Appropriations for FY1998: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education

97-203 EPW Appropriations for FY1998: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Updated December 3, 1997 Paul M. Irwin Specialist in Social Legislation Education and Public Welfare Division Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. The process begins with the President’s budget request and is bounded by the rules of the House and Senate, the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (as amended), the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990, and current program authorizations. In addition, the line item veto takes effect for the first time in 1997. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products. This report is updated as soon as possible after major legislative developments, especially following legislative action in the committees and on the floor of the House and Senate. NOTE: A Web version of this document with active links is available to congressional staff at http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/apppage.html Appropriations for FY1998: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Summary This report describes the enactment by the 105th Congress of the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies (L-HHS-ED) Appropriations Act, 1998. This Act provides nearly all discretionary funds for three federal departments and related agencies. This report does not track funding issues related to mandatory L-HHS-ED programs, nor the authorizing legislation necessary prior to funding some of the President’s FY1998 initiatives. On February 6, 1997, the President submitted the FY1998 budget to the Congress. The request was for $80.1 billion in discretionary funds for L-HHS-ED programs, $5.4 billion or 7.2% more than $74.7 billion in FY1997. Mandatory L-HHS-ED funding in the FY1998 budget was $199.2 billion; the FY1997 amount was $212.5 billion. On September 17, 1997, the House passed H.R. 2264; this bill would have provided $80.1 billion in discretionary L-HHS-ED funds for FY1998. In prior action, the Senate passed S. 1061 on September 11, which would have provided $79.7 billion in discretionary funds. The conference version of H.R. 2264 provides $80.4 billion in discretionary funds, a 7.6% increase over FY1997. H.R. 2264 was signed into law by the President on November 13, 1997, as P.L. 105-78. For U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) programs, the FY1998 budget supported the consolidation of various job training programs, the transition from welfare to work, the promotion of health and safety on the job, and the comprehensive update of the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Discretionary DOL funding in FY1997 was $10.3 billion. The President’s FY1998 request was $11.2 billion; the amount enacted into law by P.L. 105-78 is $10.7 billion. For U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) programs, the budget proposed the extension of health coverage, additional support for HIV/AIDS and substance abuse programs, and increases for biomedical research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Other initiatives included assistance to states to implement the new welfare reform legislation, and additional support for Head Start and the Child Care and Development Block Grant. Discretionary DHHS funding in FY1997 was $30.7 billion. The President’s FY1998 request was $31.7 billion; the enacted amount is $32.8 billion. For U.S. Department of Education (ED) programs, the budget supported increases for the Pell Grant program, Goals 2000: Educate America Act programs, Education Technology, Title I Grants for the Education of the Disadvantaged, and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) programs. Discretionary ED funding in FY1997 was $26.5 billion. The President’s FY1998 request was $29.5 billion; the enacted amount is $29.6 billion. For the related agencies, including the Social Security Administration, increases were proposed for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the Corporation for National and Community Service, and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. Discretionary funding for related agencies in FY1997 was $7.5 billion. The President’s FY1998 request was $7.7 billion; the enacted amount is $7.6 billion. Key Policy Staff Area of Expertise Name CRS Division Telephone Coordinator Paul M. Irwin EPW 7-7573 Brian W. Cashell Ann Lordeman William G. Whittaker Edward Rappaport James R. Storey James R. Storey E EPW E E EPW EPW 7-7816 7-2323 7-7759 7-7740 7-7308 7-7308 Karen Spar Melvina Ford Karen Spar Celinda Franco Sharon Kearney Joyce C. Vialet Melvina Ford Melvina Ford Stephen Redhead Pamela W. Smith Irene E. Stith-Coleman Carol O’Shaughnessy Jennifer Neisner Stephen Redhead Vee Burke EPW EPW EPW EPW EPW EPW EPW EPW STM STM STM EPW EPW STM EPW 7-7319 7-7362 7-7319 7-7360 7-7367 7-7305 7-7362 7-7362 7-2261 7-7048 7-7080 7-7329 7-7368 7-2261 7-7304 Wayne C. Riddle James B. Stedman James B. Stedman Wayne C. Riddle Margot A. Schenet Jennifer Neisner Steven R. Aleman Nancy Lee Jones EPW EPW EPW EPW EPW EPW EPW A 7-7382 7-7356 7-7356 7-7382 7-7378 7-7368 7-2393 7-6976 Karen J. Lewis Kenneth R. Thomas Thomas P. Carr Ann Lordeman Bernevia McCalip Gail McCallion Vince Treacy Geoffrey Kollmann Carmen Solomon-Fears A A A EPW E E A EPW EPW 7-6190 7-5006 7-7290 7-2323 7-7781 7-7758 7-7222 7-7316 7-7306 Labor Consumer Price Index (CPI) Job training and employment services Labor standards enforcement Occupational safety and health Trade Adjustment Assistance Unemployment compensation Health and Human Services Child welfare, child care Family Planning Head Start Health professions education and training HIV/AIDS, Ryan White Immigration and refugee policy Immunization Maternal and Child Health Block Grant Needle exchange NIH, health research policy NIH, health research policy, abortion procedures Older Americans Act Substance abuse and mental health Tobacco settlement Welfare reform Education Education of the Disadvantaged, Title I Education Technology National Education Goals National educational testing Pell Grants Safe and Drug-Free Schools Special education, IDEA Special education, IDEA Related Agencies and General Issues Abortion issues Abortion issues Abortion issues Corporation for National and Community Service Corporation for Public Broadcasting National Labor Relations Board National Labor Relations Board Social Security Administration Supplemental Security Income Division abbreviations: A = American Law; E = Economics; EPW = Education and Public Welfare; STM = Science, Technology, and Medicine. Contents Most Recent Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . House Legislative Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Senate Legislative Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conference Committee Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Line Item Veto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 4 5 6 Key Policy Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 U.S. Department of Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 U.S. Department of Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Related Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Major Funding Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Related Legislative Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 For Additional Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRS Issue Briefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other CRS Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview and Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health and Human Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Related Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected World Wide Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Departments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Related Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 23 23 23 24 24 26 26 27 27 27 Appendix A: Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Appendix B: Scope of the L-HHS-ED Bill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Appendix C: Detailed Appropriation Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 List of Tables Table 1. Status of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations, FY1998 (H.R. 2264/S. 1061) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Table 2. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Totals ......................................................... 7 Table 3. Department of Labor Discretionary Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 4. Department of Health and Human Services Discretionary Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 5. Department of Education Discretionary Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table 6. Related Agencies Discretionary Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Table 7. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Discretionary Appropriations, FY1993 to FY1997 Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Table B.1. Scope of the L-HHS-ED Bill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table C.1. Detailed Department of Labor Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Table C.2. Detailed Department of Health and Human Services Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table C.3. Detailed Department of Education Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table C.4. Detailed Related Agencies Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appropriations for FY1998: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Most Recent Developments The Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1998 (H.R. 2264), was signed into law by the President as P.L. 105-78 on November 13, 1997. Prior to enactment of P.L. 105-78, five continuing resolutions provided interim FY1998 funding. The conference report on H.R. 2264 was filed on November 7; final conference issues included: ! ! ! ! ! ! voluntary national education testing; a domestic violence exemption from welfare work requirements; a federal needle exchange program for drug addicts; an education block grant proposal; federal supervision of Teamsters elections; and national tobacco settlement provisions. H.R. 2264 was passed by the House on September 17, 1997. The Senate passed its bill, S. 1061, on September 11, after authorizing a far-reaching elementary and secondary education block grant. The President submitted the FY1998 budget proposal to the Congress on February 6, 1997. Introduction The Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies (L-HHS-ED) Appropriations bill provides most of the discretionary funds for three federal departments and several related agencies including the Social Security Administration (SSA). This appropriation is the largest single source of discretionary funds for federal domestic programs. Because of the size of its funding total and the scope of its programs, as well as the continuing importance of various related nonfunding issues, the L-HHS-ED bill typically is one of the more controversial appropriation proposals. This report describes the President’s FY1998 L-HHS-ED proposal and compares it with the FY1997 amounts. It tracks congressional issues and actions related to the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations request, with particular attention paid to discretionary programs. This report does not track funding issues related to mandatory L-HHS-ED programs, nor the authorizing legislation necessary prior to funding some of the President’s initiatives. Unless otherwise noted, budget numbers refer only to those programs within the purview of the L-HHS-ED appropriations bill, and not to all