far freer than today, the Court was persuaded "that the word 'person,' as used i n the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." ~ d .a t 158. The Court did not, however, resolve the question of when life actually begins. While noting the divergence of thinking on this issue, i t , instead, articulated the legal concept of "viability," which is defined a s the point at which the fetus is potentially able to live outside the womb, although the fetus may require artificial aid. Id. at 160. The Supreme Court's decisions in Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton did not address a number of important abortion-related issues which have subsequently been raised.by State actions seeking to restrict the scope of the Court's rulings. These include the issues of informed Consent, spcusal COnS2nt, parental consent, and reporting requirements. In addition, Roe and Doe never resolved the question of what, if any, type of abortion procedures may be required or prohibited by statute. Moreover, there remained the matter of whether fetal protection statutes were constitutional. Unanswered by the 1973 cases as well was the constitutionality of three oth2r types of statutes affecting access to abortion: (1) those proscribing the advertising regarding the availability of an abortion or abortion-related services in another and (3) those State; (2) those prohibiting abortions by non-physicians; allowing private hospitals to refuse to perform abortions. In addition, questions have arisen with respect to the since Roe and Doe, constitutionality of: (1) the experimental use of fetuses; (2) waiting period rights; (4) the right of a requirements; (3) termination of parental physician to refuse to participate in a n abortion; and (5) notice requirements. Finally, the entire matter of the Government funding of abortions was not dealt with in Roe and Doe, since public funding was not possible at that time. 11. U.S. SUPREME COURT DECISIONS SUBSEQUENT TO "ROE" AND "DOE" A. Informed Requirements Consent, Spousal Consent, Parental Conseat, and Reporting In Planned Parenthood v. Danforth, 428 U.S. 52 (19761, the Court held that informed consent statutes, which require a doctor to obtain the written CRS- 6 con.sent of a woman after informing her of the dangers of abortion ar,d possible alternatives, are constitutional if the requirements are related ts maternal 3ealth and are not overbearing. 428 U.S. 52, 65-66. The fact that the informed consent laws mast define their requirements very narrowly in order to be constitutional was later confirmed by the Supreme Court in 1979 when it summarily affirmed an Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals decision (8th Cir. holding to that effect in Freiman v. Ashcroft, 584 F.2d 247, 251 1978) aff'd mem., 99 S.Ct. 1416 (1979). The requirements of an informed consent statute must also be narrDwly drawn so as not to unduly interfere with the physician-patient relationship, although the type of information required to be given to a woman of necessity may vary according to the trimester of her pregnancy. In addition to informed consent, the Danforth decision dealt with the issue of spousal consent. The Supreme Court found that spousal consent statement by the father of the fetus statutes, which require a written affirming his consent to the abortion, are unconstitutional if the statutes allow the husband to unilaterally prohibit the abortion i n the first trimester. 428 U.S. 52, 69. It should be noted that on the same day that the Supreme Court decided Danforth, it also summarily affirmed the lower court decision in Coe v. Gerstein, 376 F. Supp. 695 (S.D. Fla. 1974), aff'd, a spousal consent law 4 2 8 U.So 9 0 1 (1976), which held unsonstitutional regardless of the stage of the woman's pregnancy. With respect to parental Consent statutes, the Supreme Court held in Danfcrth that those statutes that allow a parent or guardian to absolutely prohibit an abortion to be perforined on a minor child were unconstitutional. Subsequently, in Belotti v. Baird, 443. U.S. 6 2 2 (1979), the Court ruled that while a State may require a minor to obtain parental consent, the State must also provide an alternative procedure to procure authorization if parental consent is denied or the minor does not Want to seek it. From the reasoning used in Belotti, it appears that the Court felt a minor is entitled to some proceeding which allows her to prove her ability to make a n informed decision independent of her parents, or that even if she is incapable of making the decision, at least showing that the abortion wocld be in her best interests. The Court in Danforth also ruled that reporting requirements in statutes requiring doctors and health facilities to provide information to States regarding each abortion performed, are C o n ~ t i t ~ t i o n a l .The Court specified, however, that these reporting requirements relate to maternal health, remain confidential, and may not be overaearing. 428 U.S. 52, 80-81. Another aspect in the Danforth case related to the constitutionality of abortion procedure statutes that prohibit the use of saline amniocentesis to obtain an abortion. The Court held such statutes unconstitutional because it believed that a procedure as widely accepted in medical circles as that requiring the use of saline amniocentesis could not be prohibited. Moreover, the State statute in question was held to be inconsistent in its proscription, since it allowed other more dangerous procedures while prohibiting some that were safer, more effective, and rriore widely accepted by the medical profession. Finally, another significant ruling made by the Court in Danforth was that fetal protection statutes were generally overbroad and unconstitutional if they pertained to pre-viable fetuses. Such statutes require a doctor performing an abortion to use available means and medical skills to save the life of the fetus. In a subsequent decision, Colautti v. Franklin, 439 U.S. 379 (1979), the Supreme Court held that such fetal protection statutes could CRS- 7 IB74019 UPDATE-10/13/81 only apply to viable fetuses and that the statute must be precise in setting forth the standard for determining viability. In addition, the Court in Colautti stressed that in order to meet the constitutional test of sufficient certainty, fetal protection laws had to define whether a doctor's paramount duty was to the patient or whether the physician had to balance the possible danger to the patient against the increased odds of fetal survival. 