Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 99th Congress, First Session

This report presents the proceedings and debates of the 99th Congress, first session.

United States qi America Vol. 131 PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 99 th CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION - WASHINGTON, MONDAY, APRIL 22, 1785 NORTHERN KENTUCIV{ 'IUNiVEFlSlTV LIBRARY or STA'ATES INTOUNION AgpW rm! ORICWAL T~IRTEW: A B R XHISTORY ~ m ANALYSIS 01 TRI: STATEHOOD PROCESS (BYPeter 8. Sheridan, Analyst in American National Government. Government Divislon, April 2. 1985. Congnssibnal Research Service. Library of Con-) 1.BACXCRO~ - The authority for admitting new s t i t & into the Union is vested in Congress by Artfcle N.Section 3. of the Constitution of the United States. ss follows: New States may be admitteh by the congress into the Union: but no new State shaU be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State: nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Pa.i?sof States, without the consent of the E e p r o d u c e d by t h e L i b r a r y o f Cmgress , ~ o n ~ r e s s i ' o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e . J u n e 1 4 , 1985. No. 47 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE Legislatures of the States concerned ar well carry out its shere of t h e cost of the Fedew hood bill), .odr .ukommlttea of the House as of the Congrw. Government Committee oa PUW Lrrrrds eppmved the The Congress shall have powers to dispose The requirement that a State "carry out iedalatian. zn t010. howeverCPCT the memure of and make all needful Rules and Reguls- fts share of tht cost of the Federal govem- was blocked by the muse Rules Committee. tiom mwxting t h e Territory or other ment." however. "haJ never been required In 1950. an ebill war prssed by the Property belonging to the United States: of any state umn its admhion to the House. but f U e d fa tbe Smate. In 1954. a and nothlng in thfs Constitution shali be Union. Fbeamh hsa failed to produce a proposal for -Eawaii statehood construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the single instsnce or conqnsetonnl debate ~n passed the Senate, bat not tht House. United states4 or of any. pprtifcu States. whch this additionst econoraic 'criteria' Proponentr of statehood did not remain Although ArUcle IV does not further Cs~clwas m a d or mrrtred in the statehood idle. and in April 1960 r Statu constitution define the procedure by which a territory process of a~ aspiring entity." With this was approved by Ahskma In October 1956. becomes sStstc. the usual procedure for ad- exception. thh has been the hLstorical p a t two "Semtors" and a "Representative" numion b (1) the people of the territory tern under whkh 37 States have been ad- were elected. ready to assume office.. Presithrough their territorial m b l y petition mitted. althuugh these "requinments" are dent M g h t D. Eisenhower announced kilo an "enabling not legally or const1tutio11Plfy mandated Con([w& (2) Congreaa supDort for statehood in January 1958. and act" that. when slgned by the Resident, aulegislation to that end was introduced and IL STA'WOOD HISTORIES thorizes the territory to frame a constihrc pssled both Houses of Congress On July 7. Alabama tion: (3) Congms passes an act of admission 1968. Resident Usenhower signed the On March 3.1818. Alabama Ter~Itory was approved by the Resident. Though ConAIsska Ststehood Act (72 Stat. 339). In eastern created by the Conmess from the mesa and the President may frsist upon cerAugusk statehood w a approved by an overtain conditiolv for admission to the Union. part of MMsibpt Territory ( 3 Stat. 371). whelming majority of Allrknns. Flnally, on a state, once admitted b eclud with all By 1819. the population of the new territory J m u u g 3.1959. A&ka was {ormally admithad Lncreased enough that Consress, at the ted M a State by Presidential proclamation otherstater.. .I One such "condition" is thab a State have request of the territorlal lemdature, passed (73 Stat. ~161, a "republican" form of Government. The an e n a b w act on March 2.1819. which w Arizona of a State. constituUS. Constitution gumtees to every State thonzed the drafto ~ created on The territory of ~ r f i waa a "republican" farm ol government (Article tion. and that this constitution "to be tran& IV. Sec. 4). and thia provision became one of nutted to Congnss. for its appmb?tion." (3 February 23. 1863. from the western part of the few oondant elements in subsequent en- Stat. 489). A coostitutionai convention met the territory of New Medm (12 Stat. 664). at Huntsville for that purpose from July 5 In 1891, the territorlal legislatun of Arlzoabline acts and a& of admisalon. to August 2. 1819. aad a constitution was na authorized a constitutional convention Wh& this hsa been the "usual" pr&& for admission to statehoodP some Stater duly forwarded to Congress, which found (without a congressional enabling act), The have followed different procedures. Seven- the constitution to be "republican." On De- constitution produced by thia convention teen territories. for example, gained state- cember 1% 18l9, a congressional resolution encountered opposition in Con@es+ when it hood wtthout enabling acts (see Appendix adrmtting Alabama into the Unmn anr araa submitted because It declared silver as I). Four other States (Kentucky. M a h = rimed by Pmsdent James Madfsan (3 Stat. legal tender. Many congressmen af this time supwrted the gold standard Nevertheless. a Vermont. and West V i r g h h ) w e n admitted 608). There were no obstacles.t4 the admtssion statehood bill war introduced in 1892 by the bg simple congressional acta of -ion ond there were no debates in of A l a W territorial Delegate. ThLt bill was passed by w~thoutundergoing a preUminarr stage of terntorial m o a ' all four are= had Congress on the admissfan of the new State. the Houee but tiled in the Senate because. as one historian noted, "Repubifcan8 In the Alaska been parts of other Statea before nrfminsion Senate feared the admission of 8 state that California and Texas sunilarly were not orAlaska was purchased from Russia in 1867 obviously would be Democratic ln politic%" ' ganized territories before actmiwion. Cali- (15 Stat. 5391, and was granted territorial In 1902 a statehood bill for New Mexico. fornia had been adminfstered by the Ameri- government by the organic act of 1912 (37 can Anny. and Texas had been an independ- Stat, 512). The f i r s t bill for Alaslran state- OkIahoma and Arfaolu W E 8 introduced ent republic before i t WIM annexed. In seven hood was introduced in 1916 by delegate Thh bill was oppoc#d by Republican Senacases (Tennessee. Michigan, Iowa Oregon, Jamea WIckersh8m. who was also the tor Albert Beveridge of Illinois who, after a Kansas, and Alaska), the United States Con- author d the O ~ ~ E UAct & of 1912 Opposi- t h m d a y visit to the territory, proposed infpess was presented by t h e respxt~ve tion to Ahskm statehood immediately, and stead the Pdmission of Arizona aud New S'ates" rvtth "Senators" and "Representa- for yeam pfterarard focused on several as- Mexico as a single State. This action was protested by the residents tives" from these areas before statehood pects of the territory's ecnnomy and geograwas gxanted TNs procedure, known as the phy. It war, claimed for example. that the of both AAmna and New Mexico. Eventualan amendment to the bill was offered ly, 'TennesseePlan." war first adopted by Ten- population of the terntory waa too small to nessee m 1796, when a constitution was support statehood. Mare interesting was the providing for a referendum in the two terrldrafted and representatives were elected, all argument that Alaska was not contiguous to toriea on joint statehood (34 Stat. 267). In mthout any authortzation from Congress* the United States. Nevertheles. contiguity November 1906, loint statehood waa defeatIn most instames, States were admitted was never a requirement for statehood. ed by the k-bonana, and each of the two into the Union anthout any great difficulty. More telling, perhap* were arguments that territories pursued statehood on an individregardless of the procedure used. In some Alaska poseessed insufficiently deveioped usl baak In his f h t annual mesage to Congress in cases, however. statehood. because of vari- resourcea and that statehood would increase December 1909, President Wllliam Howard ous political. social. and economic rerwns, the cost of government in Alaska was achieved only after a long and protractBY 1946. many of these arguments seem to Taft recommended Pdmission 02 Arizona ed struggle. Before the Civil War, for exam- lack validity because Alaska had, during the and yew Mexico as separate States. At the ple. the queatlon whether a new State would war years 1941-1945. experienced an in- same time, President Tpft urged the t e r r i b be free or slave delayed entrana rnto the crease in population tcfvrlfan and military) rlea to exercise care in the selection of deleUnion. At other times, partpolitic3 in csused by the construction ~f such thlnes a# gates to thek respective constitutional confollowing Taft's recomCongress deferred admission of new States. mads. aufields, and docka needed in the war ventions. ConThus. the time between organization of a effort. These mprovernenta tn communica- mendation. enacted an enablihg act for M territory and adrnfssion into the Union tiona and transportation helped end Alas- zona on June 20,1910 (36 Stat. 557). The Arizona co~titutionalconvention finvaried from two years in the case of Ala- ka's lsolat~onand contributed to Alaska's ished i t s work on December 10. 1910. and bama to sixty-two yeam for New Mexico economic improvement. (see Appendix A). The campaign for statehood for Alaska r e submitted the document for popular apIn addition to the procedural patterns de- ceived an added boost when President proval on February 9. 1911. Arizona's cotistiscribed above, certarn ":raditionally accept- Truman, in his first State of the Union Mes- tution included provisions for such features ed requirements" for statehood have been sage in January 1948. recommended state- as fnitiative. referendum. hnd rm%dl of noted: hood for Alaska "as soon sr it is certain that public officials. The comtltutton was ap(1) That the inhabitants of the proposed thin b tbe desire of the people of that great proved by the people end submitted to Con~ r e s s .IE AUBUS~. Con~ssseda Joint new State are imbued with and are sympo- Terntom." In October 1945, the votera of Almka a p resolution admitting Arizona and New thetic toward the principles of democracy as exempliffed in the American fonn of gov- proved statehood for the territory by t h e e Mexico. Resident Taft. however. vetoed the bill enunent and have prqcred thelr polltical ma- to two. or 9.620 to 6.822 While not overwhelming. the vote nevertheless encouraged b e c a w he objected to the section of the Arturity . . . (2) That s m&jordtg ol the electorate wish the Delegate m m Alaska. E. L Bartlett. to Izona c o ~ t i t u t i o nconcernine the mcaU of introduce a statehood bUi. At the m e t h e . Judges. On August 21. 1911. Congresl pessed statehood. ( 3 ) That the p r o m new State haa suffi- the territorial leglalatun sent 8 memorial to another joht resolution Bdmlttino Arizona cient population and resourcea to support Congress requesting statehood Hearlngs but requiring the territory to exempt memState government and a t the same time were held (the first on any Alaskan stab- bers of the judlci~rgfrom recall (37 S t a t April 22,1985 COPgGRESSIONAL RECORD 39). This was done. and on February 12. 1912 President Taft declared statehood for Arizona by Presidential proclamation (37 Stat. 1728). - SEN' by the people of California on November 13. 