House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison

This report compares selected House and Senate rules of procedure governing various stages of the legislative process: referral of legislation to committees; scheduling and calling up measures; and floor consideration. The appendices provide sources of additional information about House and Senate rules of procedure.

97-270 GOV CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison Updated April 7, 1999 Mary E. Mulvihill Consultant in American National Government Updated by Paul Rundquist, Judy Schneider, and Lorraine H. Tong Government and Finance Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress ABSTRACT This report compares selected House and Senate rules of procedure governing various stages of the legislative process: referral of legislation to committees; scheduling and calling up measures; and floor consideration. The appendices provide sources of additional information about House and Senate rules of procedure. This report will be updated to reflect any changes in the rules or practices of the House or Senate. House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison Summary More differences than similarities emerge when comparing selected House and Senate rules of procedure for referring legislation to committees, and for scheduling, raising and considering measures on the floor. While the House uses five calendars (Union, House, Corrections, Private, Discharge), the Senate only employs two calendars (Legislative and Executive). The House’s system of special days for considering certain types of measures (e.g., “District Days”) has no equivalent in the Senate. In making scheduling decisions, the Speaker typically consults only with majority party leaders and selected Representatives whereas the Senate Majority Leader confers broadly with minority party leaders and interested Senators. The Speaker’s dual position as leader of the majority party and the House’s presiding officer gives him more authority to govern floor proceedings than the Senate’s presiding officer. While debate time is always restricted in the House, individual Senators generally have the right to unlimited debate. Most noncontroversial measures are approved by “suspension of the rules” in the House, and by unanimous consent in the Senate. Floor consideration of major bills is generally governed by “special rules” in the House, and by “complex unanimous consent agreements” in the Senate. The House typically meets in the Committee of the Whole to consider major legislation; no such committee exists in the Senate. The House considers and amends legislation in a more structured manner (e.g., by section or title) than the Senate. In addition, while germaneness of amendments is required in the House, it is mandated only in four instances in the Senate. Rollcall votes can be requested at almost any time in the Senate, but only after completing a voice or division vote in the House. Because the Senate often recesses instead of adjourning at the end of the day, Senate legislative days can continue for several calendar days. By contrast, the House routinely adjourns at the end of each legislative day. Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Referral of Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Scheduling and Raising Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Calendars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Calling Up Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Special Rules vs. Complex Unanimous Consent Agreements . . . . . . . 4 Legislation Blocked in Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Floor Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Presiding Officer and Recognition Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Appealing Rulings of the Chair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Debate Time Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Ending Debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Amending Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Quorum Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Voting Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Adjournment and Legislative Days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Appendix A: Bibliography of House Parliamentary Reference Sources . . . . . . . Official Reference Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Publications of Committees and Offices of the House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Congressional Research Service (CRS) Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 14 14 15 Appendix B: House Parliamentary Reference Information Available Through the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . House Rules and Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules of the House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . House Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Committee Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How Our Laws Are Made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floor Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 18 18 19 20 20 20 20 21 Appendix C: Senate Parliamentary Reference Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Official Reference Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Publications of Committees and Offices of the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Congressional Research Service (CRS) Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 22 22 23 Appendix D: Senate Parliamentary Reference Information Available Through the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Senate Rules and Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules of the Senate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Senate Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Committee Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25 25 26 26 26 How Our Laws Are Made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Additional Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 List of Tables Table 1. Scheduling and Raising Measures: Comparison of House and Senate Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 2. Floor Consideration: Comparison of House and Senate Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison Introduction House and Senate rules of procedure are largely a function of the number of members comprising each chamber. In the House, a structured legislative process and strict adherence to the body’s rules and precedents have resulted from the need to manage how 435 Representatives make decisions. By contrast, the Senate’s smaller membership has brought about a less formal policy-making process and a more flexible approach to the chamber’s standing rules. While individual Representatives must typically yield to the majority will of the House, the Senate usually accommodates the interests of individual Senators. This report compares selected House and Senate rules of procedure for various stages of the legislative process: referral of legislation to committees; scheduling and calling up measures; and floor consideration. No attempt is made to present a comprehensive discussion of how both chambers operate. The appendices provide sources of additional information about House and Senate rules of procedure. At the start of the 106th Congress, the House adopted a recodification of its rules. Rule and clause citations in this report reflect this recodification of House rules. Referral of Legislation In both the House and Senate, the presiding officer (see “Presiding Officer and Recognition Practices” section) refers newly-introduced legislation and measures passed by the other chamber to the appropriate standing committee. Upon advice from the Parliamentarian, the presiding officer bases referral decisions on the chamber’s rules and precedents for subject matter jurisdiction. Legislation passed by the other body usually receives floor consideration without reference to a committee if there already is a companion bill on a calendar (see discussion of calendars in next section). The House changed its referral rule (Rule XII, clause 2) at the beginning of the 104th Congress. This change was aimed at reducing the number of measures referred to more than one committee, commonly called “multiple referrals.” The rules change eliminated joint referrals, a type of multiple referral where a measure is simultaneously referred to two or more committees. Under the new rule, the Speaker designates “a committee of primary jurisdiction” (based on the committee jurisdictions itemized in Rule X) when referring measures to more than one committee. In practice, two types of multiple referrals can take place if the