4 3 9 U.S. S 379, 397-401. B. Parental Notice The Supreme Court did attempt to provide further clarification of the parental consent and notification issues in its decision in Bellotti Baird, 443 U.S. 622 (1979). There the Court held unconstitutional a Massachusetts statute that required parental consultation or notification in every instance without affording the pregnant minor an opportunity to receive an independent judicial determination that she was mature enough to consent or that the abortion would be i n her best interests. The Court also found unconstitutional a statutory provision that permitted judicial authorization for an abortion to be withheld from a minor who is found by the court to be mature and fully conpetent to make the decision whether o r not to terminate her pregnancy independently. However, in a n effort to provide some futura guidelines, the court, in dicta, suggested that if a State wished to use parental notification, it must afford the minor the option of proceeding directly to court, without parental notification, where she must show that she is a mature minor or that, if she is found not able to make the decision independently, the desired abortion is in her best interests. Four of the eight justices objected to this suggestion on the ground that i t was an advisory opinion. On Mar. 2 3 , 1981, the Court upheld a Utah State law making i t a crime for doctors to perform a n abortion on a n unemancipated, dependent minor without notifying her parents. in H.L. v. Matheson, 79-5903, a 6-to-3 decision, the Court examined the narrow question of the facial C O n S t i t U t i ~ n a l i t y of a statute requiring a physician to give notice to parents, "if possible," prior the girl is to performing a n abortion on their minor daughter, (a) when living with and dependent upon her parents, (b) when she is not emancipated by marriage or otherwise, and (c) when she has made no claim or showing as to her maturity or a s to her relationship with her parents. The Supreme Court cited the interest in preserving family integrity and protecting adolescents in allowing States to require that parents be informed that their daughter is seeking an abortion, and emphasized that the statUte in question did not give a veto power over the minor's abortion decision. Chief Justice Burger reasoned that the Utah law, "as applied to immature and dependent minors serves the important considerations of family integrity and protecting adolescent^.^ In addition, parental notice provides an opportunity for parents to supply essential medical and other important information to a physician. The medical, emotional, and psychological consequences of an abortion are serious and can be lasting; this is particulary so when the patient is immature." The Court rejected the minor woman's contention that abortion was being singled out for special treatment in Contrast to other surgical procedures, like childbirth, which do not require parental notice. The Chief Justice responded that the situations differed and "if the pregnant girl elects to carry her child to term, the medical decisions to be made perhaps none of the potentially grave emotional and entail few psychological consequences of the decision ro abort." Thus, the Court found the Utah law to be constitutional, since if served important State interests, was narrowly drawn to prot-ect only those interests, and did not in any way ... "... -- -- CRS- 8 IB74019 UPDATE-10/13/81 violate any of the guarantees of the Constitution. Still directly unanswered, however, is the question whether parental notification can b g required in the case of a mature, emancipated minor. The implication of the be constitutionally Bellotti and Eatheson rulings is that such a law would suspect. C. Advertisement of Abortion Services The Supreme Court held in Bigelow v. Virginia, 421 U.S. 809 (1975), that a State may not proscribe advertising regarding the availability of an abortion or abortion-related services in another State. The court found that the statute i n question was unconstitutional because the State of Virginia, where the advertisement appeared, had only a minimal interest in the health and medical practices of New York, the State in which the legal abortion services were located. D. Abortions by Non-Physicians In Connecticut v. Menillo, 429 U.S. 9 (1975), the Supreme Court ruled that State statutes similar to the Texas law challenged in Roe were constitutional to the extent that the statutes forbid non-physicians from performing abortions. The Roe decision made it clear that a State could not interfere with a woman's decision, made in consultation with and upon the advice of her doctor, to have an abortion in the first trimester of h.er pregnancy. The Menillo Court found that ?re-= restrictive abortion laws were still enforceable against non-physicians. 423 U.S. 9 , 11. E. Abortions in Public and Private Hospitals In Poelker v. Doe, 4 3 2 U.S. 519 (1977) (per curiam), the Supreme Court held that the policy of the City of St. Louis in refusing to allow the performance of nontherapeutic abortions in its public hospitals, and of staffing those hospitals with personnel opposed to the performance of abortions, did not violate the equal protection clause of the Constitution. Poelker, however, did not deal with the question of private hospitals and their authority to prohibit abortion services. In Poelksr, the Court dealt to elect to provide publicly financed with the right of a municipality hospital services for childbirth without providing corresponding services for non-therapeutic abortions. The Court approved this practice. No cases have been reported challenging State laws which allow doctors to refuse to participate in abortion procedures. This may be explained by the fact that a woman can always seek out another physician who could perform an abortion, should a doctor initially refuse because of religious or other beliefs. To date the Supreme Court has not rendered a decision regarding the COnStitUtiOnality of State statutes that allow private hospitals to refuse to participate in abortions; however, Federal district Courts have ruled on this Supp. 1156 (D. issue. See, e.g., Jones v. Eastern Me. Med. Center, 448 F. Me. 1978), where the court upheld such a law. F, The Definition of Viability CRS- 9 IB74019 UPDATZ-10/13/81 The Supreme Court's articulation of the concept of viability has required further elaboration, particularly with regard to the critical question of who defines a t what point a fetus has reached viability. 1n ~ o ethe court defined viability as the point a t which the fetus is "potentially able to at live outside the mother's Womb, albeit with artificial aid." 410 U.S. 160. Such potentiality, however, must be for "meaningful life" and this cannot encompass simply momentary survival. 4 1 0 U.S. at 163. The Court also noted that while viability is usually placed at about 2 8 weeks, it can occur earlier and essentially left the point flexible for anticipateii advances in medical skill. Finally, Roe stressed the central role of the pregnant woman's doctor, emphasizing that "the abortion decision i n all its aspects is inherently, and primarily, a medical decision." 