1849. On the same day. the people elected a full slate of government officials. including two "Representatives." At the first session At the first State election after statehood, of the California State legislature, two the people of Arizona voted to reinstate a United States "Senators" were appointed. recall of judges provision to their constitu- On December 20, 1849, the military govertion. nor resigned. California, in effect. had proclaimed itself a State. In so doing. CaliforArkansas Arkansas was organized as a territory on nia foilowed the precedent established by March 2,1819 (3 Stat. 493) from part of Mis- Tennessee in 1796. In his annual message to Congress on Desouri territory, which in tum. had been formed from the Louisiana Purchase (8 cember 4, 1849, President Taylor recommended the immediate admission of CaliforStat. 200). Arkansas's efforts to acquire statehood nia There were. at this time. fifteen slave were initially hampered by internal regional States and fifteen fret States. Southerners social. political, and economic schisms. The in Congress immediately protested the adsoutheastern part of the territory, for ex- mission of a new free State, and a long and ample, consisted predominantly of slave- vehement debate ensued.* In the midst of the debate. Senator Hemy holding cotton planters. The northwestern part of the territory, on the other hand, was Qay of Kentucky, on January 29, 1850, promade up of small f m e r s (predominantly posed a series of resolutions to settle the non-slaveholding) growing a variety of agri- differences between the North and the .cultural products. The interests of both sec- South The resolutions called for the admistions. therefore, did not generally coincide sion of California as a free State. the orgaon a number of issues. not the least of nization of New Mexico and Utah as territories without any mention of slavery, the enwhich was statehood. In 1831. Ambrose H. Sevier. the territorial actment of a new and more effective fugiDelegate, suggested delaying statehood be- tive slave'law, the abolition of the slave cause of the increased taxation which he trade in the District of Columbia, and the felt would be necessary after statehood. adjustment of the boundary between Texas l b o years later, however, with the increase and New Mexico. with the Federal Governof proJackson sentiment in the territory. ment assuming the Texas national debt. Clay's proposals resulted in the enactment and with the move by Michigan for statehood, Sevier and other Democrats changed of five laws between September 9 and S e g course and began to push for statehood tember 20, 1850, known collectively as the Considering Michigan's application for ad- "Compromise of 1850." The first of these. mission as a free state. Sevier stated' on September Ladmitted California as free "Should she go into the Union as such, the State (9 Stat. 452).loSubsequent legislation happy balance-of political power now exist- established a territorial government in Utah ing in the Senate. will be destroyed. unless a and New Mexico with no mention of slavery, -amended the fugitive slave law, abolished slave state go in with her." In Washington. Sevier's efforts to obtain the slave trade in the District of Columbia, an enabling act for the territory proved un- and adjusted the boundary of Texas and availing because of the opposition of aboli- New Mexico without mention of slavery. tionist Whigs. Arkansas statehooders there. Colorado .,fare decided to ho1d.a constitution convena temtory on Colorado. was organized tion without congressional authorization. February 28, I861 (12 Stat. as 172). This was done in January 1836, and by the In 1858. discovery of gold in what is now end of the month a constitution was on i t s resulted in a rush of settlers into way to Washington In time to have state- Colorado the region The next year. in a move for hood for Arkansas considered at the same self-government typical of several other time as s$atehood for Michigan. settlements in American history. In the Senate, there was little opposition frontier the area created "Jefferson to the admission of Arkansas as a siave the residentsanofunofficial polltical entity. In State, and the measure passed the Senate Territory," September 1859, these residents voted on on April 4, 1836. In the House. however, the question- whether to seek territorial anti-Jacksonians, led by John Quincy status or statehood. Statehood was rejected Adam, engaged in strong opposition to Ar- by a close because many felt that kansas statehood. Finally, on June 12, ad- the region margin was not ready for elevation to mission bills for Michigan and Arkansas statehood. Two y e w later, in 1861. Colorawere passed by the House. President was organized as a territory including Andrew Jackson signed the measure admit- do lands which make up its present ting Arkansas into the Union on June 15. those boundaries. that is, pami of the territories 1858 (5 Stat. 50). of Utah. Kansas. Nebraska and New CalUornia Mexico. "Jefferson Territory;" of course. California was part of the area ce&d to came to an end when the temtory of Colothe United States by Mexico in the Treaty rado was created. . . of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 (9 Stat. 922). In 1863, the territorial Delegate introCongress, however. made no provisions for a duced a bill for statehood. This bill died in civil territorial government in California, committee. but Congress did enact,' on and the area was. for a time. governed by March 21. 1864, an enabling act for Colorathe American Army. ,do (13 Stat. 32). In accordance with the proThe discovery of gold in California in 1848 visions of this act, a constitutional convenresulted in one of the greatest mass migra- tion was called. The constitution drafted by tions in American history (the "Forty- this convention. however, was rejected by niners"). The population soon reached a the people of the territory in September stage where Resident Zachary Taylor 1864. Advocates of statehood, sssuming the found it expedient to suggest that Califor- enabling act of 1864 to be still in force. nia become a State. At the same time, Cali- called another convention in 1865. and in fornians were demanding a more effective September of that year succeeded in gaining government. Congresa had been slow to act, popular approval of the constitution. The so the military governor. Brigadier General subsequent "State" officials and "Senztors" Bennet Riley, called a coristitutional con- were, however, rejected by President vention. which met at Monterey in Septem- Andrew Johnson on the grounds that the ber 1849 and drafted a constitution prohibit- proceedings of the convention were at variing slavery. This constitution was ratified ance with the provisions of the enabling act. Congress. nevertheless proceeded to pass a statehood measure for Colorado. On May. 15. 1866, President Johnson vetoed this measure because he believed the population of the temtory insufficient to support a State government and because the vote for statehood in the territory was too small. Statehooders were successful in having a bill passed by Congress in 1867. but this too was vetoed by President Johnson for the same reasons. President Johnson added. however, two new reasons for his veto: a territorial law which excluded blacks and mulattoes from voting. and a protest against statehood submitted by the House of Representatives of the territory. In the decade after organization, the territory of Colorado had Governors who were anti-statehood and who were instrumental in forming public opinion against statehood. By 1870. however, much had changed. Three factors now served to spur a new influx of settlers: the end of the Civil War. the settlement of the Indian problem, and the arrival of the railroads. In 1873, Governor Samuel H. Elbert led the statehood struggle and petitioned Congress for a new enabling act. Governor Elbert was supported by Resident Ulysses S. Grant. who. in his message to Congress in December 1873. recommended admission of Colorado as a state. On March 3. 1875. a new enabling act was passed by Congress (18 Stat. 474). In December of that year a constitutional convention met at Denver. The document was subsequently ratified by the people of the territory in July 1876. and on August 1. 1876. Colorado was admitted into the Union by Presidential proclamation (19 S t a t 6651.l' The admission of Colorado in 1876 is considered by some historians to be a case of political expediency. The Democrats in Congress generally opposed statehood for Colorado because they foresaw. correctly, another Republican State. The Republicans. on the other hand, by 1875 "felt the need for Colorado's electoral vote as its leaders realized that the contest of 1876 was going . . to be Close." !' . -. . . FZorida Florfda.was ceded to the United States by Spain in the Admas-Onis Treaty of 1819 ( 8 Stat. 252). and was organized as a territory on March 30,1822 ( 3 Stat. 654). . Settlement and development of Florida was initially hampered by a series of warswith the Seminole Indians (1835-1842). Moreover. any political development of the territory was hindered by regional differences: West Flrida was attracted by the idea of annexation to Alabsma; Middle Florida favored statehood; and East Florida was o p posed. to both ideas. By 1837, however, a referendum held .by ' the territorial legislature showed a majority of the populace in favor of statehood. A constitutional convention was accordingly held in December 1838. and a constitution was adopted in January 1839. This constitution was approved by the people of the territory in September 1839. No substantive action was taken on statehood for Florida until 1846. when. following the custom of admitting free States and slave States in pairs. a bill was introduced for the admission of Florida and Iowa There was no enabling act for either territory. In February 1845. the House passed this bill. In the Senate. some objections were made concerning clauses in the Florida constitution which prohibited emancipation and the emigration of free blacks and mulattoes into the State. An amendment w a ~ proposed deleting these clauses, but i t was defeated and the bill wax passed by the ' - CONGBESSlONAL RECORD -SENATE Senate on March 1, 1845. The measurr 9d- population to support a State government. mitting monds mto the Umon was signed Moreover, some objected to the irregularity by the President on hlarch 3. 1845 (5 Stat. Of calling a constitutional convention with742): out congressional authorhatian (there w u no enabling rd).and others objected to a Rawaif.wes annexed to t h e United States -provision 4n the proposed constitution by a Joint resolutionof Congress in 1898 (30 whicfi disfranchised phen for %heir religious St+ 7501. and anrs made an incornrated beliefs ,(Mornmas xttm practiced polygamy terntorg oi the United States in 1900 (31 were denied suffrage). Finany, opponents Stat 1412 As early ps 1903. the temtorfa aka faulted the apimtionment of t h e legislegislature passed o resolution favoring lative districts as unfair. In other resPect$ statehood. In 1938. a eongresional tnvesti- Idaho's constitution was considered progresgation reported that Hawaii fulfilled all the sive as it established labor arbitration nquirernents neceswy for statehood, and boards. an W t - h o w day on public works. in 1940 a plebiscite in the islends showed state wntrof of various water projecs, and the People supported statehood by a margin prohibited child labor in mines.'a hrentUaUy. the c o m t u t i o n was approved of two to On& The entxana sf the United Staks intD by the House in April. and by the Senate in world War 11 in 1941 brought a temporary July, 1890, and on July 3. Preside-nt Benjahalt to the -statehood drive. and it was not min Hamson signed the admission bill t26 until 1946 &at any legisiative activity wm Stat.215). mh0is Laken by Congress talthough there bad been numerous hearings and investigatiaasl. Originally -part of the Territory NorthIn that Year. a subcommittee of the House west of the Ohio Rivff. Illinios was created Territories CammiUee urged .consideration from part of Indiana Territory and was orof Hawedim statehood legislation. ganized on February 3,1809 ( 2 Stat. 514). Numerous .arguments against the sdmisAlter t h e War of 1812, land cessions by sion of Hawaii .as a State were advanced, the Indians helped make the territory of nhowever. There was for example, the old linois attractive to settlers, especially from y m m e n t against ,addingnoncontigltous ter- nearby Southern States. The statehood ntorg. The racial .composition of the islands, movement grew slowly, and early petitions mostly Japanese and Chinese. worried for statehood were ignored by Congress. On others. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in January 16, 1818, however, the temtorid 19% this argument WES especially strong, delegate, Nathaniel Pope, presented a meas the 10yalU af the Japanese wss suspect. morial from the Illinois legislature reqwstThis opposition was dispelled only after the ing m i o n into the Union. An enabling bill authorizing a State conwar. during rvhlch the 442nd Regiment& Combat Team 9nd tbe 100th InfantrJr Bat stitution was intrPduced in'congress. This ialioe mmOased of Nisei {Americans of Jap- measure encountered some opposition in anese ancestry). became two of the most the Senate. however, which expressed decorated U t E in the American Army. A doubts about the size of the population of third argument against otatehood~was the the territory. and about a provision in the alleged Communist influence in Hawaii, es enabling bill which set aside a percentage of pecially Ln the International Langshom the proceeds from the sale of Federal lands in Illinois for education in the new State. men's and Warehouse Union %WU).Is I n any event. the House m 1947 passed Nevertheless. an enabling act was passed on legislation providing for datehood for APnI 18,1818 C3 Stat,-428). Congress made Hswali, but the Senate killed the measure it clear in the enablmg act that Illinois As happened before in American history. would not be admitted with less than 40.000 statehood for a territory "had become a pa- inhabitants. The Illmois legislature was litical football. Since Hawaii was predomi- therefore required to conduct a census." A constitutional convention met in Illinois nantly Republican. the Democrats refused to vote for its admission unless Alaska, a in August. and a constitution for the new Democratic stronghold, war granted state- State was submitted to Congress in Novemhood also." '4 ber. On November 23, the constitution was After Alaska became a State, %bwaiils debated in the House, where opponents-prospects improved. On March 12. 1959, Representatives from the New England Congress passed the Hawaiian statehood State, New York. New Jersey, and Pennsylbill. President Eisenhower signed the m e w vania-questioned provisions in the Illinois ure on March 18 (73 Stat. 4). and on June constitution regarding slavery. (The Illinois 27, 94 percent of Hawaii's registered voters constitution provided for the maintenance approved statehood On August 21. 1959. of the status quo regarding slaves and inResident Eisenhower proclauned Hawaii a dentured servants.) Provisions were made State (73 Stat. ~ 7 4 1 . for gradual emancipation and further introduction of slaver3 was prohibited. EventualIdaho Idaho WES organized as a territory on ly. the House apprcved the admission of IlliMarch 3, 1863 (12 Stat. 808). The subse- nee. The Senate approved on December I. quent creation of the territories of Wyo- and President James Monroe signed the adming and Montana out of the area compris- mission wt an December 3. 1818 (3 Stat. ing the o r i W Idaho Territory reduced the 536 ). Indianu area of Idaho Temtory to its present size. For many years, Idaho had a small popuIndiana was part of the Temtory Northlation. and sentiment for statehood was west of the Ohio River ceded to the United slow in gaining approval. The coming of the States by G-rest Britain In the Treaty of railroads and the resultant influx of settlers .Pans in 1783 (8 Stat. 803. In 1800. the terrichanged t h situation. ~ ~ tory was divided (2 Stat. 58). and the territoIn February 1889. Congress enacted an en- ries of Ohio and Indiana created. the latter abling act for North Dakota. South Dakota. consisting of present areas of Wisconsin. Washingtan Montana (the so-called "Omni- Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana. Later diviS spurred the Gov- sions reduced Icdikqa Territory to approxibus" States).ls T ~ I action ernor of Idaho to take the initiative and d l mately Its present size. The division of the a constitutional convention A constitution Northwest Te*torg a s lamely the work of was drafted and was approved by the People William Renry Earrison. Delegate from the in November 1889. terrltary and the first Governor of Indiana Idaho's admission however, encountered Temrory. some opposition in Congress because it was In 1811. the Indiana territorial legislature alleged that the territory had insufficient sent a memorial to Congress requesting -- April 22, 1985 statehood The next year. Congress proposed an enabling act for Indians when the population of the temtary reached 35.000. The War of 1812. however. postponed any further action by either Congrw or the inhabitants oi the territory. who were preoccupied wtth Indian problems. Aiter the war, and wish the Indian problem settled, Indiana experienced a w w e of settlers into the territory. In 1819, a census revealed that the 63.897. Acpopulation of the temtory cordmzlg. in December of 1815 the territorial legislature petitioned Congress for admission as a State. On January 5, 1816. Jonathan Jennings. the territorial Delegate. introduced a bill for an enabling act for the tetrUorp of 'Indiana- This was passed by the C o n g r e . and the territory was authorized to form a sonstitution m d a State govern. ment: (3-Stat. 289). A constitution was drafted by-the territory in July 1816, and was sent to Congress where statehood for Indiana encountered no opposition Indiana was admitted as a State on December 11. 1816 (3 Stat. 3992. 7owa . Iowa was organized as a territory from a wrtion .of Wisconsin Territory on June l2, 1838 (5 Stat. 2353. . Statehwd cpas proposed by the first two territorial Govanors but was rejected ' by the people of the territory (1840, 1842). BY 1844 hoar-, the temtory had grown in PopulaUon and sentiment for statehood had increased. In October of that gear. a constitution was drafted and sent to Washingion where a a t e h o o d bill for the admission of Iowa i n d Florida wrs introduced, Free state managed to have the advocates in Conaize of Iowa Territory reduced. The act of admission, therefore. contained a provision rewiring the ss4ent of the prople of the territory to the new bounderies ( 5 Stat. 7 4 2 m h 3,1845). On two occasions in 1845. the people of Iowa Temtory rejected the new boundaries. A second constitutional convention was held in ?day 1846, during which the present boundaries were drawn. Ln the meantime, on August 4 1846, Congress accepted new boundaries prowsed by the territorial Delegate (9 Stat. 52). which were the. same as those of the convention, and on December 28. 1846. Iowa was admitted into the Union (9 Stat. 117). Before admission, Iowa had elected a Governor and two "Representatives" to Congress (October 1846). Iowa is thus considered a 'Tennessee Plan" State. Party divisions in the Iowa legislature prevented the election of Senators until 1848. Kansas In January 1854. Senator Stephen A Douglas, Chairman of the Senate Cornmittee on Territories. introduced a bill for the organization of the Kansas and Nebraska territories. A key feature of this bill was the provision that "popular sovereignty" should prevail. In other words. the people of the territories should decide for themselves whether slavery should be permitted or not. thus repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820. one provision of which banned slavery in territories north of 36 degrees 30 minutes. (See p. 30). Douglas' bill psssed after three months of bitter debate (10 Stat. 277). This was followed by a lengthy ~onflictduring which Kansas endured a particularly nasty civil war ("Sleeding Kansas") as both North and south sent settlers to the territory in an effort to achieve a maJoritY. Separate legislatura were soon formed. and nval constitutions were submitted to Congress itself the scene of several violent episodes arising from debates on the "Kansas Question." In. April 22, 1985 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE S 4445 dicative of this turmoil in Kansas is t h e vember 1811. a constitutional convention Ordinance in States formed from the Northwest Territory. was held in New Orleans. summary of one historian: Statehood for Louisiana encountered Eventually a compromise was reached. Ar"In seven years six governors and five acting governon came and went. the T e d - some opposition in Congress as some mem- kansas. which had applied for admission a t torial c a ~ i t a was l moved. about like a chess- bers distrusted the allegiance of t h e "for- t h e same time. would be admitted as a slave a man, and three S t a t e constitutions were eign" element ( t h e majority of inhabitants *state, and Michigan would be admitted written and rejected. Martial law prevailed were French) In the territory. Others free State. Michigan's admission. however. lntemlttently. and Free-State leaden were argued against admission on the mounds was contingent on t h e recognition of Ohio's indicted and imprisoned for high treason."'* t h a t t h e territorp had never been Part of claim to the "Tolebo strip" (5 Star. 49. June By 1859, t h e F'ree State Party was in t h e the original United States. As one historian 15.1836) majority. and a proposal to call another con- noted: In September 1836. a Michigan convention T h e U.S.Congress had to ponder the, fact ("Con,ention of Assent"), met a t Ann Arbor stitutional convention was approved. This m t h e proposed new State of Loumana. that convention. held a t Wyandotte in July, proand refused acceptance of Ulis condition duced a constitution for a free State, and with its Creoles. Acadians. Canary Islanden. (set by Congress) for admission. Statheood was ratified by t h e people of t h e territory Spaniards, Germans Bnd Dominicans. a Democrats therefore called a new convenon October 4. In December, "State" officers. great IIIaJOI'ity Of t h e PopUlatl~ncould not tion. from most Whigs abstained, s 'Ztate" legislature. and a "Representa- speak a coherent English sentence. Con- which accipted the conditions of admission tlve" to CongreS~were elected. Senators: glws overlooked this detail and made LOU- on December 15. 1836. Michigan was therea state on J~~~~~ 26, however. were not selected until after isiana a state in 1812. T h e terms of state- upon admitted Kansas became a State. Thus. Kansas is hood gave striking evidence of the Creoles' 1837 (5 stat. 144) compensation f o r the classified as a 'Tennessee Plan" State. A bill tenacity. Louisiana came into the Union loss of the strip Michigan f o r admission was submitted in Congress, trailing t h e French judicial system, t h e given the upperPeninsula: which had been was passed by both Houses of Conmess in Code Napoleon. which remains the basis of pm of wiscornin ~ ~ r r i ~ ~ ~ ~ . January 1861, and was signed by President Louisiana law to t h e present day.20 Minnesota James Buchanan on January 29, 1861 (12 Eventually. an act of admission for LouisiMinnesota Territory was created from the Stat. 126).1° * ana was passed on April 8. 1812 (2 Stat. 701). to become effective April 30. 