Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress

This report presents information on Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, including previous occupations and leadership positions (such as committee and subcommittee chairmanships), and the bipartisan and bicameral Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus. It also provides a list of Members' and Delegates' party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. Also included in the report is a map showing the total number of Asian Pacific Americans and the states or territories they represent in the 113th Congress.

Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Lorraine H. Tong Program Specialist June 12, 2013 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov 97-398 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Summary In the 113th Congress, 13 Asian Pacific Americans were elected to the United States Congress: 1 Senator, 10 Representatives, and 2 Delegates. A total of 52 Asian Pacific Americans have served in the House and Senate from 1900 to the present: 6 Senators (4 who have also served in the House), 26 Representatives (including the 4 who served in the Senate), 11 territorial Delegates, and 13 Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands. Resident Commissioners served from 1907 to 1946 while the Philippines was a U.S. territory and commonwealth (all were Philippine born). Asian Pacific Americans served in a total of 56 seats. Of the 39 Asian Pacific Americans who were not Resident Commissioners, 26 were Democrats (one was elected as an Independent and subsequently changed party affiliation to Democrat), 12 were Republicans, and 1 was an Independent. The ancestry of these Asian Pacific Americans has included Chinese, Chamorro, Filipino, Asian Indian, Japanese, Korean, Native Hawaiian, Samoan, South Asian, Thai, and Vietnamese. They have represented California, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Virginia, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. This report presents information on Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, including previous occupations and leadership positions (such as committee and subcommittee chairmanships), and the bipartisan and bicameral Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus. It also provides a list of Members’ and Delegates’ party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. Also included in the report is a map showing the total number of Asian Pacific Americans and the states or territories they represent in the 113th Congress. Four separate tables show (1) the Congress, the dates, and the name of the Members and Delegates who served in the House and Senate; (2) the state or territory, the number of Members and Delegates elected from the state or territory, and their names; (3) the Congress, years, total number of Members and Delegates, and the number of Members and Delegates in the House and Senate; and (4) the Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands, the Congresses in which they served, and the dates of their service. The report will be updated in each new Congress when information becomes available, or as events warrant. Congressional Research Service Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1 Background and Previous Occupations ........................................................................................... 3 Leadership in Committees and Subcommittees ............................................................................... 4 Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus ............................................................................... 5 Map, Tables, and Data ..................................................................................................................... 6 Alphabetical Listing of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office............. 8 Figures Figure 1. Total Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates and States or Territories Represented, Elected to the 113th Congress ................................................................ 7 Tables Table 1. Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates in the 56th-113th Congresses (1899-2015) ................................................................................................................................ 18 Table 2. Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates by State and Territory, 56th-113th Congresses (1899-2015) ............................................................................. 23 Table 3. Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates in the U.S. Congress, 56th-113th Congresses (1899-2015) ............................................................................ 24 Table 4. Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands, 60th-79th Congresses (1907-1946) ................................................................................................................................ 26 Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 27 Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................... 27 Congressional Research Service Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Introduction In the 113th Congress, 13 Asian Pacific Americans1 were elected to the United States Congress: 1 Senator, 10 Representatives, and 2 Delegates. Of these 13 Members, 5 new Asian Pacific Americans were elected to the House: Representatives Ami Bera (D-CA), Tammy Duckworth (D-IL), Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI), Grace Meng (D-NY), and Mark Takano (D-CA). Representative Duckworth, who is Chinese-Thai American, is the first Asian Pacific American elected from Illinois. Representative Meng, who is Chinese American, is the first Asian Pacific American to represent New York. Representative Gabbard is the first American Samoan woman and the first Hindu to be elected to Congress. Representatives Bera, who is Indian American, and Takano, who is Japanese American, are both representatives from California. Mazie K. Hirono (D-HI), who is Japanese American and who had previously served in the House, is the first Asian Pacific American woman to be elected to the Senate. Also re-elected to the 113th Congress were Representatives Judy Chu (D-CA), the first Chinese American woman to be elected to Congress; Colleen Hanabusa (D-HI); Michael Honda (D-CA); Doris Matsui (D-CA); Robert “Bobby” Scott (D-VA), an African American with Filipino ancestry; and Delegates Eni F.H. Faleomavaega (D-AS) and Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan (DMP), the first Delegate elected to represent the Northern Mariana Islands. Standard sources2 identified a total of 52 Asian Pacific Americans that have served in 56 congressional seats from 1900 to the present. There have been 6 Senators (4 had previously served in the House of Representatives), 26 Representatives (including the 4 who later served in the Senate), 11 territorial Delegates, and 13 Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands. Resident Commissioners served from 1907 to 1946 while the Philippines was a U.S. territory and commonwealth (all were Philippine born).3 Of the 39 Asian Pacific Americans who were not 1 The designation “Asian Pacific American” is commonly used to identify a person having origins in East Asia, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, Vietnam, and the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It is also the term used for the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus, founded in May 1994, and refers to those who have self-identified themselves as such. In this report, the “Asian Pacific American” designation encompasses a wide range of ethnic and national identities, rather than a purely geographic designation. Thus, it does not include those of Australian or New Zealand ancestry, for example. As promulgated by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, the official terms to be used in designating these Americans for federal reporting purposes are “Asians” and “Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.” U.S. Office of Management and Budget, “Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity,” Federal Register, vol. 62, no. 210, October 30, 1997, pp. 58782-58790. 