410 U.S. at 160. Similar themes were stressed in =Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth=, 4 2 8 U.S. 5 2 (1976), i n which a Missouri law, which defined viability as "that Stage of fetal development when the life of the unborn child may be continued indefinitely outside the womb by natural or artificial life support systems", was attacked as an attempt to advance the point of viability to an earlier stage of gestation. The Court disagreed, finding the statutory definition It re-emphasized that viability is matter of medical consistent with Roe. to preserve the judgment, skill, and technical ability" and that Roe meant flexibility of the term. 4 2 8 U.S. a t 64. Moreover, the Danforth Court held that "it i s not the proper function of the legislature or the courts to place viability, which i s esentially a medical concept, a t a specific point i n the gestation period. The time when viability is achieved may vary with each pregnancy, and the determination of whether a particular fetus is viable is, 4 2 8 U.S. and must b e , a matter for the judgment of the attending physician." at 64. The physician's central role in determining viability, and the lack of such definitional authority i n the legislatures and courts, was most 379 recently reaffirmed by the Court in Colautti Franklin, 439 U.S. (1979). 111. THE PUSLIC FUNDING OF ABORTIONS Two categories of public funding cases have been heard and decided by the Supreme Court: (1) those involving funding restrictions for nontherapeutic (elective) abortions and (2) those involving funding limitations for therapeutic (medically necessary) abortions. A. The 1977 Trilogy Elective Abortions -- Restrictions on Pablic Funding of Nontherapeutic or On June 2 0 , 1977, the Supreme Court, in three related decisions, ruled on the question whether the Medicaid statute or the COnStitUtiOiI requires public funding of nontherapeutic (elective) abortions for indigent women or access to public facilities for the performance of such abortions. The Court held that the States have neither a statutory nor a C O n ~ t i t ~ t i ~ n aobligation l in 464 this regard. Beal v. Doe, 432 U.S. 438 (1977); Maher v. R o e , 4 3 2 U.S. (1977) ; and Poelker v. Doe, 4 3 2 U.S. 519 (1977) (per curiam) . In Beal v. Doe, the Supreme Court dealt with the question of whether Title XIX of the Social Security Act required the funding of nontherapeutic abortion a s a condition of partieipation in the Medicaid program established by the Act. The Court heid that nothing in the language or legislative history of Title XIX requires a participating State to fund every medical procedure falling within the delineated categories of medical care. Each State is given broad discretion to deternine the extent of medical assistance that is "reasonablev1and "consistent with the obligations'' of Title XIX. The Court ruled that it was not inconsistent with the Act's goals to refuse to fund unnecessary medical services. The Court recognized the State's interest in encouraging normal childbirth and found no congressional intent to undercut that interest by subsidizing the costs of nontherapeutic abortions. However, the Court did indicate that Title XIX left a State free to include coverage for nontherapeutic abortions should it choose to do so. In Maher v. Roe, the Supreme Court resolved a constitutionaP challenge ts Connecticut's refusal to reimburse Medicaid recipients for abortion expenses except where the attending physician certifies the abortion to have been medically or psychiatrically necessary. The Court held that the Equal Protection Clause does not require a State participating in the Medicaid program to pay expenses incident to nontherapeutic abortions simply because the State has made a policy choice to pay expenses incident to childbirth. More particularly, C0nx?ecticutts policy of favoring childbirth over abortion was held not to i'mpinge upon the funds.menta1 right of privacy recognized in Roe v. Wade, which protects a woman from undue interference in her decision According tc the Court, the State's choice did not to terminate a pregnancy. handicap an indigent woman desiring an abortion, since she could continue, as before, to look to private abortion services and private sources of funding. In essence, the Court found no absolute bar for an indigent woman seeking a n aSortion. of In Poelker v. Doe, the Court upheld a regulation of the municipalities St. Louis that denied indigent pregnant women nontherapeutic abortions a t public hospitals. In a n unsigned per curiam opinion, the Court stated that it held "for the reasons stated in Maher, that the Constitution does not forbid a State or city, pursuant to democratic processes, from expressing a preference for normal childbirth as St. Louis has done." 4 3 2 U.S. at 521. B. The Public Funding of Therapeutic or Medically Necessary Abortions Supreme Court's Decisions in McRae and Zbaraz The 1977 Supreme Court decisions left open the question whether law, such a s the Hyde Amendment, or similar State laws, could prohibit governmental funding of therapeutic abortions. -- The Federal validly On June 30, 1980, in a 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Hyde Amendment's abortion funding restrictions were constitutional. The Court's majority found that the Hyde Amendment neither violated the due process or equal protection guarantees of the Fifth Amendment nor the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. The Court also upheld the right of a State participating in the Medicaid program to fund only those medically necessary abortions for which it received Federal reimbursement. Harris McRae, 100 S.Ct. 2671 (1980). In companion cases raising similar issues, the Court held that a State of Illinois statutory funding restriction comparable to the Federal Hyde Amendment also did not contravene the constitutional restrictions of the equal protection clause of the ,-Fsu-eenth <.F<. Amendment,. Williams v. Zbaraz; Miller v. Zbaraz; U.S. v. Zbaraz, L,O0-__._ 2694 (1980),. The Court's rulings in McRae and Zbaraz mean there is no statutory or constitutional obligation on the States or the Federal Government to fund all medically necessary abortions. IV. UNRESOLVED ISSUES RELATING TO ABORTION Among the abortion issues not yet addressed by the Supreme Court are the constitutionality of State statutes regarding: (1) the experimental use of fetuses; (2) waiting period requirements; (3) termination of parental rights; and (4) the right to refuse to provide abortion services by physicians and/or private hospitals. The subject of the experimental use of fetuses was challenged in Wynn v, Scott, 449 F.Supp. 1302 (1978), appeal dismissed, 439 U.S. 8 (1979). In Wynn, the district court upheld as constitutional a State law that prohibited live nonviable o r certain dead viable fetuses from being used for 449 F-Supp. at 1322. The Court further found that experimental purposes. the provisions in the law being challenged did "not impose any burden on the Id. Moreover, woman who is deciding whether to terminate her pregnancy." the Court in Wynn ruled that the parties challenging the statute's validity the failed to prove that a rational relationship did not exist between provision in tho law and the State's interest in regulating the practice of medicine. The question of the constitutional validity of State laws restricting fetal research is likely to recur. To date, there are approximately 1 9 States with laws that attempt to limit fetal research. Thus, other court challenges may be anticipated. Another issue relating to abortion that has yet to reach resolution i n the Supreme Court is that involving State laws requiring women to wait between 2 4 and 7 2 hours prior to receiving their