Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources

This report introduces selected basic sources that are useful in obtaining background information or specific facts on the status of federal legislative or regulatory initiatives. It includes telephone, online, and media sources are included, as well as pertinent directories, such as those of organizations that track areas of interest. Annotations describing each source's contents and organization are included so that researchers can select those that most closely fit their needs. Internet addresses usually provide information about the items, rather than access to them.

Order Code 98-461 C CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources Updated January 13, 2005 Carol D. Davis Information Research Specialist Information Research Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources Summary By using a variety of basic printed, online, and telephone sources, constituents can track federal legislation and regulations at the local level. Those who prefer weekly overviews would be interested in such publications as CQ Weekly, the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Newsweek, Time, and U.S. News and World Report. For daily coverage, helpful printed sources are the Congressional Record, CQ Today (formerly CQ Daily Monitor), the Federal Register, the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal, and the Los Angeles Times. Databases such as THOMAS, GPO Access, the websites of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, LexisNexis, and WESTLAW would also be useful. The Code of Federal Regulations, the Index to the Code of Federal Regulations, and the CIS/Index to Publications of the United States Congress provide access by subject to regulatory and legislative publications. Telephone sources such as Capitol Hill’s bill status office, the White House’s office of the executive clerk, and the office of the Federal Register can give brief information on legislative and regulatory developments too new to have been captured by standard online or printed sources. Capsule descriptions of directories and other media sources are provided, as is a bibliography. Annotations for each source contain publisher contact information. This report will be updated yearly. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Tracking Current Federal Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Printed Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Telephone Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Daily Calendar Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Public Laws Update Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Status of Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Switchboard in the U.S. Capitol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 White House Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Tracking Current Federal Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Printed Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Telephone Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Federal Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 White House Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Selected Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Other Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Reference Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Media Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources Introduction Tracking the status of current federal legislation and regulations is often viewed as a tough task requiring a vast library of costly resources, in-depth knowledge of the issues, and strong familiarity with the federal government’s inner workings. This is not necessarily so. Although access to sophisticated databases and comprehensive knowledge of the federal government may help, it is possible for most constituents to follow an issue by using a variety of resources available locally. The scope of the issue will determine how complicated and time-consuming the process will be. This guide has been designed to introduce researchers to selected basic sources that are useful in obtaining background information or specific facts on the status of federal legislative or regulatory initiatives. Printed, telephone, online, and media sources are included, as well as pertinent directories, such as those of organizations that track areas of interest. Annotations describing each source’s contents and organization are included so that researchers can select those that most closely fit their needs. Internet addresses usually provide information about the items, rather than access to them. Most of the publications cited in this guide are available in local public or research libraries. Federal publications can often be found in libraries designated as federal depository libraries. To get their addresses, contact a local library; telephone the office of Depository Services of the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) at (202) 512-1119; or go to the Locate a Federal Depository Library page on the GPO Access website at [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/libraries.html]. Since several databases may speed certain legislative or regulatory searches, brief descriptions of pertinent ones are provided in the “Selected Databases” section, below. For all other materials, publisher contact information has been provided. Since pricing structures vary by subscriber type and prices change frequently, publishers must be contacted to obtain