2 Sources for the information on Asian Pacific Americans presented in this report included the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress,1774-present, available at http://bioguide.congress.gov; The Almanac of American Politics 2000; Politics in America 2000; and various editions of the Congressional Directory. Information on ancestry was provided to these source books by Members of Congress. The Office of Hawaiian Affairs provided information on Delegates of Native Hawaiian ancestry. 3 The Philippine Islands were part of territory ceded to the United States by Spain under the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898. The Act of July 1902 granted the Philippine Islands the right to elect two Resident Commissioners to the United States Congress. Historically, U.S. territories were granted nonvoting Delegates to the Congress prior to statehood. Congress distinguished between the territories acquired after the Spanish-American War and those bound for statehood. Thus, Congress provided for “resident commissioners” to the United States from Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Resident Commissioners were not accorded the same status as nonvoting Delegates, although, it should be noted, the rights of Delegates have changed over time. Resident Commissioners from the Philippines were granted (continued...) Congressional Research Service 1 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Resident Commissioners, 26 were Democrats (one was elected as an Independent and changed party affiliation soon after taking office), 12 were Republicans, and 1 was Independent. The ancestry of these Asian Pacific Americans has included Chinese, Chamorro, Filipino, Asian Indian, Japanese, Korean, Native Hawaiian, Samoan, South Asian, Thai, and Vietnamese. These Asian Pacific Americans have represented California, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Virginia, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.4 Twelve Asian Pacific Americans have represented Hawaii and ten have represented California. They have served in leadership positions, including committee and subcommittee chairmanships. The first Asian Pacific American to serve in Congress was Robert William Wilcox (Ind-HI), a Native Hawaiian, who was the first to represent the territory of Hawaii in the House. He was elected as a Delegate on November 6, 1900, and served until March 3, 1903. Subsequently, another Native Hawaiian, Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole (R-HI) represented Hawaii as a Delegate from March 4, 1903, until his death on January 7, 1922. He was related to the Hawaiian royal family, and also held the title of prince. Three other Delegates of Native Hawaiian ancestry who represented Hawaii when it was a territory were William Paul Jarrett (D-HI), from March 4, 1923, to March 3, 1927; Victor Stewart Kaleoaloha Houston (R-HI), from March 4, 1927, to March 3, 1933; and Samuel Wilder King (R-HI), from January 3, 1935, to January 3, 1943. The first Asian Pacific American Member of Congress was Representative Dalip Singh Saund (DCA), an immigrant from India who served in the House from January 3, 1957, to January 3, 1963. The first Asian Pacific American Senator elected to Congress was Hiram Leong Fong (R-HI), who served from August 21, 1959, to January 3, 1977. Senator Fong was one of Hawaii’s first two Senators after its admission to the Union. Senator Fong also was the first American of Chinese ancestry elected to Congress. Senator Daniel K. Inouye (D-HI) was the Asian Pacific American with the longest congressional service. He was the first American of Japanese ancestry to be elected to Congress, and Hawaii’s first Member of the House after its admission to the Union, and began his service on August 21, 1959. Senator Inouye was subsequently elected in 1962 to the Senate, where he served until his death on December 17, 2012. He was awarded the Medal of Honor in June 2000. Several Members had the distinction of being “firsts” in the 111th Congress: Representative Steve Austria (R-OH), a first-generation Filipino American, was elected to Congress; Representative Anh “Joseph” Quang Cao (R-LA), the first Vietnamese American, was elected to Congress; and Delegate Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan (D-MP), the first Delegate elected to represent the Northern Mariana Islands, is Chamorro with Hispanic and English ancestry. A total of nine Asian Pacific American women have served in Congress. Of this number, a record seven serve in the 113th Congress. They are Senator Hirono and Representatives Chu,5 (...continued) floor privileges in the House with the right of debate on February 4, 1908. However, they did not have the right to vote or to serve on standing committees. When the Philippine Islands became a self-governing commonwealth, in transition to full sovereignty in 1935, the number of Resident Commissioners was reduced from two to one. On July 14, 1946, the Philippines became fully independent and the office of Resident Commissioner was terminated (P.L. 73-127). For the purposes of this study, a separate table listing Resident Commissioners from the Philippines is included at the end of the report. 4 Legislation was enacted to provide for the election of one Delegate from the Northern Mariana Islands (P.L. 110229). 5 Rep. Chu won a special election on July 14, 2009, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Hilda Solis. Congressional Research Service 2 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Duckworth, Gabbard, Hanabusa, Matsui,6 and Meng. Two other women who had served in previous Congresses were Representative Patsy T. Mink (D-HI), the first Asian Pacific American woman elected to Congress, and Representative Patricia Fukuda Saiki (R-HI). This report presents information on Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, including party affiliations, length and dates of service, and committee assignments. The report provides information on previous occupations and leadership positions (including committee and subcommittee chairmanships), and the bipartisan and bicameral Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus. In addition, there is a map showing the total number of Asian Pacific Americans and the states or territories they represent in the 113th Congress. There are also four separate tables that present (1) the Congress, the dates, and the name of the Members and Delegates who served in the House and Senate; (2) the state or territory, the number of Members and Delegates elected from the state or territory, and their names; (3) the Congress, years, total number of Members and Delegates, and the number of Members and Delegates in the House and Senate; and (4) the Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands, the Congresses in which they served, and the dates of their service. Background and Previous Occupations Many of the Asian Pacific Americans have had similar educational and professional backgrounds. Eleven have been educators, including two high school principals, four college professors, and two presidents of a state college and a university system. Fourteen have held law degrees or practiced law; two have also been judges. Many have held elected state or local offices before seeking a congressional seat: 16 have served in state legislatures, 1 was a governor, 2 were lieutenant governors, and 4 have been mayors. There has also been a physician: Representative Bera. Sixteen Asian Pacific Americans have U.S. military experience, and three have served in other armed forces. Senator Inouye was a Medal of Honor recipient for his service in World War II. Two combat veterans were elected to the 113th Congress: Representative Duckworth, an Iraq War veteran (Purple Heart recipient) and former Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; and Representative Gabbard, who served two tours of combat duty in the Middle East (Meritorious Service Medal recipient). Both continue to serve in the National Guard: Representative Duckworth as a lieutenant colonel in the Illinois Army National Guard, and Representative Gabbard as a captain in the Hawaii Army National Guard. 