abortions. Most of the cases have held that such waiting period requirements which apply to all women were constitutional. Wolfe v. Schroerinp, 541 F. 2d 523 (6th Cir. 1976); Wynn Ill. 1978). One court found that a waiting Scott, 449 F-Supp. i302 (N.D. period which applied only to minors was unconstitutional. Wynn v. Carey, 599 F. 26 193 (7th Cir. 1979). The court reasoned that the statute in question was invalid because it was underinclusive by excluding married minors, and overinclusive by including mature, emancipated minors. More recently, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit ordered the State of Massachusetts to suspend a requirement that women wait 2 4 hours after signing a mandatory consent form before an abortion can be performed, pending a lower court ruling on the merits. The court held that although the delay was "extremely brief," it constituted a "substantial State-created burden on a Woman's fundamsntal right" to have an abortion. Planned Parenthood v. Bellotti, 80-1580, 1st Cir., Feb. 19, 1981. A number of States have laws that automatically terminate parental rights if a live infant results from an attempted abortion. These laws have uniformly been held unconstitutional. Wynn v. Carey, 599 F. 2d 193 (7th Cir. These courts 1979); Wynn v. Scott, 449 F.Supp. 1302, 1322 (N.D. 111. 1978). have generally reasoned that such statutes are invalid because the provisions threaten women with a cut-off of parental rights without according them procedural due process. There are two States, Indiana and Minnesota, that have provisions for voluntary termination of parental rights which have not been challenged to date. A final area in dispute involves the question of the constitutional validity of State laws that allow doctors and/or private hospitals to refuse to participate in an abortion. No cases have been reported challenging State statutes allowing physicians to refuse to perform an abortion. There have been challenges to State laws allowing private hospitals to refuse to participate in abortions. Such statutes have generally withstood court challenges. In one case a Federal court invalidated the provision because it found that the private hospital in question was sufficiently intermingled with the Government to constitute State action. The presence of State action caused the court to rule that the private hospital had to admit patients for abortions. Doe v. Charleston Area Med. Ctr., Inc. 529 F. 2d 6 3 8 (4th Cir. 1975). See also, Jones v. Eastern Me. Med. Center, 448 F.Supp. 1156 (D-Me. 1978). Public hospitals, however, do not have to allow abortions in circumstances. See Poelker v. Doe, 4 3 2 U.S. 519 (1977), where the Court held that the City of St. Louis had the fight to refuse to publicly financed hospital services for nontherapeutic abertions. V. certain Supreme provide LEGISLATION In the 96th Congress, ? 3 bills were introduced containing some type of restrictive abortion provision. Thus far in the 97th Congress, 4 2 bills have been submitted. The proposals may be divided into five general categories: A. Bills that seek a constitutional amendment prohibiting abortion; B. Bills that seek to prohibit abortion by statute; C. Hyde-type amendments to aFpropriations bills; D. Hyde-type amendments to substantive bills; and E. Bills that limit Federal court jurisdiction over abortion-related issues. An examination of the biils in each of the five categories helps clarify the different issues and methods proposed to restrict the availability of abortion. A. Constituticnal Amendments Since 1973, constitutional amendments have been introduced in Congress in an attempt to overrule the Court's decision in Roe v. Wade. These constitutional amendments have fallen into two areas: The "State's rightsw or State option type of amendment and the so-called "right to l i f e w or "human life amendment (HLA)" proposal. The "State's rights" amendment would result in abortion standards that would vary from State to State. Some States night prohibit abortions entirely; other could have no restrictions a t all. In effect, such an amendment would restore to the States the same control over abortion rights that existed prior to the Supreme Court's decision in Roe Wade in 1973. This option is not as popular as it once was. No "State's rights" amendments have been introduced in the 96th Congress. However, 21, S.J.Res. 110, a "Human Life Federalism Amendment," was introduced Sept. 1981, by Senator Hatch. This proposed constitutional amendment is not like the typical "State's rights" amendment previously submitted. S.J.Res. 110 " A right to abortion is not secured by this Constitution. The provides: Congress and the several States have the concurrent power to restrict and prohibit abortions: Provided, that a law of a State which is more restrictive than a law of Congress shall govern." Hearings on S.J.Res. 110 are to be held by the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution Oct. 5 , 1 4 , 19; Nov. 5 , 6 , 1 2 , 16. The typical "right to life" amendment would create a new right in the unborn (personhood) which the Supreme Court has declared is not guaranteed i n the Constitution at present. Presently, the Fifth anC Fourteenth Amendments prohibit only the Federal and State governments from depriving anyone of life without due process of law. Some provisions of proposed "right to life" amendments would extend the prohibition to include private individuals a s well. The proposed amendments utilize a variety of terms to define the time the right attaches: "conception," "moment of fertilization" or "at any stage of biological development." Some amendments introduced allow abortion to save the life of the Some provide no exceptions. mother. In the 97th Congress, the following proposed constitutional amendments have been introduced: H.J.Res* 1 3 , H.J.Res. 27, H.J.Res. 32, H.J.Res. 39, H.J,Res. 5 0 , H.J.Res. 6 2 , H.J.Res. 9 2 , H.J.Res. 9 9 , H.J.Res. 1 0 4 , H.J.Res. 106, H.J.Res. 122.- H.J.Res. 125, H.J.Res. 1 2 7 , H.J.Res. 1 3 3 , H.J.Res. 198, H.J.Res. 249, H.R. 392, S.J.Res. 1 7 , S.J.Res. 1 8 , S.J.Res. 1 9 , and S.J.Res. 110. The only hearings held prior to the 97th Congress were conducted periodically from 1974 to 1976 without any recommendation being made. In this Congress, hearings were held by the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee o n Separation of Powers on Apr. 23 and 24, May 20, 21, June 1 , 1 0 , 1 2 , and 1 8 , 1981, to discuss S. 1 5 8 and the policy implications of a Human Life Statute. Hearings are presently being held on S.J.Res. 110. B. Bills that Seek to Prohibit Abortion by Statute As an apparent alternative to the thusfar unsuccessful efforts to achieve congressional passage of a constitutional amendment to prohibit o r limit the practice of abortion, opponents of abortion have introduced several bills in the 97th Congress which they anticipate will accomplish the same objective without resorting to the complex process of amending the Constitution. Authority for such an action is said to emanate from section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment, which empowers the Congress to enforce the due process