programs within the jurisdiction of the departments and agencies CRS-2 themselves. For a glossary of budget terms, please see Appendix A: Terminology (page 29); for a discussion of the L-HHS-ED bill jurisdiction, Appendix B: Scope of the L-HHS-ED Bill (page 30); and for funding details, Appendix C: Detailed Appropriation Tables (page 32). Related legislative action, summarized later in this report (beginning on page 21), includes the regular and supplemental FY1997 L-HHS-ED appropriations, the FY1998 congressional budget resolution, the resulting reconciliation and tax legislation, and the FY1998 continuing resolutions. DATA NOTE: In this report, the FY1997 appropriations and the FY1998 budget request and appropriation amounts are based on tables from the conference report to accompany H.R. 2264, H.Rept. 105-390, unless otherwise noted. The enacted appropriations for FY1998 may be modified by further legislation during FY1998. Status Table 1 shows the key legislative steps taken during the enactment of P.L. 105-78, the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1998. The Administration submitted its FY1998 budget proposal to the Congress on February 6, 1997. Table 1. Status of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations, FY1998 (H.R. 2264/S. 1061) Subcommittee markup House Senate House report House Senate passage report Senate Conference passage report 7/25/97 9/17/97 7/24/97 9/11/97 7/15/97 7/22/97 H.Rept. 346 y - S.Rept. 92 y 105-205 80 n a 105-58 8 n b 11/07/97 H.Rept. 105-390 c Conference report approval House Senate Public law 11/07/97 11/08/97 11/13/97 352 y - 91 y P.L. 10565 n d 4 ne 78 a H.R. 2264 floor action: please see Congressional Record, Daily Edition, September 4, 1997, p. H68496890; September 5, p. H6925-6948; September 8, p. H6977-6999; September 9, p. H7023-7084; September 10, p. H7129-7182; September 11, p. H7206-7247; September 16, p. H7324-7351; and September 17, p. H7372-7452. Roll call #402 (346-80), September 17, 1997, p. H7453. b S. 1061 floor action: please see Congressional Record, Daily Edition, September 2, 1997, p. S8632-8640, S8643, S8646-8648, S8650-8651, S8655-8656; September 3, p. S8685-8720; September 4, p. S8772-8782, S8785-8790, S8792-8817, S8819; September 8, p. S8898-8924; September 9, p. S8945-8952, S8958-8971, S8989-9013; September 10, p. S9033-9059, S9062-9078; and September 11, p. S9097-9116. Roll call #234 (92-8), September 11, 1997, p. S9116. c H.R. 2264 text of conference report (H.Rept. 105-390): please see Congressional Record, Daily Edition, November 7, 1997, p. H10210-10304. d H.R. 2264 conference report approval in the House: please see Congressional Record, Daily Edition, November 7, p. H10313. Roll call #615 (352-65). e H.R. 2264 conference report approval in the Senate: please see Congressional Record, Daily Edition, November 8, p. S12082-12095. Roll call #298 (91-4), p. S12094-12095. House Legislative Action The House Subcommittee on L-HHS-ED Appropriations began hearings on the budget proposal on February 12, 1997, and marked up its bill on July 15. The House CRS-3 Appropriations Committee marked up the bill on July 22, and reported it on July 25, 1997 (H.R. 2264, H.Rept. 105-205). The House began consideration of H.R. 2264 on September 4, 1997.1 After agreeing to 21 amendments, the House passed H.R. 2264, as amended, on September 17, 1997, by a vote of 346-80. Highlights of the House floor amendments include the following provisions. ! Funds would be increased, relative to the bill reported by Committee, for Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) special education programs, Children and Family Services child abuse and prevention programs, senior citizen meals program, vocational and adult education programs, charter schools, and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) research on pfiesteria infections of fish. ! Decreases in funding were agreed to for the Goals 2000 education reform program, technology literacy challenge grant, Title X Family Planning programs, the Employment and Training Administration, and the State Unemployment Insurance and Employment Services Operations. ! The House agreed to restrict compensation under the Job Corps, and to prohibit the use of funds to pay the expenses of an election officer appointed by a court to oversee an election of any officer or trustee of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. ! Several sections of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, P.L. 105-33, and the Taxpayers Relief Act of 1997, P.L. 105-34, related to a tobacco industry settlement credit, would be repealed. ! Title X Family Planning providers would be required to encourage family participation in cases where minors are seeking assistance. ! Funds would be prohibited from being used for any program to distribute needles for the injection of illegal drugs, and the restrictions of the Hyde antiabortion amendment would be extended to managed care programs. ! Federal enforcement options would be restricted concerning violations by states of IDEA provisions on services to youth with disabilities in adult prisons. ! Under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), the whole school reform provisions for $150 million under the Title I Education for the Disadvantaged program and $50 million under the Title X Fund for the 1 H.Res. 199, the rule for the House floor consideration of H.R. 2264, was reported (H.Rept. 105-214) by the House Committee on Rules July 28, 1997. The rule provided one hour of general debate and made in order four amendments printed in the report: two were concerned with the use of federal funds for abortion in managed care plans; and two were concerned with the use of Title X family planning funds for contraceptive drugs or devices for minors, parent or guardian notification, and family involvement. CRS-4 Improvement of Education (FIE) program would be renamed as “comprehensive school reform” provisions. ! The House agreed to prohibit any funds to be used to develop, plan, implement, or administer any national testing program in reading or mathematics, a prohibition the Administration indicated would cause a veto if left in the final bill.2 Senate Legislative Action The Senate Subcommittee on L-HHS-ED Appropriations began hearings on March 4, and marked up its version of the bill on July 22. The Senate Appropriations Committee marked up the bill and reported it the same day, July 24, 1997 (S. 1061, S.Rept. 105-58). The Senate began consideration of S. 1061 on September 2; after agreeing to 46 amendments, the Senate passed S. 1061 on September 11, 1997, as amended, by a vote of 92-8. On September 17, the Senate took up H.R. 2264, replaced its text by substituting the text of S. 1061, passed H.R. 2264 as amended in lieu of S. 1061, vitiated its action on the passage of S. 1061, and indefinitely postponed S. 1061. Highlights of the Senate floor amendments include the following provisions. ! Funds would be increased, relative to the bill reported by Committee, for Title III of the Older Americans Act, State Student Incentive Grants program, Prospective Payment Assessment Commission, Physician Payment Review Commission, National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, education infrastructure, refugee and entrant assistance program, National Institute for Literacy, and Mary McLeod Bethune Memorial Fine Arts Center. ! The Senate agreed to establish a program for research and training related to Parkinson’s disease, and to expand efforts to eliminate Medicare waste, fraud, and abuse. ! Several provisions related to the proposed tobacco settlement were agreed to including the repeal of the tobacco industry settlement credit enacted in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, P.L. 105-33. ! Also agreed to were a comprehensive study for the prevention of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, a study of the health and safety effects of perchlorate on human beings, and a comprehensive study of research priority setting by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). ! The Senate accepted an amendment to place the control of any voluntary national education achievement tests, such as those proposed by the President, under the independent National Assessment Governance Board (NAGB). In addition, the amendment would modify the membership of NAGB by increasing the number of political appointees on the Board, including 2 For details on the President’s national education testing proposal and related issues, please see CRS Report 97-774, National Tests: Administrative Initiative, by Wayne Riddle. CRS-5 governors, state legislators, and mayors, and specifically would limit the number of these members who could be from “the same political party as the President.” ! The Senate by a vote of 51 to 49 agreed to a far-reaching amendment that would funnel a large majority of elementary and secondary education funds otherwise provided in the FY1998 L-HHS-ED Appropriations Act through a block grant to local educational agencies (LEAs) to support programs or activities deemed appropriate by such agencies for kindergarten through twelfth grade education. Major programs excluded from the block grant include IDEA special education programs, Impact Aid, Adult Education, Educational Research and Statistics, 50% of the funds for Vocational Rehabilitation (which currently has no elementary and secondary education component), and 50% of the funds from the Vocational and Adult Education account. Grants to LEAs would be allocated in two separate funding streams, one from funds redirected from Title I Education for the Disadvantaged programs, the other from funds redirected from non-Title I programs. The amendment generally would exclude federal or state officials from the determination of the use of funds, and would exclude states from sharing in the use of funds. The aggregate amount awarded to the LEAs in each state would be no less than the “net dollars that states would have received absent the provisions” of this amendment. No fiscal or other accountability requirements are specified for the block grant funds; no funds would be reserved for services for any private school pupils; and no funds would be targeted to meet the needs of disadvantaged pupils or any other special population.3 Conference Committee Issues The conference committee on the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations had extended discussions over several issues in addition to the actual spending levels for FY1998. The first conference meeting was held September 26, 1997; the conference report, H.Rept. 105-390, was filed November 7. Some of the more significant issues discussed were as follows. ! National testing: the prohibition on voluntary national education testing in the House bill was modified in the conference report to allow the development of national tests, but it prohibited the use of FY1998 funds to field or pilot test, administer, distribute, or implement any national test. In addition, the National Academy of Sciences is to conduct three separate studies on topics related to national education testing. (§305 through 311 of P.L. 105-78) ! Domestic Violence Exemption: the conference report deleted "without prejudice" the Senate provision concerning the provision of waivers under welfare reform to victims of domestic violence. (p. 94 of H.Rept. 105-390) 3 For a more extensive discussion of the Senate’s block grant amendment, please see CRS Report 97-893, Education Block Grant in FY1998 Appropriations, by Paul M. Irwin and Wayne C. Riddle. CRS-6 ! Sterile Needle Distribution and Exchange: the conference report included House language restricting the use of federal funds for the distribution of sterile needles for the injection of