Grants and Foundation Support:
Selected Sources of Information on
Government and Private Funding
Information Research Specialist
Congressional Reference Division
January 8, 1997
GRANTS AND FOUNDATION SUPPORT:
SELECTED SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON
GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE FUNDING
Congressional offices receive numerous requests for information on how to obtain
funds. Many worthwhile projects can only be carried out with outside assistance. This
bibliography is intended to help planners learn about assistance programs and sources of
funds. Of the many good guides to grants and foundation support, those listed in this
report have been selected as representative of the variety of resources available.
The publications and databases included in this bibliography describe general sources
of support and a few of the current general guides to writing grant proposals. In addition,
Internet resources are listed for federal government, private foundations, corporations, and
charity information resources. In the descriptions of the publications and databases listed
below, Library of Congress call numbers have been provided where available.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GUIDES TO WRITING GRANTS AND PROPOSALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GOVERNMENT GRANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FOUNDATION GRANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CORPORATE GRANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GRANTS AND FOUNDATION SUPPORT:
SELECTED SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON
GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE FUNDING
Congressional offices receive numerous requests for information on how to
obtain funds. Many worthwhile projects can only be carried out with outside
assistance. We have prepared this bibliography to help planners learn about
assistance programs and sources of funds. Of the many good guides to grants and
foundation support, those listed below have been selected as representative of the
variety of resources available.
Before determining whether the best funding source is a federal program, a
small private fund concerned primarily with local projects, an organization
providing grants in a particular subject area, or a national foundation, the
grantseeker should prepare an analysis of the contemplated project. Any request
for funding will require a clear, brief, and specific presentation which describes:
existing problems to be addressed by the project;
anticipated immediate and long-term results;
a description of proposed implementation, organization, staffing, budget,
and evaluation of the project.
A number of research tools are available to help choose which government
agency or private foundation may be interested in a particular project. It is
important to know the organization’s or agency’s stated purposes, the amount of
funds available, any conditions or restrictions on the grant, and the types of projects
the organization has previously supported.
Every attempt should be made to identify only those funding sources whose
stated purposes are consistent with those of the grant seeker. Since more than 70%
of foundations limit their giving to their own city, state, or region, important
sources of funding are community foundations dedicated to the encouragement of
The publications and databases included in this bibliography describe general
sources of support and a few of the current general guides to writing grant
proposals. In the descriptions of the publications and databases listed below,
Library of Congress call numbers have been provided where available.
GUIDES TO WRITING GRANTS AND PROPOSALS
A number of guides to funding and grantsmanship in specific areas have been
published in recent years. These may be available at public or research libraries
under such subject headings as "fund raising," "endowments," "grants-in-aid,"
"research grants," and "federal aid to ..." [followed by broad categories such as
education, hospitals, law enforcement agencies, libraries, outdoor recreation, the
arts, or transportation]. Other titles may be located under a subject heading with
"research grants" as a subdivision, such as "humanities--research grants."
Bauer, David G. The "how to" grants manual: successful grantseeking
techniques for obtaining public and private grants. Phoenix, Oryx Press,
1995. 234 p.
Provides insights into the grants marketplace. The book gives advice on
organizing a proposal-development workbook, writing proposals, and choosing
the correct marketplace. The books also gives guidance on locating
government and private funding sources.
----- with contributions by Mary L. Otto. Administering grants, contracts, and
funds: evaluating and improving your grants system. Phoenix, Oryx Press,
1995. 233 p.
This book is designed for use by nonprofit organizations. Provides
assistance in developing a work plan (using worksheets and checklists) to
identify grants sources.
Belcher, Jane C., and Julia M. Jacobsen. From idea to funded project: grant
proposals that work. Phoenix, Oryx Press, 1992. 138 p.
The book provides guidance in writing a proposal, including developing
the idea into a detailed outline, finding a potential sponsor, submitting and
evaluating the proposal, and administering the grant.