and equal protection guarantees of the amendment "by appropriate 9 0 0 and H.R. 3225, legislation." The proposed legislation, S. 1 5 8 , H.R. would declare as a congressional finding of fact that human life begins a t conception and would, it is contended by its sponsors, allow States to enact laws protecting human life, including fetuses. The bills would make it more difficult to test the constitutionality of State laws prohibiting abortions by withdrawing jurisdiction of the lower Federal courts to review these State laws. An appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court from the decision of a State's highest Court would still be allowed, in some instances on a n expedited basis. Hearings on S. 158 were held in May and June 1981 before the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on the Separation of Powers. The hearings were marked by controversy among the witnesses and the members of the subcommittee over the constitutionality of the declaration that human life begins at conception, which contradicts the Supreme Court's specific holding in Roe Wade, and the withdrawal of lower Federal court jurisdiction over suits challenging State laws enacted pursuant to the Federal legislation. On July 9 , 1981, the subcommittee by a vote of 3-2 approved a modified version of S. 158. It was agreed, however, that full Judiciary Committee consideration of the so-called Human Life Statute would be delayed until the Subcommittee o n the Constitution completes hearings on proposed constitutional amendments on the subject. The subcommittee is not expected to complete its work until sometime in 1982. C. Hyde-Type Amendments to Appropriations Bills Congress has attached abortion restrictions to appropriations bills, the However, more first being the Foreign Assistance Act of 1 9 7 3 , P.L. 93-189. recently the focus of attention has been on restricting the availability of abortions under the Medicaid program. The latter series of restrictions have popularly become known a s the Hyde Amendments. To date, there have been four enactments of this limitation on Federal funding of abortions under the annual Departments of Labor (DOL) and Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) appropriations bills. The first version of the Hyde Amendment was enacted as a rider to the F Y 7 7 Labor/HEW Appropriation Act, P.L. 94-439. Section 209 of the law provided that, None of the funds contained in this Act shall be used to perform abortions except where the life of the mother would be endangered in the fetus were carried to term. During the first session of the 95th Congress, another Appropriations provision was attached to ,the F Y 7 8 Labor/HEW measure, P.L. 95-205, provided in part that: restrictive Act. This None of the funds prcvided for in this paragraph shall be used to perform abortions except where the life of the mother would be endangered if the fetus were carried to term; or except for such medical procedures necessary for the victims of rape or incest, when such rape or incest has been reported promptly to a law enforcement agency or public health service; or except in those instances where severe and long-lasting physical health damage to the mother would result if the pregnancy were carried to term when so deternined by two physicians. Nor are payments prohibited for drugs or devices to prevent implantation of the fertilized ovum, or for medical procedures necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy. This provision thus broadened the use of appropriated funds to. include medical procedures for promptly reported cases of rape and incest, long lasting physical health damage to the mother, and other matters. The Labor/HEW abortion policy for FY79 is found in Section 210 of 95-480. This third enactment of the Hyde Amendment was essentially the as that of FY78. P.L. same For FY80, the Labor/HEw abortion policy was changed by enactment of the fourth version of the Hyde Amendment, which excluded abortions "where severe and long lasting physical health damage would result if the pregnancy were carried to term," but retained the other provisions enacted for FY78 and FP79. See P.L. 96-123, Section 109. The House and Senate were unable to reach agreement on final FY81 funding contained in the Labor/HHs appropriations measure. After a protracted debate, a contincing resoiution was adopted that contains a Hyde Amendment which differs from the most recent restrictions i n two resFects. First, a rape must be reported to a law enforcement agency or public health service within 72 hours. Second, and most significant, the States were released from the obligation to fund any abortion if they so choose. Prior to this provision the courts had interpreted the Medicaid statute to require the See P.L. States to fund all abortions allowed under the Hyde Amendment. 96-536. The continuing resolution expired on June 6 , 1981, and was replaced by P.L. 97-12 (H.R. 3512). P.L. 97-12 provided for public funds for abortion Only to save the life of the mother. There are no rape or incest exceptions. It also gave States the option not to fund abortions. P.L. 97-12 expired on Sept. 3C, 1981, and has been succeeded by P.L. 97-51 (H.J.Res. 325), another continuing resolution for FY82, which was signed by President Reagan on Oct. 1 , 1981. The provisions of P.L. 97-12 were reenacted and will be effective until Nov. 20, 1961. Restrictions o n the Federal funding of abortion has had a significant impact on the number of abortions performed under the Medicaid StatUte. Prior to the enactment of the Hyde Amendment, the Office of Population Affairs, DiiEW, prepared very rough estimates of Federal funds expended for aSortions under the Medicaid program. The Office of Population Affairs estimated tnat in 1974 Medicaid financed between 220,000 and 278,000 abortions at a cost of $40-50 million. For 1976, the Office estimated that Medicaid financed abortion procedures at an annual rate of 250,000 to 300,000 According to the Medicaid data branch of the at a cost of $45-55 million. Office of Policy, Planning and Research, DHEW, from Feb. 1 4 , 1978 through Dec. 31, 1978, 2,328 abortions were funded a t a cost of $777,158 to State and Federal governments. The Hyde Amendment process has not been limited to the annual Labor/HHS appropriations bill. During the 95th and 96th Congresses, Hyde-type abortion limitations were enacted into law as Section 863 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act of 1979 (See P.L. 95-457, 95th Congress, 2d session (1978)) and a s amendments to the District of Columbia appropriation bill for FY80. (See P.L. 96-93, 96th Congress, 1st session, (1979).) Section 863 of the 1979 Department of Defense Appropriation Act is referred to as the Dornan Amendment. It uses language identical to that of FY78 and ~ ~ L a 7 b o9 r / ~ E W appropriations. The Dornan Amendment restricts the use of military appropriations for abortions, and the restrictions specifically apply to military personnel and their dependents. The abortion restriction for Federal funds provided Columbia (D.C.) stated: to the District None of the Federal funds provided in this Act shall