the latest order information. GPO publications can be ordered, prepaid, by mail, telephone (toll-free 866-512-1800), or fax (202-512-2250) on any of the following credit cards: Discover, MasterCard, VISA, or American Express from Superintendent of Documents; P.O. Box 371954; Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. CRS-2 Tracking Current Federal Legislation Action on legislation passed or pending in the current Congress, and its status in the legislative process, is reported in the Congressional Record. This is the primary source for the text of floor debates and the official source for recorded votes. CQ Weekly is a commercial publication that tracks the status of current legislation. Since some current legislation amends previously enacted law, it may be necessary at times to consult the earlier laws in the United States Statutes at Large or the United States Code. Printed Sources For information about online access to these publications, see the “Selected Databases” section below. CIS/Index to Publications of the United States Congress LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions Tel: (301) 654-1550 7500 Old Georgetown Road (800) 638-8380 Bethesda, MD 20814-6126 Fax: (301) 657-3203 [http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic] E-mail: academicinfo@lexisnexis.com Frequency: Monthly index and abstracts issues, with quarterly indexes and annual cumulations. This source provides detailed abstracts of congressional publications such as printed hearings, reports, committee prints, and documents. Titles, subjects, publication numbers, bill numbers, and witness names can be searched. Also, the legislative histories of public laws are provided. Coverage dates are 1970 through the present. Congressional Record Superintendent of Documents P.O. Box 371954 Tel: (866) 512-1800 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 Fax: (202) 512-2250 [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/crecord/index.html] Frequency: Published each day that one or both chambers are in session, except infrequent instances when two or more consecutive issues are printed together. The Congressional Record contains the edited transcript of activities on the floor of the House and the Senate. The “Daily Digest” section summarizes action in each chamber; committee hearings; new public laws; and committee meetings scheduled for the next legislative day. Indexes are issued twice a month. The subject index section can be used to identify bills by topic, and the “History of Bills and Resolutions” section tracks action on specific bills. The indexes, which are available CRS-3 online at [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cri/index.html], are eventually cumulated into bound volumes. CQ Today (formerly CQ Daily Monitor) Congressional Quarterly, Inc. Tel: (202) 419-8279 nd 1255 22 Street, NW (800) 432-2250, ext. 279 Washington, DC 20037 [http://www.cq.com] Frequency: Monday through Friday when Congress is in session, with updates throughout the day on the Web. This subscription newsletter provides daily news on Congress, such as planned floor action for the Senate and the House, bill and amendment descriptions, and notices of bill markup sessions and conference negotiations. Also, daily and selected future committee schedules are given. Significant sections are the “Pulse of Congress,” with behind-the-scenes information on Members and committees; “People on the Move,” which highlights congressional staff changes; and the “Appropriations” section, which appears during the appropriations cycle. Subscribers also receive an afternoon e-mail newsletter, CQ Today Extra, with the day’s latest news about Congress and updated information on the next day’s congressional schedule. CQ Weekly Congressional Quarterly, Inc. Tel: (202) 419-8279 1255 22nd Street, NW (800) 432-2250, ext. 279 Washington, DC 20037 [http://www.cq.com] Frequency: Weekly, with special supplements and annual Almanac. This weekly summary of congressional action and developments contains status tables for appropriations bills and other major legislation, roll-call vote charts for both chambers, and topical treatments of committee and floor actions. Most issues have articles that provide current and background information on legislative topics. Occasionally, special reports are printed. Quarterly indexes are issued, and the annual Congressional Quarterly Almanac is a comprehensive review of the year’s legislative session. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents Superintendent of Documents Tel: (866) 512-1800 P.O. Box 371954 Fax: (202) 512-2250 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/wcomp/index.html] Frequency: Weekly, with quarterly, semiannual, and annual indexes. This weekly periodical provides information such as the dates on which the President signed or vetoed legislation. Also, it contains transcripts of presidential messages to Congress, executive orders, and speeches and other material released by the White House. CRS-4 Telephone Sources At times, the latest information on legislation is so new that it will not yet have been added to standard online or printed sources. Or there may be times when just a single elusive date, bill number, or page number is needed. The telephone contacts listed below can provide certain useful facts as explained in each entry. When such information is needed regularly, however, or when in-depth coverage of an issue is required, it is essential to check the printed or online sources listed in