Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress

Asian Pacific Americans have served in both houses of Congress representing California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Oregon, Virginia, American Samoa, and Guam. They have served in leadership positions, including committee and subcommittee chairmanships. This report presents information on Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, including party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments.

Order Code 97-398 GOV Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Updated June 23, 2008 Lorraine H. Tong Analyst in American National Government Government and Finance Division Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Summary Nine Asian Pacific Americans served in the first session of the 110th Congress: two Senators, six Representatives, and one Delegate. With the resignation of one Representative at the beginning of the second session, eight Asian Pacific Americans currently serve in the 110th Congress. Of the 36 Asian Pacific Americans who have served in the United States Congress from 1903 to the present, there have been five Senators (three have also served in the House), 15 Representatives, six territorial Delegates, and 13 Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands. Resident Commissioners served from 1907-1946 while the Philippines was a U.S. territory and commonwealth (all were Philippine born). The ancestry of these Asian Pacific Americans has included Chinese, Chamorro, Filipino, Asian Indian, Japanese, Korean, Native Hawaiian, and Samoan. Of the 23 Asian Pacific Americans, 16 were Democrats and 7 were Republicans. Asian Pacific Americans have served in both houses of Congress representing California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Oregon, Virginia, American Samoa, and Guam. They have served in leadership positions, including committee and subcommittee chairmanships. This report presents information on Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, including party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. It will be updated in each new Congress when information becomes available, or as events warrant. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Background and Previous Occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Leadership in Committees and Subcommittees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Tables and Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Alphabetical Listing of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 List of Tables Table 1. Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates in the 58th-110th Congresses (1903-2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Table 2. Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates by State and Territory, 58th-110th Congresses (1903-2009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 3. Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates in the U.S. Congress, 58th-110th Congresses (1903-2009) . . 19 Table 4. Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands, 60th-79th Congresses (1907-1946) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Introduction Nine Asian Pacific Americans served in the first session of the 110th Congress: two Senators, six Representatives, and one Delegate. With the resignation of one Representative1 at the beginning of the second session, eight Asian Pacific Americans currently serve in the 110th Congress. Standard sources identify a total of 36 Asian Pacific Americans elected to Congress from 1903 to the present.2 Their ancestry has included Chinese, Chamorro, Filipino, Asian Indian, Japanese, Korean, Native Hawaiian, and Samoan.3 There have been five Senators (three who also served in the House), 15 Representatives, and six Delegates. Eighteen Asian Pacific Americans have served only in the House, and two have served only in the Senate. Three have served in both houses: Daniel Ken Inouye (D-HI), Spark Masayuki Matsunaga (DHI), and Daniel Kahikina Akaka (D-HI). Sixteen Asian Pacific Americans have been Democrats, and seven have been Republicans. Nine is the highest number of Asian Pacific Americans who have served at any one time. These Asian Pacific Americans have represented California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Oregon, Virginia, American Samoa, and Guam. Eight Asian Pacific Americans have represented Hawaii, and seven have represented California. There were also 13 Resident Commissioners from the 1 Rep. Bobby Jindal resigned on January 14, 2008, and was sworn in as governor of Louisiana on the same day. He is the nation’s first Indian-American to be elected governor. 2 The designation “Asian Pacific American” is commonly used to identify a person having origins in East Asia, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, Vietnam, and the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It is also the term used for the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus, founded in May 1994, and refers to those who have self-identified themselves as such. In this report, the “Asian Pacific American” designation encompasses a wide range of ethnic and national identities, rather than a purely geographic designation. Thus, it does not include those of Australian or New Zealand ancestry, for example. Included in this total number is one Member who is African American with Filipino heritage. As promulgated by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, the official terms to be used in designating these Americans for federal reporting purposes are “Asians” and “Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.” U.S. Office of Management and Budget, “Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity,” Federal Register, vol. 62, no. 210, October 30, 1997, pp. 58782-58790. 