Speaker first selects a primary committee: a sequential referral (the measure is referred to one committee, then to another, and so on; the Speaker can establish time limits for each committee’s consideration); and CRS-2 a split referral (specifically designated portions of a measure are referred to one or more committees). House committees often develop “memorandums of understanding” (sometimes referred to as “letters of agreement”) which explain an agreement between committees about how to divide jurisdiction over specific policy issues. These memorandums are sent to the Speaker in the form of letters from the involved committee chairmen, and are sometimes printed in the Congressional Record. The memorandums seek to advise the Speaker on referral decisions where committee jurisdictions are unclear or overlapping. Under the Senate’s referral rule (Rule XVII, paragraph 1), legislation is referred to “the committee which has jurisdiction over subject matter which predominates” in the measure (sometimes referred to as “predominant jurisdiction”).1 Senate Rule XXV lists the subjects for which the standing committees are responsible. Senate Rule XIV requires that measures be read twice on different legislative days (see “Adjournment and Legislative Days” section) before being referred to a committee. Most bills and joint resolutions, however, are considered as having been read twice and are referred to committee upon introduction. Under Rule XIV, when a Senator demands two readings and there is objection to the measure’s second reading, the measure is placed directly on the Calendar of Business (see next section) without reference to committee. Three types of multiple referrals—joint, sequential and split—are allowed in the Senate. In practice, measures are referred to multiple committees by unanimous consent. Under the Senate’s standing rules (Rule XVII, paragraph 3), the Senate Majority and Minority Leaders can make a joint leadership motion to jointly or sequentially refer legislation to multiple committees. However, this rule has never been used since its adoption by the Senate in 1977. In general multiple referrals are more common in the House than in the Senate. Scheduling and Raising Measures Calendars. Measures reported from House committees (except for private measures) are referred to either the Union or House Calendar (Rule XIII, clause 1(a)). In general, the Union Calendar receives all measures which would be considered in the Committee of the Whole, such as tax, authorization, and appropriations measures. All other public bills and public resolutions are referred to the House Calendar (Rule XIII, clause 1(a)(2)). The Speaker, after consulting with the Minority Leader, may refer a measure from the Union or House Calendar to the Corrections Calendar (Rule XIII, clause 1(b); and Rule XV, clause 6). This special calendar was established 1 Treaties and nominations submitted by the President also are referred to committees to be studied and reported. This report does not discuss procedures governing Senate consideration of treaties and nominations. See the discussion of these procedures in U.S. Congress, Senate, Riddick’s Senate Procedure, S.Doc. No. 101-28, 101st Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1992), 1608 p. CRS-3 during the 104th Congress when the House abolished the Consent Calendar.2 A bipartisan Corrections Day Advisory Group advises the Speaker on which measures to place on the Corrections Calendar. According to guidelines developed by the advisory group, Corrections Day bills “should address laws and regulations that are ambiguous, arbitrary, or ludicrous” and “should be noncontroversial and have broad bipartisan support.”3 The House also maintains a Private Calendar (Rule XIII, clause 1(a)(3); and Rule XV, clause 5) for measures of a private character affecting individual persons or entities, and a Calendar of Motions to Discharge Committees (Rule XIII, clause 1(c); and Rule XV, clause 2) from further consideration of particular measures (see “Legislation Blocked in Committee” section for a discussion of the discharge motion). The Senate only has two calendars: the Calendar of Business (commonly called the “Legislative Calendar”), and the Executive Calendar. Nominations and treaties are referred to the Executive Calendar. Legislation reported from committee are referred to the Calendar of Business, or placed on this calendar by unanimous consent. As discussed earlier, Rule XIV provides a procedure for placing measures on the Calendar of Business without reference to committee. A measure commonly becomes eligible for floor consideration in both chambers once it has been placed on a calendar. The calendar number assigned to a measure indicates the chronological order the measure was placed on the calendar, not the order for floor consideration. Calling Up Measures. The scheduling of legislation for House floor action is the fundamental prerogative of the Speaker. Individual Representatives cannot easily circumvent, influence, or reverse leadership decisions about which measures should come to the floor. The most significant and controversial measures are usually made in order for floor consideration by a “special rule” passed by a majority vote of the House (see next section). Less controversial measures are often raised under the “suspension of the rules” procedure (Rule XV, clause 1) every Monday and Tuesday, and during the last six days of a session. On these “suspension days”(and at other times by unanimous consent or by special rule), the Speaker may recognize a Member to move to suspend the rules and pass a measure. A suspension motion must be approved by two-thirds of those present and voting. The House may also agree to take up a measure by unanimous consent, but does so much less frequently than the Senate. House rules set aside specific days of the month when bills from the Corrections Calendar (second and fourth Tuesdays, Rule XV, clause 6(a)), and the Private Calendar (always the first Tuesday, Rule XV, clause 5(a); also, the third Tuesday, Rule XV, clause 5(b)(1), at the Speaker’s discretion) can be brought up for floor consideration. Legislation involving the District of Columbia can be raised on the second and fourth Mondays of each month (Rule XV, clause 4) sometimes referred 2 The Consent Calendar, which contained noncontroversial measures taken from the Union or House Calendar, was usually called the first and third Mondays of each month. Measures on the Consent Calendar could be passed by unanimous consent if no objection was raised. 3 Congressional Record, daily edition., vol. 141, Nov. 28, 1995, p. H13675. CRS-4 to as “District Days.” The Calendar Wednesday procedure (Rule XV, clause 7) reserves Wednesdays for the “call of committees,” during which time committees can raise reported bills that have not been granted a special rule or otherwise made privileged for floor action. In today’s House, Calendar Wednesday is usually dispensed with by unanimous consent. All these procedures require a simple majority for passage, except for correction measures which require a three-fifths vote. Certain “privileged” measures reported by the committees on Appropriations, Budget, House Administration, Rules, and Standards of Official Conduct can be called up at any time under House Rule XIII, clause 5(a). Rules governing privileged reports by the Committee on Rules are detailed under Rule XIII, clause 6. The Senate Majority Leader has the authority to raise measures for Senate floor consideration. Most measures reach the Senate floor either by a simple unanimous consent request, or under a complex unanimous consent agreement (described in next section). The Majority Leader also can offer a debatable motion to proceed to the consideration of a measure. Before scheduling measures for floor action, the Majority Leader consults with the Minority Leader, appropriate committee chairmen, and individual Senators who have notified him of their interest in specific measures. Consultation with individual Senators is necessary because most measures are raised by unanimous consent. A Senator or group of Senators can place a “hold” on the bringing up of measures. “Holds” are an informal custom in the Senate. Early in the 106th Congress, Senate Majority Leader Lott and Minority Leader Tom Daschle modified the hold process. They announced that all Senators, who wished to place a hold on any measure, must notify the sponsor and the committee of jurisdiction of their intentions before providing such notice in writing to the respective party leader. Special Rules vs. Complex Unanimous Consent Agreements. “Special rules” establish the parliamentary conditions governing House floor consideration of