be used to perform abortions except where the life of the inother would be endangered if the fetus were carried to term; or except for such medical procedures necessary for the victims of rape or incest, when such rape or incest has been reported promptly to a law enforcement agency or public health service. Nor are payments prohibited for drugs or devices to prevent implantation of the fertilized ovum, or for medical procedures of necessary for the termination of an ectopic pregnancy. This limitation does not appear to restrict the use of non-Federal funds at the disposal of the District of Columbia. The same funding restriction was continued in the District's FY81 appropriation. P.L. 96-530, Section 118. On July 30, 1981, the House passed the Ashbrook amendment (roll call no. 182, 253-161) to H.R. 4121, the Treasury-Postal Service Appropriations Act for PY82. The amendment prohibits the use of funds, except where the life of the mother is endangered, to pay for an abortion or the administrative expenses connected with any health plan under the Federal Employees Health Benefits program that covers abortions. The bill has been sent to the Senate for further action. D. Hyde-Type Amendments to Substantive Bills Since 1973 several authorization bills have been adopted by Congress that directly relate to the abortion issue. The Health Services Extension Act of 1973, P.L. 93-45, Contained a conscience clause, a provision that prohibits complying institutions and individuals that receive FeCeral funds to perform or participate in abortion or sterilization procedures from discriminating against applicants because of their beliefs on abortion. The Foreign Assistance Act of 1973, P.L. 93-189, prohibited the use of funds to pay for the performance of abortions or to coerce any person to practice abortion. No conscience clause bills have been introduced in the 97th Congress. In the recently approved Onnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, P.E. 97-35 (H.R. 3982), the Public Health Services Act was amended by adding a new title XX entitled "Adolescent Family Life Demonstration Projects," which prchibits the funding of programs if they provide abortions or abortion related services a s follows: (a) Grants or payments may be made only to programs or "Sec. 2011. projects which do not provide abortions or abortion counseling or referral, or which do not subcontract with o r make any payment to any person who provides abortions or abortion counseling or referral, except that any such program or project may provide referral for abortion counseling to a pregnant adolescent if such adolescent and the parents or guardians of such adolescent request such referral; and grants may be made only to projects or programs which do not advocate, promote, or encourage abortion. "(b) The Secretary shall ascertain whether programs or projects (a) and take appropriate action if programs or comply with subsection projects d o not comply with such subsection, including withholding of funds". In the current Congress, H.R. 3480, the Legal Services Corporation Act Amendments of 1980, passed the House on June 1 8 , 1981, with a provision to prohibit legal assistance with respect to abortion unless the abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother. An amendment (offered by Representative Sensenbrenner) was rejected 160-242. It would have prohibited giving legal advice concerning a client's rights and r.esponsi5ilities regarding abortion. The bill is now awaiting Senate action. H.R. 1059 and H.R. 1060 of the 97th Ccngress would permit the parent or guardian of a minor child to inspect personal medical files of the minor except for that portion of the file that relates to family planning services ! ~ n c l u d i n g abortion) sought and received by such come out of committee. minor. Neither bill has In the 96th Congress, a different approach was proposed in several bills known a s the Family Protection Act. The bills required federally-funded abortiox and venereal disease treatment centers to notify parents of unmarried minors that such minors have requested a n abortion, contraceptives, or are undergoing treatment for a venereal disease. A similar proposal, H.R. 311, was introduced in this Congress. Two other bills, also entitled Family 3955 Protection Acts, have a slightly different emphasis. These bills, H.R. and S. 1 3 7 8 , require the notification of parents or guardians before a federally funded program, project, o r entity may provide contraceptive or abortion services t c . a n unmarried minor. The bills would also amend the Legal Services Corporation Act to prohibit legal assistance for any proceeding or litigation to compel a n abortion or State or Federal funding for an abortion. The International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981, S. 1196, would prohibit using population planning and health program funds to pay for research related to the issue of abortions or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning. H.R. 2446 of the 97th Congress would amend Title X of the Public Health Service Act to deny grants and contracts to any entity that provides abortion counseling to minors without the knowledge and consent of their parents or guardians. H.R. 2447 does not limit the restriction to Title X facilities. E. Limitation on Federal Court Jurisdiction Several bills have been introduced in the 9?th Congress proposing limitations on the power of Federal courts, H.R. 73, H.R. 9 0 0 , H.R. 3225, S. 158, and S. 583 would prohibit Federal courts (excluding the Supreme Court) from issuing injunctive relief in any case dealing with abortion. H.R. 867 would remove the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and Federal district courts to prohibit the consideration of any abortion case. Hearings have been held in both Houses on whether Congress has the authority to remove the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court or lower Federal courts over abortion cases. Other controversial issues such a s school busing, school prayer, and the military draft have also precipitated congressional attempts to curb Federal court jurisdiction. The hearings thus far have not concentrated on a particular issue, but rather have focused on 583, H.R. 73, and Congress' power over the courts generally. However, S. H.R. 8 6 7 were among the bills examined. Hearings were held by the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution on May 20-21, and June 2 2 , 1981. The House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and Administration of Justice held a hearing on June 3 , 1981. F. Early Developments in the 97th Congress The 97th Congress has demonstrated an intense interest in the abortion Several sets of hearings have issue with respect to overturning Roe v. Wade. been held on the proposed Human Life Statute, on the authority of Congress to remove jurisdiction from the Federal courts, and the Human Life Federation Amendment. P.L. 97-12 has further restricted MeCicaid funding for abortions dropping rape and incest exceptions and permitting the public funding abortions only to sav2 the life of the mother. by of H.R. 3480 