this guide. Daily Calendar Information. Both political parties in the Senate and the House provide recorded messages about the proceedings on the floor of each chamber every day they are in session. Call the following numbers for these cloakroom recordings: Senate: (202) 224-8601 (Republican) (202) 224-8541 (Democratic) House: (202) 225-7430 (Republican) (202) 225-7400 (Democratic) Public Laws Update Service. Information on new public law numbers assigned to recently enacted public laws can be obtained from a recorded message maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration’s office of the Federal Register at (202) 741-6043 or by subscribing to its Public Laws Electronic Notification Service (PENS) e-mail service. To subscribe, use the online form by clicking on “Join or leave the list (or change settings)” at the following Web address: [http://listserv.gsa.gov/archives/publaws-l.html]. Status of Legislation. The Legislative Information (or LEGIS) office on Capitol Hill provides current information on pending legislation in response to telephone inquiries from the public. Using a database, the staff can provide the following information: status of any piece of legislation, bills introduced by any specified Member of Congress, or bills introduced on any given subject. Up to six items identified by bill number, or three items requiring word searches, can be handled per call. The number is (202) 225-1772. Switchboard in the U.S. Capitol. The office of any Member of Congress, congressional committee, or congressional subcommittee can be reached by calling (202) 224-3121. White House Records. Via a recorded message, the office of the executive clerk at the White House provides dates for the following information: presidential signings or vetoes of recent legislation; presidential messages; executive orders; and other official presidential actions. If the desired information is not in the taped message, callers can stay on the line to speak with a staffer. The recorded message is available at (202) 456-2226. Tracking Current Federal Regulations Regulations are issued by federal departments and agencies under the authority delegated to them by federal law or presidential executive order and have the force CRS-5 of law. Final regulations are printed in the Federal Register (FR) and later codified by subject in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). By using these two sources with their many indexes and tables, it is possible to identify all existing regulations in a subject area or pertaining to a specific section of the United States Code, identify regulations issued pursuant to a specific public law, or find proposed regulations that are not yet final. The Federal Regulatory Directory describes the regulatory responsibilities of more than 100 federal agencies, and the Index to the Code of Federal Regulations provides indexing to the CFR. Printed Sources For information about online access to these publications, see the “Selected Databases” section on p. 7. Code of Federal Regulations Superintendent of Documents Tel: (866) 512-1800 P.O. Box 371954 Fax: (202) 512-2250 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/index.html] Frequency: Revised annually (about one quarter of the titles at a time) in January, April, July, and October. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) codifies final regulations having general applicability and legal effect that first appeared in the Federal Register. Its 50 titles are arranged by subject. Since the annual revision incorporates new regulations and drops superseded ones, the CFR reflects regulations in effect at the time of printing. Several indexes and tables accompany the set. Federal Register Superintendent of Documents Tel: (866) 512-1800 P.O. Box 371954 Fax: (202) 512-2250 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html] Frequency: Daily, Monday through Friday; not published on Saturdays, Sundays, or federal holidays. The Federal Register (FR) is the official announcement of regulations and legal notices issued by federal departments and agencies. These include proposed and final federal regulations having general applicability and legal effect; executive orders and presidential proclamations; documents required to be published by act of Congress; and other federal documents of public interest. It also updates the CFR. Daily and monthly indexes, and an accompanying publication, List of CFR Sections Affected, aid in its use. The Register also publishes the “Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions” twice a year (usually in April and October). This document provides advance notice of proposed rulemaking by listing all rules and proposed CRS-6 rules that more than 60 federal departments, agencies, and commissions expect to issue during the next six months. Regulations that concern the military or foreign affairs, or that deal only with agency personnel, organization, or management matters, are excluded. The agenda is available online from 1994 through the present at [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ua/index.html], and can be searched by subject, agency, and Code of Federal Regulations part number. Federal Regulatory Directory CQ Press 1255 22nd Street, NW, Suite 400 Washington, DC 20037 [http://www.cqpress.com] E-mail: customerservice@cqpress.com Frequency: Every two years Tel: (866) 427-7737 (202) 729-1800 Fax: (800) 380-3810 Profiles of the mandates and operations of more than 100 federal regulatory agencies are provided in