most major measures. The House Rules Committee reports a special rule (often referred to as a “rule”) in the form of a simple resolution. The typical special rule provides a specific amount of time for general debate and determines whether or not amendments are in order. A rule may limit debate on specific amendments and waive points of order against specific provisions or amendments. Because special rules are “privileged” for floor consideration under Rule XIII, clause 6, they can be called up, debated, and voted upon at any time. Special rules must be agreed to by a majority vote of the House. According to House precedents, the Rules Committee can report a special rule for a bill that is pending before a committee. The effect of this rarely-used authority is to discharge the bill from the committee. Conversely, Representatives can move to discharge the Rules Committee from considering a special rule after it has been before the committee for seven legislative days (see “Legislation Blocked in Committee” section for a discussion of the discharge motion).4 The Calendar 4 Special rules are usually reported as original measures by the Rules Committee. Therefore, to attempt to discharge a special rule from this committee, a Representative must first (continued...) CRS-5 Wednesday procedure (see previous section) allows committees to call up measures they have reported, but which have not been granted a special rule. In the Senate, complex unanimous consent agreements specify the parliamentary conditions governing floor consideration of major measures.5 These agreements (sometimes referred to as “time agreements”) can limit debate time, structure the amendment process, and waive points of order against specific provisions or amendments. The agreements are negotiated by the Majority Leader, in consultation with the Minority Leader, committee chairmen, and interested Senators. These negotiations are conducted in private meetings or, less frequently, on the Senate floor. A unanimous consent agreement must be accepted by all Senators on the floor when the Majority Leader or his designee formally offers the agreement. The objection of one Senator prevents the agreement from taking effect. An individual Senator can then request the leadership to modify the unanimous consent agreement to accommodate his or her concerns. Complex unanimous consent agreements are printed in the Senate’s daily “Calendar of Business,” and in the Congressional Record. Legislation Blocked in Committee. Both chambers have procedures for calling up measures that have not been reported by a committee. In deference to each committee’s right to consider legislation, Representatives and Senators are generally reluctant to employ these procedures. Members of the House may offer a motion to discharge a committee from considering a measure 30 days after the measure was referred to the committee (7 days for resolutions before the Rules Committee). If 218 Members then sign a discharge petition, the discharge motion is placed on the Discharge Calendar and can be called up on the second or fourth Mondays of each month. If the motion is adopted, a motion to call up the underlying measure for immediate consideration can then be offered. Most discharge motions do not attract the required 218 signatures, and few have been adopted since the discharge rule’s (Rule XV, clause 2) inception. Nevertheless, the act of filing a discharge petition, or threatening to do so, is sometimes used to prompt committee action on measures. The motion to suspend the rules and pass a measure is another procedure for raising unreported measures, but is rarely done over the objection of the relevant committee chairman. As discussed earlier, the two-thirds vote required for approving suspension motions means they are generally employed to call up noncontroversial measures. It is easier to circumvent committees in the Senate than in the House, primarily because Senators generally have the right to offer non-germane amendments 4 (...continued) introduce a special rule in the form of a simple resolution (the resolution cannot provide for the consideration of more than one bill or resolution). The Representative can move to discharge this resolution from the Rules Committee after seven legislative days have passed. 5 Simple unanimous consent agreements, which are offered orally, are used for noncontroversial measures and routine floor business (e.g. to “rescind” a quorum call). CRS-6 (commonly known as “riders”) to measures being considered on the floor.6 For example, a Senator could offer an amendment containing the text of a bill blocked in committee. A Senator also could use Rule XIV (discussed earlier) to bypass a committee that has not reported a particular measure. In this situation, the Senator would reintroduce the bill, demand two readings, and then object to the second reading. Under Rule XIV, the measure would be placed directly on the Calendar of Business. Other Senate procedures for bypassing committees, such as the motion to discharge a committee and the motion to suspend the rules, are employed so infrequently they are not discussed here. Senate committees are sometimes discharged by unanimous consent. Table 1. Scheduling and Raising Measures: Comparison of House and Senate Procedures House a 6 Senate Five calendars (Union, House, Corrections, Private, Discharge) Two calendars (Legislative and Executive) Special days for raising measuresa No special days Scheduling by Speaker and majority party leadership in consultation with only selected Representatives Scheduling by majority party leadership in broad consultation with minority party leaders and interested Senators No practice of “holds” Individual Senators can place “holds” on the raising of measures, within limitations Powerful role of Rules Committee No committee with equivalent role Special rules (approved by majority vote) govern floor consideration of most major legislation Complex unanimous consent agreements (approved by unanimous consent) govern floor consideration of major measures Non-controversial measures usually approved under suspension of the rules procedure Non-controversial measures approved by unanimous consent Difficult to circumvent committee consideration of measures Easier to circumvent committee consideration of measures There are special days for calling up bills under the suspension of the rules and Calendar Wednesday procedures, for raising measures from the Corrections and Private Calendars, and for bringing up legislation involving the District of Columbia. There are four instances when germaneness of amendments is required in the Senate. See the “Amending Measures” section for more information. CRS-7 Floor Consideration Presiding Officer and Recognition Practices. The Speaker of the House is both the leader of the majority party and the chamber’s presiding officer. In this dual position, the Speaker uses his parliamentary and political powers to govern House floor proceedings. He has the discretionary power to recognize, or not recognize, Members to speak. When a Representative seeks recognition, the Speaker will frequently ask: “For what purpose does the Gentleman (Gentlewoman) rise?” The Speaker does so in order to determine what business the Member wants to conduct. If the business does not have precedence (e.g., a special order speech), the Speaker can usually deny recognition. The Speaker does adhere to some established House practices of recognition, such as giving Members of the committee reporting a bill priority recognition for offering floor amendments. A Speaker has the right to vote and to debate from the floor, if he wishes. The extent to which this right is exercised varies from Speaker to Speaker. The Speaker presides over House floor proceedings7, but not over meetings of the Committee of the Whole (formally, the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union). He appoints a majority party Representative to preside as chairman of the Committee of the Whole. The House resolves into the Committee of the Whole, a committee to which all Members belong, to consider measures that will be amended (see “Amending Measures” section). A non-partisan Parliamentarian, an officer of the House, is always present to advise the presiding officer on rulings and precedents. The Vice President of the United States is the Senate’s official presiding officer (formally, “President of the Senate”), as provided in Article I of the Constitution. The Constitution also requires that a “President pro tempore” preside over the Senate in the Vice President’s absence. The President pro tempore, in modern times the most senior Senator of the majority party, is elected by a majority vote of the Senate. In practice, the Vice President and the President pro tempore seldom preside over Senate proceedings. The Vice President typically presides when he might be required to break a tie vote on an important administration priority. Most of the time, the President pro tempore exercises his right under the Senate’s standing rules (Rule 1) to appoint a Senator as “Acting President pro tempore.” This senator, in turn, can appoint another Senator to serve as Acting President pro tempore. As a result, the duties of presiding officer are routinely filled by a rotation of junior and first-term Senators of the majority party who preside for approximately one hour at a time. Since the Senate’s official presiding officer is not a member of the body, the presiding officer position does not have the same powers to control floor proceedings as those held by the Speaker of the House. The Senate’s presiding officer may speak only if granted permission to do so by the unanimous consent of the membership, and he may vote (as noted above) only to break a tie.8 He also must recognize the first Senator standing and seeking recognition. When several Senators seek recognition 7 In his absence, the Speaker appoints a majority party Representative to preside over meetings of the House as “Speaker pro tempore.” 