DeVaul, Diane, and Heather Twomey. Federal grant programs: a shrinking
resource. Washington, Northeast-Midwest Institute Center for Regional
Policy, 1990. 200 p.
Covers the principles and skills involved in preparing and presenting
written proposals. The author emphasizes the importance of developing a
strategic approach to proposal writing and grant seeking, and discusses various
components and types of proposals. An appendix presents a sample proposal
with criticisms and suggestions for improving it.
The effective grant office:
development and management. Alexandria, VA, Capitol Publications, 1994. 94
This book outlines how to locate funding sources, develop project ideas,
prepare grant proposals, communicate and negotiate with funders, monitor
projects and their budgets, retain grant records, and seek continued funding.
This manual explains how to set up an organized, well-coordinated system for
bringing new funds into the organizations and making sure they are used
Frost, Gordon Jay, ed. Winning grant proposals: eleven successful
by American nonprofits to corporations, foundations,
government agencies. Rockville, MD, Fund Raising
Institute, 1993. 160
The institutions which agreed to participate in this collection selected the
works they wished to include. The only direction they were given was to
supply a proposal of which they were especially proud, both for its quality and
its success, that had received support since 1990. The result is a fairly diverse
lot, with applications to corporations, foundations, individuals, and the U.S.
government. Provides examples of good work.
Hall, Mary S. Getting funded: a complete guide to proposal writing. 3rd ed.
Portland, OR, Continuing Education Publications, Portland State University,
1988. 206 p.
Besides providing information on funding trends, funding sources and
databases, Getting Funded gives a broad range of examples of both how to
and how not to go about proposal writing. In addition, it offers many critical
checklists, sample formats, and models.
Kiritz, Norton J. Program planning and proposal writing. Los Angeles,
Grantsmanship Center, 1980. 48 p.
Outlines grants application procedures and a standardized application
format, which has been adopted by many government agencies and private
foundations. It describes appropriate cover letters and provides examples.
Nauffts, Mitchell F., ed. Foundation fundamentals: a guide for grantseekers.
New York, Foundation Center, 1994. 220 p.
This book describes the various types of foundations, the regulations that
govern their activities, and the relationship of foundations to other funding
sources. Describes the planning process prior to seeking funding. Discusses
the resources available and how grant seekers can use them to find the funders
most likely to be interested in their proposals. Takes the reader step by step
through the three basic approaches to finding a funder: subject, geographic,
and type of support.
Ries, Joanne B. Applying for research funding: getting started and getting
funded. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 1995.
Focuses on strategies for developing a competitive application for
research funding. Presents the components of making choices in preparing the
application. Discusses key contacts that the authors have found useful.
Presents the strength and weaknesses of various research environments. Gives
practical suggestions for writing persuasive applications.
The best single resource for leads on federal funding programs is published
by the federal government and is called the Catalog of Federal Domestic
Assistance. This manual of more than 1,000 pages provides the most
comprehensive information on federal funds, cross-indexed by agency, program
type, applicant eligibility, and subject. The Catalog and some of the other
publications listed in this guide are also available as online databases. Such
databases can be searched using personal computers with modems, or perhaps by
arranging for a search to be conducted at a local library. While not all libraries
offer online searching services, many larger public and research libraries do,
generally for a fee. If a local library does not have online searching capabilities,
library personnel may be able to direct interested parties to outside search services
or consultants. In addition, congressional offices have access to various
congressional databases (PREAward Grants and POSTaward Grants), which include
data from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance and current grants
information from the Federal Register.
Catalog of federal domestic assistance. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Annual and update vol., looseleaf.
A government publication available in many libraries, describing federal
government programs which provide funds or nonfinancial assistance to state
and local governments, public agencies, organizations, institutions, and
individuals. Included are the program’s legislative authority, explanations of
each program, types of assistance provided, restrictions, eligibility
requirements, financial information, application and award procedures,
information contacts, and related programs. Updated information on federal
programs and grant awards appears in the daily Federal Register, also
available from the Government Printing Office.