this directory. Each profile gives a brief history and description of the agency and its regulatory oversight responsibilities, and lists key staff, information sources, legislation, and regional offices. An overview of the federal regulatory process is provided. Other aids are the full texts of key regulatory acts and executive orders, a guide to using the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations, and subject and name indexes. Index to the Code of Federal Regulations LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions 7500 Old Georgetown Road Bethesda, MD 20814-6126 [http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic] E-mail: academicinfo@lexisnexis.com Frequency: Annual, with quarterly updates. Tel: (301) 654-1550 (800) 638-8380 Fax: (301) 657-3203 This index to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is arranged by: subject; geography — by political entities or federally regulated properties, and by proper name of physical entities administered by the government (national parks, monuments, etc.); official headings for each portion of the CFR; and new and revised CFR section numbers. Telephone Sources As with legislation, there are times when newer information on regulatory activity is needed than has yet appeared in standard online or printed materials, or when aid in using those sources is required. Again, the telephone can be a helpful tool. Federal Agencies. Federal agencies responsible for regulatory activities in specific areas and the individuals in charge can be identified by using the Federal Regulatory Directory (see above). This publication provides contact information for each agency. CRS-7 The customer services office at the Federal Register can identify the location and date of recent items appearing in the Federal Register and can aid in using the Code of Federal Regulations. That office can be reached at (202) 741-6000. People who need copies of pages of the Federal Register can photocopy as many pages as they need in person at the office of the Federal Register. Its address is the National Archives and Records Administration, 800 North Capitol Street, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20001. For information on per-page copying costs and hours of operation, contact the Federal Register at the telephone number given in the preceding paragraph. White House Records. The office of the executive clerk at the White House provides a recorded message with information on the dates that executive orders and presidential proclamations appeared in the Federal Register. If the desired information is not included in the taped message, callers can stay on the line to be connected with a staffer. This office can be reached at (202) 456-2226. Selected Databases Many computer databases can aid in tracking federal legislation and regulations. Brief descriptions of selected ones are provided in this section. Some of the databases may only be available though libraries or other institutional subscribers. Contact information is given for the database producer or the actual database. Because of the rapidly changing nature of this field, no attempt has been made to compile a comprehensive listing. For the same reason, no information has been provided on subscription fees, online rates, subscriber limits, or access information (except for some Web sources). To obtain such information, contact the appropriate database producer. Citation Publishing, Inc. 92 Argonaut Street, Suite 255 Aliso Viejo, CA 92656 [http://www.citation.com] E-mail: sales@citation.com Tel: (949) 770-2000 (800) 808-3372 Full-text access to the daily Federal Register and to the current Code of Federal Regulations is available through this company’s CyberREGS Online database. Although the company focuses on environmental issues, this database is not limited solely to that area. Only CyberREGS Online subscribers can access this system on the Web. CRS-8 CQ.com On Congress Congressional Quarterly, Inc. 1255 22nd Street, NW Washington, DC 20037 [http://www.cq.com] E-mail: hotline@cq.com Tel: (202) 419-8511 (800) 678-8511 Bill texts, summaries, tracking, and analysis are provided in this database. Among its other features are forecasts of major pending bills; versions of bills; links to related bills; roll-call votes; legislative histories; floor and committee schedules; detailed committee coverage; texts of committee reports; transcripts of witnesses’ testimony; and publications such as the CQ Weekly, CQ Today (formerly CQ Daily Monitor), the Congressional Record, and the Federal Register. Among CQ.com’s access points are bill number, keyword, phrase, Member name, and date. Time spans covered vary by the category of information sought. Only CQ.com subscribers can access this system on the Internet. GPO Access GPO Access User Support Team Superintendent of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office 732 North Capitol Street, NW Mail Stop: IDCC Washington, DC 20401 [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/index.html] E-mail: ContactCenter@gpo.gov Tel: (202) 512-1800 (866) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2104 The Government Printing Office (GPO) provides free Internet access to a wide variety of legislative, regulatory, and executive material, such as congressional bills, the Congressional Record and the Congressional Record Index (including the “History of Bills and Resolutions” section), congressional calendars, public laws, selected congressional reports and