prohibits the Legal Services Corporation from providing legal assistance with respect to abortion unless the abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother. With the exceptions of the proposed Human Life Statute and the Human Life Federalism Amendment, the joint resolutions calling for a constitutional amendment that have been introduced do not differ significantly from those introduced in previous Congresses. By October 1981, 2 1 proposed right to life constitutional amendments were introduced. Seven would provide no specific exception for procedures to save the life of the mother: H.J. Res. 1 3 , H.Y.Res. 32, H.J.Res. 50, H.J.Res. 104, H.J.Res. 106, H.R. 392, S.J.Res, 19. Twelve would make the amendment inapplicable to laws permitting medical procedures required to save the life of the mother: H.J.Res. 27, H.J.Res. 39, H.J.Res. 6 2 , H.J.Res. 9 2 , H.J.Res. 9 9 , H.J. Res. 122, H.J.Res. 1 2 5 , H.J.Res, 127, H.J.Res. 133, H.J.Res. 249, S.J.Res. 1 7 , S.J. Res. 18. In a different twist, H.J,Res. 1 9 8 permits an abortion to save the life of the mother, but requires that reasonable efforts be made to perserve the life of the person who i s the subject of the abortion. Only one State's rights constitutional amendment has been introduced, S.J.Res. 110. Six bills have been introduced to curtail Federal court jurisdiction. One measure (H.R. 867) would eliminate all Federal court jurisdiction, including the Supreme Court, to review any case arising out of State law or action relating to abortion. Others prohibit any Federal court except the Supreme Court from issuing an injunction in any case arising out of a federal, State or local law that prohibits or regulates abortion or the provision of public assistance for the performance of abortions. Finally, in a novel approach, three bills, H.R. 9 0 0 , S. 158 and H.R. 3225, have been introduced that would define the term person to include the unborn for the purposes of the Fourteenth Amandment. These Right to Life Statutes therefore seek to overrule the contrary holding of Roe v. Wade by legislation rather than constitutional amendment on the basis that such legislation is authorized under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment, which prcvides that "the Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article." See section V.B. above. G. Public Laws 93rd Congress Five public laws governing abortion were enacted during the 93rd Congress: (1) P.L. 93-45, the Health Service Extension Act of 1973, approved June 18, Act for 1973; (2) P.L. 93-96, the National Science Foundation Authorization FY74, approved Aug. 1 6 , 1973; (3) P.L. 93-189, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1973, approved Dec. 1 7 , 1973; (4) P.L. 93-348, the ~ i o m e d i c a lResearch Act of 1974, approved July 1 2 , 1974; and (5) P.L. 93-355, the Legal Services Corporation Act of 1974, approved July 25, 1974. 94th Congress Two public laws were enacted during the 94th Congress: (1) P.L. 94-63, the Nurses Training Act of 1975, approved July 2 9 , 1975; and (2) P.L. the Labor-HEW Appropriations Act for FY77, approved Sept. 30, 1976. 94-439, 95th Congress During the 95th Congress, eight measures containing abortion restrictions were signed into law: (1) P.L. 95-205, the Continuing Appropriations f o r FY78, approved Dec. 9 , 1977; (2) P.L. 95-215, the Health Services Act 1 9 , 1977; (3) P.L. 95-424, the Amendments of 1977, approved Dec. 6@ Internatiocal Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978, approved Oct. 1978; (4) P.L. 95-444, the Civil Rights Commission Act, approved Oct. 13, 1978; (5) P.L. 95-457, the Defense Department Applopriations Act for FY79, approved Oct. 3.3, 1978; (6) P.L. 95-480, the Labor-HEW Appropriations Act for FY79, approved Oct. 1 8 , 1978; (7) P.L. 95-481, Foreign Assistance (8) P.L. 95-555, the Appropriations Act, approved Oct. 1 8 , 1978; and Pregnancy Disability Act of 1978, approved Oct. 31, 1978. 96th Congress In the 96th Congress, nine public laws contained abortion restrictions: (1) P.L. 96-76, the Nurse Training Act Amendments of 1979, approved Sept. 29, 1979; (2) P.L. 96-86, the Continuing Appropriations Act for FY80, approved Oct. 1 2 , 1979; (3) P.L. 96-93, the District of Columbia Appropriations Act 96-123, the Further Continuing for FY80, approved Oct. 30, 1979; (4) P.L. Appropriations Act for FY80, approved Nov. 20, 1979; (5) P.L. 96-154, the Department of Defense Appropriations Act for FY80, approved Dec. 2 1 , 1979; (6) P.L. 96-306, the Supplemental Appropriations and Recission Act of 1980, approved July 8 , 1980; (7) P.L. 96-369, the Continuing Appropriations Act for FY81, approved Oct. 1 , 1980; (8) P.L. 96-580, the District of Columbia 96-536, the Appropriations Act for FY81, approved Dec. 1 3 , 1981; (9) P.L. Continuing Appropriations Act for FY81, approved Dec. 1 6 , 1981. 97th Congress Thus far, three measures containing restrictions on abortion have been enacted: P.L. 97-12 (H.R. 3512), the Supplemental Appropriations and Recission Act of 1981, provides that none of the funds in the Act shall be used to perform abortions except where the life of the mother would be endangered if the fetus were carried to term. The States are free not to fund abortions to the extent that they in their sole discretion deem appropriate. P.L. 97-35, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, amends the Public Health Services Act by adding a new title XX, entitled "Adolescent Family Life Demonstration Projects," which prohibits the funding of programs if they provide abortions or abortion related services. P.L. 97-51 (H.J.Res. 325), a continuing funding resolution, extends the abortion restrictions through Nov. 20, 1981. LEGISLATION 583 (Hatch) H.R. 73 (Ashbrook et al.) , H.R. 867 (Crane, P.)/S. Both H.R. 73 and S. 583 prohibit lower Federal courts from issuing injunctive relief in any case dealing with abortion, but allow Supreme Court jurisdiction. H.R. 867 removes the jurisdiction of ali Federal courts, including the Supreme Court, to review abortion cases. Hearings held on H.R. 73 and H.R. 9 6 7 by House Judiciary Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice June 3 , 1981. Hearings held on S. 583 b y Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution May 20-21, June 2 2 , 1981. H.R. 9 0 0 (Hyde et al.) , H.R. 3225 (Mazzoli et al.) /S. 1 5 8 (Helms et al.) Defines "person" to include the unborn for the purpose of the right to life guarantee under the Fourteenth Amendment. Prohibits any inferior Federal court from issuing injunctive relief in any case arising out of State or local law that prohibits or regulates abortion or the provisions of public assistance for the performance of abortions. H.R. 9 0 0 introduced Jan. 19, 1 0 , 1981; referred to Committee on the 1981; H.R. 3225 introduced Apr. Judiciary. S. 1 5 8 introduced Jan. 1 9 , 1981; referred to Committee on the Judiciary; hearings held by Subcommittee on Separation of Powers Apr. 23-24, May 20-21, June 1 , 1 0 , 12, 1 8 , 1981; amended bill reported to full committee July 9 , 1981. H.R. 3480 (Rodino et a 1 . ) Legal Services Corporation Act Amendments of 1980. As passed by House, prohibits