The full text of the Federal Register is available online on NEXIS,
produced by LEXIS/NEXIS, Inc.; Legi-Slate, produced by Legi-Slate,
Inc.; and Washington Alert, produced by Congressional Quarterly.
Information given in the printed Catalog is also available online through
the Federal Assistance Program Retrieval System (FAPRS) database.
Access is by both category and keyword. To request a FAPRS search,
contact the General Services Administration to inquire about obtaining
the FAPRS database information on magnetic tape or eight high-density
floppy disks. (FDAC Staff, Ground Floor, Reporters Building, 300 7th
St. NW, Washington, DC 20407. Telephone: 202-708-5126.)
In addition, House offices have access to two databases known as
PREAward Grants and POSTaward Grants, available through the
House Information Resources/Member Information Network System.
(Senate offices have access to these databases via the Senate Library or
Senate Reference Center.) These files include current grant availability
data from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance and the Federal
Register, as well as reports from federal agencies about grants awarded
during the latest four quarters. The databases are available only through
congressional offices; requests for a search of these databases may be
made through an individual Member of Congress.
DIALOG. DIALOG, a commercial online service, offers a number of grants
databases (described below), including:
Federal Research in Progress: file 266 (FEDRIP)
NTIS: file 6
Foundation Directory: file 26
Foundation Grants Index: file 27
Grants: file 85
Many large university and research libraries offer DIALOG searching for a
fee. For information about obtaining DIALOG service, contact: Knight-Ridder
Information, Inc., 2440 El Camino Real, Mountain View, CA
94040. Telephone: (415) 254-7000 or (800) 334-2564.
Federal research in progress database. Washington, National Technical
Information Service (NTIS). (DIALOG file 266.)
Contains summaries of ongoing, federally-funded research projects in the
physical sciences, engineering, and life sciences. Project descriptions
generally include title, keywords, start date, estimated completion date,
principal investigator, performing and sponsoring organizations, summary, and
progress report. Although primarily used to avoid research duplication, it can
also be used to locate sources of support. No printed equivalent.
National Technical Information Service (NTIS) database. Washington, National
Technical Information Service. (DIALOG file 6.)
Consists of unclassified government-sponsored research, development,
and engineering reports, as well as other analyses prepared by government
agencies, their contractors, or grantees. It is particularly useful in identifying
sources of support. It represents the reports of three major U.S. federal
government agencies: the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense,
and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as well many other
agencies. Its printed equivalent is Government Reports Announcements &
Internet availability: http://www.ntis.gov/
Blum, Laurie. Free money from the federal government for small businesses and
entrepreneurs. New York, J. Wiley, 1996. 358 p.
This directory lists grant programs in seven general areas: agriculture,
community development, environment/conservation, general business, research
and development, minorities, and housing. Lists the individual state or
regional offices through which a grant seeker from a given state should apply.
The Foundation Center is a nonprofit organization which gathers and
disseminates factual information on foundations. The Center’s libraries in New
York City, Atlanta, San Francisco, Cleveland, and Washington, DC, contain copies
of foundations’ tax returns, extensive collections of books, documents, and reports
about the foundation field, and current files on the activities and programs of about
37,000 U.S. foundations, plus knowledgeable staff to assist users in locating
The Foundation Center also publishes funding directories specific to certain
fields, such as: aging; arts and culture; children, youth, and families; health; higher
education; international programs; libraries and information services; religion;
women and girls; and elementary and secondary education.
In addition, the Center has established cooperating reference collections in
each state, where Center publications and information on foundations in the
immediate state or region can be consulted. A list of cooperating libraries housing
these regional collections appears in most of the Center’s publications.
It is a good idea to look for foundations close to home; they are more likely
to have a greater interest in local problems than would larger foundations with a
national focus. Foundation Center resources are a good starting point for
identifying likely funding sources. The next step is to learn more about these
foundations by obtaining copies of their annual reports and/or grants guidelines.
Some may be available at the Foundation Center’s cooperating libraries.