8 The Vice President may vote to break a tie; a Senator serving as presiding officer retains his right to vote in all cases. CRS-8 at the same time, the Senate’s precedents give preferential recognition to the Majority and Minority Leaders, and the majority and minority floor managers, in that order. The Senate’s presiding officer never interrogates Senators about their purpose for seeking recognition. A non-partisan Senate Parliamentarian is always present to advise on rulings and precedents. Appealing Rulings of the Chair. By House tradition, the presiding officer’s rulings on points of order raised by Members are seldom appealed. As a result, the House has a relatively large and consistent body of precedents based on rulings of the chair. If the chair’s ruling is appealed, the full House decides by majority vote whether to sustain or overrule this ruling. Because this vote is viewed as a serious test of the chair’s authority, it is typically settled along party lines, with the majority sustaining the chair. In contrast to the Senate, there are only a few situations when the House’s presiding officer does not rule on points of order.9 In the Senate, the presiding officer’s rulings on points of order raised by Senators are frequently appealed. The full Senate votes on whether to sustain or overrule the ruling. Under Rule XX, the presiding officer has the option of submitting any question of order to the full Senate for a majority vote decision. He is required to submit questions of order that raise constitutional issues, and those concerning the germaneness or relevancy of amendments to appropriations bills, to the full Senate. Senate votes on appealed rulings of the chair, and on points of order submitted to the full body, often turn on the political concerns of the moment rather than on established Senate practices and procedures. As a result, the Senate has a smaller and less consistent body of precedents than does the House. Yet, because the Senate usually operates informally, it is a more precedent- than rule-regulated institution. Debate Time Restrictions. House debate nearly always takes place under some form of time restriction. There is the “one-hour” rule for debate in the House (Rule XVII, clause 2), and the “five-minute” rule during the amendment process in the Committee of the Whole (Rule XVIII, clause 5(a)). Debate is limited to forty minutes for bills considered under the suspension of the rules procedure. Special rules can impose time restrictions on debate, and rule-making provisions in statutes often limit debate on certain types of measures such as budget resolutions. Time restrictions make it difficult for individual Representatives to get debate time on the floor. When Members are accorded debate time, they rarely receive more than two to five minutes. Representatives can be recognized to speak for up to five minutes during the "morning hour" debates before legislative business commences on Mondays and Tuesdays, for “one-minute” speeches (at the Speaker’s discretion and usually at the beginning of the legislative session), and for “special order” speeches of a specified length (ordinarily at the end of the day). In the Senate, individual Senators have the right to unlimited debate. Senators also can seek unanimous consent to speak out of turn on another subject, or to interrupt proceedings with an unrelated matter. Unanimous consent is usually 9 For example, the chair does not rule on points of order established under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (P.L. 104-4). CRS-9 granted. Senators may use their right to extended debate and employ other parliamentary maneuvers to delay floor action, a tactic known as a “filibuster.” The threat of a filibuster, particularly at the end of a session or near a scheduled recess, can be used to try to extract concessions from the Senate leadership. To be sure, it would be impossible for the Senate to act on legislation in a timely fashion if Senators always exercised their right to extended debate. For this reason, the Senate often agrees to debate restrictions as set forth in complex unanimous consent agreements. Floor debate on certain types of measures, such as budget resolutions, is often limited by rule-making provisions in statutes, as is the case in the House. Ending Debate. Representatives can offer a motion for the previous question to end debate in the House (Rule XIX, clause 1(a)). Adoption of this motion by a majority vote ends debate on the pending question, prevents the offering of any further motions and amendments, and brings about an immediate vote on approving the pending question. This motion cannot be offered when the House meets in the Committee of the Whole. In the Committee of the Whole, Representatives may offer a motion to close or limit debate on the pending question (Rule XVIII, clause 8). The motion may propose to end debate immediately or when a specified time expires. Adoption of this motion by a majority vote only closes or limits debate on the pending question; it does not preclude Members from offering additional motions or amendments (although they may be precluded from debating them) and does not produce an immediate vote on the pending question. Members also may ask unanimous consent to end debate on pending amendments in Committee of the Whole. When a special rule establishes time limitations on general debate or on the debate of specific amendments, debate ends when these time limitations expire. Senate debate usually ends when a Senator yields the floor and no other Senator seeks recognition, or when a previously-established time limitation (e.g., in a complex unanimous consent agreement or a rule-making statute) expires. The Senate’s adoption of a motion to table by majority vote will end debate on a pending measure, motion, or amendment. The practical effect of adopting this motion, however, is to reject the pending question. The Senate can only resume consideration of the tabled matter by unanimous consent. Usage of the motion to table is generally reserved for cases when the Senate is prepared to reject the pending question. A cloture motion signed by 16 Senators can be filed to end extended debate on a measure, motion, or amendment. This motion is filed when informal negotiations cannot end a filibuster (discussed in previous section). Once the cloture motion is adopted by three-fifths of the Senate, debate can only continue for a maximum of 30 more hours (called the “post-cloture” period). At the end of the post-cloture period, debate time expires or has been yielded back, and the Senate votes on the underlying matter. Amending Measures. The House typically meets in the Committee of the Whole to consider legislation that will be amended. The House resolves itself into the Committee of the Whole by a motion of the majority floor manager, or pursuant to CRS-10 the provisions of a special rule. The rules of the Committee of the Whole expedite floor consideration of measures. Consideration begins with a designated period of time for general debate, followed by the offering of amendments. Legislation is amended in an orderly fashion (i.e., by section or paragraph, or under the terms specified in a special rule). Members can only offer amendments to the part of the bill that has been read, or designated, for amendments. Any deviation from this orderly sequence requires unanimous consent or a provision in a Senate rule. Amendments