documents, the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, the Federal Register, and the Code of Federal Regulations. Time spans covered vary by the category of information sought. LexisNexis Congressional LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions 7500 Old Georgetown Road Bethesda, MD 20814-6126 [http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic] E-mail: academicinfo@lexisnexis.com Tel: (301) 654-1550 (800) 638-8380 Fax: (301) 657-3203 Detailed abstracts of congressional publications such as hearings, reports, documents, and committee prints are available in this database, which is the enhanced, Web-based counterpart of the CIS/Index to Publications of the United States Congress (see the “Printed Sources” section on p. 5). Also provided are links CRS-9 to the full texts of many congressional and federal documents, such as the Congressional Record, congressional legislation, congressional hearing transcripts, the Federal Register, and the Code of Federal Regulations. Length of coverage varies depending on the category of information sought. These and other sources are accessible to LexisNexis Congressional Universe subscribers, and some of the sources are included in standard LexisNexis subscriptions. Office of Management and Budget’s “Regulatory Matters” Web Page [http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/regpol.html] Reviewing proposed and final federal regulations is the job of the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB’s) Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), which focuses on cost-benefit analysis. Information on regulations that OIRA is reviewing or has reviewed during the past 30 days can be found on the “Regulatory Matters” page of the OMB website at the Web address given above. Also available is data on rules reviewed by the agency since 1981. Regulations.gov [http://www.regulations.gov] This website was launched by the federal government in 2003 to enhance public participation in federal regulatory activities. Here, people can search and view proposed regulations from about 160 federal departments and agencies. Also, every entry links to a comment form that readers can complete and submit to the appropriate department or agency. Regulations.gov is updated each business day with proposed new regulations. Among the database’s search options are: ! ! ! ! ! ! keyword or subject; department or agency name; regulations published today; comments due today; open regulations or comments by publication dates; and Code of Federal Regulations citation. THOMAS THOMAS is a Web-based source of congressional and legislative information on the Internet. Initiated by the leadership of the U.S. House of Representatives in the 104th Congress, it is available free to Internet users through the Library of Congress website at [http://thomas.loc.gov]. Among the contents of THOMAS are the following categories, with the starting coverage date for each given within the parentheses: ! ! ! ! ! ! full texts of bills (101st Congress/1989); bill summary and status information (93rd Congress/1973); full texts of public laws (101st Congress/1989); committee reports (104th Congress/1995); House roll-call votes (101st Congress, second session/1990); Senate roll-call votes (101st Congress/1989); CRS-10 full text of the Congressional Record (101st Congress/1989); Congressional Record Index (101st Congress/1989); Résumés of Congressional Activity (80th Congress/1947); House “Days in Session” calendars (94th Congress/1975); and Senate “Days in Session” calendars (95th Congress, second session/ 1978). Also provided are links to two congressional publications that explain the steps of the legislative process — the House’s How Our Laws Are Made and the Senate’s Enactment of a Law. ! ! ! ! ! U.S. House of Representatives Home Page This Web source at [http://www.house.gov] provides such legislative details as: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! recent major House floor and committee actions; legislative schedules; background information on, and links to material on the steps in, the legislative process; directories of Representatives by state and by name; the chamber’s leadership; House roll-call votes starting with the 101st Congress, second session (1990); and brief descriptions of floor proceedings when the House is in session. U.S. Senate Home Page Materials of legislative interest offered on this Internet source at [http://www.senate.gov] are the following: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Senate calendars; background information on, and links to material on the steps in, the legislative process; Senate roll-call votes starting with the 101st Congress (1989); the chamber’s leadership; descriptions of the Senate committee system and of individual committees; historical information about the Senate; directories of Senators by name, state, class (term expiration date), and party; and glossary of common legislative terms. WESTLAW West Group 610 Opperman Drive Eagan, MN 55123 [http://www.westlaw.com] Tel: (651) 687-7000 Although WESTLAW was designed primarily as a legal reference database, many of its files contain material useful to anyone tracking legislation or regulations. CRS-11 For example, the Congressional Record is available in full text on this subscription service, as are the Federal Register and the current Code of Federal Regulations. Also available in full text are congressional bills, selected presidential documents, and federal laws. Only WESTLAW subscribers can access the system. Web