legal assistance with respect to abortion unless the abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother. The Sensenbrenner amendment, rejected by House 160-242, sought to prohibit the giving of legal advice concerning a client's rights and responsibilities regarding abortion. Introduced May 7, 1981; referred to Committee on the Judiciary; passed House June 1 8 , 1981; awaits Senate action. H.R. 4121 (Roybal) Treasury, Postal Service Appropriations Act for FY82. As passed by the House, prohibits the use of funds, except where the life of the mother is endangered, to pay for an abortion or the administrative expenses connected With any health plan under the Federal Employees Health Benefits program that covers abortions. Introduced Jan. 1 5 , 1981; referred to Committee on Appropriations; passed House July 30, 1981; reported by Senate Committee on Appropriations Sept. 1 8 , 1981. S. J. Res. 1 1 0 (Hatch) Provides that there be no right to abortion under the Constitution and gives Congress and the States concurrent power to restrict and prohibit abortions with more restricting State laws given preference. Hearings to be held by the Senate Judiciary subcommittee on the Constitution Oct. 5 , 1 4 , 19; Nov. 5 , 6, 1 2 , 1 6 , 1981. HEARINGS U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights. Proposed constitutional amendments on abortion. Hearings, 94th Congress, 2d session. Feb. 4 , 5 ; Mar. 22-27, 1976. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice. Constitutional restraints upon the judiciary. Hearings, 97th Congress, 1st (not session, on H.R. 73 and H.R. 867. June 3 , 1981. yet published) U.S. Subcommittee on Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Constitutional Amendments. Abortion. Hearings, 93d Congress, 2d session, on S.J.Res. 119 and S.J.Res. 130. Part 1. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1974. 729 p. Hearings held Mar. 6 and 7 , Apr. 1 0 , 1975. ----- --------- Washington, Abortion. Hearings, 93d Congress, 2d session, on S.J. Res. 119 and S.J. Res. 130. Part 2. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1975. Hearings held Apr. 25, May 7 , June 4 and 2 6 , July 24, Aug. 21, Sept. 1 2 , and Oct. 8 , 1974. Abortion. Hearings, 9 3 6 Congress, 2d session, on S.J.Res. and S.J.Res. 130. Part 3. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1975. 4 7 5 p. LRS75-22721 119 Abortion. Hearings, 94th Congress, 1st session, on S.J.Res. 6 , S.d.Res. 1 0 and 1 1 , and S.J.Res. 91. Part 4. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1976. 1001 p. Hearings held Mar. 1 0 , Apr. 1 1 , May 9 , June 1 9 , and July 8 , 1975. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee an the Constitution. Constitutional restraints upon the judiciary. Hearings, 97th Congress, 1st session, on S. 583. May 20-21, and June 2 2 , 1981. (not yet published) U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Separation of Powers. Proposed human life statute. Hearings, 97th Congress, 1st session, on S. 158. Apr. 23-24, May 20-21, June I , 1 0 , 1 2 , 18, 1981. (not Yet published) CHRGNOLOGY OF EVENTS 08/13/81 -- 06/05/81 -- 03/23/81 -- 03/17/80 -- 06/30/80 -- 01/16/80 -- P.L. 97-35 signed by President Reagan. Amends the Public Health Service Act by adding a new title XX, entitled "Adolescent Family Life Demonstration Projects,'' which prohibits the funding of PHs programs if they provide abortions or abortion related services. P.L. 97-12 signed by President Reagan. Allows Federal Medicaid funds for abortions only to save the life of the mother. The Supreme Court upheld a Utah statute that required a physician to give notice to parents before performing an abortion upon an unemancipated, dependent minor. Supreme Court refused to reconsider a June 30 decision upholding Congressional restrictions on the use of Medicaid funds to pay for abortions. The U.S. supreme court rules that the Hyde Amendment abortion restrictions are constitutionally valid. The annual abortion restriction to Labor/HEW appropriation bills was held unconstitutional by a U.S. district Court in Brooklyn, N.Y. (KcRae v. Secretary, HEW). ADDITIONAL REFERENCE SOURCES Buckley, James L. "A Human Life Amendment," 1 Human Life Review 7-20 (Winter, 1975) . Byrn, Robert M. "An American Tragedy: The Supreme Court on Abortion," 4 1 Fordham Law Review 807-862 (1973). Cohen, Leslie A. "Fetal Viability and Individual Automony: Resolving Medical and Legal Standards for Abortion," 27 U.C.L.A. Law Review 1346 (1980). Crocker, Royce. "Abortion, 1980-1961: Issue Brief IB81052. Public Opinion," CRS Bale, Charles. "Potential Implications of S. 158 for the Legal Rights of the Unborn in Traditional Areas of Tort, Property, and Criminal Law," CRS American Law Division Report, Apr. 21, 198%. a comment o n Ely, John Hart. "The Wages of Crying Wolf: Roe v. Wade," 82 Yale Law Journal 920-949 (April, 1973). "The Limited FOStr N., Chudasn, D. and Wikber, D. Significance of 'Fetal Viability'," Hasting Center Report, 10-13 (December, 1980) . Galebach, Stephen H. "A Human Life Statute," 7 Human Life Review 5-33 (Winter, 1981) . Gorby, John D. "The 'Right' to an Abortion, the Scope of Fourteenth Amendment 'Personhood' and the Supreme Court's Birth Requirement," 1979 Southern Illinois University Law Journal 1 (1979). "The Nature and Uses of Congressional Gordon, Irving A. Power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to Overcome Decisions of the Supreme C o u r t I n 72 Northwestern Law Review 656-705 (1977). Griffin, Eugene. "Viability and Fetal Life in State Criminal Abortion Laws," 7 2 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 324 (1981). Lewis K.J. and Rosenberg, M. "Legal Analysis of Congress' Authority to Enact a Human Life Statute," CRS American Law Division Report, Feb. 2 0 , 1981. ----- "Constitutional Authority to Enact a Human Life Statute: A Constitutional Analysis of S. 158," CRS American Law Division Report, Apr. 1 7 , 1981. Meacs, Cyril C., Jr. "The Law of New York Concerning Abortion and the Status of the Fetus, 1664-1968: a Case of Cessation of C ~ n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y . ~ 1 4 New York Law Forum 411-415 (Fall, 1968) . Mohr, James C. Abortion in America: the Origins and Evolution of National Policy, 1800-1900 (Oxford University Press, Inc. 1976). Noonan, John T., Jr., ed. The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives. Cambridge, Harvard University 1. Upholding Press, 1970; "The Supreme Court and Abortion: Constitutional Principles," Hastings Center Report, 14-16 (December 1980). -me-- "Why a Constitutional Amendment?" 26 (Winter, 1975). 1 Human Life Review Paul, Eve W. and Schaap, Paula. "Abortion and the Law in 1980." 25 New ~ o r kLaw School Law Review 497-525 (1980). -- Medical and Legal Quay, Eugene. "Justifiable Abortion Foundations," 49 Georgetown Law Journal 173 (Winter, 1960). ----- -- "Justifiable Abortion Medical and Legal Foundations," 49 Georgetown Law Journal 395 (Spring, 1961). Note, "Parental Notice Statutes: Permissible State Regulation of a Minor's Abortion Decision," 49 Fordham Law Review 8 1 (1980). Note, "Survey of Abortion Law," 1 Arizona State Law Journal 67-216 (1980).