1812. Northwest Territory and portions of the Kentucky Louisiana Purchase. The territory was orgaMaine Kentucky, part of t h e original area of t h e ( 9 Stat' 403). State of Virginia. became a county of that Before admission into t h e Union Maine nized On March 3' After the conciusion Of the Sioux treaties State in 1776, following a request for that had been a District of Massachusetts. Resithe territory experienced action by a group of settlers who desired dents of t h e area. however, were dissatisfied in February protection from the Indians and recognition with this arrangement. and during t h e War a land as Other by Virginia. In 1776, the a r e s known as Ken- of 1812. intensified separatist movements. and immiglants Irom Europe the new lands. By 1857' the tucky was frontier land. inhabited by few which had been present since t h e end of t h e settlem in widely scattered settlements. American Revolution. Finally, in 1820. M u u 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ 8 ~ 7 ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ After the American Revolution, Kentucky sachusetts consented t o t h e separation and Henry M. Rice, in gaining passage experienced a rush of settlers from Virginia, the creation of a new State. act authorizing the territory Maine's request for admission into t h e Of an Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and'Marya (I1 Stat, 166). A conland. I t was not long before these settlers. Union. however. became entangled in t h e to chafed by rules and regulations which they debate over t h e admission of Missouri. Ala- stitution was in and was a=believed were unsuitable to a frontier envi- bama had been admitted into t h e Union in cepted by the voters Of the territOrg On Oc1819. and admission of Missouri would upset tOber 13At the same time, icssuming that ronment. and which were enacted by a farbe granted. the away legislature considered to be largely un- t h e prevailing balance between North and responsive to the needs of t h e frontiersmen. South in t h e e n a t e . hrentually, a compro- neSOtans proceded to and three united began to develop separatist sentiments. Be- mise ~ldissouriCompromise. of 1820) was Other "State" "Represmtatives.'. On December 2. tween 1784 and 1 7 9 1 nine conventions were reached whereby Missouri would be admitthis "State" legislature met and Or' held in Kentucky to consider various politi- ted as a slave State and Maine a s a free. two United States cal alternatives. The Virginia legislature ro State. (See p. 30) Congress declared Maine a December sponded to these actions by proposing four State. effective March 15, 1820. by an act "Senators." z5 successive acts of separation. approved on March 3.182W3 Stat- 544)encountered In 1858. however, comiderable stathcood ornosition f o r Minnesota ConNothing came of these proposals until t h e Michigan gress. Some members objected t o t h e proviact Of separation in December 1789' Michigan was 0rgXIized aS a territory On sions in the Minnesota constitution extendwhen Virginia removed most of t h e condi- January 11, 1805 ( 2 Stat. 309). ing suffrage t o aliens and Indians who had Objected to by the Ken'tuckians and No significant move for statehood octhe customs and h a b i b of dvilizaconsented to the creation o f i a new State. curred until 1833 when the territory petiVirginia did require, however. t h a t Ken- tiOned Conmess lor authority to form a tion." Other members questioned t h e validity of creating a sixth State from the Northtucky share the expenses of the 1789 State government. Conmess rejected t h e pe- west Territory when t h e Northwest Ordiation the Indians. These tition in 1984 largely because of the Opposiwere accepted in a ninth convention (July tion of the Ohio delegation. At this,,.time, nance of 1787 specified that no more than 1790) held in Kentucky. This convention Ohio and Michigan were in dispute Over an five States were t o be created. The question d how many Representatives should be acpetitioned congress for -&ion as a area of land known as t h e "Toledo strip." corded Minnesota was discussed in the State and for a meeting in 1792 In 1835, statehood advocates in the t e m - senate for several days. mentudly. tao to draft a constitution. had Representatives were allowed. The Senate In February 1791. on the recommendation th& realizing that the specified in the North- also debatled a t length t h e "irregulai' proof President Washington. Kentucky was ad- - west Ordinance for admission of a tenitory ceedings forming the constitution and mitted as aState (1 Stat. 189) effective June to statehoob and knowing of the objections follow questione? t h e legitimacy of the "State" 1.1792 at t h e resuest of the people of Ken- i, Conmess to statehood. decided government. Complicating the admission of tucky. Of Tennessee in '796 page Minnesota W a 3 t h e discussion a t the same Kentucky, t h e first State west of the ~ p -the palachian Mountains was one of four areas 3 ' ~ c o r d ~ g l y , constitutional convention time of admitting Kansas tinder t h e pro~ '(Vermont. Maine. and West Virginia were Was called tMayJune) in Michigan On Oc- slavery Lecompton c o n d i t ~ t i o n . ~~ Despite these objections, Minnesota was the others) formed from p* Of Other tober 5. 1835. the constitution was ratified the Union Mag 11, 1858 (12 States' and admitted as separate by by the people of t h e territory. At the same Stat. 258). simple acts of admission time the people elected a Governor. a State . touisiana legislature, and a "Representative" to the Mississippi Louisiana was organized from part of the United States Congress. A t the first session Mississippi was organized as a territory on Louisiana Purchase as the Territory of Orle- of the State Legislature. ta(p "Senators" April 7, 1798 (1S t a t 549) from lands ceded ans on March 26, 1804 (2Stat. 283). were elcected. Congress was this presented to the United States by Spain in 1795. SubAs early as December 1804, the po1yglot with a & f a t o State government. sequent annexatkms and cessions of lands population of the temtory petitioned ConThis action was denounced by some in (Georgia. S p a i n and Indian tribes) enksrged mss for admission a s a State. BY 1810. the Congress. Statehood for Michigan was again t h e territory to t h e present areaof Alabama pouulation of t h e territory was 76,556. and opposed by the Ohio delegation. together and Mississippi. The eastern part of Missisin 1811. despite the objections of the Gover- with Southern members who objected to sippi territory betzsmbtheStste of Alabama nor. Wllliam C. C. Claiborne, who believed the admission of a free State. which Michi- in 1819. t h a t the territory was not ready for state- gan would be under the terms of the NorthAs early as 1810 efforts were made by the hood. an enabling Act was passed by Con- west Ordinance of 1787. !See note 32. p. 39). territorial Delegate. Gmrge Poindexter. to mess for t h e territory ( 2 Stat. 641). I n No- Slavery was prohibited by the Northwest have Mississippi admitted as a State. These = = -Toledo - ' - , on COP4GRESSIONAL RECORD efforts met with little success, however, because Congress doubted whether the territory had sufficient population. Objections were also raised concerning t h e size of the proqosed State. Before its division. Missis-, s~vpk.territory was double the size of Pennsylvania The War ofi812 brought a halt to these efforts. With the end of the war in 1815. the suppression of an Indian uprising. and the arrival of new settlers. the statehood drive was renewed. Again opposition rose concerning the size of the new State. This problem was solved in 1817 by the division of the territory, which not only removed an objection to statehood. but also restofed, when Mississippi was admitted as a State, the balance in the Senate between North and South. On March 1.1817, an enabling act for Mississippl was signed by Resident James Madison ( 3 Stat. 348). A constitutional convention was held in the territory in July. and on August 15, a constitution was adopted. The constitution of Mississippi was then sent to Congress, which accepted the document as republican and in conformance with the Ordinance of 1787. On December 10. 1817, President Madison signed the measure adtnltting Mississippi into the Union ( 3 Stat. 472). Missouri Missouri was organized as a territory from part of the original Louisiana Purchase on June 4,1812 (2 Stat. 743),: ., From 1802 to 1819, a delicate balance had been maintained between the North and the South by the alternate admission of slave and free States. This tacit arrangement resulted. with the admission of Alabama in 1819. in eleven of each. The State baiance in the Senate was, of course, even. In t h e House, however. the slave States. even with the three-fiiths ratio (according to the constitutional provisions then in effect, Article I. Section 3, three-fifths of the slave population were counted Ln apportioning R e p r e sentatives), had only 81 votes as opposed to 105 votes held by the free States. Moreover, the population of the North was mowing a t a rapid rate. The South, therefore, looked to the Senate to preserve the sectional balance. This balance was threatened in 1819, when Missouri applied for admission. An amendment to the Missouri enabling legislation prohibiting slavery in Missouri (introduced by Representative James Tallmadge of New York) was passed by the House but rejected by the Senate. In the meantime, Maine had formed a constitution and had requested admission as a free State. The Senate joined the two measures but did not restrict slavery in Missouri. whereupon an amendment was added by Senator James B. Thomas of minois providing for the admission of Missouri as a slave State; but with slavery prohibited In the remaining portion of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36 degrees and 30 minutes north lattitude. The Senate bill was rejected in the House. which had its own version, admitting Missouri as a free State. After several months of debate (December 1819-March 18201, a compromise. as effected: Maine was admitted as a free State, Missouri was authorized to fonn a constitution with no restriction on slavery, and slavery was prohibited in that part of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36 degrees 30 minutes (3 Stat. 545. March 6, 1820).** Missouri's constitution. however, contained a provision prohibiting entrance into the new State of free blacks and mulattoes. This caused another debate in Congress and another compromise: admission of Missouri was made contingent on the Missouri legislature agreelng not to abridge the privileges and immunities of United States citizens (3 - SENATE Stat. 645. March 2. 1821). Missouri agreed, and on August 10, 1821, was admitted into the Union (3Stat. 797. Appendix 11). Montana Montana was organized as a on May 25. 1864, from part of Idaho temtory (13 Stat. 88). Montana's early days as a territory were concerned with i n t e r m development, solution of the Indian problem. and gold and silver rushes. By 1883. however, completion of the Northern Pacific railway was followed by a rush of farmers. cattlemen. and miners to the territory. In January 1884, a consitutional convention was called in Helena and on February 9. a constitution was completed. The document was subsequently approved by the people and was sent to Congress, but no action was taken. In January 1889, William Springer. a Democrat and Chairman of the House Committee on Temtories, offered an omnibus bill for the admission of New Mexico, Washington. Montana and Dakota Springer's measure passed the House, but was blocked by the Senate. A conference committee resulted in a deadlock as the Republicans o g Posed the admission of New Mexico (which was Democratic), and the Democrats o p posed the admission of Dakota (which was Republican). The election of 1888 resulted in a Republican sweep of t h e White House and both Houses of Congress, facilitating an eventual compromise: New Mexico was eliminated from the messun, and bath North and South Dakota were admitted without waiting for a vote of-the people.on division of the territory. One enabling act. therefore. was passed for North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Washington (25 Stat. 676. February 22, 18891.July 4, 1889. was set as the date for the meeting of constitutional conventions in the respective territories, and on that date Montana's delegates met in Helena to begin drafting a constitution. The Montana constitutional convention finished its work on August 17, and on October 1 the new constitution was ratified in a special election. On November 8, .President Benjamin Harrison proclaimed the admission of Montana into the Union (26 Stat. 1551). Nebnska Nebraska was