Aids The following Internet sites provide access to guides to sources on federal legislative and regulatory activities or to Web-based instruction on conducting research in these areas: Legislative Information [http://www.mnsfld.edu/depts/lib/bills.html] Legislative Research with THOMAS [http://www.mnsfld.edu/depts/lib/mythomas.html] Legislative Research [http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/softwarebi] Public Policy Matrix [http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/polproc.html] U.S. Government Documents: The Legislative Process [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/dsc/legproc.html] Federal Regulations [http://www.mnsfld.edu/depts/lib/fedregs.html] Federal Regulations [http://www.lawschool.cornell.edu/library/Finding_the_Law/ Guides_by_Topic/fedregs.htm] RegInfo.gov [http://reginfo.gov/] Other Sources Numerous sources not directly related to tracking legislation and regulations can often be used to identify information on these topics. National organizations that represent specific interest groups are keenly aware of legislation and regulatory activities in their areas. They frequently follow these issues closely, and often publish newsletters and make reference materials available on these topics. Washington Representatives has information on more than 17,000 firms and individuals who lobby in Washington and on the organizations they represent. The Encyclopedia of Associations contains essential information on more than 22,000 national organizations. The Washington Information Directory provides information by subject on pertinent government agencies and nonprofit groups in Washington. National Trade and Professional Associations of the United States offers information on more than 7,400 national trade associations and professional societies. Washington is a directory of key Washington officials and institutions, and the United States Government Manual provides information on the legislative or executive origin of each federal department and agency. CRS-12 Reference Sources Encyclopedia of Associations Gale Group 27500 Drake Road Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 [http://www.gale.com] E-mail: BusinessProducts@gale.com Frequency: Annual Tel: (248) 699-4253 (800) 347-4253 Fax: (248) 699-8052 National Organizations of the U.S. presents information on more than 22,000 U.S. associations and professional societies in 18 topical areas. Contact information and an annotation are given for each group. There is an index by title and keyword. A separate index provides geographic and executive name access. New associations are identified in a supplement. This work is also available by subscription as part of Gale’s Associations Unlimited database, which has listings for more than 450,000 organizations on the Web. National Trade and Professional Associations of the United States Columbia Books, Inc. 1825 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 625 Tel: (202) 464-1662 Washington, DC 20009 Fax: (202) 464-1775 [http://www.columbiabooks.com] E-mail: info@columbiabooks.com Frequency: Annual This volume lists more than 7,500 “trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and similar national groups.” Basic information provided includes association name, address, telephone number, available fax number or Web address, staff and membership totals, publications, meetings, historical note, and budget. Subject, geographic, acronym, executive, and budget indexes are provided, along with a list of association management companies. The budget index separates groups that have provided annual budget data into 14 categories, ranging from less than $10,000 to more than $100 million. United States Government Manual Superintendent of Documents P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/gmanual/index.html] Frequency: Annual Tel: (866) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2250 Widely known as the federal government’s official handbook of departments, agencies, boards, committees, and commissions, the United States Government Manual provides citations to each body’s legislative or executive authority. “Appendix B: Federal Executive Agencies Terminated, Transferred, or Changed in Name Subsequent to March 4, 1933” provides citations to the authority that caused an agency’s demise, transfer, or name change. An alphabetical list of federal CRS-13 agencies and departments that appear in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), including general information on the CFR titles, subtitles, or chapters in which they are located, is provided in “Appendix C: Agencies Appearing in the Code of Federal Regulations.” Washington Columbia Books, Inc. 1825 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 625 Washington, DC 20009 [http://www.columbiabooks.com] E-mail: info@columbiabooks.com Frequency: Annual Tel: (202) 464-1662 Fax: (202) 464-1775 Listings in this directory cover some 25,000 key officials in about 5,000 Washington, DC, area institutions, such as government agencies, international organizations, embassies, media organizations, cultural institutions, national associations, public interest groups, businesses, local colleges and universities, and hospitals. Washington Information Directory CQ Press 1255 22nd Street, NW, Suite 400 Washington, DC 20037 [http://www.cqpress.com] E-mail: customerservice@cqpress.com Frequency: Annual Tel: (866) 427-7737 (202) 729-1800 Fax: (800) 380-3810 Rather than arranging Washington’s information sources by agency or