must always be germane, unless a special rule permits the offering of specified, nongermane amendments. The principles governing the order of voting on amendments in the Committee of the Whole are graphically displayed in one “basic amendment tree.”10 When the Committee of the Whole approves amendments, it does not actually amend the bill’s text. The Committee of the Whole, similar to a House standing committee, reports the measure back to the House with the amendment[s] it adopted. Such amendment[s] must then be approved by the full House. The Senate (the chamber does not have a Committee of the Whole) considers and amends legislation in a less structured manner than the House. As a result, the sequence and duration of floor consideration is less predictable in the Senate. When recognized, Senators can decide whether they wish to debate the bill in general or offer an amendment. Amendments to the bill may be proposed in any order. At times, the Senate agrees to a complex unanimous consent agreement that allows only specific amendments to be offered and limits the time for debate on each amendment. However, even under unanimous consent arrangements, it is rare for the Senate to impose a specific sequence for debate and amendment. Four amendment trees depict the principles of precedence for offering and voting upon amendments in the Senate.11 Germaneness of amendments is not required in the Senate, except in four specific instances: 1) if a unanimous consent agreement so requires; 2) in the post-cloture period (see previous section); 3) if a rule-making provision in a statute so requires (e.g., provisions of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act of 1974 governing consideration of budget resolutions and reconciliation bills); and 4) if the underlying measure is a general appropriations bill. Quorum Calls. The Constitution requires that a quorum—a simple majority of the membership—be present for the House (218) and the Senate (51) to conduct business. When the House meets in the Committee of the Whole, a quorum of 100 Members is required. Both chambers typically assume that a quorum is present unless it can be demonstrated otherwise. The rules of the House restrict when Members can make a point of order that a quorum is not present in the House or in the Committee of the Whole. This point of 10 See House Practice: A Guide to Rules, Precedents and Procedures of the House, 104th Cong., 2nd sess. (Washington: GPO, 1996) pp. 25-27. 11 See Riddick’s Senate Procedure, pp. 72-95. CRS-11 order is generally permitted only in connection with record votes. In recent years, House quorum calls have typically lasted 15-17 minutes. Senate quorum calls are in order at almost any time. Quorum calls made for the purpose of obtaining the presence of a majority of Senators are called “live quorums.” More commonly, however, a Senator will “suggest the absence of a quorum” for purposes of constructive delay. This type of quorum suspends action on the Senate floor without requiring the Senate to recess or adjourn. This pause in floor action provides time for informal negotiations to take place, and for absent Senators to reach the floor. The Clerk slowly calls the roll until a Senator asks unanimous consent to “rescind,” or dispense with, the quorum call. There is no time limit on this type of quorum call. Voting Procedures. The House and Senate each have three main types of votes: voice, division, and record. Record votes include all those in which the names of Members voting on each side are individually recorded, and the cumulative totals of yeas and nays are compiled. The Senate refers to record votes as “yea and nay votes” or “rollcall votes;” in the House, record votes include both “yea and nay votes” and recorded votes.” In each house, most questions are first put to a voice vote. For voice votes, the chair first asks those in favor to respond “Aye,” and then those in opposition to respond “No” (House Rule I, clause 6)12. The chair then announces which side has prevailed. Before he or she does so, a Member may ask for a division or record vote. For division votes (also called “standing votes”), those in favor stand up and are counted by the chair, followed by those in opposition. The chair then announces the result (House Rule XX, clause 1(a)). Division votes in the Senate are rare, they are sometimes taken by Senators raising their hands instead of rising, and the chair does not announce the number voting on each side. The two chambers differ in their conduct of record votes. After a voice or division vote has taken place in the House, but before the final result had been announced, Representatives can demand either a “yea and nay vote” or a “recorded vote,” except that a yea and nay vote may not be demanded in Committee of the Whole. The demand for a yea and nay vote must be supported by one-fifth of those present, or the vote may be ordered automatically if a Member objects to a pending vote on the ground that a quorum is not present. The demand for a recorded vote must be supported by one-fifth of a quorum in the House (a minimum of 44 Members), or by 25 Members in Committee of the Whole (House Rule XX, clauses 1(b), 6(a); Constitution, Article I, section 5). Record votes in the House normally take place by electronic device. Members vote with electronic voting cards and their votes are displayed on an electronic board in the chamber. While a vote is taking place, Members preparing to vote often look at the electronic board to see how other Members voted. The majority and minority party floor whips also use their board to carry out their vote-counting responsibilities. 12 No Senate rule explicitly governs voice or division votes. Also counted as a voice vote is Senate action on which the chair declares a measure agreed to "without objection." CRS-12 House rules (Rule XX, clauses 2(a), 9) require a minimum 15-minute voting period for record votes, except that in specified situations (e.g., when a record vote immediately follows a quorum call in the Committee of the Whole) the presiding officer may reduce the time to not less than five minutes. The voting period may also be extended at the discretion of the chair. The chair also has the authority to postpone and cluster certain votes, such as those ordered on motions to suspend the rules (Rule XX, clause 10). The Senate does not use an electronic voting system to conduct rollcall votes. Under Rule XII, the Clerk calls the names of all Senators in alphabetical order (formally, “calls the roll”). Senators come to “the well” of the Senate to vote, and the Clerk announces how each Senator voted.13 Senators can track how colleagues have voted by checking the tallies kept by majority and minority floor staff. A Senator’s demand for a rollcall vote must be supported by a minimum of 11 senators, which is one-fifth of the minimal quorum for doing business (51). In general, this requirement is casually enforced. A 15-minute period for rollcall votes is usually established in a unanimous consent agreement adopted on the opening day of a new session of Congress. The party floor leaders can extend this voting time period at their discretion. Senators can, and usually do, ask for a rollcall vote at any time a question is pending before the Senate. They do not have to wait for a voice or division vote to first take place. For example, a Senator offering an amendment can ask for a rollcall vote even before debate on the amendment begins. When this happens, the yeas and nays are ordered after the Clerk confirms that a sufficient second supports the request. The ordering of the yeas and nays does not bring about an immediate vote. In fact, most rollcall votes in the Senate do not take place immediately upon being ordered. Adjournment and Legislative Days. The House routinely adjourns at the end of a day’s proceedings. As a result, the House’s calendar days and legislative days are almost always the same. The exceptions are when the House is in session past midnight and in a rare procedural situations. The motion to adjourn in the Senate ends the day’s proceedings and creates a new legislative day when the chamber next convenes. A motion to recess, however, keeps the Senate in the same legislative day. This means that a legislative day in the Senate can continue for many calendar days. At times, there are procedural advantages for the Majority Leader to keep the Senate operating in the same legislative day. In doing so, he avoids having to conduct some routine business required on new legislative days. Senators might otherwise use this routine business for purposes of delay. At other times, there may be procedural advantages for the Majority Leader to create a new legislative day by adjourning. At the beginning of a new legislative day the motion to proceed to consider a measure is non-debatable. This motion is fully debatable at any other time, thus creating an opportunity for a filibuster. 