organized as a territory on May 30, 1854 (10 Stat. 277LThe creation of the Dakota and Colorado Territories in 1861 reduced Nebraska to approximately its present size. In January 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, chairman of the Setla* Committee on Territories, introduced a bill to organize the Great Plains as the Territory of h'ebraska I n order to gain Southern support, which had been lacking in previous efforts to fonn the territory. Douglas included in the bill the doctrine of "popular sovereignty." That is, the people of the territory would decide whether the territoe would be admitted with or wiL!out slavery. this repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (since the Nebraska Territory was above the line drawn between slave and free States). Douglas also agreed to divide the territory into two territories: X m a s and Nebraska. After three months of debate. the bill to organize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska was passed in May 1854.2* Statehood for Nebraska was not immediately supported by the people of the t e m tory. and was rejected in a popular referendum in 1860. In 1864, the territorial legislature sent a memorial to Congress requesting statehood. An enabling act was then passed on April 19, which authorized the territory to form a constitution (13 Stat. 17). In the election for delegates to the constiturional April 22, 1985 convention the majority elected opposed statehood because they believed statehood would mean an increase in taxation. In 1885, the Governor of the territory suggested that the legislature prepare a consititution and sumbit it to the people for a p proval. This was done, and in a very close election the constitution was approved in June 1866. The consititution aroused some debate in Congress because it allowed only free white males to vote. An amendment was therefore attached by Congress providing for the removal of the restrictive provision and for the agreement by the temtorial legislature to this condition. An adrninssion bill was then passed by both Houses of. Cong~ess. but was pocket vetoed by President Andrew Johnson. the Congress having adjourned In December 1866, a similar bill was introduced and passed by Congress. but was vetoed in January 1867 by President J o h h son on constitutional grounds Congress overrode the veto. (14 Stat. 3911, the terrltorial legislature negated the restrictive provision. and president Johnson signed a proclamation admitting Nebraska on March I, 1867 (14 Stat. 820). Nevada Nevada was organized ss a temtory on March 2. 1861 (12 Stat. 209) from the west ern part of Utah Temtory, which had been part of t h e area ceded to United States by Mexico in 1848. The discovery in 1859 of rich gold and silver ores in the Comstock Lode resulted in thousands of settlers moving into the territory. BY 1863. the statehood movement was swong enough that the temtorial legisature called for a plebiscite to ascertain public sentiment regarding statehood. A plebiscite held In September 1863 showed that the voters favored statehood and the creation of a State government by a vote of four to one. A constitution was drafted in November, but was rejected by the electorate in January I864 because of claims that the cost of a state government would be prohibitive. Statehood advocates persisted, however, and succeeded in gaining passage of an enabling act on March 21. 1864 (13 Stat. 30). In the meantime, events on the nationai scene began to Influence the admission of Nevada. The civil War by this time was well underway, and the North needed the economic and political support of prc-Union Nevada Republicans especially desired the admission of a new pro-North State to buttress their position in Congress and in the coming elections President Lincoln needed a proNorth State to ensure passage of the 13th Amendment. In the temtory of Nevada events similarly gathered momentum. A constitutional convention was held in July and the constitution drafted by this second convention was approved by the people of the territory on September 7. 1864.=' Statehood for Nevada encountered little, opposition in Congress, the smallness of its population being dismissed as a temporary c o n d i t i ~ n .On ~ ~ October 31. 1864, Nevada was admitted into the Union by Presidential proclmation (13 Stat. 749). New Merrico New Mexico was Part of the territory ncquired from Mexico under the tenns of the Tready of Guadalup Hidalgo in 1848 (9 Stat. 922). In 1850, even before the territory was officially organized. the people of the terrttory made application for statehood. In the meantime, Congress p w d the Compromise of 1850, one part of Which Was the organic act for the territow of New Mexico (9 stat. 446). In succeeding Years. New Mexico tried many times to be admitted as a State. either April 22,1985 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD In 1883 A d 1885, the people of the territory prepared constitutions and petitioned Congress for division and statehood Little action was taken on these proposals. primarily because the Democrats were in control of Congress and did not favor the admission of two new Republican States. The Democrats did, hoarever. support admission of the tenttory as one State, together with t h e admission of New Mexico. a Democratic territory. The deadlock Congress was broken by the Republican VicWrY of 1888. and OVPonenw in C o n g r w Wen Persuaded to yield to t h e admission of North and South Dakota separate S t ~ ~An3 enabling + act dividing the into North and South Dakota was m r d i n g b signed on F e b , w 22. 1889. V J ~ aWhmzed M constltutlonal conventions on July 4 (25 Stat- 676). Constitutions were s u b s ~ u e n t l yformed and approved by the people in both territories. North and South Dakota were admitted the Union by prociamation On 2-1889 (26Stat, 1548,1549)Ohio Ohio was organized as a territory in 1800 when the Northwest Territory the "Temtory Northwest of the River Ohio," was divided (2Stat. 58).=3Sentiment for statehood developed early in Ohio. but encountered the opposition of Arthur St. Clair. Federal1st Governor of t h e territory. St. Clair favored delaylng statehood and proposed a further division of the temtory so as to slow the growth of t h e Statehood movemerit.=' Most of t h e population of the territ o 4 at this time were Democrat-Republicans [Jeffersonian). and by 1802. the Jeffersonian majority in both houses of Congress looked forward to Ohio's two Republican Senators and Representaths. In January 1802, a congressional committee investigaM t h e possibility of statehood for Ohio and reported that although the act-ro poQulation Of the was less than Historians and political scientists have that stipulated in t h e Ordiance of 1737 pondered why New Mexico was denied ad- (60,000).the territory should be admitted mission for such a Iong time. Many of t h e because t h e population was growing so fast a-ounenw against admission tsmall Popula- that it soon would reach the required tion. lack of economic development. arid number. In M m h 1802. a majority of the hn&) were, after all, used w i n s t other residents of the territory petitioned ConWestern territories and Yet they were ad- gnss for statehood. and in April, Conmys nritted as States in much shorter time. The passed an enabling act for Ohio. author= consensus Ln the case of New Mexico seems the territory to hold a constitutional conto be that 1 vention (2Stat. 1'13). The.Ohio constitution"New Mexico wss never considered in the al convention completed its work in Novemsame light =, the other territories. The ber 1802 and submitted the document to unique POI2ulatiOn of New Mexico profound- Congress. where it was first considered in 1Y marated the -tory from most of the the Senate and found to be republican in remainder of the west where Anglo pioneem nature and in confarmance w i t h the princihad slowly fined the frontiers with a fairly ples enunciated in the Ordinance of 1787. homogeneous population of Western EuroOn February 19, 1803. Congress approved pesn stock. Iri the long Ye- between 1846 an act "to provide for t h e due execution of and 1912. f m m M t newspaper artlcles and the laws of the United States within the speeches by congressmen indicated a strong State of Ohio" (2 Stat. 201). While this act prejudice toward the Spanish-s~eaking. implied approval of the Ohio constitution. Roman Catholic people of New Mexico. Na- and stated that "the said State became one tivim in America. sometimes concealed and of the United States of America." Congress at other times brought out into the o p e s never officially accepted the constitution of was thus the major obstruction to the terri- Ohio and never passed a n official act of adt w s statehood aspirations." f? mission, thus giving rise to some confusion as to exact date of the admission of 0hi0.m North and South Dakota Oklahomrr The Territory of Dakota was organized on March 2. 1861, from portiom of Minnesota Oklahoma w8s organtwd a s 8 $emtory on and Nebraska Territories t12 Stat. 239). M a y 2. 1890 ( 2 6 Stat, 81). having been crp In 1871. t h e territorial legislature request- ated out of t h e western part of Indian Terded a division of the temtory by Congress, tory. which had been organized in 1834 (4 , and petitions f o r division became almost an Stat. 729). annual event. Congress. however. took no Between 1889 and 1906, Oklahoma Terriaction on any of these proposals. tory. mct portions of Indian Territory, eweGold W a s discovered in the Black Eilk In rienced a series of land rushes which greatly 1874 and in 1876, and t h e Indims relin- increased t h e population of the temtory. Ih qukhed their claim to the lands (19 Stat. 1890; for example the population of Okla254. February 28. 1877). I t w a s not long homa Temtory wzs 258.657: by 1900, the before the railroads came and.the territory population. together with t h a t of the Indian experienced a land rush; In 1880,t h e popu- Temtory. had increased to 790,391. One lation of the Dakota Territory was 135.000. resson for this rush of gettlers was t h e en- alone or in conjunction with the efforts of one or more other territories. but each attempt failed. One notable struggle occurred in 19021903 during the debates on the Omnibus Statehood bill for.Oklahoma. Arizona and New Mexico (see p. 7). The opposition to the admission of New Mexico was led by Senator Albert Beveridge. Chairman of t h e Senate Committee on Territories, During the long eebate. Beveridge and several members of a subcommittee went to New Mexico to investigate local conditions, On their return. a report wasreleased which.stressed several points of opposition to. statehood. New Mexico. a m r d i n g to the report, was not large enough, w d its character was "unAmerican." that is. the inhabitants were not English-speaking Anglo-Saxons. Moreover, the subcommittee reported a high illiteracy rate and extensive use of the Spanish language. Other arguments against admission of New Mexico centered on i t s small population. lack of economic development, and arid lands.2s In 1910. an enabling act for Arizona and New Mexico provided that constitutions for each territory be approved by Congress and t h e President (36 Stat. 557). This new effort had t h e support of President Taft: moreover, Senator Beveridge had lost a bid for reelection in 1910. On August 22. 