illegal drugs. Specifically, the report removed the authority granted under previous appropriations acts to the Secretary to waive the prohibition if such programs were found to be effective in preventing the spread of HIV and do not encourage the use of illegal drugs. In addition, all sterile needle and syringe exchange projects are to be suspended through March 31, 1998, at the earliest. (§505-506) ! Education Block Grant: the elementary and secondary education block grant initiative that was proposed as part of the Senate bill was eliminated by the conference committee. This proposal would have funneled $13.4 billion in funds otherwise appropriated for 51 existing programs, including most federal elementary and secondary funds, into grants made directly to local educational agencies, to support programs or activities deemed appropriate by such agencies. (p. 116) ! Teamsters Election: the conference report included the House provision that prohibited the use of federal funds in this Act for the supervision of the election of any officer of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. (§518) ! Tobacco Provisions: the conference report deleted four Senate provisions related to the national tobacco settlement, but suggested that these issues should be discussed during the consideration of any implementation legislation for the settlement. (p. 116) ! Other Provisions: the conference report included several other provisions, including revision to the Hyde anti-abortion provisions (§509-510), funding for school violence hotlines (p. 111), a report to be made by the Secretary of Education concerning the percentage of federal elementary and secondary funds that are used directly for teachers and students (p. 111), a study concerning increasing enrollments and smaller class sizes (p. 111), a technical amendment to the U.S. Department of Transportation Appropriation for FY1998 (P.L. 105-66) (§607), a technical amendment concerning the welfareto-work program under the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (§519), a new provision concerning the consolidation of student loans (§609), and the authorization of the National Health Museum Development Act (Title VII of P.L. 105-78). Line Item Veto The President did not exercise the line item veto authority with respect to any of the P.L. 105-78 appropriations; none of the funds in the FY1998 L-HHS-ED Appropriations Act have been canceled by the President. Key Policy Issues The major funding issue regarding the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations has been the size of the overall total appropriation. Within the L-HHS-ED total, CRS-7 discretionary funding is the only type of appropriation over which the appropriations committees have effective control, discussed further in Appendix B, page 30. Table 2 shows several types of funding associated with L-HHS-ED appropriations for FY1997 and FY1998; these types are defined in the Appendix A glossary, page 29. For FY1998, the Administration requested $80.1 billion in discretionary funds, $5.4 billion or 7.2% more than the FY1997 amount of $74.7 billion, as shown in Table 2. The House-passed bill would have provided a total of $80.1 billion in L-HHS-ED discretionary funds, an increase of $5.4 billion or 7.2% over the FY1997 amount. The Senate-passed bill would have provided $79.7 billion in discretionary funds, an increase of $5.0 billion or 6.7% over the FY1997 amount. The FY1998 amount enacted under P.L. 105-78 is $80.4 billion, an increase of 7.6%. Table 2. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Totals (budget authority in billions of dollars) Type of appropriation a FY1997 final FY1998 request FY1998 House FY1998 Senate FY1998 enacted b Discretionary, current year $74.7 $80.1 $80.1 $79.7 $80.4 Mandatory, current year 212.5 199.2 199.1 199.1 $196.5 Total, current year 287.2 279.3 279.2 278.8 $276.9 Federal funds, all years 278.7 269.1 269.6 269.9 $268.0 11.7 12.2 11.8 11.9 $11.9 Trust funds, all years Source: Amounts are based on the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations conference report, H.Rept. 105-390. a Types of appropriations are defined in the Appendix A glossary, page 29. Amounts shown are for programs included in the L-HHS-ED appropriation bill; funds for L-HHS-ED programs funded through other laws are not included. b The FY1998 amount represents the appropriation enacted under P.L. 105-78; this amount may be modified by further legislation during FY1998. The President did not exercise the line item veto authority with respect to any of these appropriations. U.S. Department of Labor The FY1998 budget proposal for U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) was $11.2 billion in discretionary funds, $0.9 billion more than the FY1997 appropriation of $10.3 billion, as shown in Table 3. The House bill would have provided $10.8 billion and Senate bill $10.7 billion; the FY1998 amount enacted under P.L. 105-78 is $10.7 billion. CRS-8 Table 3. Department of Labor Discretionary Appropriations (budget authority in billions of dollars)a FY1997 enacted FY1998 request FY1998 House FY1998 Senate FY1998 enacted b $10.3 $11.2 $10.8 $10.7 $10.7 Source: House Appropriations Committee unofficial staff table of November 8, 1997. a Discretionary amounts shown are for programs included in the L-HHS-ED appropriation bill; mandatory funds within the bill are not included. b The FY1998 amount represents the appropriation enacted under P.L. 105-78; this amount may be modified by further legislation during FY1998. Mandatory DOL programs included in the L-HHS-ED bill were funded at $1.9 billion in FY1997, and consist primarily of the Black Lung Disability Trust Fund ($1.0 billion), Federal Unemployment Benefits and Allowances programs ($0.3 billion), and Advances to the Unemployment Insurance and Other Trust Funds ($0.4 billion). The President’s Request. The President’s FY1998 budget request for DOL featured several themes related to lifelong learning for American workers, protection of pension security, and the promotion of health and safety on the job. It also included initiatives for the transition from welfare to work, portability of health benefits, and changes in economic indicators. Lifelong learning included the Administration’s proposed GI Bill for America’s Workers to consolidate and simplify job training programs and a One-Stop Career Center proposal to integrate the delivery of training services and to provide labor market information. The training proposal concentrated on disadvantaged persons to support economic self-sufficiency. The budget proposed an initiative for Opportunity Areas for Out-of-School Youth. Support would have been increased for Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities to enhance employment opportunities for out-of-school youth. Additional funds are proposed for low-income adult training programs. To enhance worker protection, additional support would have been provided for workplace safety and health, wage protection programs, and pension security for all employees. The budget proposed changes in the calculation of economic indicators, in particular, revisions of the Consumer Price Index (CPI), a key measure of price change used by business, labor, and government. Major DOL discretionary increases under the President’s FY1998 budget included the following. ! An additional $0.6 billion was requested for Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs, including increases of $169 million for Adult Training programs, $64 million for Dislocated Worker Assistance, $93 million for the Job Corps, and $250 million for a proposed Opportunity Areas for Out-ofSchool Youth program. ! An increase of $289 million was proposed for State Operations for Unemployment Compensation, including $200 million for the Year 2000 Computer Conversion. CRS-9 Smaller DOL increases were proposed for salaries and expenses for the Employment Standards Administration (ESA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The House Bill. The House bill differed from the FY1998 DOL budget request in the funding levels for a number of programs. ! The House bill would have provided $4.9 billion for JTPA programs, $426 million more than in FY1997, but $151 million less than the budget request. The bill did not provide the requested $250 million for the proposed Opportunity Areas for Out-of-School Youth program; rather, it provided $25 million under existing JTPA authority for a pilot demonstration program, plus an additional $100 million for FY1999 contingent on enactment of separate authorization. Most amounts would be the same as requested for the JTPA Grants to States and Federally Administered Programs. ! The Unemployment Compensation State Operations would have been funded at $2.1 billion for FY1998, the same as the FY1997 level; the budget request was for $2.2 billion. The bill included $183 million for the Year 2000 Computer Conversion; $200 million was requested. ! The House bill would have provided smaller increases than those requested for the Employment Standards Administration (ESA) salaries and expenses, funded at $290 million in FY1997, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), $325 million in FY1997, and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), $197 million in FY1997. The Senate Bill. For DOL programs, the funding provisions of the Senate bill differed from those in the House bill primarily for JTPA and Unemployment Compensation State Operations. ! For JTPA programs, the Senate bill would have provided $955 million for Grants to States for Adult Training; the House would have provided $1,043 million. For JTPA National Activities, the Senate would have provided $83 million for Pilots and Demonstrations and $250 million for Opportunity Areas for Youth; the House would have provided $45.5 million and $100 million, respectively. ! For Unemployment Compensation State Operations, the Senate bill would have provided $150 million for Year 2000 Computer Conversion; the House would have provided $183 million. Public Law. The FY1998 L-HHS-ED Appropriations Act, P.L. 105-78, provides funding levels similar to those in the President’s budget request with the following exceptions. ! JTPA programs are funded at $5.0 billion, $59 million less than the request, but $518 million more than in FY1997. In particular, Adult Training programs CRS-10 are funded at $955 million, $109 million less than the request, but $60 million more than in FY1997. ! Unemployment Compensation is funded at $2.5 billion, $109 million less than the request, but $180 million more than in FY1997. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services The FY1998 budget proposal for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) was $31.7 billion in discretionary funds, $1.0 billion more than the FY1997 appropriation of $30.7 billion, as shown in Table 4. Both the House and Senate bills would have provided $32.5 billion; the FY1998 amount enacted under P.L. 105-78 is $32.8 billion. Table 4. Department of Health and Human Services Discretionary Appropriations (budget authority in billions of dollars) a FY1997 enacted FY1998 request FY1998 House FY1998 Senate FY1998 enacted b $30.7 $31.7 $32.5 $32.5 $32.8 Source: House Appropriations Committee unofficial staff table of November 8, 1997. a Discretionary amounts shown are for programs included in the L-HHS-ED appropriation bill; mandatory funds within the bill and other L-HHS-ED programs funded through other laws are not included. b The FY1998 amount represents the appropriation enacted under P.L. 105-78; this amount may be modified by further legislation during FY1998. Mandatory DHHS programs included in the L-HHS-ED bill were funded at $180.9 billion in FY1997, and consist primarily of Grants to States for Medicaid ($103.0 billion), Payments to Health Care Trust Funds ($60.1 billion), Family Support Payments to States programs ($7.6 billion), Social Services Block Grant ($2.5 billion), and Foster Care and Adoption ($5.6 billion). The FY1998 DHHS budget included mandatory program initiatives to assist states as they begin to implement Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the new welfare reform programs, including assistance for families making the transition from welfare to work. The President’s Request. The President’s FY1998 budget request for DHHS included a number of themes related to the funding and delivery of health care and social services. The budget proposed significant changes to the Medicare and Medicaid programs, and extension of health insurance coverage to uninsured children and the temporarily unemployed. Other major themes included increased support for research, prevention, and treatment programs for HIV/AIDS (the human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome) and substance abuse, including a Youth Substance Abuse Prevention Initiative; and increases for biomedical research programs at the NIH. Proposals were also made to provide additional support for Head Start, teen pregnancy prevention, and programs to reduce tobacco and drug use among youth. CRS-11 Major DHHS discretionary increases in the FY1998 budget request were as follows. ! An additional $337 million was requested for the NIH. ! $107 million more was proposed for the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG). ! A $324 million increase was included for Head Start. Smaller DHHS increases were proposed for the CDC’s Infectious Diseases program and the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) Program Management. Funding increases for topics (rather than specific programs) included a proposed addition of $100 million for HIV/AIDS, combining relevant increases at NIH, the Ryan White AIDS program, and the CDC; a proposed increase of $66 million for substance abuse, combining relevant increases at NIH and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); a proposed $98 million for a Youth Substance Abuse Prevention Initiative; and a proposed increase of $66 million for the Violent Crime Reduction Programs (VCRP). Reductions for DHHS programs were requested of $138 million for Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), $62 million for Family Violence, and $75 million for the Community Services Block Grant (CSBG) program. The House Bill. The House bill differed from the FY1998 DHHS budget request in the funding levels for a number of programs. ! The funding level proposed by the House for the NIH, $13.5 billion, accounted for the single greatest proposed funding increase, in comparison with the budget request, of the entire L-HHS-ED bill; the FY1998 request was $13.1 billion, and the FY1997 level was $12.7 billion. Overall, the NIH appropriation would have represented a 6.0% increase over the FY1997 amount. For specific institutes, centers, and divisions, the bill would have provided at least a 7.0% increase for the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; the National Institute on Drug Abuse; the National Human Genome Research Institute; the National Library of Medicine; and Buildings and Facilities. In addition, the bill would have provided funding for AIDS research as a part of the appropriation for each individual institute, the same as in FY1997; it did not specify a single amount in a separate appropriation for AIDS research, as requested by the Administration. ! The bill would have provided $307 million for the DHHS Health Professions program; the request was for $130 million, and the FY1997 amount was $293 million. ! The Ryan White AIDS Programs would have been funded at $1.2 billion, $132 million more than the request and $172 million more than the FY1997 level of $1.0 billion. Increased funding would have been provided for both comprehensive care and for emergency assistance activities. CRS-12 ! The bill would have provided $1.0 billion in advance funding for the CCDBG for FY1999, the same as the budget request and an increase of $63 million over the comparable FY1998 amount; however, the bill did not provide an additional $63 million that was requested in the budget for FY1998 CCDBG program activities. ! The Title XX Social Services Block Grant (SSBG) would have been funded at $2.2 billion; the FY1997 amount was $2.5 billion and the request was for $2.4 billion. ! The CSBG would have been funded at $490 million, the same as in FY1997; the budget request was for a reduction to $415 million. The Senate Bill. The funding provisions of the Senate bill differed from those in the House bill for a number of DHHS programs. ! The Senate bill would have provided NIH a total of $13.7 billion; the House would have provided $13.5 billion. ! For Health Professions, the bill would have provided $220 million; the House, $307 million. ! For the Ryan White AIDS Programs, the Senate bill would have provided $1.1 billion; the House, $1.2 billion. ! For SAMHSA, the Senate bill would have provided $2.127 billion; the House, $2.152 billion. ! The Senate bill would have provided $1.7 billion for Medicare Contractors; the House, $1.6 billion. ! For the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the bill would have provided $1.2 billion in advance funding; the House bill, $1.0 billion. ! For the Administration on Aging, the bill would have provided $894 million; the House bill, $815 million. Public Law. The FY1998 L-HHS-ED Appropriations Act, P.L. 105-78, funding levels differ from those in the President’s budget request for several DHHS programs. ! The Health Professions programs are funded at $294 million, about the same as the FY1997 amount, but $164 million more than the request. ! The Ryan White AIDS programs are increased by $154 million; an increase of $40 million was requested. CRS-13 ! A $63 million increase is provided to the CDC; the budget request was an increase of $14 million. ! The NIH is receiving an increase of $570 million; the request was an increase of $337 million. ! LIHEAP is advance funded at $1.1 billion, $100 million more than the request. ! The SSBG is funded at $2.3 billion, $81 million less than the request. ! Head Start is funded at $4.4 billion, $50 million more than the request. ! The CSBG is funded at $491 million, $76 million more than the request. U.S. Department of Education The FY1998 budget proposal for U.S. Department of Education (ED) was $29.5 billion in discretionary funds, $3.0 billion more than the FY1997 appropriation of $26.5 billion, as shown in Table 5. The House bill would have provided $29.3 billion for FY1998 and the Senate bill $29.1 billion; the FY1998 amount enacted under P.L. 105-78 is $29.6 billion. Table 5. Department of Education Discretionary Appropriations (budget authority in billions of dollars)a FY1997 enacted FY1998 request FY1998 House FY1998 Senate FY1998 enacted b $26.5 $29.5 $29.3 $29.1 $29.6 Source: House Appropriations Committee unofficial staff table of November 8, 1997. a Discretionary amounts shown are for programs included in the L-HHS-ED appropriation bill; mandatory funds within the bill and other L-HHS-ED programs funded through other laws are not included. b The FY1998 amount represents the appropriation enacted under P.L. 105-78; this amount may be modified by further legislation during FY1998. Mandatory ED programs included in the L-HHS-ED bill were funded at $2.5 billion in FY1997, and consist primarily of the Rehabilitative Services and Disabilities Research program ($2.5 billion). The FY1998 ED budget included new reading and school construction initiatives, and a package of legislative and tax changes to help pay college costs. Mandatory funding was proposed for the America Reads Challenge, including support for 1,000,000 tutors in a Reading Corps, and a school construction initiative to support state and local efforts to upgrade facilities. Other mandatory changes included proposals to amend the student loan programs to decrease loan origination fees and restructure the guaranty agency system. In addition to the budget request for ED appropriations, the President proposed a change in the tax code to provide the America’s Hope Scholarship tax credit and the Middle Class Bill of Rights tax deduction to reduce the cost of postsecondary education to eligible students and their families. CRS-14 The President’s Request. Support for education has been one of the President’s top priorities, and the FY1998 budget proposal for ED reflected that emphasis. Major themes included emphasis on national education goals, modernization of schools and classrooms to meet the needs of the 21st century, and making a college education more affordable for all students. Major ED discretionary increases in the FY1998 budget request were as follows. ! The largest ED discretionary increase was $1.7 billion in additional funds proposed for Pell Grants; this 29% expansion is proposed to increase the maximum Pell award from $2,700 to $3,000 and to increase eligibility for independent students. ! An additional $129 million was proposed for Goals 2000 State and Local Systemic Improvement Grants. ! $225 million more was included for Education Technology. ! $350 million was requested for currently unfunded Title I Targeted Grants under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). ! $64 million more was proposed for Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities (SDFSC) programs. ! $164 million more was proposed for the State Grants program under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). ! $132 million was requested for proposed Presidential Honors Scholarships. Smaller increases were proposed for Professional Development, Charter Schools, Bilingual Education, Immigrant Education, Vocational Education, Adult Education, TRIO programs, Research and Statistics, and Salaries and Expenses. A decrease of $72 million was proposed for Impact Aid programs. Additional cuts were proposed through the termination of the Program Innovation (education block grant) program ($310 million in FY1997) and the State Student Incentive Grants (SSIG) program ($50 million in FY1997). The House Bill. The House bill differed from the FY1998 ED budget request in the funding levels for a number of programs. ! The Pell Grant program would have received $7.4 billion under the House bill instead of the requested $7.6 billion; the FY1997 amount was $5.9 billion. The bill would have increased the amount of the maximum award by $300 to $3,000, as requested. The bill would not have amended the authorization under the Higher Education Act to expand the eligibility for certain independent students, as requested in the budget. However, report language indicated that the total provided included an extra $528 million that would remain available to finance changes in eligibility, if subsequently enacted. In addition, the Committee noted that the authorizing committee with jurisdiction CRS-15 was considering changes to Pell Grant eligibility for both dependent and independent students, and encouraged expeditious enactment so that students might obtain the benefit of the additional funding provided in this bill. ! The bill would have provided for the Goals 2000: Educate America Act programs $387 million; the FY1997 amount was $491 million, and the request was for $620 million. ! The bill would have provided for Education Technology $435 million; the FY1997 amount was $200 million, and the request was for $425 million. ! The ESEA Title I programs would have received $8.2 billion; the request was $8.1 billion, and the FY1997 total was $7.8 billion. Compared to the budget request, the bill would have reduced Concentration