13 Under a standing order (rarely enforced), any Senator may demand that Senators vote from their desks. CRS-13 Table 2. Floor Consideration: Comparison of House and Senate Procedures House a b Senate Presiding officer has considerable discretion in recognizing Members Presiding officer has little discretion in recognizing Senators Rulings of presiding officer seldom challenged Rulings of presiding officer frequently challenged Debate time always restricted Unlimited debatea; individual Senators can filibuster Debate ends by majority vote in the House and in the Committee of the Whole Super-majority vote required to invoke cloture; up to 30 hours of post-cloture debate allowedb Most major measures considered in Committee of the Whole No Committee of the Whole Number and type of amendments often limited by special rule; bills amended by section or title Unlimited amendments; bills generally open to amendment at any point Germaneness of amendments required (unless requirement is waived by special rule) Germaneness of amendments not required (except in four instances) Quorum calls usually permitted only in connection with record votes Quorum calls in order almost any time; often used for purposes of constructive delay Record votes by electronic device; can be requested only after voice or division vote is completed No electronic voting system; rollcall votes can be requested almost any time House routinely adjourns at end of each legislative day Senate often recesses instead of adjourning; legislative days can continue for several calendar days Except when complex unanimous consent agreements or rule-making provisions in statutes impose time restrictions. Adoption of the motion to table by majority vote also ends Senate debate. Usage of this motion, however, is generally reserved for cases when the Senate is prepared to reject the pending question. See “Ending Debate” section. CRS-14 Appendix A: Bibliography of House Parliamentary Reference Sources Official Reference Sources Cannon's Procedure in the House of Representatives. H.Doc. 610, 87th Congress, 2nd session. Washington: GPO, 1963. 542 p. Deschler's Precedents of the U.S. House of Representatives (in 14 volumes to date; volumes 10-14 are formally titled Deschler-Brown Precedents of the U.S. House of Representatives). H.Doc. 94-661, 94th Congress, 2nd session. Washington: GPO, 1977- . Hinds' and Cannon's Precedents of the House of Representatives (in 11 volumes). Washington: GPO, 1907-1908 and 1935-1941. House Practice: A Guide to the Rules, Precedents and Procedures of the House. 104th Congress, 2nd session. Washington: GPO, 1996. 936 p. House Rules and Manual (formally titled Constitution, Jefferson's Manual and the Rules of the House), published each Congress as a House document (the most recent edition is H.Doc. 104-272, 104th Congress, 2nd session. Washington: GPO, 1997. 1336 p. Rules Adopted By the Committees of the House of Representatives, an unnumbered print usually issued in each Congress, most recently in the 105th Congress, by the House Committee on Rules. Rules of the House of Representatives, an unnumbered print usually issued each session of Congress by the Clerk of the House. Publications of Committees and Offices of the House Floor Procedures in the U.S. House of Representatives, issued by the House Committee on Rules, January 1999. An electronic version is available through the WWW site of the House Committee on Rules. See Appendix B. How Our Laws Are Made (21st edition), prepared by the Office of the House Parliamentarian. S.Doc. 105-14, 105th Congress, 1st session. Washington: GPO, 1998. An electronic version (November 12, 1997) can be accessed through the Internet; see Appendix B). Legislative Manual (1st Edition) of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives. Committee print, 104th Congress, 2nd session. Washington: GPO, 1996. 101 p. CRS-15 Legislative Manual (6th Edition) of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives. Committee print, 104th Congress, 1st session. Washington: GPO, 1995. 133 p. Congressional Research Service (CRS) Products Most titles, with the exception of the video program and the general distribution memorandum, are available full-text from the CRS World Wide Web home page—[http://www.loc.gov/crs]. From the CRS home page, click on the button next to the heading reading "Search CRS and LOC files," then click on "CRS Products" from the pop-up menu. This takes you to the CRS Products page. Now, insert the product number (example: 98-99) in the appropriate field and execute the search. CRS Report 98-995 GOV. The Amending Process in the House of Representatives, by Stanley Bach. Updated Feb. 9, 1999. 51 p. CRS Report 96-678 GOV. Committee of the Whole: An Introduction, by Judy Schneider. Updated Aug. 16, 1996. 6 p. CRS Report 95-187 GOV. Committee System: Rules Changes in the House, 104th Congress, by Judy Schneider. Jan. 24, 1995. 3 p. CRS Report 97-138 GOV. Committee System: Rules Changes in the House, 105th Congress, by Judy Schneider. Jan. 23, 1997. 2 p. CRS Report RS20017. Committee System: Rules Changes in the House, 106th Congress, by Judy Schneider. Jan. 22, 1999. 2 p. CRS Report 96-708 GOV. Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction, by Stanley Bach. Updated Feb. 11, 1999. 10 p. CRS Report 98-572 GOV. Decorum in House Debate, by Mary E. Mulvihill. Updated June 19, 1998. 34 p. CRS Report 97-552 GOV. The Discharge Rule in the House: Principal Features and Uses, by Richard S. Beth. Updated Feb. 18, 1999. 6 p. CRS Report 97-856 GOV. Discharge Rule in the House: Recent Use in Historical Context, by Richard S. Beth. Sept. 15, 1997. 18 p. CRS Report 98-888 GOV. "Fast-track" or Expedited Procedures: Their Purposes, Elements, and Implications, by Stanley Bach. Oct. 13, 1998. 12 p. CRS Report 98-914 GOV. The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor, by Mildred Lehmann Amer. Dec. 24, 1998. 9 p. CRS Report 97-236 GOV. Floor Procedure in the House of Representatives: A Brief Overview, by Stanley Bach. Feb. 13, 1997. 3 p. CRS-16 CRS Report 96-623 GOV. Hearings in the House of Representatives: A Guide for Preparation and Conduct, by Carol Hardy Vincent and Richard C. Sachs. Updated Aug. 26, 1997. 29 p. CRS Report 98-169 GOV. House Committee Reports: Required Contents, by Judy Schneider. Updated Jan. 19, 1999. 2 p. CRS Report 97-301 GOV. The House's Corrections Calendar, by Walter J. Oleszek. Updated Feb. 28, 1997. 5 p. CRS Report 97-357 GOV House Rules Affecting Committees, by Stanley Bach and Carol Hardy Vincent. Updated Feb. 22, 1999. 23 p. CRS Report 97-1045 GOV. House Rules and Precedents Affecting Committee Markup Procedures, by Stanley Bach. Updated Feb. 5, 1999. 4 p. CRS Report RS20067. How Measures are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction, by James V. Saturno. Updated Feb. 17, 1999. 6 p. CRS Report 96-784 GOV. Leadership in the U.S. House of Representatives, by Richard C. Sachs. Updated July 23, 1997. 6 p. CRS Report 97-85 A. Legislative Discipline of Members of the House of Representatives, by Jack H. Maskell. Jan. 9, 1997. 6 p. CRS Report 98-996 GOV: Legislative Procedures and the Legislative Agenda in the House of Representatives, by Stanley Bach. Updated Feb. 5, 1999. 34 p. CRS Report VT96-1333. Legislative Procedures of the U.S. Congress; Video program, by Walter J. Oleszek. Dec. 1996. Program time: 60 minutes. CRS Report 95-563 GOV. The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction, by Stanley Bach. Updated Feb. 3, 1999. 15 p. CRS Report 97-900. Morning Hour Debates: Current House Practices, by Mary E. Mulvihill. Updated Sept. 30, 1997. 5 p. CRS Report 97-647 GOV. The Motion to Recommit in the House: The Minority’s Motion, by Mary E. Mulvihill. Updated June 23, 1997. 26 p. CRS Report 97-898 GOV. One-Minute Speeches: Current House Practices, by Mary E. Mulvihill. Updated Sept. 26, 1997. 8 p. CRS Report 98-460 L. Parliamentary Procedure for Advanced Legislative Institutes: A Checklist of CRS Products, by George Walser. Updated Feb. 23, 1999. 5 p. CRS Report 97-530. Parliamentary Reference Sources: House of Representatives, by Mary E. Mulvihill, Richard S. Beth, Judy Schneider. Updated Feb. 23, 1999. 47 p. CRS-17 CRS Report. 97-704 GOV. Quorums in House Floor Proceedings: An Introduction, by Stanley Bach. Updated Aug. 7, 1997. 5 p. CRS Report 98-696 GOV. Resolving Legislative Differences in Congress: Conference Committees and Amendments Between the Houses, by Stanley Bach. Updated Feb. 8, 1999. 