3 Sen. Daniel K. Akaka is Native Hawaiian and also Chinese American; Representative Robert Scott (D-VA) is African American with Filipino heritage; Delegate Robert Underwood (D-Guam) is Chamorro and also Hispanic. CRS-2 Philippine Islands elected to the United States Congress from 1907 to 1946 (all were born in the Philippines).4 The first Asian Pacific American Member of Congress was Representative Dalip Singh Saund (D-CA), an immigrant from India who served in the House from 1957 to 1963. The first Asian Pacific American Senator elected to Congress was Hiram Leong Fong (R-HI), who was seated on August 24, 1959, as one of Hawaii’s first two Senators after it was admitted to the Union. Senator Fong also was the first American of Chinese ancestry elected to Congress. Early in the 20th century, Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole represented the territory of Hawaii from 1903 to 1922 as a nonvoting Delegate to the House. He was related to the Hawaiian royal family, and also held the title of prince. Senator Inouye, a Member of the 110th Congress, is the Asian Pacific American with the longest congressional service. He was the first American of Japanese ancestry to be elected to Congress, and he was Hawaii’s first Member of the House after it was admitted to the Union. He began his service on August 24, 1959, and was subsequently elected in 1962 to the Senate where he has served since January 3, 1963. There have been only four Asian Pacific American women who have served in Congress. Representative Mazie K. Hirono (D-HI), a freshman Member, joins Representative Doris O. Matsui5 (D-CA) in the 110th Congress. The other two were Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-HI), the first Asian Pacific American woman to be elected to Congress, and Representative Patricia Fukuda Saiki (R-HI). Background and Previous Occupations Many of the Asian Pacific Americans have had similar educational and professional backgrounds. Eight have been educators, including two high school principals, two college professors, and two presidents of a state college and a 4 The Philippine Islands were part of territory ceded to the United States by Spain under the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898. The Act of July 1902 granted the Philippine Islands the right to elect two Resident Commissioners to the United States Congress. Historically, U.S. territories were granted nonvoting Delegates to the Congress prior to statehood. Congress distinguished between the territories acquired after the Spanish-American War and those bound for statehood. Thus, Congress provided for “resident commissioners” to the United States from Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Resident Commissioners were not accorded the same status as nonvoting Delegates, although, it should be noted, the rights of Delegates have changed over time. Resident Commissioners from the Philippines were granted floor privileges in the House with the right of debate on February 4, 1908. However, they did not have the right to vote or to serve on standing committees. When the Philippine Islands became a self-governing commonwealth, in transition to full sovereignty in 1935, the number of Resident Commissioners was reduced from two to one. On July 14, 1946, the Philippines became fully independent and the office of Resident Commissioner was terminated (P.L. 73-127). For the purposes of this study, a separate table listing Resident Commissioners from the Philippines is included at the end of the report. 5 Rep. Doris Matsui won a special election on March 8, 2005, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband Rep. Robert T. Matsui (D-CA), who had been elected to the 109th Congress, on January 1, 2005. CRS-3 university system. Nine have held law degrees or practiced law; two have also been judges. Many have held elected state or local offices before seeking a congressional seat: nine have served in state legislatures, two were lieutenant governors, and two have been mayors. Ten Asian Pacific Americans have military experience, including two who served in other than the U.S. armed forces. One was a brigadier general. Some were decorated war veterans, including one Medal of Honor recipient. Leadership in Committees and Subcommittees Three Asian Pacific Americans have chaired committees — Senators Inouye6 and Akaka7 and Representative Norman Y. Mineta.8 Eight Asian Pacific Americans have chaired subcommittees — Senators Inouye, Akaka, and Matsunaga;9 Representatives Jay C. Kim,10 Norman Y. Mineta, Robert C. Scott, David Wu; and Delegate Eni F. H. Faleomavaega. In addition, Representative Robert T. Matsui served as acting chair of a subcommittee. In the 110th