Grantseekers will need to find out whether their projected proposals match the
foundation’s areas of interest and geographic guidelines, whether the proposal is
within the foundation’s budgetary constraints, and whether the foundation normally
funds the type of project being considered. For further information, contact the
Foundation Center, 79 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Telephone: (800)
424-9836 or Washington, DC, (202) 331-1400.
Foundation directory. New York, Foundation Center. Annual. 2 v.
Provides a description of over 7,200 large American foundations having
at least $2 million in assets or $200,000 in annual giving. Each entry includes
factual and financial data, statement of purpose and activities, and grant
application procedures; indexed by fields of interest, names of donors,
trustees, and administrators, and by state and city.
The Foundation Directory Part 2 provides information on 4,273 private
and community foundations making grants of $50,000-$199,000 annually and
holding assets of less than $2,000,000. This is a guide to smaller but
significant grantmakers whose giving often supports local organizations. Over
83% of the entries include geographic limitation statements showing
preferences for giving within specific cities or states. The directory provides
lists of sample grants whenever available, to provide concrete indications of
the foundation’s fields of interest, geographic preferences, and range of giving.
A supplement is issued 6 months after parts 1 and 2 are published in
order to update the information.
Online availability: DIALOG. File: 26 (FOUNDATION DIRECTORY).
Foundation grants index. New York, Foundation Center. Annual.
Describes over 68,000 grants awarded by approximately 1,000
foundations within the previous year or two. This is a selective listing, useful
for identifying potential funding sources based on previously awarded
foundation grants. The main listing of grants is arranged by major subject
fields with the grants listed alphabetically by State. A typical grant record
includes the name and location of the recipient, the amount awarded, the date
authorized and a description of the grant. Grant descriptions are succinct but
descriptive, for example: "To promote community involvement in ground
water protection in Ohio." Includes a detailed subject index.
Online availability: DIALOG. File: 27 (FOUNDATION GRANTS INDEX).
Foundation grants to individuals. New York, Foundation Center. Biennial.
While the majority of foundations in the United States limit their grants
to nonprofit organizations, this publication gives information on funds
available to individuals from approximately 2,600 foundations. Emphasis is
placed on educational and scholarship awards. Six indexes help users target
prospective grants by subject area, types of support, geographic area,
sponsoring company (for employee restricted awards), educational institutions,
and foundation name. Bibliography included.
Guide to U.S. foundations, their trustees, officers, and donors. New York,
Foundation Center. Annual. 2 v.
Lists over 37,000 private, corporate, operating, and community
foundations, including thousands of smaller ones not described in other
sources. These smaller foundations are especially important as local sources
of funding. Overall arrangement is by state, with foundations listed from
largest to smallest in terms of grants awarded. For each foundation, the Guide
gives the foundation’s address, telephone number (when available), financial
summary, list of officers, trustees and donors, geographic limitation, and
(when available) contact person.
DIALOG. File: 26 (FOUNDATION DIRECTORY).
The Foundation 1000. New York, Foundation Center. Annual.
Provides data on the 1,000 largest U.S. foundations, including names of
officers and staff to contact, current program interests, and names of nonprofit
organizations which have already received grants for similar projects. Indexed
by subject field, foundation name, type of support, and geographic location.
Within the past decade, as government funding on the federal, state, and local
levels has declined, there has been a steady increase in grant seekers pursuing
corporate support. Many corporations provide funds for local projects in areas
where they have their headquarters or plants, or sponsor projects which somehow
enhance their corporate image. Information on corporate foundations and direct
corporate giving is listed below.
Corporate foundation profiles. 9th ed. New York, Foundation Center, 1996. 778
Detailed profiles of over 228 of the largest corporate foundations, those
that give at least $1.25 million annually. Includes address, contact person,
purpose, and statement on limitations in giving, application guidelines, key
officials, and sponsoring company profile. Subject, type of support, and
geographic area indexes are included.
National directory of corporate giving. New York, Foundation Center. Biennial.