Grants by $50 million, but increased Targeted Grants by $50 million and provided $150 million for comprehensive school reform activities under the Title I, plus an additional $50 million under ESEA Title X. ! The bill would have provided for Impact Aid programs $796 million; the FY1997 amount was $730 million, and the request was for $658 million. ! The ESEA Title VI Innovative Education Program Strategies would have been funded at $350 million; the FY1997 amount was $310 million, and the budget request was for program termination. ! SDFSC programs would have received $556 million, the same as the FY1997 funding level; $620 million was requested in the budget. ! The bill would have provided $260 million advance funded for FY1999 for a literacy initiative, contingent on enactment of separate authorization by April 1, 1998; the budget request was for $260 million forward funded in FY1998 for a proposed America Reads Challenge. ! The bill would have provided for IDEA state grants programs $4.2 billion; the FY1997 amount was $3.8 billion, and the request was for $3.9 billion. ! The bill would have provided no funds for the proposed Presidential Honors Scholarships; the budget requested $132 million, but no funds were provided in FY1997. ! Section 306 of the bill would have required the Secretary of Education to make a grant to the National Academy of Sciences to evaluate the Administration’s proposal for national educational testing and report to the Congress by August 31, 1998, and prohibited ED from implementing any final version of the national tests prior to the completion of the study and report. However, the House accepted a floor amendment whereby Section 518 of the bill would have prohibited FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations from being used to develop, plan, implement, or administer any national testing program. CRS-16 The Senate Bill. The funding provisions of the Senate bill differed from those in the House bill for a number of ED programs. ! The Senate agreed to a floor amendment to create an elementary and secondary education block grant. The block grant would have used funds appropriated elsewhere in the bill and redirected them to a block grant for local educational agencies, for use as deemed appropriate by local officials. According to preliminary ED estimates, the provision would have channeled $13.7 billion from 51 other elementary and secondary programs into the block grant. [Amounts given below for elementary and secondary education programs are those that would have been appropriated prior to their redirection through the implementation of the block grant.] ! For Pell Grants, the Senate bill would have provided $6.9 billion, with report language indicating that this should be enough to increase the maximum award to $3,000; it did not contain the additional $528 million that would have been included in the House bill for proposed changes in eligibility. ! The Senate bill would have provided $530 million for Goals 2000: Educate America Act programs; the House, $475 million. ! For ESEA Title I programs, the Senate bill would have provided $7.8 billion, including $6.3 billion for Basic Grants and $1.0 billion for Concentration Grants but no funds for Targeted Grants or for comprehensive school reform provisions; the House bill would have provided a total of $8.2 billion, including $6.2 billion for Basic Grants, $0.9 billion for Concentration Grants, $400 million for Targeted Grants, and $150 million under Title I and $50 under Title X for comprehensive school reform activities. ! For IDEA State Grants Programs, the Senate bill would have provided $4.7 billion; the House, $4.2 billion. ! The Senate bill would have provided $634 million for the Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants (SEOG) Program; the House, $583 million, the same as the FY1997 amount. ! The Senate bill would have provided $100 million for elementary and secondary education infrastructure facilities improvement programs; the House bill would have provided no funds. No funds were provided in FY1997. The Administration requested mandatory funding for a new school facilities program. ! The Senate accepted a floor amendment that would have placed control of any national achievement tests, such as those proposed by the President for fourth grade reading and eighth grade mathematics, under the purview of the independent National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB); the House bill would have prohibited use of FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations on any activity related to national testing. CRS-17 Public Law. The FY1998 L-HHS-ED Appropriations Act, P.L. 105-78, funding levels differ from those in the President’s budget request for several ED programs. ! The prohibition on voluntary national education testing in the House bill is modified in the conference report to allow the development of national tests, but the final version prohibits the use of FY1998 funds to field or pilot test, administer, distribute, or implement any national test; in addition, the National Academy of Sciences is to conduct three studies on topics related to national testing. ! The elementary and secondary education block grant initiative that was proposed as part of the Senate bill is eliminated by the conference committee. ! Pell Grants are increased by $1.4 billion, which is $290 million less than the amount requested in the budget; the maximum award is increased to $3,000, up from $2,700, as requested; and the Secretary is authorized to increase the income protection allowances (IPAs) for single independents, working dependents, and married independents without children so that more students are eligible for Pell Grants. ! The Goals 2000: Educate America Act programs are level funded, $129 million less than requested. ! Title I Grants to LEAs are increased by $200 million instead of $246 million, and within the total, no funds are provided for Targeted Grants, but increases are made of $80 million for Concentration Grants and $120 million for Comprehensive School Reform. ! The Impact Aid program receives an increase of $150 million instead of the $72 million reduction requested. ! Innovative Program Strategies is funded at $350 million instead of terminated as requested by the Administration. ! Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities programs are level funded at $556 million instead of receiving a $64 million increase. ! $210 million is provided for the Children’s Literacy proposals instead of the $260 million requested; these funds are provided on an advance funded rather than forward funded basis; funding is contingent on the separate enactment of authorizing legislation by July 1, 1998; without enactment, the funds are to be transferred to the "Special Education" account. ! Special Education State Grants are increased by $746 million instead of the $162 million requested. ! No funds are provided for the proposed Presidential Honors Scholarships; the request was for $132 million. CRS-18 ! Increases are provided of $68 million for the Fund for the Improvement of Education (FIE) and $39 million for the 21st Century Community Learning Centers; the request was for level funding FIE at $40 million, and terminating the $1 million 21st Century program. ! P.L. 105-78 includes a provision from H.R. 2535, as passed by the House, to allow loan consolidation under the Federal Family Education Loan program (FFEL) for Direct Loan borrowers through October 1, 1998, and an amendment to the need analysis formula in Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA) that prevents any negative consequences for taxpayers claiming the new education tax credits when they apply for federal student aid. Related Agencies The FY1998 budget proposal for related agencies was $7.7 billion in discretionary funds, $0.2 billion more than the FY1997 appropriation of $7.5 billion, as shown in Table 6. Both the House and Senate bills would have provided $7.6 billion for related agencies; the FY1998 amount enacted under P.L. 105-78 is $7.6 billion. Table 6. Related Agencies Discretionary Appropriations (budget authority in billions of dollars) FY1997 enacted $7.5 FY1998 request $7.7 FY1998 House FY1998 Senate $7.6 FY1998 enacted a $7.6 $7.6 Source: House Appropriations Committee unofficial staff table of November 8, 1997. a The FY1998 amount represents the appropriation enacted under P.L. 105-78; this amount may be modified by further legislation during FY1998. Mandatory programs for related agencies included in the L-HHS-ED bill were funded at $27.2 billion in FY1997, of which $27.1 billion was for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) activities. The President’s Request. Major discretionary increases for related agency programs included the following. ! An additional $75 million was proposed for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) advance funded for FY2000. ! $91 million more was included for SSI administration. ! An increase of $114 million was requested for the SSA Limitation on Administrative Expenses for the Health Insurance/Supplemental Medical Insurance (HI/SMI) trust funds for Medicare-related administrative activities provided by the SSA. CRS-19 Smaller increases were proposed the Armed Forces Retirement Home (AFRH), the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS), the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the SSI Automation Investment Initiative, and the SSI Continuing Disability Review. A decrease of $50 million was proposed for SSI Reform activities. The House Bill. The House bill differed from the FY1998 budget request in the funding levels for several L-HHS-ED related agency programs. ! The CNCS would have received $228 million, an increase of $14 million over the FY1997 amount, but less than the $260 million requested. ! The CPB would have received $300 million in advance funding for FY2000, an increase of $50 million over the amount currently available for FY1999, but less than the $325 million requested. ! The NLRB would have been level funded at $175 million, which is less than the $186 million requested. ! The SSA Limitation on Administrative Expenses would have been funded at $6.4 billion, an increase of $11 million from the FY1997 amount, but less than the $6.5 billion requested. ! The SSA Office of Inspector General would have been funded at $52 million; the FY1997 amount is $37 million, and $44 million was requested. The Senate Bill. There were few major differences in funding provisions between the Senate bill and the House bill for L-HHS-ED related agency programs. Exceptions included $45 million more than the House amount for the SSA Limitation on Administrative Expenses, and level funding the SSA Office of Inspector General. Public Law. The FY1998 L-HHS-ED Appropriations Act, P.L. 105-78, provides funding levels for related agency programs similar to those in the President’s budget request with the following exceptions. ! The CPB receives an increase of $50 million instead of $75 million, advance funded for FY2000. ! The NLRB is funded at the FY1997 level of $175 million instead of receiving an increase of $11 million. ! The SSA Limitation on Administrative Expenses receives an increase of $2 million instead of the $114 million requested. CRS-20 Major Funding Trends The L-HHS-ED appropriations consist of mandatory and discretionary funds. As discussed in Appendix B (page 30), the Appropriations Committees fully control only the discretionary funds. Mandatory funding levels for programs included in the annual appropriations bills are modified by changes in the authorizing legislation; these changes are typically accomplished through the authorizing committees and combined into large, omnibus reconciliation bills. Table 7 shows the trend in total discretionary budget authority under the L-HHS-ED appropriations for the FY1993 to FY1997 period. During this time, the L-HHS-ED funds have increased by 17.6% for the 5-year period. The 5-year increase is reduced to an estimated 9.5% after adjustment for inflation by use of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) deflator. When compared to all federal discretionary budget authority, the L-HHS-ED portion increases from 13.8% in FY1993 to 14.6% in FY1997. When compared to all federal budget authority, both discretionary and nondiscretionary (mandatory), the L-HHS-ED portion increases slightly, from 4.3% in FY1993 to 4.5% in FY1997. Table 7. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Discretionary Appropriations, FY1993 to FY1997 Trends (budget authority in billions of dollars) Type of funds FY1993 FY1994 FY1995 FY1996 FY1997 L-HHS-ED discretionary $63.4 $67.3 $67.8 $67.2 $74.7 L-HHS-ED discretionary in FY1997 dollars $69.6 $72.2 $71.0 $68.9 $74.7 L-HHS-ED % of all federal discretionary funds a 13.8% 14.4% 13.3% 13.7% 14.8% L-HHS-ED % of total federal budget authority 4.3% 4.4% 4.4% 4.3% 4.5% Total federal discretionary $504.1 $501.5 $533.8 $502.5 $503.7 Total federal budget authority $1,474.4 $1,529.3 $1,539.7 $1,581.1 $1,652.9 GDP deflator 1.0263 1.0501 1.0762 1.0990 1.1264 Source: Budget of the U.S. Government Historical Tables, FY1998, tables 5.2 and 10.1 (for total federal budget authority and GDP deflator); Budget of the U.S. Government, various years (for discretionary funds, both total and for the L-HHS-ED appropriation subcommittee); and the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations conference report, H.Rept. 105-390 (for the FY1997 L-HHS-ED discretionary amount). a Discretionary funds include domestic, international, and defense. CRS-21 Related Legislative Activity Several pieces of legislation related to P.L. 105-78, the FY1998 L-HHS-ED Appropriations Act, are noted below. ! The primary FY1997 L-HHS-ED appropriations measure was P.L. 104-208; P.L. 105-1 made technical corrections to it, and P.L. 105-18 added supplemental funding for FY1997. ! The FY1998 congressional budget resolution, H.Con.Res. 84, set out the spending plan for appropriations and reconciliation legislation for the period FY1998 through FY2002. ! Two reconciliation measures were enacted — P.L. 105-33 amended entitlement provisions, and P.L. 105-34 amended tax code provisions. ! Five continuing resolutions provided temporary FY1998 funding prior to enactment of P.L. 105-78. P.L. 104-208. Most L-HHS-ED appropriations for FY1997 were provided by P.L. 104-208, the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act, 1997 (H.R. 3610, conference report H.Rept. 104-863), which was signed into law by the President September 30, 1996. P.L. 105-1. Technical corrections were made to the FY1997 appropriations through P.L. 105-1 (H.J.Res. 25), including clarification of designated funds for specific activities in the DOL State Unemployment Insurance and Employment Service Operations and for the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities program; this legislation was signed into law by the President February 3, 1997. P.L. 105-18. 1997 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Recovery from Natural Disasters, and for Overseas Peacekeeping Efforts, Including Those in Bosnia. Supplemental FY1997 appropriations were enacted through P.L. 105-18 (H.R. 1871), which was signed into law by the President June 12, 1997. Along with funding for domestic disaster relief, the bill included $15.0 million for high priority biomedical research at DHHS and $101.1 million for the ESEA Title I Education of the Disadvantaged program at ED. P.L. 105-33. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Among other provisions, this bill provides entitlement spending amendments for Medicare, Medicaid, children’s health insurance, and SSI benefits. The measure also extends discretionary spending limits through FY2002, and maintains separate limits for defense and nondefense discretionary spending for FY1998 and FY1999, but creates a single limit for defense and nondefense activities for FY2000 through FY2002. H.R. 2015 was signed into law by the President August 5, 1997. P.L. 105-34. The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997. Among other provisions, this bill provides child tax credits for children age 16 and under, and education tax benefits including tax credits for some college expenses and tax deductions for the interest CRS-22 paid on student loans. H.R. 2014 was signed into law by the President August 5, 1997. P.L. 105-46. The first FY1998 continuing resolution, H.J.Res. 94, provided appropriations on a temporary basis to fund ongoing L-HHS-ED projects and activities, including the costs of direct loans and loan guarantees, for the period October 1 through October 23, 1997, unless a regular FY1998 appropriations bill is enacted sooner. It provided funding for programs at the “current rate,” under FY1997 conditions and program authority.4 The resolution allowed decreased funding levels only in instances where the Congress has agreed with the President’s budget request for decreased funding. New initiatives were prohibited, and extraneous provisions generally were excluded. Special provisions were made for programs with high spend out rates that normally occur early in the fiscal year. H.J.Res. 94 passed the House by a vote of 355 to 57 on September 29, and without amendment passed the Senate by a vote of 99 to 0 on September 30, 1997. H.J.Res. 94 was signed into law by the President September 30, 1997. P.L. 105-64. A second FY1998 continuing resolution, H.J.Res. 97, extended the provisions of P.L. 105-46 through November 7, 1997. H.J.Res. 97 passed the House by voice vote on October 22, and without amendment passed the Senate by a vote of 100 to 0 on October 23, 1997. H.J.Res. 97 was signed into law by the President October 23, 1997. P.L. 105-68. A third FY1998 continuing resolution, H.J.Res. 101, extended the provisions of P.L. 105-46 through November 9, 1997. H.J.Res. 101 passed the House by voice vote, and without amendment passed the Senate by unanimous consent on November 7, 1997. H.J.Res. 101 was signed into law by the President November 7, 1997. P.L. 105-69. A fourth FY1998 continuing resolution, H.J.Res. 104, extended the provisions of P.L. 105-46 through November 10, 1997. H.J.Res. 104 passed the House by voice vote, and without amendment passed the Senate by unanimous consent on November 9, 1997. H.J.Res. 104 was signed into law by the President November 9, 1997. P.L. 105-71. A fifth FY1998 continuing resolution, H.J.Res. 105, extended the provisions of P.L. 105-46 through November 14, 1997. H.J.Res. 105 passed the House by voice vote, and without amendment passed the Senate by unanimous consent on November 10, 1997. H.J.Res. 105 was signed into law by the President November 10, 1997.5 4 The term “current rate” as used in a continuing resolution refers to the amount of money available for an activity during the previous fiscal year. This amount usually means the appropriation for the previous year with adjustments for any supplemental appropriations, rescissions, unobligated balances, and sometimes for advance funding provisions as well. As a result, the current rate does not necessarily correspond to the FY1997 amounts stated in this report. 5 In addition, a sixth continuing resolution, P.L. 105-84 (H.J.Res. 106), was passed (continued...) CRS-23 H.Con.Res. 84. The Congress agreed to its budget resolution for FY1998 (H.Con.Res. 84, H.Rept. 105-116) on June 6, 1997. The resolution aims for a balanced budget by FY2002, and sets the aggregate discretionary spending limit for the 13 regular appropriations bills (known as the 602(a) allocation), as well as the budget reconciliation process for mandatory spending limits. The House and Senate appropriations committees are each required to allocate the available funding totals among the 13 subcommittees (the 602(b) allocations). The initial 602(b) allocation for the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations bill in the House was $79.7 billion, and the Senate amount was $79.2 billion. These amounts can and do change as the various appropriation bills progress toward enactment. The reconciliation provisions of the budget resolution require two bills, one for tax reductions (H.R. 2014, PL. 105-34) and the other for entitlement spending reductions (H.R. 2015, P.L. 105-33). For Additional Reading CRS Issue Briefs CRS Issue Brief 95095. Abortion: Legislative Response, by Karen J. Lewis and Thomas P. Carr. CRS Issue Brief 97008. Congressional Budget Actions in 1997, by Robert Keith. CRS Issue Brief 95063. Public Broadcasting: Issues in the 105th Congress, by Bernevia McCalip. CRS Issue Brief 97023. Research and Development Funding: Fiscal Year 1998, by Michael E. Davey. CRS Issue Brief 97029. Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions for FY1997, by Stephen Daggett, Coordinator. CRS Issue Brief 93034. Welfare Reform, by Vee Burke. Other CRS Products Overview and Background. CRS Info Pack 515B. Budget for Fiscal Year 1998. CRS Report 96-564. Appropriations for FY1997: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, by Paul M. Irwin, Coordinator. 5 (...continued) November 14, 1997, to provide FY1998 appropriations for measures not yet enacted, but P.L. 105-78, the L-HHS-ED appropriations, had been signed into law by that time. CRS-24 CRS Report 97-200. Appropriations for FY1998: an Overview, by J. Michael Anderson. CRS Report 97-947. The Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, by James V. Saturno. CRS Report 97-620. Budget Reconciliation in the 105th Congress: Achieving a Balanced Budget by 2002, by David Stuart Koitz and Dawn Nuschler. CRS Report 97-684. The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction, by Sandy Streeter. CRS Report 97-904. Fiscal Year 1998 Continuing Resolutions, by Sandy Streeter. CRS Report 96-818. FY1997 Omnibus Appropriations Act, by Sandy Streeter, Coordinator. Labor. CRS Report 97-150. The Consumer Price Index: a Brief Overview, by Brian W. Cashell. CRS Report 97-724. Ergonomics in the Workplace: Is it Time for an OSHA Standard?, by Edward Rappaport. CRS Report 97-536. Job Training: Legislation in the 105th Congress, by Ann Lordeman. CRS Report 97-642. Methylene Chloride: First Test of Regulatory Reform?, by Edward Rappaport. CRS Report 94-801. Trade Adjustment Assistance: The Program for Workers, by James R. Storey. CRS Report 95-742. Unemployment Benefits: Legislative Issues in the 105th Congress, by James R. Storey. CRS Report 97-369. Unemployment Compensation: Proposals to Reduce the Federal Role, by James R. Storey. Health and Human Services. CRS Report 95-1101. Abortion Procedures, by Irene E. Stith-Coleman. CRS Report 96-780. Child Care for Low-income Families: Federal Programs and Welfare Reform, by Karen Spar. CRS Report 95-431. Head Start: Background and Funding, by Molly Forman and Karen Spar. CRS-25 CRS Report 97-757. Health Centers, by Sharon Kearney. CRS Report 97-485. Health Professions Education and Training Programs in the Public Health Service Act, by Celinda Franco. CRS Report 97-510. Immunization Funding Under Section 317 of the Public Health Service Act, by Melvina Ford. CRS Report 97-350. Maternal and Child Health Block Grant, by Melvina Ford and Sharon Kearney. CRS Report 97-448. Means-Tested Programs in the FY1998 Budget: Historical Perspective, by Mary Reintsma. CRS Report 95-96. The National Institutes of Health: an Overview, by Pamela W. Smith. CRS Report 96-687. New Welfare Law: the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, by Vee Burke, et al. CRS Report 97-473. Nurse Education Programs in the Public Health Service Act, by Celinda Franco and Sharon Kearney. CRS Report 95-917. Older Americans Act: Programs and Funding, by Carol O’Shaughnessy and Alice D. Butler. CRS Report 97-298. Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Issues, by Joyce C. Vialet. CRS Report 95-448. Ryan White CARE Act Reauthorization, by Sharon Kearney. CRS Report 97-884. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), by Jennifer A. Neisner. CRS Report 95-665. The Title X Family Planning Program, by Melvina Ford and Sharon Kearney. CRS Report 97-64. Tobacco-Related Activities and Programs of the Federal Government, by Stephen Redhead. CRS Report 97-664. The Tobacco Settlement: An Overview, by Stephen Redhead. CRS-26 Education. CRS Report 97-893. Education Block Grant in FY1998 Appropriations, by Paul M. Irwin and Wayne C. Riddle. CRS Report 95-502. Goals 2000: Educate America Act Implementation Status and Issues, by James B. Stedman and Wayne C. Riddle. CRS Report 97-535. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization Legislation: an Overview, by Steven R. Aleman and Nancy Lee Jones. CRS Report 96-178. Information Technology and Elementary and Secondary Education: Current Status and Federal Support, by James B. Stedman and Liane White. CRS Report 97-774. National Tests: Administration Initiative, by Wayne Riddle. CRS Report 97-101. Pell Grants: Background and Issues, by Margot A. Schenet. CRS Report 97-972. Reading Instruction: New Federal Initiatives, by Wayne Riddle. CRS Report 97-760. The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Program, by Jennifer A. Neisner. CRS Report 95-1090. School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Funding in the 105th Congress, by Susan Boren. CRS Report 97-916. Student Loan Consolidation, by Margot A. Schenet. CRS Report 97-633. Student Loans: Reconciliation Provisions, by Margot A. Schenet. CRS Report 97-650. Tax Benefits for Education in the Budget Reconciliation Legislation, by Bob Lyke. CRS Report 96-380. Title I, ESEA: Current Status and Issues, by Wayne Riddle. Related Agencies. CRS Report 96-716. The Corporation for National and Community Service: Programs and Funding, by Ruth Ann Stewart. CRS Report 95-206. Social Security’s Treatment under the Federal Budget: a Summary, by David Koitz. CRS Report 94-486. Supplemental Security Income (SSI): a Fact Sheet, by Carmen Solomon-Fears. CRS-27 Selected World Wide Web Sites Information regarding the budget, supporting documents, and related L-HHS-ED departments, agencies, and programs is available at the following web sites. House Committee on Appropriations http://www.house.gov/appropriations Senate Committee on Appropriations http://www.senate.gov/~appropriations/ CRS Appropriations Products Guide http://www.loc.gov/crs/products/apppage.html#la Congressional Budget Office http://www.cbo.gov General Accounting Office http://www.gao.gov Office of Management & Budget http://www.whitehouse.gov/WH/EOP/OMB/html/ombhome.html Departments. U.S. Department of Labor http://www.dol.gov U.S. Department of Health and Human Services http://www.dhhs.gov U.S. Department of Education http://www.ed.gov Related Agencies.6 Armed Forces Retirement Home http://www.afrh.com Corporation for National and Community Service http://www.cns.gov Corporation for Public Broadcasting http://www.cpb.org 6 Not all of the L-HHS-ED related agencies have web sites. CRS-28 Institute of Museum and Library Services http://www.ims.fed.us National Labor Relations Board http://netsite.esa.doc.gov/nlrb/ Railroad Retirement Board http://www.rrb.gov Social Security Administration http://www.ssa.gov United States Institute of Peace http://www.usip.org CRS-29 Appendix A: Terminology Appropriation7 is budget authority that permits federal agencies to incur obligations and to make payments out of the Treasury for specified purposes. Appropriations represent the amounts that agencies may obligate during the period of time specified in the law. Annual appropriations are provided in appropriations acts; most permanent appropriations are provided in substantive law. Major types of appropriations are regular, supplemental, and continuing. Budget authority is legal authority to incur financial obligations that normally will result in the outlay of federal government funds. Major types of budget authority are appropriations, borrowing authority, and contract authority. Budget authority also includes the subsidy cost of direct and guaranteed loans, but excludes the portion of loans that is not subsidized. Budget resolution is a concurrent resolution passed by both Houses of Congress, but not requiring the signature of the President, setting forth the congressional budget for each of five fiscal years. It includes various budget totals and functional allocations. Discretionary spending is budget authority provided in annual appropriation acts, other than appropriated entitlements. Entitlement authority is a legal authority to make payments to any person or unit of government that meets the eligibility criteria established by law; as such, it represents a legally binding obligation on the part of the federal government. Entitlement authority can be the result of either annual or permanent appropriation acts. Federal funds are all monies collected and spent by the federal government other than trust funds. Federal funds include general, special, public enterprise, and intragovernmental funds. Mandatory (direct) spending includes: (a) budget authority provided in laws other than appropriations; (b) entitlement authority; and (c) the Food Stamp program. Rescission is the cancellation of budget authority previously enacted. Supplemental appropriation is budget authority provided in an appropriations act in addition to regular appropriations already provided. Trust funds are funds collected and used for carrying out specific purposes and programs according to the terms of a trust agreement or statute; such funds are not available for general purposes. 7 These definitions are based on CRS Report 91-902, Manual on the Federal Budget Process, by Allen Schick, et al. CRS-30 Appendix B: Scope of the L-HHS-ED Bill The total budget authority for programs in all federal departments and agencies was estimated to be $1,652.9 billion in FY1997, as shown in Table B.1. Of this amount, $817.9 billion was the total for the departments and related agencies represented in the L-HHS-ED bill, or 49.5% of all federal budget authority. Table B.1. Scope of the L-HHS-ED Bill (FY1997 budget authority in billions) Amount in billions Percent of total federal budget Total Federal Budget 1,652.9 100.0% U.S. Department of Labor 34.4 2.1% U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 357.3 21.6% U.S. Department of Education 29.4 1.8% Social Security Administration 395.7 23.9% Other Related Agencies 1.1 0.1% L-HHS-ED Agency Total 817.9 49.5% L-HHS-ED Bill, Total Current Year Funds 287.2 17.4% L-HHS-ED Bill, Current Year Mandatory Funds 212.5 12.9% L-HHS-ED Bill, Current Year Discretionary Funds 74.7 4.5% Budget Category Source: Budget of the U.S. Government Historical Tables, FY1998, table 5.2; and House Appropriations Committee unofficial staff table of November 8, 1997. The estimated L-HHS-ED appropriation was $287.2 billion for FY1997. Of this amount, discretionary funds are estimated at $74.7 billion; mandatory funds constitute the remainder. The L-HHS-ED appropriations subcommittees have effective control only over the discretionary funds. These discretionary funds constitute approximately 4.5% of the aggregate budget authority for all federal departments and agencies, and 9.1% of the total budget authority for L-HHS-ED departments and agencies.8 What accounts for the remaining L-HHS-ED funds? 8 The annual congressional budget resolution sets aggregate spending targets for budget functions; House and Senate committees must initiate and report legislation that will achieve these targets. Typically, appropriation committees develop proposals to meet discretionary spending levels through appropriation bills. Likewise, authorizing committees develop proposals to meet mandatory spending levels; these proposals are often reported by separate authorizing committees and combined into a single, omnibus reconciliation bill. CRS-31 First, some DOL, DHHS, and ED programs receive automatic funding without congressional intervention in the annual appropriations process; these programs receive funds from permanent appropriations and trust funds instead. This process accounts for the difference between the L-HHS-ED bill total of $287.2 billion and the agency total of $817.9 billion in FY1997. Social security benefits, unemployment compensation, Medicare, railroad retirement, and student loans are the major programs in this group.9 Second, mandatory programs account for the difference between the L-HHSED total of $287.2 billion and the subtotal of $74.7 billion for discretionary funds in FY1997. Although annual appropriations are made for these programs, the amounts provided must be sufficient to cover program obligations and entitlements to beneficiaries. For these programs, as well as the programs funded through trust funds and permanent authorities, most changes in funding levels are made through amendments to authorizing legislation rather than through appropriation bills. Federal administrative costs for these programs typically are subject to annual discretionary appropriations, however. These programs include Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, the new welfare reform program), Supplemental Security Income, Black Lung payments, and social services block grants, as well as general (nonearmarked) fund support for Medicare and Medicaid. Finally, a small number of DHHS programs are funded in other appropriations bills. These programs include: the Food and Drug Administration, funded in the Agriculture appropriations bill; Indian Health Service in the Interior bill; and the Office of Consumer Affairs in the Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development bill. Under related agencies programs, the Corporation for National and Community Service receives some funds from the L-HHS-ED bill for programs authorized under the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973, and other funds from the Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development bill for AmeriCorps and other programs authorized by the National Community Service Act. 9 The Social Security Administration (SSA) was separated from DHHS and established as an independent federal agency on March 31, 1995. Within the L-HHS-ED bill, however, the SSA merely was transferred from DHHS to the status of “related agency.” The operation of the social security trust funds is considered off-budget. Of the $817.9 billion total for L-HHS-ED departments and agencies in FY1997, the SSA accounted for $395.6 billion, or 48.4% of the total. The SSA amount represents $36.3 billion for designated on-budget activities and $359.3 billion for off-budget activities. CRS-32 Appendix C: Detailed Appropriation Tables Table C.1. Detailed Department of Labor Appropriations Office or Major Program ($ in millions) FY1997 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 final request House a Senate b enacted c Employment and Training Administration (ETA) —Training and Employment Services, Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) 4,508 5,085 4,934 5,046 5,026 —Training and Employment Services, School-to-Work Opportunities 200 200 200 200 200 —Training and Employment Services, Other 8 10 8 15 12 —Community Service Employment for Older Americans 463 440 440 453 440 —Federal Unemployment Benefits and Allowances 325 349 349 349 349 —State Unemployment Insurance, Employment