Congress, several Asian Pacific Americans chair committees and subcommittees. In the Senate, Senator Inouye is chair of the Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee and the chair of the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense. Senator Akaka chairs the Veterans’ Affairs Committee 6 In the 107th Congress, when the Democrats gained the majority in the Senate in June 2001, Senator Inouye became chair of the Committee on Indian Affairs. He also assumed the chair of the Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense, and the chair of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee on Communications. Senator Inouye was the first chair of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from 1976 to 1977, and was the Senate chair of the Secret Military Assistance to Iran and Nicaragua Opposition Select Committee (Iran-Contra Committee) from 1987 to 1988. From 1987 to 1994, he was chairman of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. Senator Inouye has also chaired the following Senate subcommittees: the Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia (1971-1972), Foreign Operations (1973-1980, 1987-1988), and Defense (1989-1994); the Senate Commerce Subcommittees on Foreign Commerce and Tourism (1971-1976), Merchant Marine and Tourism (1977-1980), and Communications (1987-1994); and the Intelligence Subcommittee on Budget Authorization (1979-1980). 7 Also in June of 2001, Sen. Akaka became chairman of three subcommittees: the Senate Armed Services Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support, the Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks, Historic Preservation and Recreation, and the Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services. 8 Rep. Mineta was chair of the House Public Works and Transportation Committee (19931994). Prior to chairing the full committee, he chaired the Subcommittees on Public Buildings and Grounds (1977-1978), Oversight and Review (1979-1980), Aviation (19801989), and Surface Transportation (1990-1992). 9 Sen. Matsunaga was chair of the Senate Finance Subcommittee on Tourism and Sugar (1977-1980). 10 In the 105th Congress, Representative Jay C. Kim (R-CA), the first Korean American to be elected to Congress, chaired the House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Public Buildings and Economic Development. CRS-4 and also chairs three subcommittees: the Armed Services Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support; the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia; and the Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. In the House, Representative Scott is chair of the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security. Representative Wu11 is chair of the House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, and Delegate Faleomavaega is chair of the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, and the Global Environment. Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus The bicameral and bipartisan Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus (CAPAC) was established on May 16, 1994. The goals of the caucus are to work on policies and legislation of concern to the Asian Pacific American community; to educate other Members about the history, contributions, and concerns of Asian Pacific Americans; and to protect and advance the civil and constitutional rights of all Americans. Representative Mineta, one of the founders of the caucus, served as the first chair. Upon Representative Mineta’s resignation from the House, Representative Mink became chair of the caucus and served in that position through the 105th Congress. In both the 104th and 105th Congresses, Delegate Robert Underwood was vice chair of the caucus, and Senator Akaka served as secretary of the caucus. In the 106th Congress, Delegate Underwood chaired the caucus, Representative Wu served as vice chair, and Senator Inouye served as secretary. In the 107th Congress, Representative Wu served as caucus chair, Representative Michael M. Honda served as vice chair, and Senator Inouye continued as secretary. In the first session of the 108th Congress, Representatives Wu and Honda continued as chair and vice chair, respectively. In the second session, Representative Honda became chair, Delegate Faleomavaega became vice chair, Delegate Madeleine Bordallo became secretary, and Representative Ed Case became whip. In the 109th Congress, Representatives Honda and Case and Delegates Faleomavaega and Bordallo were all re-elected to the same positions. In the 110th Congress, Representative Honda and Delegates Faleomavaega and Bordallo continue in their 109th Congress positions. The CAPAC Executive Board members are: Senators Akaka and Inouye, and Representatives Neil Abercrombie, Xavier Becerra, Doris Matsui, Mazie Hirono, Al Green, Robert Scott, and David Wu. CAPAC formed seven task forces: Civil Rights, Education, Health, Housing and Economic Development Priorities, Hurricane Katrina and Rita: Disaster Preparedness and Relief, Immigration, and Women’s Issues. Membership to the caucus is not 11 Rep. Wu is the first Chinese American to represent a district on the U.S. mainland. CRS-5 restricted to those of Asian Pacific heritage; the caucus is open to all Members of