organization, this directory categorizes them by subject. Each of its 20 broad subject areas covers three types of information sources: executive branch agencies, Congress, and nonprofit organizations. Each entry contains the source’s name, address, telephone number, other available contact information, the name of a key official, and a capsule description of its work. This publication also provides useful lists of congressional offices, diplomatic personnel, and state government officials, as well as subject and name indexes. Washington Representatives Columbia Books, Inc. 1825 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 625 Washington, DC 20009 [http://www.columbiabooks.com] E-mail: info@columbiabooks.com Frequency: Annual Tel: (202) 464-1662 Fax: (202) 464-1775 Information on nearly 18,000 individuals and about 1,500 firms working as Washington lobbyists is presented in this directory. In “The Firms” section, lobbying organizations and lobbyists are listed alphabetically with contact information. Each entry lists the clients represented and indicates whether the lobbyist has registered CRS-14 to lobby Congress under the Lobbying Disclosure Act (LDA) of 1995 or has registered with the Justice Department as a foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA). In “The Clients” section, the organizations or clients represented are listed alphabetically. Other sections of the directory are indexes by personal name, subject/industry, foreign interests by country, political action committees; and legislative issues lobbied. This work is also available on the Web by subscription at [http://www.lobbyists.info/]. Media Sources Information on what is happening in Washington can be gathered by exposure to an assortment of editorial perspectives, “inside” reporting, and political analysis. Examples of major daily newspapers offering these types of coverage are the Washington Post, Washington Times, New York Times, Boston Globe, Chicago Tribune, Miami Herald, Atlanta Journal and Constitution, Los Angeles Times, Wall Street Journal, and Christian Science Monitor. Weekly magazines such as National Journal, Newsweek, Time, and U.S. News and World Report provide regular coverage of the Washington scene. Many of these publications have websites. Similarly, Web-based media sources also provide such political coverage. Examples of these are The American Spectator [http://www.spectator.org/] C-SPAN.org [http://www.c-span.org] The Hill [http://www.hillnews.com] CNN.com: Inside Politics [http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS] The Nation [http://www.TheNation.com] National Review Online [http://www.nationalreview.com] Roll Call [http://www.rollcall.com] Slate [http://slate.msn.com] Among the broadcast media sources that provide extensive coverage of Washington’s legislative and regulatory happenings are cable television networks such as C-SPAN and CNN, as well as other cable, network, and public television programs and some public radio programs. Virtually every community has access to daily and weekly programs that provide in-depth political analysis from reporters, legislators, and executive branch officials. CRS-15 Bibliography For those who want more background on the federal government’s legislative and regulatory activities or about the sources and techniques used in tracking laws and regulations, this selected bibliography is provided. Mersky, Roy M., and Donald J. Dunn. Fundamentals of Legal Research. 8th ed. New York: Foundation Press, 2002. This successor to Pollack’s Fundamentals of Legal Research is a clear, detailed guide to in-depth legal research, which includes research in federal legislation and administrative, or regulatory, law. Morehead, Joe. Introduction to United States Government Information Sources. 6th ed. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1999. This revised version of Morehead’s Introduction to United States Public Documents provides an introduction to basic printed and online information sources on federal government publications. It includes sections on the Government Printing Office, the federal depository library system, legislative and executive branch publications, and federal regulatory publications. Robinson, Judith Schiek. Tapping the Government Grapevine: The User Friendly Guide to U.S. Government Information Sources. 3rd ed. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1998. Informative chapters on legislative and regulatory information sources are part of this readable guide to sources of federal information. Explanations of types of sources with descriptions of representative works are provided, along with information on “freebies,” footnotes, bibliographies, and practical exercises. U.S. Congress. House. How Our Laws Are Made. 108th Congress, first session. H.Doc. 108-93. Washington: GPO, 2003. Revised periodically, this pamphlet provides “a readable and nontechnical outline of the background and the numerous steps of our federal lawmaking process from the origin of an idea for a legislative proposal through its publication as a statute.” It focuses on procedures observed by the House of Representatives. See [http://thomas.loc.gov/home/lawsmade.toc.html]. Zwirn, Jerrold. Congressional Publications and Proceedings: Research on Legislation, Budgets, and Treaties. 2nd ed. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1988. This research guide to congressional publications covers a wide range of the information used and issued by the U.S. Congress, focusing on printed materials.