Comprehensive descriptions of over 1,900 corporate foundations plus 650
direct giving programs. Alphabetically arranged by company name with a
general description of the company and its activities and a description of the
company’s direct giving program and/or foundation for each entry. Indexed
by corporation, officers, donors, trustees, geographic areas, types of support,
subject, and types of business.
National directory of corporate public affairs. New York, Columbia Books, 1995.
This directory identifies the key people in the corporate public affairs
profession. The first section is arranged by companies, an alphabetical list of
almost 2,000 companies of varied sizes with public affairs programs. It
includes corporate headquarters, and (where they exist) Washington, DC, area
offices; political action committees; foundation or corporate giving programs;
and corporate publications. Key facts and figures on corporate philanthropic
activity and political action committee involvement are also summarized.
Also included is a list of each company’s public affairs personnel, and the
office in which they are located. The second section of the book is an
alphabetical list of approximately 16,000 individuals in the public affairs field.
Taft corporate giving directory. Washington, The Taft Corporation. Annual.
Describes the giving programs of 1,002 corporate contribution programs.
The entries are arranged alphabetically by company (or company foundation),
and lists size, locations of operation, products, contacts, amounts and types of
grants, philosophy of giving, typical recipients, executives, and a statistical
breakdown of the year’s giving. The indexes to biographical information on
corporate officers and program decision makers include officers and directors
by name, place of birth, alma mater, corporate affiliation, and nonprofit
affiliation. A monthly newsletter, Corporate Giving Watch, updates the
Annual register of grant support. New Providence, NJ, R. R. Bowker. Annual.
Descriptions of over 3,000 government and private programs, arranged
by broad fields of interest, which give purpose, types of awards, eligibility
requirements, financial data, application, and deadline information. Access is
provided by subject, organization, geographic, and personnel indexes.
Directory of research grants. Phoenix, Oryx Press. Annual.
Concise descriptions of nearly 6,000 research programs that offer
nonrepayable funding for projects in medicine, the physical and social
sciences, education, the arts, and humanities. Grant programs are listed in
alphabetical order, followed by three indexes: subject, sponsoring organization,
and program type.
Online availability: DIALOG. File: 85 (GRANTS).
RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET
Catalog of federal domestic assistance
Information on federal grant programs. Searchable by keyword.
National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
An official resource for U.S. scientific, technical, engineering, and businessrelated information.
Grants information service of the Department of Health and Human
FEDIX (Federal Information Exchange)/MOLIS (Minority On-Line Information
Provides information on federal opportunities for the education and
research communities, and for the minority education community.
The organizations listed below provide links to dozens of additional funding
sources from their home pages.
Council on Foundations
The Foundation Center
University of Michigan
The Internet Nonprofit Center
Select Nonprofit Organizations on the Internet:
The dynamic nature of the Internet means that information resources appear
and disappear without warning. The sources listed above were chosen because the
organizations which provide the home pages are stable, committed to the sharing
of grant information on the Internet.
It is possible to find additional Internet resources by using different World
Wide Web search engines, such as AltaVista (http://www.altavista.digital.com/),
InfoSeek (http://www.infoseek.com), Yahoo (http://www.yahoo.com/), Lycos
(http://www.lycos.com/), Hotbot (http://www.hotbot.com/), Excite
(http://www.excite.com/), Open Text (http://www.opentext.com/), Metacrawler
(http://metacrawler.cs.washington.edu:8080), and others. When searching for grants
or funding resources, combine a subject of interest (e.g., education or small
business) with terms such as:
financial aid or financial assistance
charities or charity
fund raising or fundraising
The search engine home pages listed above offer advanced searching
techniques. To limit the number of items retrieved in the Open Text search engine,
for example, it is possible to search for certain words in the title of a Web page,
i.e., to retrieve pages with the words "small business" and "fundraising" in the title.
Current and updated information on Internet grants sources can also be found
in newspapers and such periodicals as Internet World, Net Guide, Internet User,
Yahoo Internet Life, and The Net, which may be available at a local public,
university, or research library.