Service Operations (SUI/ESO), Unemployment Compensation d 2,341 2,630 2,504 2,487 2,521 —SUI/ESO, Employment Service 23 23 23 23 23 —SUI/ESO, Employment Service d 801 801 801 801 801 —SUI/ESO, One-Stop Career Centers 150 150 150 150 150 —Advances to Unemployment Trust Fund and Other Funds 373 392 392 392 392 —ETA Program Administration, Federal Funds 83 92 84 88 90 —ETA Program Administration, Trust Funds d 41 43 41 41 41 Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration 77 84 82 82 82 Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, Administration d 10 11 10 10 10 125 137 137 137 137 Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, Services (non-add) CRS-33 Office or Major Program FY1997 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 final request House a Senate b enacted c Employment Standards Administration (ESA) —ESA Salaries and Expenses, Federal Funds 289 312 298 301 300 —ESA Salaries and Expenses, Trust Funds d 1 2 1 1 1 213 201 201 201 201 1,008 1,007 1,007 1,007 1,007 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 325 348 336 336 336 Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) 197 206 199 206 203 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Federal Funds 309 327 328 320 328 52 53 53 53 53 Departmental Management, Federal Funds 188 196 194 195 195 Departmental Management, Trust Funds d 186 186 186 186 186 Federal Funds 8,740 9,423 9,226 9,363 9,335 Trust Funds 3,432 3,726 3,597 3,580 3,613 —Special Benefits —Black Lung Disability Trust Fund, Appropriation Bureau of Labor Statistics, Trust Funds d TOTAL, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Source: Amounts are based on the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations conference report, H.Rept. 105-390. a Amounts reflect H.R. 2264, as passed by the House September 17, 1997. Amounts reflect S. 1061, as passed by the Senate September 11, 1997. c Amounts are those enacted through P.L. 105-78 and related legislation; these amounts may be modified through further legislation during FY1998. d These activities are funded through trust funds. b CRS-34 Table C.2. Detailed Department of Health and Human Services Appropriations Office or Major Program ($ in millions) FY1997 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 final request House a Senate b enacted c Public Health Service (PHS) —Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Health Professions 293 130 307 220 294 —HRSA, Maternal and Child Health Block Grant 681 681 685 681 683 —HRSA, Ryan White AIDS Programs 996 1,036 1,168 1,077 1,150 —HRSA, Family Planning (Title X) 198 203 194 208 203 —HRSA, Other 1,410 1,272 1,308 1,318 1,343 —Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2,302 2,316 2,396 2,368 2,379 —National Institutes of Health (NIH) 12,741 13,078 13,505 13,693 13,648 —Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2,122 2,156 2,152 2,127 2,147 —Retirement Pay and Medical Benefits, Commissioned Officers 179 191 191 191 191 —Agency for Health Care Policy and Research 96 87 102 78 90 103,047 99,331 99,331 99,403 99,403 60,079 63,581 63,581 63,581 60,904 1,734 1,775 1,679 1,719 1,743 Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) —Medicaid Grants to States —Payments to Health Care Trust Funds —Program Management d Administration for Children and Families —Family Support Payments to States (welfare, child support) 7,565 660 660 660 660 —Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) 300 0 0 0 0 —Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) 2,000 1,000 1,000 1,200 1,100 CRS-35 Office or Major Program FY1997 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 final request House a Senate b enacted c —Refugee and Entrant Assistance 412 392 415 392 415 —Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) 956 1,063 1,000 1,026 1,066 —Social Services Block Grant (Title XX) 2,500 2,380 2,245 2,245 2,299 —Children and Family Services Program (CFSP), Head Start 3,981 4,305 4,305 4,305 4,355 —CFSP, Community Services Block Grant (CSBG) 490 415 490 493 491 —CFSP, Community Services, Other 47 0 48 47 52 819 779 735 746 764 33 99 99 93 93 240 255 255 255 255 5,556 4,358 4,358 4,358 4,358 Administration on Aging 830 838 811 894 865 Office of the Secretary, Federal Funds 242 215 221 232 234 9 9 9 9 9 15 0 0 0 0 —CFSP, Other —Violent Crime Reduction Programs —Family Support and Preservation —Foster Care and Adoption Assistance State Payments Office of the Secretary, Trust Funds d Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund TOTAL, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Federal Funds Trust Funds 210,127 1,744 200,821 201,564 201,890 199,441 1,784 1,689 1,728 1,752 Source: Amounts are based on the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations conference report, H.Rept. 105-390. a Amounts reflect H.R. 2264, as passed by the House September 17, 1997. Amounts reflect S. 1061, as passed by the Senate September 11, 1997. c Amounts are those enacted through P.L. 105-78 and related legislation; these amounts may be modified through further legislation during FY1998. d These activities are funded through trust funds. b CRS-36 Table C.3. Detailed Department of Education Appropriations ($ in millions) Office or Major Program FY1998 FY1997 FY1998 FY1998 Senate b/ FY1998 final request House a Gorton c enacted d Education Block Grant: Title I funding stream 0 0 0 0/ 7,797 0 Education Block Grant: Non-Title I funding stream 0 0 0 0/ 5,638 0 Education Reform, Goals 2000: Educate America Act 491 620 387 530/ 0 491 Education Reform, School-toWork Opportunities 200 200 200 200/ 0 200 Education Reform, Education Technology 305 545 520 580/ 0 584 7,295 7,541 7,691 7,296/ 0 7,495 —Education for the Disadvantaged, Other 505 536 513 511/ 10 527 —Impact Aid 730 658 796 795 808 —School Improvement, Professional Development 310 360 310 310/ 0 335 —School Improvement, Innovative Program Strategies 310 0 350 310/ 0 350 —School Improvement, Safe and Drug-Free Schools 556 620 556 556/ 0 556 —School Improvement, Magnet Schools 95 95 105 95/ 0 101 155 224 186 271/ 0 196 0 260 260 260/ 0 210 61 63 63 63/ 3 63 262 354 354 354/ 0 354 Office of Elementary and Secondary Education —Title I Education for the Disadvantaged, Grants to LEAs —School Improvement, Other Children’s Literacy/America Reads Challenge Indian Education Bilingual and Immigrant Education CRS-37 Office or Major Program FY1998 FY1997 FY1998 FY1998 Senate b/ FY1998 final request House a Gorton c enacted d Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services —Special Education, State Grants 3,786 3,948 4,164 4,680 4,532 —Special Education, Special Purpose Funds 250 262 265 278 279 —Rehabilitation Services and Disability Research 2,509 2,583 2,589 2,591/ 1,296 2,591 129 129 133 133 133 1,132 1,172 1,157 1,132/ 388 1,147 355 394 350 356 361 5,919 7,635 7,438 6,910 7,345 —Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants 583 583 583 634 614 —Federal Work-Study 830 857 860 830 830 —Federal Perkins Loans, Capital Contributions 158 158 135 158 135 —Federal Perkins Loans, Loan Cancellations 20 30 30 24 30 —State Student Incentive Grants 50 0 0 35 25 Federal Family Education Loans, Administration 46 48 48 46 46 Higher Education, Aid for Institutional Development 195 202 212 196 211 Higher Education, Federal TRIO Programs 500 525 532 525 530 Higher Education, Other 184 308 166 209 206 Howard University 196 196 210 198 210 1 1 1 1 1 Special Institutions for Persons With Disabilities Office of Vocational and Adult Education Vocational Education Adult Education Student Financial Assistance —Pell Grants College Housing and Academic Facilities Loans, Administration CRS-38 Office or Major Program FY1998 FY1997 FY1998 FY1998 Senate b/ FY1998 final request House a Gorton c enacted d Office of Educational Research and Improvement Research and Statistics 206 239 243 211 223 Other Research and Improvement 87 152 180 112/ 39 208 Institute of Museum and Library Services 136 136 142 146 146 Department Management 411 435 415 430 433 32,069 32,144 31,967 32,506 TOTAL, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Federal Funds 28,958 Source: Amounts are based on the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations conference report, H.Rept. 105-390, with the exception that the Gorton amounts are based on the ED Budget Service table of September 16, 1997 at Noon. a Amounts reflect H.R. 2264, as passed by the House September 17, 1997. Amounts reflect S. 1061, as passed by the Senate September 11, 1997. c Amounts are those enacted through P.L. 105-78 and related legislation; these amounts may be modified through further legislation during FY1998. d Amounts in italics, if present, represent the revised funding amounts after the redirection of funds into the education block grant under the Gorton floor amendment, according to the preliminary determination shown in the ED Budget Service table dated “September 16, 1997 at Noon.” If no italics are shown, amount would not change under the Gorton proposal. b CRS-39 Table C.4. Detailed Related Agencies Appropriations ($ in millions) Office or Major Program Armed Services Retirement Home FY1997 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 final request House a Senate b enacted c 56 80 70 65 69 Corporation for National and Community Service: Domestic Volunteer Service Act Programs d —Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) 41 54 41 45 65 —National Senior Volunteer Corps 145 176 158 159 163 28 30 28 28 28 250 325 300 300 300 33 33 33 33 33 Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Committee 6 6 6 6 6 National Commission on Libraries and Information Science 1 1 1 1 1 National Council on Disability 2 2 2 2 2 National Education Goals Panel 1 2 2 2 2 National Commission on Cost of Higher Education 1 0 0 0 0 National Labor Relations Board 175 186 175 175 175 National Mediation Board 8 8 8 9 9 Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission 8 8 8 8 8 Physician Payment Review Commission e 3 4 3 4 4 Prospective Payment Assessment Commission e 3 4 3 4 4 Railroad Retirement Board, Dual Benefits 214 194 194 194 194 Railroad Retirement Board, Trust Funds e 93 94 91 93 93 —Program Administration Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB), 2-Year Advance Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service CRS-40 Office or Major Program FY1997 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 FY1998 final request House a Senate b enacted c Social Security Administration (SSA) —SSA, Special Benefits for Disabled Coal Minors 620 586 586 29,237 25,060 25,060 31 20 20 20 20 6,407 6,521 6,418 6,463 6,409 —Office of Inspector General 6 10 10 6 10 —Office of Inspector General, Trust Funds e 31 34 42 31 38 United States Institute for Peace 11 11 11 11 11 30,874 26,794 26,715 6,537 6,657 6,558 —SSA, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) —SSA, Federal Funds, Other —SSA, Limitation on Administrative Expenses e 586 586 25,098 25,050 TOTAL, RELATED AGENCIES Federal Funds Trust Funds 26,748 26,732 6,594 6,547 Source: Amounts are based on the FY1998 L-HHS-ED appropriations conference report, H.Rept. 105-390. a Amounts reflect H.R. 2264, as passed by the House September 17, 1997. Amounts reflect S. 1061, as passed by the Senate September 11, 1997. c Amounts are those enacted through P.L. 105-78 and related legislation; these amounts may be modified through further legislation during FY1998. d Funds are provided for Domestic Volunteer Service Act programs only; the Corporation for National and Community Service receives other funds for AmeriCorps Grants and related programs from the Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development appropriations bill. e These activities are funded through trust funds. b