1911. however. President Taft vetoed t h e admision of Arizona and New Mexico. objecting to the recall of judges provision in t h e Arizona constitution. A second enabling act was therefore passed by Cone'ress. which required that New Mexico revise the amending procedure in its-mnstitution and that Arizona remove its judicial recalI pmvisians (37Stat. 39). New Mexico made the required changes and a admitted as a State on January 16, 1912 (37 Stat. 1723). sixty-two pears after passage of t h e New Mexico organic , -SEN,ATE S 4447 actment of congress of a series of laws pertaining to Okiahoma Indian tribes-including the Curtis Act of 1898 (30 Stat. 495)which had as their purpose the individual allotment of reservations and the diminution of the tribal governments of t h e Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokees, Chickasaws. Creeks. Choctaus. and Seminoles). AS a result a large portion of Indian lands became subjects to sale and to settlement by whites." to Mter 1890 statehood advocates beinitiate movA for statehood. These moves were complicated by the question whether to ad& Oklahoma and the Indian Territory as one State or as separate States. I n 1902, for example. a report on a bill to admit New Mexico. Arizona and Oklahoma stated that t h e proposal to admit Oklahoma as a single State is ME tenable- I t s size is much below that of any Western State. I t m w t not be forgotten that originally Oklahoma was taken piecemeal from the Indian Territory. Its boundaries are unscientific. accidental. and grotesque. And above all. the committee are convinced that a majority of its people are opposed to statehood a t present except by a union with its natural complement the Indian T e r r i t o r ~ . ~ ' AU attempt was also made ,h1905 b y the residenu of the Indian Temtory for separate statehood. A constitutional convention wap held in ~ u g u s of t that y e s r md a cons t i t u t i o a f o r the state of "Sequoyah" was d o p t e d by t h e people. Concess. however. took no action on this p r m . his -,,al message to Con. 1905, president ~ h m v~e l t remm. & ~ mended the admission of 0klahoma and the ~ ~ ~~~~i~~~~ d i one~ State. ~ 1906, Congress enacted an enabling act which united the territory Oklahoma rndian admisston of the two tenitodes 8s one state(34 stat- 267). There is some evidence that political expediency played a pact in the ~ r ~ ~ i dand ~ ~ ~ i conp;ressio~ d-ion to the two writorieri as one State l-he g.rowth of the Democratic in'~uahoma ~ ~ d t had the Republimn in sewral B~ 190e It was conceded that Indian Tenitom was D ~ ~ ~ were admitted sepathe ,tcly, there was the distinct of tour Democratic senators from the two States On the other hand. adthey dnittedas one State there Prou be only Democratic Sen&ors- As one historian concluded. ..Territorial D~~~~~~~ too numerous to consideration of Oklareliably. Republican area Separate statehood too dangerous to lican Party interests.- *. A c,titutional Indians and whites, held Guarie,of Oklahoma, in April. and July. The formed by this was - , approved by the eiectOrate On September 17' lgo7+ and On 16' Oklahoma was admitted into the union by Presidential proclamation (35Stat- 2160)Omgon . .' Oregon country W a s acgnired in 1848 by a trestY with Great Britain following a period ~ disputed area by of joint C X C U P S ~ C Y - Othe Great Britain and the United States (9Stat. 869). Oregon was organzed as a territory on August 14. 1848 (9 Stat. 323). T h e drive f o r statehood started.alm&t immediately after Oregon was organized On three oecssions between 1854 and 1856, statehood and the creation of a constitutional convention were rejected by the Oregonians in plebiscites, although in each instance opposition declined. owing a t least partially to party squabbles among Demo- , S 4448 COPVGRESSIONAL RECORD crats. Whigs and Repubhcans. In 1857. the Oregonians voted for statehood and the es- tablishment of a constitutionsl convention. As one historian of Oregon noted: In the seven Years of territorial existence the question had been voted upon by the territorial legislature in one form or another nine times. and by popular vote four times. while Coneress had considend Oneon statehood bills at two sessions." .s A constitutionai convenhon was held in the fall of 1857, and the constitution wss approved by the voten m a special election In November. Other special elections wen held in 1858 for a pro forma Oregon congressional delegation-a "Representative" was elected, and two "Senators" chosen by the new legislature (Oregon followed the In Conthe Oregon "Tennessee PI&"'. statehood measure passed the Senate on May 19. 1858 by a vote of 35 for and 17 against. Oppositlan to the admission of Oregon centered on the alleged lack of p o p ulation, unjust dlscrFmfnstion m the Oregon COnatitUtion agamst the Chinese. and a stringent prohibition agaJnst the -on of free blacks mto the State.** In the H o w a simllar opposition arose.* The insuffiaency of population was again cited. as was the discrirmnation against free blacks. Added to these, however, was a strong stand against a provision of the Oregon constitution providing for extension of the suffrage to unnatural& citizens-There was another reason for opposition to Oregon statehood With the electlon of 1860 in the offing. many Republicans feared a Democratic Oregon m e t vote against the Republican canddate. Eventually, enough Republicans switched support to Oregon a n d after lengthy debate, the Oregon statehood measure passed the Eouse on February 12. 1859 by a vote of 114 for to 103 against:* Resident James Buchanan s m e d the Oregon statehood bill on February 14. 1859 (11 Stat. 383). Tennessee In 1796. W1llia.m Blount, the Governor of the "Territory of the United States. south of the nver Ohlo" ( 1 Stat. 1231, reacting to popular sentiment favonng statehood, called a constitutional convenhon which met at Knoxv~lleon January 11, 1796, and fmished i t s work on February 6, 1796. The constitutlon drafted by this convention clauned the nght of adrmsslon into the Unlon of "a free and mdependent State by the name of the State of Tennessee." The legislative body convened under this constitution chose two "Senators" and prov~ded for the election of two "Representatives" to the Uruted States Conpress. These actions were taken wlthout cong-ressionaf authorizetion:= On April 8, 1796. President George Washington sent a message to Congress regardmg the effort of the territory to acquue statehood. Washington also subnutted a copy of the Tennessee constitutlon and Governor Blount's report on the territory's census returns, which clamed more than 70,000 inhabrtants. In May 1796. the Tennessee delegation arnved m Phladelphia, then the c a p ~ t a of l the United States. and rn conjunction with the territorial Delegate already present. they lobbled for statehood Tennessee was admitted as a State on June 1. 179% ( 1 Stat. 491). Opposltron to the admission of Tennessee came largely from the Federalist-controlled Senate, which feared support of the new State for the Jefferson ticket in 1796. This opposit~okhowever, was based on the follow- const~tubonaland techrucal grounds: 'Congress alone was competent to form a state . . . the census returns were improper the constitutlon of the and of no effect . - SENATE state was faulty and in some respects ran counter to the federal Constitution and laws."** Blount and Cocke, the two enat at&." were refused admission but were lster reelected by the State legislature. Andrew Jacbon won the popular decticn in August 1796 and became the first United StPtes Representative from Tennessee. Taw In 1821, Spain encouraged American settlement of the province of Texas. This encouragement was continued by Mexico after gaining its independence from Spain in the same year. but various cultural and wlitlcal difficulties soon arose between the American settlers and the Mexicans. In 1836, for example. General Santa Anna abrogated the liberal constitution of 1824. It was not long before armed clashes OcClvTed between the Americans and the Mexicana On March 2, 1836, the Texans declared their independence from Mexico and subsequently defeated Mexican forces sent against them. Almost immediately. the newly formed Republic of Texas sought annexation to the Uruted States. If annexation failed, the goal was recognition as an independent Republic. On March 3, 1837. President Andrew Jackson extended recognttton to the Republic of Texas. hnexationbts in Texss and in the United States still sought union with the United Statea. It was not until 1M4, however, that a treaty of annexation was introduced in the United States Senate, where it encountered strong opposition because annexation was considered as extending the territory open to slavery. In June 1844, the treaty of annexation was dgfeated in the Senate. In the Presrdential campaign of 1844.-the Democratic Party platform called for the "rm.exatian" of Texas. At t h s time, a new doctrine of expansion-manifest destlny--emerged, which held that it was the destiny of the United 8tates to occupy the entire continent. m e victory of the Democratic ,-didate. James & Polk, an avowed expansiomst. was therefore interpreted as a =date for annexation When Congress convened in December 1844, however, the departing President. John Tyler, recommended annexation by means of a joint resolution which required only a majority in each House, thus avoidLng the more difficult two-thirds vote needed to ratify a treaty in the Senate. The ensuing long debate in both Houses centered chiefly on the following five points: (1) the constitutionality of annexing a foreign state, (2) the extension of slave territory. (3) the amount and disposition of the debt of Texas. (4) whether Texas should be m e x e d as a territory or as a state, and (5) the possibility of a war with Mexico Li annexation were accamplished:~ Eventually. the annexation resolution was approved by the House in January, and by the Senate in F e b r u w 1845. On March 1. 1845. President John Tyler signed the rese lution authorivng the annexation of Texas (5 Stat. 797)." The resolution authorized the admission of Texas into the Union, the retention of all public lands in Texas by the new State, and the right of the State to divide tnto not more than four new States, in addition to Texas." Texas would also pay her own debt, and the Mlssouri Compromise line would be extended to Texss territory. A Texan convention approved the annexation resolution in July 1845. The resolution was ratified by the people in October, and in December, the Texan constitution was accepted by Conness. Finally, on December 29. 1845. Texss was sdmltted into the Union ( 9 Stat. 108). April 22, 1985 Utah Utah, settled by the Mormons in 1847. became a territory in 1850 ( 9 Stat. 453). Utah presents an unusual case in the admission of States Lnto the Unfon because of the presence of unique political and religious factors attendant upon Utah historyU Statehood was delayed for years, despite several attempts. because of intense political strife in the territory (there were Mormon and anti-Mormon political parties in Utah), and because of the practice of polygamy by the Mormons Polygamy. which became known as the "Mormon problem," was denounced by both the Republicans and the Democrats. Indeed. several Federal laws made polygamy punishable by a fine and imprisonment, and dLnfranchisement. In 1887, an even more severe law. The Edmunds-Tucker Act (24 S t a t 635). applied striagent ~rovisionsto the Territory of Utah: This Act dismcorparated the Mormon Church, confiscated church prop erty, abolished female suffrage, and required a test oath of citizens before they could vote, hold office, or serve a s jurors. Between 1887 and 1890, the Mormons sought Bccomrnodation with the Federal Government. To that end, free public schools, emphasizing the separation of church and State. were established in Otah. "Gentiles" tnon-Mormons) were admitted to chambers of commerce. the Mormon People's party was dissolved, and its members instmcted to participate in both Republican and Democratic parties, thus demonstrating that a genuine two-party system existed in Utah. Finally In October 1890. polygamy wan abandoned as a tenet of the Mormon church. These actions prompted President Benjamin Harrzson in January 1893 to grant amnesty to p o l y ~ t and . congress toreturn confiscated property to the Mormon church m e n more favorable was the response to leaslation, introduced by the Utah Delegate, John L Rawllns, on September 6, 1893, to enable Utah to become a State. In 1894, Congress passed an enabling act permitting Utah to hold a constitutional convention (28 Stat, 1077). The following year, a constitution %-as ratified, and on January 4, 1896, President Grover Cleveland proclamed