39 p. CRS Report 97-780 GOV. Speaker of the House, by James V. Saturno. Updated Aug. 12, 1997. 15 p. CRS Report 97-652 GOV. Special Order Speeches: Current House Practices, by Mary E. Mulvihill. Updated June 25, 1997. 8. p. CRS Report 96-938 GOV. Special Rules in the House of Representatives, by Stanley Bach. Updated Dec. 22, 1998. 133 p. CRS Report 96-339 GOV. Super-Majority Voting: Selected Implications, by Richard S. Beth. April 12, 1996. 6 p. CRS Report 98-796 GOV. Suspension of the Rules in the House of Representatives, by Stanley Bach. Updated Feb. 8, 1999. 41 p. CRS Report 98-988 GOV. Voting and Quorum Procedures in the House of Representatives, by Stanley Bach. Updated Dec. 7, 1998. 17 p. CRS-18 Appendix B: House Parliamentary Reference Information Available Through the Internet This appendix identifies Internet locations, or websites, at which the text of various House parliamentary reference sources is available. It also includes sites that contain "links" that provide immediate access to the sites containing the reference sources. The Internet locations identified are largely ones maintained within the legislative branch itself. To find the document cited at a specified Internet location, use the address (formally called a "Uniform Resource Locator" or "URL") provided in italics. The list is current as of this report's publication date. Because information on the Internet is constantly changing, this list should not be considered exhaustive. House Rules and Manual At the time of publication, all sites listed offered the 105th Congress edition of the House Manual (H.Doc. 104-272), the last version published before the recodification of House rules at the beginning of the 106th Congress. Government Printing Office ("GPO Access") [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/cong014.html] Searchable version of the Manual. [http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/desc021.html] Provides hints for searching and search examples. House Committee on Rules [http://www.house.gov/rules_org/R&O_rules.htm] Internet location of the Subcommittee on Rules and Organization of the House provides a link to the GPO Access location. Library of Congress [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/rules.html] Provides a link to GPO Access location. U.S. Constitution For the text of the Constitution with the Parliamentarian's annotations, use the Internet locations offering the text of the House Rules and Manual. GPO Access [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/constitution/index.html] Searchable version of the 1992 edition of The Constitution Annotated (formally known as Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, S.Doc. 103-6), and to its 1996 supplement (S.Doc. 104-14). These editions of the CRS-19 Constitution are annotated by the Congressional Research Service with references to court decisions. Library of Congress THOMAS (public access system) Constitution: [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/const/const.html] Amendments 1-10 (Bill of Rights): [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/const/bor.html] Amendments 11-27: [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/const/amend.html] Rules of the House For the text of House rules including the Parliamentarian's annotations, use the Internet locations offering the text of the House Rules and Manual. Clerk of the House [http://clerkweb.house.gov/106/docs/rules/Contents.htm] Clerk's print of House Rules for the 106th Congress. [http://clerkweb.house.gov/105/docs/rules/105%20(12-97)/5content.htm] Clerk's print of House rules for the 105th Congress, dated October 1, 1997. House Committee on Rules [http://www.house.gov/rules_org/R&O_rules.htm] Part of the Internet location of the Subcommittee on Rules and Organization of the House. Offers links from specific provisions to other provisions referenced in House rules. [http://www.house.gov/rules/rules_106.htm] Provides a link to the text of H.Res. 5, 106th Congress in the Library of Congress THOMAS system which contains the text of the recodified House rules for the 106th Congress, as adopted by the House, on January 6, 1999. [http://www.house.gov/rules/106_rules_pack.htm] Provides a link to explanatory material on the recodified rules, including a summary, list of major citation changes, and side by side comparison. CRS Guide to Legislative and Budget Process (Congress Only) [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/ChamberRules/House/ hrulesTofCNF.html] Text of rules includes links from specific provisions to other provisions referenced in House rules and to a glossary of parliamentary terms. Library of Congress [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/hrules/hrulestoc.html] Text of rules includes links from specific provisions of House rules to related ones. [106th rules not yet available here] [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/rules.html] Provide links to House rules at the Internet locations of the Clerk of the House (Clerk's print), the House Committee on Rules, and the Library of Congress, noted above. CRS-20 House Practice Government Printing Office ("GPO Access") [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/browse-hp.html] House Committee on Rules [http://www.house.gov/rules_org/R&O_rules.htm] Provides a link, identified as "A Guide to the Rules, Precedents, and Procedures of the House," to the text of House Practice at the GPO Access Internet location. Committee Rules Government Printing Office ("GPO Access") [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/house/index.html# house_publications] Provides links to rules of most House committees. U.S. House of Representatives [http://www.house.gov/CommitteeWWW.html] Provides links to Internet locations of all House committees. Most committee locations include a link to "committee rules;" some provide committee rules under other listings. How Our Laws Are Made Library of Congress THOMAS (public access system) [http://thomas.loc.gov/home/lawsmade.toc.html] Version dated November 12, 1997. Clerk of the House [http://clerkweb.house.gov/mbrcmtee/mbrcmtee.htm] Provides a link to the previous location. CRS Guide to Legislative and Budget Process (Congress Only) [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/ProcessOverview/ House/HouseProcForewordNF.html] The House section of this Internet location offers a link to the version dated November 12, 1997. Floor Procedure House Committee on Rules [http://www.house.gov/rules/floor_man.htm] Provides the text of the January 1999 version under the title Floor Procedure in the U.S. House of Representatives. CRS-21 Additional Sources CRS Guide to Legislative and Budget Process (Congress Only) [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/HomeNF.html] The House section of this website provides links explanatory materials on House procedure with links to specific House rules and constitutional provisions, related CRS products, and a glossary of legislative terms. Legislative Information System of the U.S. Congress (LIS) (Congress Only) [http://www.congress.gov] The Legislative Information System, released at the start of the 105th Congress, has been redesigned for the 106th Congress. Databases and links have been organized into nine primary areas: floor activities and schedules; legislation/Congressional Record; committees; news and publications; House and Senate links; support agencies; other governmental links; user assistance and guides; previous Congresses. Development of the LIS will be a multi-year project. House Committee on Rules [http://www.house.gov/rules/] In addition to the House Rules Manual, and the text of House rules, this location includes links to explanatory material about House procedure developed by the Committee itself and by several other sources. CRS-22 Appendix C: Senate Parliamentary Reference Sources Official Reference Sources Authority and Rules of Senate Committees, 1997-98: A Compilation of the Authority of Senate Committees and Joint Committees, and Related Materials., a document prepared by the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration and usually issued each Congress (the latest edition is S.Doc. 105-4. Washington: GPO, 1997. 273 p.) Senate Manual Containing the Standing Rules, Orders, Laws, and Resolutions Affecting the Business of the United States Senate, a document prepared by the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration (the latest edition is S.Doc. 1041. Washington: GPO, 1995. 1176 p.) Standing Rules of the Senate, a document issued by the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration (the most recent edition is S.Doc. 104-8. Washington: GPO, 1995. 