6 Rep. Matsui won a special election on March 8, 2005, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband Rep. Robert T. Matsui (D-CA), who had been elected to the 109th Congress, on January 1, 2005. Congressional Research Service 3 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Leadership in Committees and Subcommittees Three Asian Pacific Americans have chaired committees—Senators Inouye7 and Akaka,8 and Representative Norman Y. Mineta.9 Eight Asian Pacific Americans have chaired subcommittees— Senators Inouye, Akaka, and Matsunaga;10 Representatives Jay C. Kim,11 Norman Y. Mineta, Robert C. Scott, and David Wu; and Delegate Eni F. H. Faleomavaega. In addition, Representative Robert T. Matsui served as acting chair of a subcommittee. In the 111th Congress, several Asian Pacific Americans chaired committees and subcommittees. In the Senate, Senator Inouye was chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee and the Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense. Senator Akaka was chair of the Senate Veterans’ Affairs Committee and also the chair of the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia. In the House, all of the House subcommittee chairs in the 111th Congress held the same leadership positions in the 110th Congress. Representative Scott was chair of the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security. Representative Wu12 was chair of the House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, and Delegate Faleomavaega was chair of the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, and the Global Environment. In the 112th Congress, Senator Inouye chaired the Senate Appropriations Committee and the Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense until his death on December 17, 2012. Senator Akaka 7 Senator Inouye held other leadership positions during his decades of service. He served as President pro tempore from June 28, 2010 until his death on December 17, 2012. In the 110th Congress, he chaired the Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, and also chaired the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense. When the Democrats gained the majority in the Senate in June 2001 (107th Congress), Senator Inouye became chair of the Committee on Indian Affairs. He also assumed the chair of the Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense, and the chair of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee on Communications. Senator Inouye was the first chair of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from 1976 to 1977, and was the Senate chair of the Secret Military Assistance to Iran and Nicaragua Opposition Select Committee (IranContra Committee) from 1987 to 1988. From 1987 to 1994, he was chairman of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. Senator Inouye has also chaired the following Senate subcommittees: the Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia (1971-1972), Foreign Operations (1973-1980, 1987-1988), and Defense (1989-1994); the Senate Commerce Subcommittees on Foreign Commerce and Tourism (1971-1976), Merchant Marine and Tourism (1977-1980), and Communications (1987-1994); and the Intelligence Subcommittee on Budget Authorization (1979-1980). 8 In the 110th Congress, Senator Akaka chaired the Veterans’ Affairs Committee and also chaired three subcommittees: the Armed Services Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support; the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia; and the Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks Prior to the current Congress. In June of 2001 (107th Congress), he became chair of three subcommittees: the Senate Armed Services Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support, the Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks, Historic Preservation and Recreation, and the Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services. 9 Rep. Mineta was chair of the House Public Works and Transportation Committee (1993-1994). Prior to chairing the full committee, he chaired the Subcommittees on Public Buildings and Grounds (1977-1978), Oversight and Review (1979-1980), Aviation (1980-1989), and Surface Transportation (1990-1992). 10 Sen. Matsunaga was chair of the Senate Finance Subcommittee on Tourism and Sugar (1977-1980). 11 In the 105th Congress, Rep. Jay C. Kim (R-CA), the first Korean American to be elected to Congress, chaired the House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Public Buildings and Economic Development. 12 Rep. Wu is the first Chinese American to represent a district on the U.S. mainland. Congressional Research Service 4 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress was chair of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee and the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia. In the House, ranking Members of subcommittees were—Representative Michael Honda on the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Legislative Branch; Representative Scott on the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security; Representative Wu on the House Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation; Delegate Faleomavaega on the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific; and Delegate Sablan on House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, Oceans and Insular Affairs. In the 113th Congress, Asian Pacific Americans serving as ranking Members are Representative Chu on House Small Business Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Tax and Capital Access; Representative Hanabusa on House National Resources Subcommittee on Indian and Alaska Native Affairs; Representative Meng on House Small Business Subcommittee on Contracting and Workforce; Representative Scott on House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations; Representative Takano on House Veterans’ Affairs Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity; Delegate Faleomavaega on the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific; and Delegate Sablan on House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Fisheries, Wildlife, Oceans and Insular Affairs. Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus The bicameral and bipartisan Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus (CAPAC) was established on May 16, 1994. Membership to the caucus is open to all Members of Congress. According to CAPAC, the caucus comprises “Members of Congress of Asian and Pacific Islander descent and members who have a strong dedication to promoting the well-being of the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community” and works with “other Members and Caucuses to protect and advance the civil and constitutional rights of all Americans.” The caucus also will “educate other Members about the history, contributions, and concerns of Asian Pacific Americans.”13 Currently, there are 41 CAPAC members.14 Representative Mineta, one of the founders of the caucus, served as the first chair of CAPAC. Upon Representative Mineta’s resignation from the House, Representative Mink became chair of the caucus and served in that position through the 105th Congress. In both the 104th and 105th Congresses, Delegate Robert Underwood was vice chair of the caucus, and Senator Akaka served as secretary of the caucus. In the 106th Congress, Delegate Underwood chaired the caucus, Representative Wu served as vice chair, and Senator Inouye served as secretary. In the 107th Congress, Representative Wu served as caucus chair, Representative Michael M. Honda served as vice chair, and Senator Inouye continued as secretary. In the first session of the 108th Congress, Representatives Wu and Honda continued as chair and vice chair, respectively. In the second session, Representative Honda became chair, Delegate Faleomavaega became vice chair, Delegate Madeleine Z. Bordallo became secretary, and Representative Ed Case became whip. In the 109th Congress, Representatives Honda and Case and Delegates Faleomavaega and Bordallo were all reelected to the same positions. In the 110th Congress, Representative Honda and 13 For more details about the mission and purpose of the caucus and its activities, see the CAPAC website at http://capac-chu.house.gov. 14 CAPAC provided this information on April 25, 2013. Congressional Research Service 5 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Delegates Faleomavaega and Bordallo continued in their 109th Congress positions. In the 111th Congress, Representative Honda was again reelected chair of CAPAC. Delegates Faleomavaega and Bordallo were also reelected to their respective positions as Vice Chair and Secretary. The Executive Board members were Senators Akaka and Inouye; Representatives Xavier Becerra, Anh “Joseph” Quang Cao, Al Green, Mazie Hirono, Doris Matsui, Robert Scott, and David Wu; and Delegate Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan.15 In the 112th Congress, Representative Judy Chu was elected chair of CAPAC. The other officers elected were Representative Bordallo (vice chair); Representative Hanabusa (whip); and Representative Honda (chair emeritus), who had chaired the caucus for seven years. CAPAC members chair several task forces: Representatives Chu (Economic Development), Honda (Immigration), Scott (Civil Rights), Barbara Lee (Healthcare), Green (Housing), and Hirono (Education). CAPAC board members, in addition to the officers and chairs of the task forces, were Senators Inouye (until his death on December 17, 2012) and Akaka; Representatives Becerra, Hansen Clarke, Hirono, and Matsui; and Delegates Faleomavaega and Sablan. Early in the 113th Congress, on February 15, 2013, CAPAC announced its leadership and officers for the new Congress. Representative Chu was re-elected as caucus chair, Representative Bordallo as vice chair, Representative Takano as whip, and Representative Honda as chair emeritus. Chairs or co-chairs of CAPAC’s six taskforces were named: Representative Scott (Civil Rights), Delegate Sablan (Education), Representative Meng (Economic Development), Representatives Lee and Bera (Healthcare), Representative Green (Housing), and Representative Honda and Delegate Faleomavaega (Immigration).16 Map, Tables, and Data This section provides a map presenting information on Asian Pacific Americans in Congress. The map (Figure 1) shows the 13 Members and Delegates elected to the House and Senate and the states and territories they represent in the 113th Congress. A list of selected biographical information about Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates, and their committee assignments during their tenure is provided. Table 1 shows the Congress, the dates, and the names of the Members and Delegates who served in the House and Senate. Table 2 shows the state or territory, the number of Members and Delegates elected from the state or territory, and their names. Table 3 reflects the Congress, years, total number of Members and Delegates, and the number of Members and Delegates in the House and Senate. Finally, Table 4 lists Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands, the Congresses in which they served, and the dates of their service. Information on committee assignments and leadership positions was obtained from various editions of the Congressional Directory, various editions of The Official Alphabetical List of the House of Representatives of the United States, various editions of the Congressional Yellow Book 15 Rep. Neil Abercrombie served on the executive board and chaired the Task Force on Immigration until his resignation from the House on February 28, 2010. 16 CAPAC press release is available at http://capac-chu.house.gov/press-release/capac-announces-leadership-andmembership-113th-congress. Congressional Research Service 6 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress (a publication of Leadership Directories, Inc.), information on Member websites, and telephone calls to Member offices. Figure 1.Total Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates and States or Territories Represented, Elected to the 113th Congress Sources: The Congressional Research Service created this map using information from House.gov, Senate.gov, and CQ.com. Congressional Research Service 7 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Alphabetical Listing of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates, Selected Biographical Information, and Committee Assignments During Their Tenure in Office17 AKAKA, DANIEL KAHIKINA. Democrat; a Representative and Senator from Hawaii. Born on September 11, 1924. Elected to the House of Representatives for the 95th-101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1977, to May 15, 1990. Appointed to the Senate in 1990 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Senator Spark Matsunaga and subsequently elected by special election to the Senate in November 1990. Reelected in 1994, 2000, and 2006; was not a candidate for re-election for the 113th Congress; served in the Senate from May 16, 1990, to January 3, 2013. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Appropriations H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries S. Armed Services S. Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs S. Energy and Natural Resources S. Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs S. Indian Affairs, chair S. Veterans’ Affairs (chair in previous Congress) S. Select Committee on Ethics AUSTRIA, STEVE. Republican; a Representative from Ohio. Born October 12, 1958. Elected to 111th-112th Congresses; served from January 3, 2009, to January 3, 2013. Committee Assignments H. Appropriations H. Budget H. Homeland Security BERA, AMI. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born March 2, 1965. Elected to the 113th Congress; has served since January 3, 2013. Committee Assignments *H. Foreign Affairs *H. Science, Space, and Technology 17 Asterisks indicate current committee assignments. Congressional Research Service 8 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress BLAZ, BEN GARRIDO. Republican; a Delegate from Guam. Born on February 14, 1928. Elected to the 99th-102nd Congresses; served from January 3, 1985, to January 3, 1993. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Interior and Insular Affairs CAO, ANH “JOSEPH” QUANG. Republican; a Representative from Louisiana. Born on March 13, 1967. First Vietnamese American to be elected to Congress. Elected to the 111th Congress; served from January 3, 2009, to January 3, 2011. Committee Assignments H. Homeland Security H. Oversight and Government Reform H. Transportation and Infrastructure CHU, JUDY. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born on July 7, 1953. First Chinese American woman to be elected to Congress. Elected to the 111th Congress by special election on July 14, 2009, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Hilda Solis; reelected to the 112th and 113th Congresses, has served since July 14, 2009. Committee Assignment *H. Judiciary *H. Small Business H. Oversight and Government Reform H. Education and Labor CLARKE, HANSEN. Democrat; a Representative from Michigan. Born March 2, 1957. South Asian and African American. Elected to the 112th Congress; served from January 3, 2011, to January 3, 2013. Committee Assignments H. Homeland Security H. Science, Space, and Technology DJOU, CHARLES K. Republican; a Representative from Hawaii. Born August 9, 1970. First Chinese American with Thai heritage to be elected to Congress. Elected to the 111th Congress by special election on May 22, 2010, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Representative Neil Abercrombie; served from May 22, 2010, to January 3, 2011. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Budget Congressional Research Service 9 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress DUCKWORTH, TAMMY. Democrat; a Representative from Illinois. Born March 12, 1968. Served as Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (2009-2011). Elected to the 113th Congress; has served since January 3, 2013. Committee Assignments *H. Armed Services *H. Oversight and Government Reform FALEOMAVAEGA, ENI F. H. Democrat; a Delegate from American Samoa. Born August 15, 1943. Elected to the 100th-113th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1989. Committee Assignments * H. Foreign Affairs * H. Natural Resources H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Education and Labor H. Small Business FONG, HIRAM LEONG. Republican; a Senator from Hawaii. Born on October 15, 1906; died on August 18, 2004. First Asian Pacific American elected to the Senate and first American of Chinese ancestry elected to Congress. Elected to the Senate in 1959 upon the admission of Hawaii to the Union, reelected in 1964 and 1970; served from August 21, 1959, to January 3, 1977. Committee Assignments S. Appropriations S. Interior and Insular Affairs S. Judiciary S. Post Office and Civil Service S. Public Works GABBARD, TULSI. Democrat; a Representative from Hawaii. Born on April 12, 1981. Elected to the 113th Congress; has served since January 3, 2013. Committee Assignments *H. Foreign Affairs *H. Homeland Security HANABUSA, COLLEEN. Democrat; a Representative from Hawaii. Born on May 4, 1951. Elected to the 112th and 113th Congresses; has served since January 3, 2011. Committee Assignments * H. Armed Services * H. Natural Resources Congressional Research Service 10 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress HAYAKAWA, SAMUEL ICHIYE. Republican; a Senator from California. Born on July 18, 1906; died on February 26, 1992. Elected to the Senate in 1976; served from January 3, 1977, to January 3, 1983. Committee Assignments S. Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry S. Budget S. Labor and Human Resources S. Interior and Insular Affairs S. Foreign Relations HIRONO, MAZIE KEIKO. Democrat; a Representative and Senator from Hawaii. Born on November 3, 1947. Elected to the House for 110th-112th Congresses; served from January 3, 2007, to January 3, 2013. Elected to the Senate for the 113th Congress; has served in the Senate since January 3, 2013. Committee Assignments *S. Armed Services *S. Judiciary *S. Veterans Affairs H. Education and the Workforce H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Ethics H. Small Business HONDA, MICHAEL M. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born on June 27, 1941. Elected to the 107th-113th Congresses; has served since January 3, 2001. He served as regional whip for the 107th and 108th Congresses. In the 110th Congress, he served as a Democratic senior whip and was reappointed to the position for the 111th, 112th, and 113th Congresses. Committee Assignments * H. Appropriations H. Budget H. Science and Technology H. Transportation and Infrastructure HOUSTON, VICTOR STEWART KALEOALOHA. Republican; a Delegate from the Territory of Hawaii. Born on July 22, 1876; died on July 31, 1959. Elected to the 70th-72nd Congresses; served from March 4, 1927, to March 3, 1933. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Immigration and Naturalization H. Merchant Marine, Radio, and Fisheries H. Military Affairs H. Naval Affairs H. Post Office and Post Roads Congressional Research Service 11 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress H. Public Lands H. Territories INOUYE, DANIEL KEN. Democrat; a Representative and Senator from Hawaii. Born on September 7, 1924; died on December 17, 2012. First American of Japanese ancestry elected to Congress. Elected to the House for the 86th and 87th Congresses; served from August 21, 1959, to January 3, 1963. Elected to the Senate in 1962, reelected in 1968, 1974, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004, and 2010; served in the Senate since January 3, 1963, to December 17, 2012. He served as assistant majority whip from 1975 to 1976 and deputy Democratic whip from 1981 to 1986. From 1977 to 1988, he was secretary of the Senate Democratic Conference. From 1989 to 1994, he chaired the Democratic Steering Committee. Served as President pro tempore of the Senate from June 28, 2010, to December 17, 2012. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Banking and Currency S. Armed Services S. District of Columbia S. Public Works Joint Committee on the Library Joint Committee on Printing S. Appropriations, chair S. Commerce, Science, and Transportation (chair in previous Congresses) S. Indian Affairs (chair in previous Congresses) S. Rules and Administration S. Select Committee on Intelligence, chair Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and Nicaragua Opposition (IranContra Committee), Senate chair JARRETT, WILLIAM PAUL. Democrat. Delegate from the Territory of Hawaii. Born on August 22, 1877; died on November 10, 1929. Elected to the 68th and 69th Congresses; served from March 4, 1923, to March 3, 1927. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Military Affairs H. Post Office and Post Roads H. Public Lands H. Territories Congressional Research Service 12 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress JINDAL, BOBBY. Republican; a Representative from Louisiana. Born on June 10, 1971. Elected to the 109th and 110th Congresses; serve d from January 3, 2005, until his resignation on January 14, 2008. In the 109th Congress, he was elected Republican freshman class president. He served as assistant majority whip in the 109th Congress, and as assistant minority whip in the first session of the 110th Congress. Elected to be governor of Louisiana; sworn in on January 14, 2008. Committee Assignments H. Education and the Workforce H. Homeland Security H. Natural Resources KALANIANAOLE, JONAH KUHIO. Republican; a Delegate from the Territory of Hawaii. Born on March 26, 1871; died on January 7, 1922. Elected to the 58th-67th Congresses; served from March 4, 1903, to January 7, 1922. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Coinage, Weights, and Measures H. Post Office and Post-Roads H. Private Land Claims H. Territories KIM, JAY C. Republican; a Representative from California. Born on March 27, 1939. First American of Korean ancestry elected to Congress. Elected to the 103rd-105th Congresses; served from January 3, 1993, to January 3, 1999. He was Republican sophomore class whip in the 104th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Small Business H. International Relations H. Transportation and Infrastructure KING, SAMUEL WILDER. Republican; a Delegate from the Territory of Hawaii. Born on December 17, 1886; died on March 24, 1959. Elected to the 74th-77th Congresses, served from January 3, 1935, to January 3, 1943. Appointed Governor of Hawaii; served from February 28, 1953, until his resignation on July 31, 1957. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Immigration and Naturalization H. Insular Affairs H. Merchant Marine and Fisheries H. Military Affairs H. Naval Affairs H. Post Office and Public Roads H. Public Lands H. Rivers and Harbors Congressional Research Service 13 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress H. Territories MATSUI, DORIS OKADA. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born on September 25, 1944. Elected to the 109th Congress in a special election on March 8, 2005, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Representative Robert T. Matsui; reelected to the 110th -113th Congresses; has served since March 8, 2005. Committee Assignments * H. Energy and Commerce H. Rules H. Transportation and Infrastructure H. Science and Technology MATSUI, ROBERT TAKEO. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born on September 17, 1941; died on January 1, 2005. Elected to the 96th-109th Congresses; served from January 3, 1979, to January 1, 2005. He was majority whip at large from 1987 to 1994 and served as minority whip at large from 1995 to 2003, and as minority whip at large in the 108th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Budget H. Government Operations H. Interstate and Foreign Commerce H. Judiciary H. Ways and Means MATSUNAGA, SPARK MASAYUKI. Democrat; Representative and Senator from Hawaii. Born October 8, 1916; died on April 15, 1990. Elected to the House of Representatives for the 88th-94th Congresses; served from January 3, 1963, to January 3, 1977. Elected to the Senate in 1976, reelected in 1982 and 1988; served from January 3, 1977, to April 15, 1990. He served as chief deputy majority whip from 1979 to 1980 and chief deputy minority whip from 1981 to 1986, and from 1987 to 1988 he was chief deputy majority whip. Committee Assignments H. Agriculture H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Rules S. Commerce S. Energy S. Finance S. Foreign Relations S. Labor and Human Resources S. Veterans’ Affairs Congressional Research Service 14 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress MENG, GRACE. Democrat; a Representative from New York. Born October 1, 1975. Elected to the 113th Congress; has served since January 3, 2013. Committee Assignments *H. Foreign Affairs *H. Small Business MINETA, NORMAN YOSHIO. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born November 12, 1931. Elected to the House for the 94th-104th Congresses. Served from January 3, 1975, until his resignation on October 10, 1995. Confirmed by the Senate on July 20, 2000, and sworn in as U.S. Secretary of Commerce on July 21, 2000. Confirmed by the Senate on January 24, 2001, sworn in as U.S. Secretary of Transportation on January 25, 2001, served until July 7, 2006. He was a majority whip at large from 1977 to 1981, deputy majority whip from 1982 to 1994, and deputy minority whip in 1995. He became the first Asian Pacific American to serve in a Cabinet position when he was sworn in as U.S. Secretary of Commerce on July 21, 2000. He was nominated to a second Cabinet post and was sworn in as U.S. Secretary of Transportation on January 25, 2001, and continued in that post until July 7, 2006. He had the distinction of being the longest-serving Secretary in the history of the Department of Transportation. Committee Assignments. H. Budget H. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence H. Post Office and Civil Service H. Public Works and Transportation, chair H. Science and Technology MINK, PATSY TAKEMOTO. Democrat; a Representative from Hawaii. Born December 6, 1927; died on September 28, 2002. First Asian Pacific American woman to be elected to Congress. Elected to the 89th-94th Congresses; served from January 3, 1965, to January 3, 1977. Appointed Assistant Secretary for the Office of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State. Elected again in 1990 in a special election to the 101st Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the appointment of Daniel Akaka to the Senate. Reelected to 102nd-107th Congresses; served until her death on September 28, 2002; posthumously elected to the 108th Congress on November 5, 2002. She served as secretary of the Democratic Caucus from 1975 to 1977, minority regional whip from 1997 to 1998, and served as minority whip at large from 2001 until her death in September 2002. Committee Assignments H. Budget H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Natural Resources H. Education and the Workforce H. Government Reform Congressional Research Service 15 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress SABLAN, GREGORIO KILILI CAMACHO. Democrat; a Delegate from the Northern Mariana Islands. Born on January 19, 1955. He is Chamorro with Hispanic and English ancestry. Elected to the 111th Congress as an Independent; changed from an Independent to a Democrat on February 23, 2009. Reelected to the 112th and 113th Congresses, has served since January 3, 2009. Committee Assignments *H. Education and the Workforce *H. Natural Resources H. Agriculture SAIKI, PATRICIA FUKUDA. Republican; a Representative from Hawaii. Born on May 28, 1930. Elected to the 100th-101st Congresses; served from January 3, 1987, to January 3, 1991. Appointed, and confirmed by the Senate on March 21, 1991, to be administrator of the Small Business Administration after leaving Congress. Committee Assignments H. Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs H. Merchant Marines and Fisheries SAUND, DALIP SINGH. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born on September 20, 1899; died August 22, 1973. First American of Indian ancestry to be elected to Congress. Elected to the 85th-87th Congresses; served from January 3, 1957, to January 3, 1963. Committee Assignments H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Foreign Affairs SCOTT, ROBERT CORTEZ. Democrat; a Representative from Virginia. Born on April 30, 1947. An African American with Filipino ancestry. Elected to the 103rd-113th Congresses; has served since January 3, 1993. Committee Assignments * H. Education and the Workforce * H. Judiciary H. Budget H. Science, Space, and Technology H. U.S. National Security and Military Commercial Concerns with the People’s Republic of China SUNIA, FOFÓ IOSEFA FITI. Democrat; elected as first Delegate from American Samoa. Born on March 13, 1937. Elected to the 97th-100th Congresses; served from January 3, 1981, until his resignation on September 6, 1988. Committee Assignments H. Interior and Insular Affairs H. Merchant Marines and Fisheries H. Public Works and Transportation Congressional Research Service 16 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress TAKANO, MARK. Democrat; a Representative from California. Born December 10, 1960. Elected to the 113th Congress; has served since January 3, 2013. Committee Assignments *H. Science, Space, and Technology *H. Veterans’ Affairs UNDERWOOD, ROBERT ANACLETUS. Democrat; a Delegate from Guam. Born July 13, 1948. Elected to the 103rd-107th Congresses; was not a candidate for the 108th Congress; served from January 3, 1993, to January 3, 1993; unsuccessful candidate for governor of Guam. In the 105th Congress, he served as a deputy whip for the Democratic Study Group of the House Democratic Caucus, and also served as Democratic Caucus whip at large for the 105th and 106th Congresses. Committee Assignments H. Education and Labor H. Armed Services H. Resources WILCOX, ROBERT WILLIAM. Independent; the first Delegate from Hawaii. Born on February 15, 1855; died on October 23, 1903. Elected to the 56th-57th Congresses; served from November 6, 1900, to March 3, 1903; unsuccessful candidate for reelection to the 58th Congress. Committee Assignments H. Coinage, Weights, and Measures H. Private Land Claims WON PAT, ANTONIO BORJA. Democrat; the first Delegate from Guam. Born on December 10, 1908; died on May 1, 1987. Elected to the 93rd-98th Congresses; served from January 3, 1973, to January 3, 1985. Committee Assignments H. Armed Services H. Interior and Insular Affairs WU, DAVID. Democrat; Representative from Oregon. Born on April 8, 1955. Elected to the 106th-112th Congresses; served from January 3, 1999, until his resignation on August 3, 2011. In the 106th Congress, he served as Democratic freshman class president for the period JulyDecember 2000. Committee Assignments H. Education and the Workforce H. Science, Space, and Technology H. Foreign Affairs Congressional Research Service 17 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Table 1. Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates in the 56th-113th Congresses (1899-2015) Congress Dates 56th-57th 1899-1903 House Robert William Wilcox Kalanianaolea Senate — 58th-67th 1903-1922 Jonah Kuhio — 68th-69th 1923-1927 William Paul Jarrett 70th-72nd 1927-1933 Victor Stewart Kaleoaloha Houston 73th — — — 74th -77th 1935-1943 Samuel Wilder King — 78th -84th — — — 85th 1957-1959 Dalip Singh Saund 86th 1959-1961 Daniel Ken Inouye — — Hiram Leong Fong Dalip Singh Saund 87th 1961-1963 Daniel Ken Inouye Hiram Leong Fong Dalip Singh Saund 88th 1963-1965 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Hiram Leong Fong Daniel Ken Inouye 89th 90th 91st 92nd 93rd 1965-1967 1967-1969 1969-1971 1971-1973 1973-1975 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Hiram Leong Fong Patsy Takemoto Mink Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Hiram Leong Fong Patsy Takemoto Mink Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Hiram Leong Fong Patsy Takemoto Mink Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Hiram Leong Fong Patsy Takemoto Mink Daniel Ken Inouye Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Hiram Leong Fong Patsy Takemoto Mink Daniel Ken Inouye Antonio Borja Won Pat 94th 1975-1977 Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Hiram Leong Fong Norman Yoshio Mineta Daniel Ken Inouye Patsy Takemoto Mink Antonio Borja Won Pat 95th 96th 1977-1979 1979-1981 Congressional Research Service Daniel Kahikina Akaka Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa Norman Yoshio Mineta Daniel Ken Inouye Antonio Borja Won Pat Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Daniel Kahikina Akaka Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa Robert Takeo Matsui Daniel Ken Inouye Norman Yoshio Mineta Spark Masayuki Matsunaga 18 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Congress Dates House Senate Antonio Borja Won Pat 97th 1981-1983 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa Robert Takeo Matsui Daniel Ken Inouye Norman Yoshio Mineta Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia Antonio Borja Won Pat 98th 1983-1985 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye Robert Takeo Matsui Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Norman Yoshio Mineta Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia Antonio Borja Won Pat 99th 1985-1987 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye Ben Garrido Blaz Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia 100th 1987-1989 Daniel Kahikina Akaka Daniel Ken Inouye Ben Garrido Blaz Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Patricia Fukuda Saiki Fofó Iosefa Fiti Suniab 101st 1989-1991 Ben Garrido Blaz Daniel Kahikina Akakac Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Ken Inouye Robert Takeo Matsui Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Norman Yoshio Mineta Patsy Takemoto Mink Patricia Fukuda Saiki 102nd 1991-1993 Ben Garrido Blaz Daniel Kahikina Akaka Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Ken Inouye Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Patsy Takemoto Mink 103rd 1993-1995 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Kahikina Akaka Jay C. Kim Daniel Ken Inouye Robert Takeo Matsui Congressional Research Service 19 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Congress Dates House Senate Norman Yoshio Mineta Patsy Takemoto Mink Robert Cortez Scott Robert Anacletus Underwood 104th 1995-1997 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Kahikina Akaka Jay C. Kim Daniel Ken Inouye Robert Takeo Matsui Norman Yoshio Minetad Patsy Takemoto Mink Robert Cortez Scott Robert Anacletus Underwood 105th 1997-1999 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Kahikina Akaka Jay C. Kim Daniel Ken Inouye Robert Takeo Matsui Patsy Takemoto Mink Robert Cortez Scott Robert Anacletus Underwood 106th 1999-2001 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Kahikina Akaka Robert Takeo Matsui Daniel Ken Inouye Patsy Takemoto Mink Robert Cortez Scott Robert Anacletus Underwood David Wu 107th 2001-2003 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Kahikina Akaka Michael M. Honda Daniel Ken Inouye Robert Takeo Matsui Patsy Takemoto Minke Robert Cortez Scott Robert Anacletus Underwood David Wu 108th 2003-2005 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Kahikina Akaka Michael M. Honda Daniel Ken Inouye Robert Takeo Matsuif Robert Cortez Scott David Wu 109th 2005-2007 Congressional Research Service Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Kahikina Akaka 20 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Congress Dates House Michael M. Honda Senate Daniel Ken Inouye Bobby Jindal Doris Okada Matsuig Robert Cortez Scott David Wu 110th 2007-2009 Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Daniel Kahikina Akaka Mazie Keiko Hirono Daniel Ken Inouye Michael M. Honda Bobby Jindalh Doris Okada Matsui Robert Cortez Scott David Wu 111th 2009-2011 Steve Austria Daniel Kahikina Akaka Anh “Joseph” Quang Cao Daniel Ken Inouye Judy Chui Charles K. Djouj Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Mazie Keiko Hirono Michael M. Honda Doris Okada Matsui Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan Robert Cortez Scott David Wu 112th 2011-2013 Steve Austria Daniel Kahikina Akaka Judy Chu Daniel Ken Inouyel Hansen Clarke Eni F. H. Faleomavaega Colleen Hanabusa Mazie Keiko Hirono Michael M. Honda Doris Okada Matsui Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan Robert Cortez Scott David Wuk 113th 2013-2015 Ami Bera Mazie Keiko Hirono Judy Chu Congressional Research Service 21 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Congress Dates House Senate Tammy Duckworth Eni F. H. Faleomavaega Tulsi Gabbard Colleen Hanabusa Michael M. Honda Doris Okada Matsui Grace Meng Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan Robert Cortez Scott Mark Takano a. Del. Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole died on January 7, 1922. b. Del. Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia resigned on September 6, 1988. c. Sen. Daniel Kahikina Akaka also served in the House in the 101st Congress until May 15, 1990. However, he was appointed to the Senate and was sworn in on May 16, 1990, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Sen. Spark Masayuki Matsunaga on April 15, 1990. Subsequently, he was elected to the Senate in November 1990. d. Rep. Norman Yoshio Mineta resigned on October 10, 1995. e. Rep. Patsy Takemoto Mink died on September 28, 2002. f. Rep. Robert Takeo Matsui died on January 1, 2005. g. Rep. Doris Okada Matsui won a special election on March 8, 2005, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Rep. Robert Matsui, and was sworn in on March 10, 2005. Although Rep. Robert Matsui was elected to the 109th Congress, he died on January 1, 2005. h. Rep. Bobby Jindal resigned on January 14, 2008; sworn in as governor of Louisiana on the same day. i. Rep. Judy Chu won a special election on July 14, 2009, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Hilda Solis. j. Rep. Charles K. Djou won a special election on May 22, 2010, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Neil Abercrombie. k. Rep. David Wu resigned on August 3, 2011. l. Sen. Daniel Inouye died on December 17, 2012. Congressional Research Service 22 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Table 2. Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates by State and Territory, 56th-113th Congresses (1899-2015) State or Territory California Number Elected 10 Name Ami Bera Judy Chu Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa Michael M. Honda Jay C. Kim Robert Takeo Matsui Doris Okada Matsui Norman Yoshio Mineta Dalip Singh Saund Hawaii 15 Mark Takano Daniel Kahikina Akaka Charles K. Djou Tulsi Gabbard Colleen Hanabusa Mazie Keiko Hirono Victor Stewart Kaleoaloha Houston Daniel Ken Inouye William Paul Jarrett Hiram Leong Fong Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole Samuel Wilder King Spark Masayuki Matsunaga Patsy Takemoto Mink Patricia Fukuda Saiki Robert William Wilcox Tammy Duckworth Anh “Joseph” Quang Cao Illinois Louisiana 1 2 Michigan New York Ohio Oregon Virginia American Samoa 1 1 1 1 1 2 Hansen Clarke Grace Meng Steve Austria David Wu Robert Cortez Scott Eni F.H. Faleomavaega Guam 3 Fofó Iosefa Fifi Sunia Ben Garrido Blaz Bobby Jindal Robert Anacletus Underwood Antonio Borja Won Pat Northern Mariana Islands Congressional Research Service 1 Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan 23 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Table 3. Number of Asian Pacific American Members and Delegates in the U.S. Congress, 56th-113th Congresses (1899-2015) Congress Years Total in Congress House Senate 56th 1899-1901 1 1 - 57th 1901-1903 1 1 - 58th 1903-1905 1 1 - 59th 1905-1907 1 1 - 60th 1907-1909 1 1 - 61st 1909-1911 1 1 - 62nd 1911-1913 1 1 - 63rd 1913-1915 1 1 - 64th 1915-1917 1 1 - 65th 1917-1919 1 1 - 66th 1919-1921 1 1 - 67th 1921-1923 1 1 - 68th 1923-1925 1 1 - 69th 1925-1927 1 1 70th 1927-1929 1 1 71th 1929-1931 1 1 72nd 1931-1933 1 1 73rd 1933-1935 - - 74th 1935-1937 1 1 75th 1937-1939 1 1 76th 1939-1941 1 1 77th 1941-1943 1 1 78th-84th 1943-1957 - - - 85th 1957-1961 1 1 - 86th 1959-1961 3 2 1 87th 1961-1963 3 2 1 88th 1963-1965 3 1 2 89th 1965-1967 4 2 2 90th 1967-1969 4 2 2 91st 1969-1971 4 2 2 92nd 1971-1973 4 2 2 93rd 1973-1975 5 3 2 94th 1975-1977 6 4 2 95th 1977-1979 6 3 3 96th 1979-1981 7 4 3 Congressional Research Service - 24 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Congress Years Total in Congress House Senate 97th 1981-1983 8 5 3 98th 1983-1985 7 5 2 99th 1985-1987 7 5 2 100th 1987-1989 8 6a 2 101st 1989-1991 9 6b 3 102nd 1991-1993 7 5 2 103rd 1993-1995 9 7 2 104th 1995-1997 9 7c 2 105th 1997-1999 8 6 2 106th 1999-2001 8 6 2 2 107th 2001-2003 9 7d 108th 2003-2005 7 5 2 2 109th 2005-2007 8 6e 110th 2007-2009 9 [8]f 7 [6]f 2 111th 2009-2011 13gf 11 2 112th 2011-2013 13 [11]h 11 [10]h 2[1]h 113th 2013-2015 13 12 1 a. Del. Fofó Iosefa Fiti Sunia resigned on September 6, 1988. b. Although six Asian Pacific Americans were elected to the House in the 101st Congress, only five served at any one time. Representative Patsy Mink (who had previously served in the 89th-94th Congresses) did not become a member of the House again until September 1990, when she was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Daniel K. Akaka. Senator Akaka had been appointed to the Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Spark Matsunaga. c. Rep. Norman Yoshio Mineta resigned on October 10, 1995. d. Rep. Patsy Takemoto Mink died on September 28, 2002. She was posthumously elected to the 108th Congress on November 5, 2002. e. Rep. Doris Okada Matsui won a special election on March 8, 2005, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of her husband, Rep. Robert Matsui, and was sworn in on March 10, 2005. Although Rep. Robert Matsui was elected to the 109th Congress, he died on January 1, 2005. f. The number in brackets reflects the resignation of Rep. Bobby Jindal on January 14, 2008; he was sworn in as governor of Louisiana on the same day. g. Rep. Judy Chu won a special election on July 14, 2009, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Hilda Solis. Rep. Charles K. Djou won a special election on May 22, 2010, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Rep. Neil Abercrombie. h. The numbers in brackets reflect the resignation of Rep. David Wu on August 3, 2011, and the death of Sen. Daniel Inouye on December 17, 2012. Congressional Research Service 25 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Table 4. Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands, 60th-79th Congresses (1907-1946) Congress Dates Resident Commissioners 60th 1907-1909 Benito Y Tuason Legardaa Pablo Ocampoa 61st 1909-1911 Benito Y Tuason Legarda Pablo Ocampob Manuel Luis Quezonc 62nd 1911-1913 Benito Y Tuason Legarda Manuel Luis Quezon 63rd 1913-1915 Manuel Luis Quezon Manuel Earnshaw 64th 1915-1917 Manuel Luis Quezond Manuel Earnshaw 65th 1917-1919 Jaime Carlos de Veyra Teodoro Rafael Yangco 66th 1919-1921 Jaime Carlos de Veyra Teodoro Rafael Yangcoe Isauro Gabaldonf 67th 1921-1923 Jaime Carlos de Veyra Isauro Gabaldon 68th 1923-1925 Isauro Gabaldon Pedro Guevara 69th 1925-1927 Isauro Gabaldon Pedro Guevara 70th 1927-1929 Isauro Gabaldong Pedro Guevara 71st 1929-1931 Pedro Guevara Camilo Osias 72nd 1931-1933 Pedro Guevara Camilo Osias 73rd 1933-1935 Pedro Guevara Camilo Osias 74th 1935-1937 Pedro Guevarah Francisco Aan Delgadoh Quintin Paradesi 75th 1937-1939 Quintin Paradesj Joaquin Miguel Elizaldek 76th 1939-1941 Joaquin Miguel Elizalde 77th 1941-1943 Joaquin Miguel Elizalde 78th 1943-1945 Joaquin Miguel Elizaldel Carlos Pena Romulom 79th 1945-1947 Carlos Pena Romulon Note: The Philippine Islands were part of territory ceded to the United States by Spain under the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898. The Act of July 1902 granted the Philippine Islands the right to elect two Resident Commissioners to the United States. In 1935, the Philippine Islands became the Commonwealth of the Congressional Research Service 26 Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress Philippines and the number of Resident Commissioners was reduced from two to one. In 1946, the Philippines became fully independent, and the office of the Resident Commissioner was terminated. a. Elected November 22, 1907, for a term of two years; granted the privileges of the floor of the House of Representatives, with the right of debate, February 4, 1908. b. Term expired November 22, 1909. c. Elected for a term of two years beginning November 23, 1909. d. Resigned October 15, 1916; vacancy throughout the remainder of 64th Congress. e. Term expired March 3, 1920. f. Elected for a term of three years beginning March 4, 1920. g. Resigned July 16, 1928, having been nominated for election to the Philippine House of Representatives; vacancy throughout the remainder of the 70th Congress. h. When the new government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands was inaugurated, the terms of office of the Resident Commissioners of the Philippine Islands expired. Both Resident Commissioners served until February 14, 1936, when a selected successor qualified (48 Stat. 456). Under this law, the number of Resident Commissioners was reduced from two to one. i. Appointed December 21, 1935, to fill vacancy caused by the expiration of the terms of Pedro Guevara and Francisco A. Delgado, due to the new form of government, and took his seat on February 14, 1936. j. Resigned September 29, 1938. k. Appointed September 29, 1938, to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Quintin Paredes; service began on January 3, 1939, upon convening of 76th Congress. l. Resigned August 9, 1944. m. Appointed to fill vacancy caused by the resignation of Joaquin M. Elizalde, and succeeded him on August 21, 1944. n. Office of Resident Commissioner terminated on July 4, 1946. Author Contact Information Lorraine H. Tong Program Specialist ltong@crs.loc.gov, 7-5846 Acknowledgments Amber H. Wilhelm, Graphics Specialist, created the map for this report. Congressional Research Service 27