Utah A State (29 Stat. 876). Ve'ermont From 1749 to 1777, the ares now known as Vermont was called the "New Hampshire Grants" because the Governor of New Hampshire had granted lands to settlers in terntory also claimed by New York. A New York protest resulted in a decision by King George prohibiting further grants by New Eampshire. An attempt by New York to regrant lands encountered organized resista=ce by the Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen. The Green Mountam Boys successfully defied both the British and Hew York During the American Revolution. the New Htunpshlre Grants declared theu independence and became known a s New Connecticut. In 1777, the name Vermont was adopted, and a constrtutlon for the independent republic was drafted. Efforts by Vermont to obtain statehood, however. were thwarted by New York and other States whlch still had C i h on the territory. By 1790. it became apparent that Kentucky would soon seek admlvion ~s a State. Although sectional rivalries were noc yet fully developed. some thought was now given to the adrnbion of Vennont, a northern free State, in order to offset the admisslon of Kentucky, a southern slave State. Aiter some negotiation between c o w sloners from New York and Vermont, agree- April 22, 1985 COPqGRESSIONAL RECORD ment on land claims, boundary lines, and compensation was reached, and in 1790. New York consented to the admission of Vermont as a State. In January 1791, Vermont ratified the Constitution of the United States and petitioned Congress for admission as a State. Congressional action was swift: in .February 1391. both houses approved an admission bill which declared simply that "the State of Vermont" shall be received and admitted into the Union as a new and entire member of the United States of America." On February 18. 1791. President George Washington signed the bill admitting Vermont. to become effective March 4. 1791 ( 1 Stat. 191). Washington Washington was organized as a territory on March 2. 1853 (10 Stat. 172) from part of Oregon Territory. As early as 1867. the territorial legislature petitioned Congress for admission into the Union. It was not until 1878. however. that the territorial legislature, on its own initative and without congressional authorization, issued a call for a constitutional convention. A convention was held in Walla Walla during June and July. The constitution produced by this convention was approved by the people of the territory in November 1878. but was ignored by Congress. Statehood proponents persisted, and from 1877 o n wen? able to have at least one enabling act introduced in every Congress. Statehood for Washington encountered opposition in Congress. largely from the Democrats who were reluctant to admit a Republican State unless a Democratic State was admitted a t the same time. In 1876, the Democrats supported the admission of Colorado in the mistaken belief that the new State would vote Democratic. In the election of 1876, Colorado's three electoral votes were cast for the Republican presidential candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes. As one historian observed: "Little wonder that for decade after t h e Democrats were leery of consenting to the creation of any additional new states, except strictly on a quid pro quo basis."49 In the meantime, the population of Washington Temtory had increased rapidly. largely because of the expansion of the Northern Pacific Railroad. In 1880. for example, the population of the ,territory was 75.116. The census of 1890, taken a few months after statehood was granted. revealed a population of 357,232. In November 1888. the Republican Party broke the political deadlock by electing a Republican President and mnjorities in both Houses of Congress. I n February 1889, an enabling act (25 Stat. 676) for the territories of North Dakota. South Dakota, Montana, and Washington (the "Omnibus" States). was signed and the territories were authorized to hold constitutional conventions. The Washington constitutionak convention met a t Olympia on July 4. and on October 1 the voters approved the constitution drafted by this convention. Finally. on November 11. 1889, President Benjamin Harrison signed a proclamation admitting Washington into the Union (26 Stat. 1552). We~tVirginia On April 17, 1861. Virginia seceded from the Union. The western part of Virginia always at odds with the eastern part of the State. opposed secession, and in May, 1861. representatives from counties in the weste m areas formed a new "State" called "Kanawha" In June a "Restored General Assembly." loyal to the Federal Government, was formed. A constitutional convention was held from November 1861 to February 1862. during which time the name West Virginia was chosen. The constitution for- - SEN1 mulated by the West Virginia convention. however. failed to provide for the elimination of slavery. In the meantime. Confederage efforts to restore the area to southern control were thwarted by Union forces. In May 1862, the "Restored General Assembly." t h a t is, the loyal, Federally recognized legislature of Virginia gave i t s approval to the formation of a new State. West Virginia, thus complying with the provisions of the United States Constitution (Article IV. section 3 ) that no new State be formed within the jurisdiction of an existing State without the consent of that State's legislature. The admission of West Virginia caused an extensive debate in Congress where it was opposed on the m u n d s that the government created was "irregular" and of dubious constitutionality. Moreover. the constitution of the new State was faulted because of its omission of any kind of emancipation provisions. Supporters of statehood countered the "irregular" charge by citing the precedents of Kentucky, Vermont, and Maine, and solved the slavery problem by attaching an amendment to the State's constitution providing for gradual emancipation. Eventually, an admission act was passed on December 31, 1862, providing for admission on condition that the people of West Virginia accept the amended constitution (12 Stat. 633). The amended constitution was accepted by the people of West Virginia in March 1863, and West Virginia was admitted into the Union by Ptesidential proclamation on April 20, 1863, to become effective sixty days later. i.e., June 30, 1863 (13 Stat. 731). Wisconsin Wisconsin Territory was formed from part of Michigan Territory, and was organized as a territory on April 20, 1836 ( 5 Stat. 10). The area of Wisconsin Temtory was later reduced to approximately its present size by the creation of Iowa Territory in 1838 (5 Stat. 235). In the 1840s. statehood was supported by the leaders of both majority parties in Wisconsin T e r n t o r - , and voting on the issue became almost an annual event. None of these early plebiscites was successful. BY 1846. however. the combined pressures of growth in population and dissatisfaction with the amount of congressional appropriations for the territory mused a reversal of public opinion regarding statehood, and a recommendation by the Governor for another alebiscite was endorsed by the legislat m . In April 1846, voters in the territory supported statehood by a large majority. An enabling act was accordingly passed by Congress authorizing the drafting of a State constitution (9 Stat. 56). The constitution subsequently formed by a convention in Wisconsin was rejected by the people in April 1847.5a In the meantime. an admission act had been passed by the Congress on March 3. 1847 ( 9 Stat. 178). Admission was contingent on the acceptance of a constitution by the people of the territory. If a constitution were approved. admission would be completed by a Presidential proclamation. In March 1848, a second constitution was accepted by the people. and Wisconsin was admitted into the Union by Presidential proclamation on May 29. 1848 ( 9 Stat. 233). There was little or no debate in Congress on the admission of ,Wisconsin into the Union. Admission was supported by the Northerners.. and Southerners acquiesced inasmuch as Florida and Texas had been admitted in 1845. The sectional balance was. thus, for the moment, restored. Wyoming Wyoming was organized as a territory on July 25. 1868. from areas previously includ- ed in the Dakota. 1 d a h o . p d Utah Territo- ries (15 Stat. 178). In the late 1860s. the Union Pacific railroad opened the territory for settlement by the cattlemen and the homesteaders. Statehood sentiment was slow in developing because of range wars, Indian problems. and political differen~es.~' In 1889, however. Wyoming. like Idaho. was left out of the enabling bill for Washington, North Dakota, South Dakota. and Montana (the "Omnibus States"). T h e Governor of the territory. Francis E. Warren. then took the initiative and called a constitutional convention. A constitution was drafted and approved by the residents of the territory in November 1889. There was little opposition in Congress to statehood for Wyoming. What opposition there was centered on the territory's small population and the women suffrage provision in the territory's c o n s t i t ~ t i o n . ~ ~ Wyoming was admitted into the Union by act of Congress on July 10, 1890 (26 Stat. 222). FOOTNOTES Plano. Jack. and Milton Greenberg. The America Political Dictionary. New York, Bolt. Rinehart and Winstoh 1979. 0. 32. It should be noted that under this "usual" procedure the State constitution is approved by Congress. This approval may be accomplished by one of two methods. . "First. Congress passes an act of admission which either expressly or by impUcation finds that the conditions precedent to admission have been met: Csicl second. Congress may direct the Resident to look into the facts. If the President finds 8s a fact that the conditions previously fixed by Congress have been complied w i t h the President is authorized and directed to issue a pmclrrmation of adrnssion. However, the state cornea in under Congressional action. for the President here is acting but as part of an administrative process." Wrk, Lawrence N. Admission of States and the Declaration of Independence. Temple Law Quarterly, v. 33, 1960. p.. 405. Some States were admitted through a Presidential proclamation a s authorized by t h e enabling act. without a subsequent act of admission (See Appen. dix I). 2 In 1803 Ohio became the first State to enter the Union following thls "usual" procedure (2 Stat. 201). *U.S. Library of Conglws. Congressional Re. search Service. Admission of States Into the Union: A Bnef Summary of Procedures. Report No. 70-156 GGR, by William R., Tswill. Washington. 1970. p. 4-5. 'U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Providing for the Admission of Alaska Into the Union. Report wtth Minority Views to Accompany H.R. 331. Senate Report No. 1929. 81st Cong.. 2d Sess. Washington. U.S. Govt. Print. Off.. 1950. p. 7. This appears to be the f i n t time that these "traditional" requirements were enumerated in a congrernrional document. 'Davtla-Colon. Luls R. Equal Citizenship. SelfDetermination. and the US. Statehood Process: A Constitutional and Historical Analysis. Case Weste m Reserve Journal of International Law. v. 13. Spring 1981. p. 360. The Alaskans followed the 'Tennessee Plan" in seeking statehood. This tactic. first followed by Tennessee in 1796. calls for the incipient State to draft a "State" constitution. convene a legislative body and choose two "Senators," (before the 17th amendment to the U.S. Constitutron provided for the direct election of.United States Senamrs) and to elect by popular vote "Representatives" to the United States Con-. These actions were done without congressio~alauthorization. The "State" delegation wouid then lobby for statehood in Congress. Since 1796, six States (Michigan. Iowa. Cali. fornia. Oregon. Kansas, and Alaska) have followed the same procedure. These States are known as "Tennessee Plan States." 