86 p.). Riddick's Senate Procedure: Precedents and Practices. S.Doc. 101-28, 101st Congress, 2nd session. Washington: GPO, 1992. 1608 p. Publications of Committees and Offices of the Senate Budget Process Law Annotated. Senate print 103-4, 103rd Congress, 1st session. Washington: GPO, 1993. 857 p. Legislative Activity [i.e., Chapter Three] in U.S. Senate Handbook. Senate print 10464, 104th Congress, 2nd session. Washington: GPO, 1996. p. III-1 - III-52. Enactment of a Law. S.Doc. 97-20, 97th Congress, 2nd session. Washington: GPO, 1982. 41 p. An electronic version (February 1997) is available through THOMAS, a World Wide Web service of the Library of Congress; see THOMAS under "Library Of Congress WWW Services" in Appendix D of this report. How Our Laws Are Made. S.Doc. 105-14, 105th Congress, 1st session. Washington: GPO, 1995. 47 p. Prepared by the Office of the House Parliamentarian. An electronic version (November 12, 1997) can be accessed through THOMAS, a World Wide Web service of the Library of Congress; see THOMAS under "Library Of Congress WWW Services" in Appendix D of this report. Senate Cloture Rule. Senate print 99-95, 99th Congress, 1st session. Washington: GPO, 1985. 135 p. Procedure and Guidelines for Impeachment Trials in the United States Senate. S.Doc. 99-33, 99th Congress, 2nd session. Washington: GPO, 1986. 101 p. CRS-23 Treaties and Other International Agreements: The Role of the United States Senate. Prepared for the Committee on Foreign Relations by the Congressional Research Service. Senate print 103-53, 103rd Congress, 1st session. Washington: GPO, 1993. 384 p. Congressional Research Service (CRS) Products CRS Report 98-853 GOV. The Amending Process in the Senate, by Stanley Bach. Updated Oct. 9, 1998. 33 p. CRS Report 96-416 GOV. Committee Assignment Process in the U.S. Senate, by Carol Hardy Vincent. May 8, 1996. 13 p. CRS Report 96-708 GOV. Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction, by Stanley Bach. Updated Feb. 11, 1999. 10 p. CRS Report 98-997 GOV. The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the Senate Floor, by Mildred Lehmann Amer. Updated Dec. 28, 1998. 4 p. CRS Report 96-822 GOV. Hearings in the U.S. Senate: A Guide for Preparation and Conduct, by Richard C. Sachs and Carol Hardy Vincent. Oct. 1996. 24 p. CRS Report 97-175 GOV. How Measures Are Brought to the Senate Floor: A Brief Introduction, by James V. Saturno. Feb. 4, 1997. 5 p. CRS Report 96-548 GOV. The Legislative Process on the Senate Floor: An Introduction, by Stanley Bach. Updated June 4, 1996. 16 p. CRS Report 97-791 GOV. Minority Rights and Senate Procedures, by Stanley Bach. Updated Aug. 7, 1997. 5 p. CRS Report 97-198 GOV. Parliamentary Reference Sources: Senate, by Mary E. Mulvihill. Updated Jan. 19, 1999. 38 p. CRS Report 95-181 GOV. The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office, by Richard C. Sachs. Updated March 5, 1995. 26 p. CRS Report 98-696 GOV. Resolving Legislative Differences in Congress: Conference Committees and Amendments Between the Houses, by Stanley Bach. Updated Feb. 8, 1999. 39 p. CRS Report 97-368 GOV. Senate Floor Procedure: A Summary, by Stanley Bach. March 14, 1997. 45 p. CRS Report 98-311 GOV. Senate Rules Affecting Committee Activities, by Stanley Bach. Updated March 30, 1998. 10 p. CRS-24 CRS Report 98-912 GOV. Senate Rules and Practices on Committee, Subcommittee, and Chairmanship Assignment Limitations as of October 30, 1998, by Judy Schneider. Updated Nov. 2, 1998. 11 p. CRS Report 97-688 GOV. The Senate's Byrd Rule Against Extraneous Matter in Reconciliation Measures, by Robert Keith. Updated Sept. 9, 1998. 30 p. CRS Report 96-452 GOV. Voting and Quorum Procedures in the Senate, by Stanley Bach. May 14, 1996. 10 p. CRS-25 Appendix D: Senate Parliamentary Reference Information Available Through the Internet Provided below is information on Senate parliamentary reference sources available through the World Wide Web (WWW) services of the Senate, the Library of Congress, and the Government Printing Office. To find each reference source, use the address (formally called a "Uniform Resource Locator" or "URL") provided in italics. The list below is current as of this report's publication date. Because the information available on the Internet is constantly changing, this list should not be considered an exhaustive one. Senate Rules and Manual Government Printing Office ("GPO Access") [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/cong007.html] Senate Manual (Senate Document 104-1): This URL allows users to search the full text of the Senate Manual. Enter search terms in the box, and then click on "Submit." [http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/desc024.html] Provides hints for searching and search examples. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration [http://www.senate.gov/~rules/] Internet location of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration. Library of Congress [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/rules.html] Provides a link to GPO Access location. U.S. Constitution GPO Access [http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/senate/constitution/index.html] Searchable version of the 1992 edition of The Constitution Annotated (formally known as Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, S.Doc. 103-6), and to its 1996 supplement (S.Doc. 104-14). These editions of the Constitution are annotated by the Congressional Research Service with references to court decisions. Library of Congress THOMAS (public access system) Constitution: [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/const/const.html] Amendments 1-10 (Bill of Rights): [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/const/bor.html] Amendments 11-27: [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/const/amend.html] CRS-26 Rules of the Senate Senate Committee on Rules and Administration [http://www.senate.gov/~rules/srules.htm] This site is an index of the Standing Rules of the Senate. CRS Guide to Legislative and Budget Process (Congress Only) [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/ChamberRules/Senate/ srulesTofCNF.html] This version of the Senate rules, restricted to Members of Congress and their staffs, contains hypertext links to each instance of a specific rule referred to in the text, enabling the user to consult the referenced rule immediately. Library of Congress [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/srules/srulestoc.html] Senate Practice Library of Congress THOMAS (public access system) [http://thomas.loc.gov/home/enactment/enactlawtoc.html] Enactment of a Law (online version, February 1997) [http://lcweb.loc.gov/global/legislative/executive.html] This site describes the forms of executive business considered by the Senate (treaties, nominations, executive communications sent to the Senate, and other related official documentation) and provides links to Senate and House web sites, and to other selected federal, educational, and multinational web sites. CRS Guide to Legislative and Budget Process (Congress Only) [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/ProcessOverview/Senate/ SenateProcIntroNF.html] This WWW site, restricted to Members of Congress and their staffs, presents the text of Senate Parliamentarian Robert B. Dove's Enactment of a Law (online version, February 1997) with the addition of hypertext links to specific Senate rules and constitutional provisions, related CRS products, and a glossary of legislative terms. Committee Rules Senate Committee on Rules and Administration [http://www.senate.gov/~rules/srtext.htm#25] This is the URL for the text of Senate Standing Rule XXV, which lists the standing committees and their jurisdictions. How Our Laws Are Made Library of Congress THOMAS (public access system) [http://thomas.loc.gov/home/lawsmade.toc.html] How Our Laws Are Made (online version, November 12, 1997) CRS-27 [http://lcweb.loc.gov/crs/legproc/newformat/ProcessOverview/House/ HouseProcForewordNF.html] A corresponding section of this WWW site pertaining to House rules and procedures uses How Our Laws Are Made (online version, November 12, 1997) by House Parliamentarian Charles W. Johnson. Additional Sources Legislative Information System of the U.S. Congress (LIS) (Congress Only) [http://www.congress.gov] The Legislative Information System, released at the start of the 105th Congress, has been redesigned for the 106th Congress. Databases and links have been organized into nine primary areas: floor activities and schedules; legislation/Congressional Record; committees; news and publications; House and Senate links; support agencies; other government links; user assistance and guides; previous Congresses. Development of the LIS system will be a multi-year project.