Congress.12 Tables and Data This report also provides a list of selected biographical information about 23 Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates, and their committee assignments during their tenure. Four tables summarize information about the 36 Asian Pacific Americans who have served in Congress. Table 1 shows the Congress, the dates, and the name of the Members and Delegates who served in the House and Senate. Table 2 shows the state or territory, the number of Members and Delegates elected from the state or territory, and their names. Table 3 reflects the Congress, years, total number of Members and Delegates, and the number of Members and Delegates in the House and Senate. Finally, Table 4 lists Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands, the Congresses in which they served, and the dates of their service. Sources for the information on Asian Pacific Americans presented in this report included the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-present available at [http://bioguide.congress.gov/biosearch/biosearch.asp]; The Almanac of American Politics 2000; Politics in America 2000; and various editions of the Congressional Directory. Information on heritage and ancestry was provided to these source books by the Members. Information on committee assignments and leadership positions was obtained from various editions of the Congressional Directory, various editions of the Official Alphabetical List of the House of Representatives of the United States, various editions of the Congressional Yellow Book (a publication of Leadership Directories, Inc.), information on Member websites, and telephone calls to Member offices. For an overview of Asian Pacific American political participation in the United States, see CRS Report RS20206, Asian Pacific American Political Participation and Representation in Elective Office, by Kevin Coleman. 12 For more information on CAPAC, see [http://honda.house.gov/capac]. CRS-6 Alphabetical Listing of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office13 AKAKA, DANIEL KAHIKINA. Democrat; a Representative and Senator from Hawaii. Born on September 11, 1924. Elected to the House of Representatives for the 95th -101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1977, to May 15, 1990. Appointed to the Senate in 1990 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Senator Spark Matsunaga and subsequently elected by special election to the Senate in November 1990. Re-elected in 1994, 2000, and 2006; has served in the Senate since May 16, 1990. Committee Assignments * * * * * H. Agriculture H. Appropriations H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries S. Armed Services S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs S. Energy and Natural Resources S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs S. Indian Affairs S. Veterans’ Affairs, Chair S. Select Committee on Ethics BLAZ, BEN GARRIDO. Republican; a Delegate from Guam. Born on February 14, 1928. Elected to the 99th-102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1985, to January 3, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Interior and Insular Affairs FALEOMAVAEGA, ENI F. H. Democrat; a Delegate from American Samoa. Born August 15, 1943. Elected to the 100th-110th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1989. Committee Assignments * * 13 H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Education and Labor H. Foreign Affairs H. Natural Resources H. Small Business Asterisks indicate current committee assignments. CRS-7 FONG, HIRAM LEONG. Republican; a Senator from Hawaii. Born on October 15, 1906; died on August 18, 2004. First Asian Pacific American elected to the Senate and first American of Chinese ancestry elected to Congress. Elected to the Senate in 1959 upon the admission of Hawaii to the Union, reelected in 1964 and 1970; served from August 21, 1959, to January 3, 1977. Committee Assignments S. Appropriations S. Interior and Insular Affairs S. Judiciary S. Post Office and Civil Service S. Public Works HAYAKAWA, SAMUEL ICHIYE. Republican; a Senator from California. Born on July 18, 1906; died on February 26, 1992. Elected to the Senate in 1976; served from January 3, 1977, to January 3, 1983. Committee Assignments S. Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry S. Budget S. Labor and Human Resources S. Interior and Insular Affairs S. Foreign Relations HIRONO, MAZIE KEIKO. Democrat; a Representative from Hawaii. Born on November 3, 1947. Elected to the 110th Congress; has served since January 3, 2007. Committee Assignments * * * H. Education and Labor H. Small Business H. Transportation and Infrastructure HONDA, MICHAEL M. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born on June 27, 1941. Elected to the 107th - 110th Congresses; has served since January 3, 2001. He served as regional whip for the 107th and 108th Congresses. In the 110th Congress, he was named Democratic senior whip. Committee Assignments * H. Appropriations H. Budget H. Science and Technology H. Transportation and Infrastructure CRS-8 INOUYE, DANIEL KEN. Democrat; a Representative and Senator from Hawaii. Born on September 7, 1924. First American of Japanese ancestry elected to Congress. Elected to the House for the 86th and 87th Congresses; served from August 21, 1959, to January 3, 1963. Elected to the Senate in 1962, reelected in 1968, 1974, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, and 2004; has served in the Senate since January 3, 1963. He served as assistant majority whip from 1975 to 1976 and deputy Democratic whip from 1981 to 1986. From 1977 to 1988, he was secretary of the Senate Democratic Conference. From 1989 to 1994, he chaired the Democratic Steering Committee. Committee Assignments * * * * * H. Agriculture H. Banking and Currency S. Armed Services S. District of Columbia S. Public Works Joint Committee on the Library Joint Committee on Printing S. Appropriations S. Commerce, Science, and Transportation, chair S. Indian Affairs (chair in previous Congresses) S. Rules and Administration S. Select Committee on Intelligence, chair Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and Nicaragua Opposition (Iran-Contra Committee), Senate chair JINDAL, Bobby. Republican; a Representative from Louisiana. Born on June 10, 1971. Elected to the 109th and 110th Congresses; served from January 3, 2005 until his resignation on January 14, 2008. In the 109th Congress, he was elected Republican freshman class president. He served as assistant majority whip in the 109th Congress, and as assistant minority whip in the first session of the 110th Congress. Elected to be governor of Louisiana; sworn in on January 14, 2008. Committee Assignments H. Education and the Workforce H. Homeland Security H. Natural Resources KALANIANAOLE, JONAH KUHIO. Republican; a Delegate from the Territory of Hawaii. Born on March 26, 1871; died on January 7, 1922. Elected to the 58th67th Congresses; served from March 4, 1903, to January 7, 1922. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Coinage, Weights and Measures H. Post Office and Post-Roads H. Private Land Claims H. Territories CRS-9 KIM, JAY C. Republican; a Representative from California. Born on March 27, 1939. First American of Korean ancestry elected to Congress. Elected to the 103rd105th Congresses; served from January 3, 1993, to January 3, 1999. He was Republican sophomore class whip in the 104th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Small Business H. International Relations H. Transportation and Infrastructure MATSUI, Doris Okada. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born on September 25, 1944. Elected to the 109th Congress in a special election on March 8, 2005, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Representative Robert T. Matsui; re-elected to the 110th Congress; has served since March 8, 2005. Committee Assignments * * H. Energy and Commerce H. Rules H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Science and Technology MATSUI, ROBERT TAKEO. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born on September 17, 1941; died on January 1, 2005. Elected to the 96th-109th Congresses; served from January 3, 1979, to January 1, 2005. He served and was majority whip at large from 1987 to 1994 and served as minority whip at large from 1995 to 2003, and as minority whip at large in the 108th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Budget H. Government Operations H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce H. Judiciary H. Ways and Means CRS-10 MATSUNAGA, SPARK MASAYUKI. Democrat; Representative and Senator from Hawaii. Born October 8, 1916; died on April 15, 1990. Elected to the House of Representatives for the 88th-94th Congresses; served from January 3, 1963, to January 3, 1977. Elected to the Senate in 1976, reelected in 1982 and 1988; served from January 3, 1977, to April 15, 1990. He served as chief deputy majority whip from 1979 to 1980 and chief deputy minority whip from 1981 to 1986, and from 1987 to 1988 he was chief deputy majority whip. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Rules S. Commerce S. Energy S. Finance S. Foreign Relations S. Labor and Human Resources S. Veterans’ Affairs MINETA, NORMAN YOSHIO. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born November 12, 1931. Elected to the House for the 94th-104th Congresses. Served from January 3, 1975, until his resignation on October 10, 1995. Confirmed by the Senate on July 20, 2000, and sworn in as U.S. Secretary of Commerce on July 21, 2000. Confirmed by the Senate on January 24, 2001, sworn in as U.S. Secretary of Transportation on January 25, 2001, served until July 7, 2006. He was a majority whip at large from 1977 to 1981, deputy majority whip from 1982 to 1994, and deputy minority whip in 1995. He became the first Asian Pacific American to serve in a Cabinet position when he was sworn in as U.S. Secretary of Commerce on July 21, 2000. He was nominated to a second Cabinet post and was sworn in as U.S. Secretary of Transportation on January 25, 2001, and continued in that post in the second term until July 7, 2006. He has the distinction of being the longest serving secretary in the history of the Department of Transportation. Committee Assignments H. Budget H. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Public Works and Transportation, chair H. Science and Technology CRS-11 MINK, PATSY TAKEMOTO. Democrat; a Representative from Hawaii. Born December 6, 1927; died on September 28, 2002. First Asian Pacific American woman to be elected to Congress. Elected to the 89th-94th Congresses; served from January 3, 1965, to January 3, 1977. Appointed Assistant Secretary for the Office of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State. Elected again in 1990 in a special election to the 101st Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the appointment of Daniel Akaka to the Senate. Re-elected to 102nd-107th Congresses; served until her death on September 28, 2002; posthumously elected to the 108th Congress on November 5, 2002. She served as secretary of the Democratic Caucus from 1975 to 1977, minority regional whip from 1997 to1998, and served as minority whip at large from 2001 until her death in September 2002. Committee Assignments H. Budget H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Natural Resources H. Education and the Workforce H. Government Reform SAIKI, PATRICIA FUKUDA. Republican; a Representative from Hawaii. Born on May 28, 1930. Elected to the 100th-101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1987, to January 3, 1991. Appointed, and confirmed by the Senate on March 21, 1991, to be administrator of the Small Business Administration after leaving Congress. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs H. Merchant Marines and Fisheries SAUND, DALIP SINGH. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born on September 20, 1899; died August 22, 1973. First American of Indian ancestry to be elected to Congress. Elected to the 85th-87th Congresses; served from January 3, 1957, to January 3, 1963. Committee Assignments H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Foreign Affairs CRS-12 SCOTT, ROBERT CORTEZ. Democrat; a Representative from Virginia. Born on April 30, 1947. An African American with Filipino heritage. Elected to the 103rd - 110th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1993. Committee Assignments * * * H. Budget H. Education and Labor H. Judiciary H. Science, Space, and Technology H. U.S. National Security and Military Commercial Concerns with the People’s Republic of China SUNIA, FOFÓ IOSEFA FITI. Democrat; elected as first Delegate from American Samoa. Born on March 13, 1937. Elected to the 97th -100th Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, until his resignation on September 6, 1988. Committee Assignments H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Merchant Marines and Fisheries H. Public Works and Transportation UNDERWOOD, ROBERT ANACLETUS. Democrat; a Delegate from Guam. Born July 13, 1948. Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses; was not a candidate for the 108th Congress; served from January 3, 1993, to January 3, 1993; unsuccessful candidate for governor of Guam. In the 105th Congress, he served as a deputy whip for the Democratic Study Group of the House Democratic Caucus, and also served as Democratic Caucus whip at large for the 105th and 106th Congresses. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Armed Services H. Resources WON PAT, ANTONIO BORJA. Democrat; the first Delegate from Guam. Born on December 10, 1908; died on May 1, 1987. Elected to the 93rd-98th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 3, 1985. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Interior and Insular Affairs CRS-13 WU, DAVID. Democrat; Representative from Oregon.14 Born on April 8, 1955. Elected to the 106th -110th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1999. I n t h e 106th Congress, he served as Democratic freshman class president for the period JulyDecember 2000. Committee Assignments * * * 14 H. Education and Labor H. Foreign Affairs H. Science and Technology Rep. Wu is the first Chinese American to represent a district on the U.S. mainland. CRS-14 Table 1. Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates in the 58th-110th Congresses (1903-2009) Congress Dates House 58th-67th 19031923 68th-84th 19231957 85th 19571959 Dalip Singh Saund 86th 19591961 Daniel Ken Inouye Dalip Singh Saund Hiram Leong Fong 87th 19611963 Daniel Ken Inouye Dalip Singh Saund Hiram Leong Fong 88th 19631965 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Hiram Leong Fong Daniel Ken Inouye 89th 19651967 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Patsy Takemoto Mink Hiram Leong Fong Daniel Ken Inouye 90th 19671969 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Patsy Takemoto Mink Hiram Leong Fong Daniel Ken Inouye 91st 19691971 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Patsy Takemoto Mink Hiram Leong Fong Daniel Ken Inouye 92nd 19711973 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Patsy Takemoto Mink Hiram Leong Fong Daniel Ken Inouye 93rd 19731975 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Patsy Takemoto Mink Antonio Borja Won Pat Hiram Leong Fong Daniel Ken Inouye 94th 19751977 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Norman Yoshio Mineta Patsy Takemoto Mink Antonio Borja Won Pat Hiram Leong Fong Daniel Ken Inouye 95th 19771979 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Norman Yoshio Mineta Antonio Borja Won Pat Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga 96th 19791981 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Antonio Borja Won Pat Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaolea — Senate — — — CRS-15 Congress Dates 97th 19811983 House Daniel Kahikina Akaka Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia Antonio Borja Won Pat Senate Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga 98th 19831985 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia Antonio Borja Won Pat Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga 99th 19851987 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Ben Garrido Blaz Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga 100th 19871989 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Ben Garrido Blaz Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Patricia Fukuda Saiki Fofó Iosefa Fiti Suniab Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga 101st 19891991 Ben Garrido Blaz Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Patsy Takemoto Mink Patricia Fukuda Saiki Daniel Kahikina Akakac Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga 102nd 19911993 Ben Garrido Blaz Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Patsy Takemoto Mink Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye 103rd 19931995 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Jay C. Kim Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Patsy Takemoto Mink Robert Cortez Scottd Robert Anacletus Underwood Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye CRS-16 Congress Dates 104th 19951997 House Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Jay C. Kim Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Minetae Patsy Takemoto Mink Robert Cortez Scott Senate Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye Robert Anacletus Underwood 105th 19971999 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Jay C. Kim Robert Takeo Matsui Patsy Takemoto Mink Robert Cortez Scott Robert Anacletus Underwood Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye 106th 19992001 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Robert Takeo Matsui Patsy Takemoto Mink Robert Cortez Scott Robert Anacletus Underwood David Wu Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye 107th 20012003 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Michael M. Honda Robert Takeo Matsui Patsy Takemoto Minkf Robert Cortez Scott Robert Anacletus Underwood David Wu Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye 108th 20032005 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Michael M. Honda Robert Takeo Matsuig Robert Cortez Scott David Wu Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye 109th 20052007 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Michael M. Honda Bobby Jindal Doris Okada Matsuih Robert Cortez Scott David Wu Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye 110th 20072009 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Mazie Keiko Hirono Michael M. Honda Bobby Jindali Doris Okada Matsuih Robert Cortez Scott David Wu Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye a. Del. Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole died on January 7, 1922. CRS-17 b. Del. Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia resigned on September 6, 1988. c. Sen. Daniel Kahikina Akaka also served in the House in the 101st Congress until May 15, 1990. However, he was appointed to the Senate and was sworn in on May 16, 1990, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Sen. Spark Masayuki Matsunaga on April 15, 1990. Subsequently, he was elected to the Senate in November 1990. d. Rep. Robert C. Scott is African American with Filipino heritage. e. Rep. Norman Yoshio Mineta resigned on October 10, 1995. f. Rep. Patsy Takemoto Mink died on September 28, 2002. g. Rep. Robert Takeo Matsui died on January 1, 2005. h. Rep. Doris Okada Matsui won a special election on March 8, 2005, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Rep. Robert Matsui, and was sworn in on March 10, 2005. Although Rep. Robert Matsui was elected to the 109th Congress, he died on January 1, 2005. i. Rep. Bobby Jindal resigned on January 14, 2008; sworn in as governor of Louisiana on the same day. CRS-18 Table 2. Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates by State and Territory, 58th-110th Congresses (1903-2009) State or Territory Number Elected Name California 7 Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa Michael M. Honda Jay C. Kim Robert Takeo Matsui Doris Okada Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Dalip Singh Saund Hawaii 8 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Mazie Keiko Hirono Daniel Ken Inouye Hiram Leong Fong Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Patsy Takemoto Mink Patricia Fukuda Saiki Louisiana 1 Bobby Jindal Oregon 1 David Wu Virginia 1 Robert Cortez Scotta American Samoa 2 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Fofó Iosefa Fifi Sunia Guam 3 Ben Garrido Blaz Robert Anacletus Underwood Antonio Borja Won Pat a. Rep. Robert C. Scott is African American with Filipino heritage. CRS-19 Table 3. Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates in the U.S. Congress, 58th-110th Congresses (1903-2009) Congress Years Total in Congress House Senate 58th 1903-1905 1 1 - 59th 1905-1907 1 1 - 60th 1907-1909 1 1 - 61st 1909-1911 1 1 - 62nd 1911-1913 1 1 - 63rd 1913-1915 1 1 - 64th 1915-1917 1 1 - 65th 1917-1919 1 1 - 66th 1919-1921 1 1 - 67th 1921-1923 1 1 - 68th-84th 1923-1957 - - - 85th 1957-1961 1 1 - 86th 1959-1961 3 2 1 87th 1961-1963 3 2 1 88th 1963-1965 3 1 2 89th 1965-1967 4 2 2 90th 1967-1969 4 2 2 91st 1969-1971 4 2 2 92nd 1971-1973 4 2 2 93rd 1973-1975 5 3 2 94th 1975-1977 6 4 2 95th 1977-1979 6 3 3 96th 1979-1981 7 4 3 97th 1981-1983 8 5 3 98th 1983-1985 7 5 2 99th 1985-1987 7 5 2 100th 1987-1989 8 6a 2 CRS-20 Congress Years Total in Congress House Senate 101st 1989-1991 9 6b 3 102nd 1991-1993 7 5 2 103rd 1993-1995 9 7c 2 104th 1995-1997 9 7d 2 105th 1997-1999 8 6 2 106th 1999-2001 8 6 2 107th 2001-2003 9 7e 2 108th 2003-2005 7 5 2 109th 2005-2007 8 6f 2 110th 2007-2009 9 [8]g 7[6]g 2 a. Del. Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia resigned on September 6, 1988. b. Although six Asian Pacific Americans were elected to the House in the 101st Congress, only five served at any one time. Representative Patsy Mink (who had previously served in the 89th-94th Congresses) did not become a member of the House again until September 1990, when she was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Daniel K. Akaka. Senator Akaka had been appointed to the Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Spark Matsunaga. c. Rep. Robert C. Scott is African American with Filipino heritage. d. Rep. Norman Yoshio Mineta resigned on October 10, 1995. e. Rep. Patsy Takemoto Mink died on September 28, 2002. She was posthumously elected to the 108th Congress on November 5, 2002. f. Rep. Doris Okada Matsui won a special election on March 8, 2005, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Rep. Robert Matsui, and was sworn in on March 10, 2005. Although Rep. Robert Matsui was elected to the 109th Congress, he died on January 1, 2005. g. The number in brackets reflects the resignation of Rep. Bobby Jindal on January 14, 2008; he was sworn in as governor of Louisiana on the same day. CRS-21 Table 4. Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands, 60th-79th Congresses (1907-1946) Congress Dates Resident Commissioners 60th 1907-1909 Benito Y Tuason Legardaa Pablo Ocampoa 61st 1909-1911 Benito Y Tuason Legarda Pablo Ocampob Manuel Luis Quezonc 62nd 1911-1913 Benito Y Tuason Legarda Manuel Luis Quezon 63rd 1913-1915 Manuel Luis Quezon Manuel Earnshaw 64th 1915-1917 Manuel Luis Quezond Manuel Earnshaw 65th 1917-1919 Jaime Carlos de Veyra Teodoro Rafael Yangco 66th 1919-1921 Jaime Carlos de Veyra Teodoro Rafael Yangcoe Isauro Gabaldonf 67th 1921-1923 Jaime Carlos de Veyra Isauro Gabaldon 68th 1923-1925 Isauro Gabaldon Pedro Guevara 69th 1925-1927 Isauro Gabaldon Pedro Guevara 70th 1927-1929 Isauro Gabaldong Pedro Guevara 71st 1929-1931 Pedro Guevara Camilo Osias 72nd 1931-1933 Pedro Guevara Camilo Osias 73rd 1933-1935 Pedro Guevara Camilo Osias 74th 1935-1937 Pedro Guevarah Francisco Aan Delgadoh Quintin Paradesi 75th 1937-1939 Quintin Paradesj Joaquin Miguel Elizaldek 76th 1939-1941 Joaquin Miguel Elizalde 77th 1941-1943 Joaquin Miguel Elizalde CRS-22 Congress Dates Resident Commissioners 78th 1943-1945 Joaquin Miguel Elizaldel Carlos Pena Romulom 79th 1945-1947 Carlos Pena Romulon Note: The Philippine Islands were part of territory ceded to the United States by Spain under the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898. The Act of July 1902 granted the Philippine Islands the right to elect two Resident Commissioners to the United States. In 1935, the Philippine Islands became the Commonwealth of the Philippines and the number of Resident Commissioners was reduced from two to one. In 1946, the Philippines became fully independent, and the office of the Resident Commissioner was terminated. a. Elected November 22, 1907, for a term of two years; granted the privileges of the floor of the House of Representatives, with the right of debate, February 4, 1908. b. Term expired November 22, 1909. c. Elected for a term of two years beginning November 23, 1909. d. Resigned October 15, 1916; vacancy throughout the remainder of 64th Congress. e. Term expired March 3, 1920. f. Elected for a term of three years beginning March 4, 1920. g. Resigned July 16, 1928, having been nominated for election to the Philippine House of Representatives; vacancy throughout the remainder of the 70th Congress. h. When the new government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands was inaugurated, the terms of office of the Resident Commissioners of the Philippine Islands expired. Both Resident Commissioners served until February 14, 1936, when a selected successor qualified (48 Stat. 456). Under this law, the number of Resident Commissioners was reduced from two to one. i. Appointed December 21, 1935, to fill vacancy caused by the expiration of the terms of Pedro Guevara and Francisco A. Delgado, due to the new form of government, and took his seat on February 14, 1936. j. Resigned September 29, 1938. k. Appointed September 29, 1938, to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Quintin Paredes; service began on January 3, 1939, upon convening of 76th Congress. l. Resigned August 9, 1944. m. Appointed to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Joaquin M. Elizalde, and succeeded him on August 21, 1944. n. Office of Resident Commissioner terminated on July 4, 1946.