'Faulk. Odie B. Arizom A Short RIstory. Norman. Unjvervty of Oklahoma Re% 1980. p. 1R 9 * Scroggs. Jack B. Arkansas Statehood: A Study in State and National Poi~ticalSchlsm. Arkansas Histor~calQuarterly. v. 20. Autumn 1961. P. 235. Scroggs maintains that the o p w i t l o n to statehood for Mich~ganand Arkansas "revealed a conflict be- CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -- SENATE April 22, 1985 tamn o p v o u z WUal forces on thc natlonrl Prectdmm of Congnss in 1798. on the Admission finned in m act I1 Stnf50. August 7. 1789) of m e scene." and that both faction& JaduonlPM and of Tamesee as s StsM. into t h e OnIoa Umn a ma ConestabW+d after the rsttticstion of Whim. tUempted u, "nrmtpcrl~~! the enVMcC of ~ a t t h t h c O r i ~ S t o t t . . r e r r i n p o m t . wt h e Conrtftution of t h e Onitcd SMtQ. th two states as to heat rcm party purpaseo" f S r ~ ~ o u r p r e s m t ~ t i o R 0 t h 8 S t a**The ~ d Jcff~soniMItn me tried to have Ibld., D. 243. Both S t d a save their elecLonrl votes M ~ c h l e ~ l r at. QPfr rrmovtd b a w e n n n s u e u l iU t h e In t h e next yrrstdentaal election to the Dtmocrst *J bCnmsoto'c actton mntrincd dtmenta of the MrNnVmBurm. 'Tennessee P W m tbrrt "Suutors" fad '-rescn~or~ o t u C. r canmon oi SO& E e WPP there&on removed fr& for u e n t a t l d were elected before statehood but 6i.f- m of Con-. example. on March 4. 1850. n p o b against tht CnU- f e n U an enabtms u t hul been passed lot office by Jefferson." &e Malone. Durn. ed. Dicfernla acwon M hPvlnp usurped -authority uf Mmesota. t i o n of ~ hexican Biograuhy. New York. Charles Conw%s"' m l e ~ ~ s h m forg th tvlltontr Cador3' O m historiM hrs termed the extensl* debs& Mdbner's Sons.1935. v. 8. p. 295. n i a of course. dld not have any terntonal sww on the odrmaon of bfmnesot.8 "needles$ prfrver," -In 1953. ConpPsscd s Mint resolution (67 before admisloh CPlhoun further belleveil that which "covers nearly &hree hundred mlurann on S~AL$07) estrblishing March 1. l803 M the date for Wifornta's action was -revolutionary and rebel- the C o m o n n l Globe, averaoLry almost a thoa- t h e admission of Ohio into t h e Union because It lime in I t s character. .rumhial In It8 tmdency. and nand words" FoweU. WiiLPm Watts. A hrrtory was on that date thst the Ohio k s m k m r e a r l c a l n t e d t o ~ ~ d t o ~ ~ m ~ ~ Oft MmncsottL d . ~ ~ ~VOl. e ~n.~ st. ~ Paul, ~ ~ ~IarInaota n s ~ ~~ seated. the f i r s Governor toot office. and O h b ~ueacek"Conpreslonrl Globe. 3 1 s Corn t3 mi Society. I W L p. 18. began functioning as s Stat& I t abould be noted Sem. v. Wt -The "Mfsrourl ComprornW was t h e portion that Ohio w a s the first State formed from the l o h e Senaton" and w o "RepnscaCottva' of t h e Misbouri Enablmg Act (3 Stat. 545) Whkh Northwest Territory and r ~ s sthe first State admit from C d f o r n l r who had lobbled for statehood proaded %at in all territoq ceded by Pmnn t a ted by an enabling r& Three previous StPtetiVerwere seated on Septmaer 10 and 11. rrspecrtvew. t h e U m t d Stotea . wNch I i a north of 38 de. m o n t Kentucky,and Tennesec-were admitted by " COlordD'8 e n a b l w act urovided that when the grees and 30 minutes north lpfjtudc mt W u d e d simple nctr of admission. R o m 1803 on, enabl+g emsutution aras approved by the people of the ter- W I Uthe [of Missouri1 . sLao- acts and admission acta (except t h n e for M a n e ~ Ltrmts of the 6ritory. "It shrill bc the duty of the P n s l d a t of t h e erg. . ahall be, and CE hereby. imever prohlhted.' m d Michigan) m m m e d an express condmon chat United States to barc his umchuwion declaring "These four "omrubus" S t a t e were BapubUcar~ the cowrltutum of t h e new Starc mast m n d e for the State admitted into the Union on a n e q u a l f o o t m e n IUO and wyommg were admitted m 1890. the establishment of 4 m u b l i c s n form-of governIng with the original State, vlthout m y further the Republimns could claun tarelve new Senston ment. action whatever on the p u t of Congress." In enn, and w e n Repmsentatlves. As one hlstarian ab. **Piem. Neal R. The Great Plains 8totea of bling acts for eight Stateg ppssed between 1861 and served. "The admisston of nca N t e s h r s nearly Americrr: People. Politlcn, and Power in the Nine 190% (Nevada Colorrdq. North Dakota. South. always been a matter of polittal odjustmmt" Oreat Plains Ststea N w Y a r e W. W. Norton & Dakota. Montana W a s h m e b x , U t a k Okhhoma). Paxson. FTcdenclE L The Adrmslltm of the 'Omnl- Comvany. k. 1973. pp. 250-251. In 1901, Congress the Resident wrs spccUlcailp authorized to W e a bus' States. 1889-80. Procecdmgs of the State Btb- made the Indians in Indlan Territory United Stater Presldenttal ~mclamawonwithout Lhe n-CY- ~ for ~- . Wical Society of W~sconsln at ib Fifty-Nmth Citizens (31 Stst. 1447). anactofadmidoe kxntral M e t t w , Octobu 28. 1911. WisOmnibus Gtstehwd BID. Remarks ln t h e "Atheum. Robert O. T h e CololldPnc Albuauer- COI1Sm. P w. S a t e . Conmcsfonol Record, v. 36. Dee. 10, 1902. w e . University of New Mexlco Pi-e~b1976. p. 1 0 2 Some congressmen most nOtabh Senator Sam D. 193. "Ro and Con Mscuslon: Statehood Row- fcu Houston of Texns. objrnted ta organuation of t h e "EllInger. Charles Wayne. Political Obstacles Hawali and Alpskz? Congmsslonal Dtggf v. 29, No- tenitow because the uea had been aet Pside for Barring Oklahoma's Admassion to Statehood. 1890vember 1950. p. 85-285. , ,. the Indiana. Subsecjwm negottubna removed 1906. Great PLains JoumPL v. 3. Sprfng 1964. p. 80. title to much of the arm a* Carey. Charles E The Creation of Oregon as a I4Thornas. Dana Lee. The'Stor~rof American InStatehood New Y o h Willred Funk, LnC 1961. p. " In order to e x W t e npproval of the constltu- State. Oregon Historic& Society, v. 26. December 557. Uon Nevadms telegraphed the document Ln ~ t ens 1925, p. 303. +QCarey.Charles &,,ed T h e O n s o n ComtituI* By t h e end of the year, all four of t h e States tirety, a t cons~derableexpense, tB Washirigton '*The 2opulatlon of Nevads In 1880 was 6 857 In tion Salem S W RIIUUULDtp+. 1928. p. 45. had entered the Union (Seep. 31-322 1870, the Census reperted A mpulation of 42.491. Ibid, p. 50-51. I* Admission of IdPho. Congressional Reeord. S l s t Cong.. lst st.. July 1.1980, voL21. vart 7. p. 6832The fact t h a t the "terntowat mast had less than a +' Bancraft, Hubert E m X l s t i n ~of Oregon. V. Company. Publish6834. See rtso Peirce. Neal R The Mountain States sixth of the poDulatlon then requved for slngle II. Snn Prancisco. The &tory of AmericP. New Yo* W.W. Norton &z Cc, Lne. representatme In Congress aras brushed aside by ers. 1890. p. 4 3 9 . 4 4 1 1872. P. 125. *aTeruressee was the first State to enter the the advocates of Statehood." Nevada. A Guide tD Umon by this method. For a fuller explication of l7 Congressional doubts a b u t the atze of the IU- the Sllver State.Compiled by the Wrrtcrs' Program mis population were apparently Justifietl. Aaard- of the Work Piolects AdmmLFtrstW in t h e State of the philarophy behind Bkount's wk%, see WIling to one historian. the census conduaed by Dli- Nevada PortlsnQ Oregon. Bmfords m d Mort, 1040. Uomg Samuel C. The Adanasion of Tennessee Into the Union Tht TermCommission, nois was '% series of frauds" Oiltdr~fnaUyscheduled p. 43. to end on June 1. the cemu was ertended to I% * De L a CNZ. Jesoe. R e W m &cruse of R e : 1M5. p. 31. ** Tuttle, Daniel W., Jr. ''State'' elections prior to ce1, durtna which time "uverzealous commib AIbert J. Bevendge m d Nuevo M e r i ~ ' 6SVuggk sionexs were counting some xettlera two or three for Statehood. 1902-1903. Aztlaa. v. 7, Spnng 1976, admittance intc the Union Report No. 1. Legisla times and wen llsttng famDles repeatedly ua they P. 84. See also E3k Richard N ed. New Mexico. rive Reference Bureau Universiry of HawaiL %no. cmssed t h e state on the way to Missouri. h e coun- Past and Present: A Hlstoncal Rerrder. Albuguer- lolu. 1951. p. 5. ties reponed more people thM they had when the sue. Umvemty of New Mexux, Pnsc. 1971. p. 206. 4 s Lewis. Sarah Elkabeth. Digest of Congressional Action on the Annexation of T a w December. *QEllis. New Mexlcn. p 198-201. federal census was taken two yesrs Ister. Round1844, to arch. 1985. S o m h w e s w Historical figure estimates baaed 'on good information' were mils. New M e w , p. 206. see aso ~r cruz, Quarterly. v. 50. October 1946. p. 264. entered for disrant forts and the MPdtson County Rejection Because of Race. p. 78-97. **Thiswa6 the f i m insof the use of a ~ o i n t census included an estimate of six hundred resi%%In1889. four Republican States were d s l i t t e d dents at Prairie du Chien far outside the bound- (North Dakotg South Dakota M o n w m d resolution tD acquire foreign territory. See Bailey. aries of the p r o d state. Eventually the count Wsshmstnnt, lesdrng one l'uSortaa a, comment: Thomas A A Diplomntic History of the Amencan reached 40.258 and ass reported at face value. "Polltlcsl maneuvering defeated I t s own end. At People New Yorb. AppletonCentury-CrDfts. 1464. Later, when it dtdn't w e any dilferencc a federal uw tune betwetn 1883 and 1888 the Democrat8 Seventh dition. p. 246. 4 7 ~ t mime to tfme. variorw p&msals were report said lllinois had 34,620 when it wa6 admitted &t probably have bargamed New M a c 0 and now they d e in Texas and In Cunpres for division of the a s a state." Boward, Robert P. Illinois: A HLstory of Arizona p g a m t the imvlfeble the Pmirie State. Grand Rapids. Mkh&aa Wiiam hpd held out m long that they had nar,tung ta offer Grace. bur none of these proparals mstennlrzed In 1846. for exarn~?le.the Mormona eSm~llshed B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. 1 9 7 2 p. 102. and no stwith whic!! La onthsund the bludgthe "State of Deseret" &aft& r constitution The same author claims that "on a population bash eon of Republlarn suocess at the polls In 1886." Illinois has the distinction of berng the smallest Wxsm The AdmLssion of the "OtnNbU6" StsW, elected various officials. and petitioned Congless for admission into the Union C o n a e s replied by 18e.g-w. p. 92. state ever admitted into t h t Union" mi& D. 98. "The Northwest Territory was cmposed of creatrng the Utah Territory in 1950. l a K a m z . A Guide to the Sunflower Stue. Com6 0 Bmkett. Psul Louis. R o m Wilderness to Enspiled ar.6 Written by the Federal Writers' Project W e M n h d s ceded by VUWLO and other States . Washmeton State Univemty of the Work Pio~ectsAdmrntstration for the Stace to the govcmmenz estab~lshedunder the Articles of bling ~ c t Pullman. Press, 1968. D. 78. House. 1949. p. 52. Confedentlon In 1767. the Congress of t h e Conof Xansas. New P o r k -tines .a Many voteta may have been dissuaded by t h e 's A previous act of ;sdmisslon passed both Houses +& Northwest O r d u u n a wbch fedemuan en=:& and arss signed by the President on May 4. 1858 (U provided a civll government for the ceded lands. constitution's liberal provluons: mamed women Stat. 269). Thls compromise messure. however. pro. The Ordmancr &lmprov~dedfor the dfvision of the w e allowed to hold property. and the ju&ciary vided for a popular vote on the proalavvy "Le- territory and the creation of not l a r than three were to w elected. for exarcple 0 P i e n . The Mountam States. p. 68-71. See also compton constitution" On A W 2, 1858. Ilonsas nor more than five S t a t a from t h w drmtons whenever the populatron repciKd 60.OM) free Lnhab Eblen. Jack Ericson. The First and Second United voters rejected this constitution. l i m t S . although thlS ngluremeat could be w a ~ v e d . States Emptres: Governors and T e m t o r ~ a Governso Goodwyn. Lawrence. et aL The South Central The Ordurance further pnnxled that the govern- ment. 1784-1912. Pittsburgh. Ur~vcrsity of Pi%States. Hew York. Time LncommteQ 1967. p. 38 StPtehood advocates in Michlgaa in an effort ment and constmatcon of any new State should be burgh Ress. 1968. p. 219-220. In 1869, the first t e r i i t ~ r l a lei~klature l pranLed to Justify their action in fonowtng the e x ~ m p l eof 'repubban." and p r c b b ~ t e dslavery m the new TeMessee, published a small pamphlet entitled: Scates. The Northwest Ordrnancc of 178': was con- eauai rights M women. F. .. . ~- -- - ,